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EEC6102

U01
1 :

Indices and Logarithms

z
z
z
z
z
z

ex

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1.

U01
1 :

a = a m
m

a = a a a m
4

a = a a a a = a 4

1.

a a

= (a a a m ) (a a a n )

= (a a a m + n )
=a

1.

a a

m+n

= (a a a a a) (a a a a)
=

2.

a a

= (a a a m ) (a a a n )
= a a a m n
=a

2.

a a

mn

m > n
a 0

= (a a a a a) (a a a)
=

3.

m n

(a )

= am am am n
= a a a mn
= amn

3.

2 3

(a )

= (a a) (a a) (a a)
=
=

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4.

U01
1 :

(ab) =

(a b) (a b) (a b) m

= a b a b a b m
= a a a m b b b m
m m

=a b

4.

(IZ) =

(IR) + (IXL)

5.

a a a
a
= m
b b b
b

=
=

a a a m
b b b m
am
bm

5.

6.

52
5
= 2=
3
3
1
an

1
n = a n

(am) n = amn m = 1
n
n

n
1
an = an

=a
1
an

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=na

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EEC6102

U01
1 :

1
n
a

a n

1
3
8 =

6.

7.

m
an

7.

1
= a n = am

m
an

(n a )m

3
42

3
42

= 2 43 =

(2 4 )3

( )n

= n am

0+n

a a =a

8.

m+n

m=0
0

a a =a

=a

a 0 a0 = 1

8.

100 = 1

8.

a a =a

20 =
n

a a =a

=a

m = n

n+n
0

=1
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m+n

45.60 =

a0
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U01
1 :

a n =

1
an

2 10 7 =

9.

m+n

a a =a

a a =a

(a ) = a

m n

10 10 =

mn

m > n a 0

mn

3 3 =
4 3

(2 ) =

m m

1.

(ab) = a b

2.

am
a
=

b
bm

2
=
3

1
an

1
125 3

m
an

3
2
9

(2 9 )3 =

3
92

= 2 93 =

(23) =

= a
=

a0 = 1

a n =

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( a)
n

= a

a0

100 =

20 =

53 =

1
an

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EEC6102

2.

U01
1 :

Logarithm

Y = 2XX = log2 Y

X Y 2
a a 1

y = ax

1000 = 103

3 = log10 1000

8 = 23

3 = log2 8

10.

a)

log2 4

x = log2 4

c)

x = loga y

b)

log16 32

x = log16 32

4 = 2x

32 =

x=2

25 =

log49 7

x = log49 7

d)

log64

512

x = log64

512

7=

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U01
1 :

a a 1

loga a = 1

a = a1

loga 1 = 0

1 = a0

x = a log a x

y = loga x

x = ay

x = a log a x

axy a 1

p = loga x q = loga y
x = ap

loga xy = loga x + loga y

y = aq

xy = ap aq

log a

x
= log a x log a y
y

x ap
=
y aq

loga xn = n loga x

xn = (ap)n

= apn

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U01
1 :

3. Exponential Function
a a 1
y = ax

x = loga y

e a y = ex x = loge y
e e irrational
number 2 e
e = 2.718 e

e loge 10
log loge ln

y = ex x = ln y

11
y = ex 4

ex

ex

0.3679

1 ex

0.6321 0.8647

12.

7.389 20.086

148.41

0.0498 0.0183

7
1096.6

0.0025 0.0009

0.9817 0.9933 0.9975

a)

ln 4

b)

ln 7.534

c)

ln 23.4

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U01
1 :

4. Exponential Curve
y = ex y = e-x y = 1 e-x

e-x

0.3679 0.1353 0.0498 0.0183 0.0067 0.0025 0.0009

1 e-x

0.6321 0.8647 0.9502 0.9817 0.9933 0.9975 0.9991

y
1.5

1.0

0.5

t(s)
0

1.

a)

5 = 5x

4 5 = 5 x

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4 3 4 5 = 4 x

c) 32 = x

4345 = 4x

32 = x

b)

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d)

3x
= 30
3

3x

= 30
3

U01
1 :

e)

1
27 =
9
x

1
27 =
9
x

f) 410 = 2x
410 = 2x

2.

a)

log4 410

b)

d)

log2 1024 = 10

e) log2 1024 = 10

g)

log6 6

log2 10245

log2 1024

1
P1
2
10 log
P1

V1

2
10 log
V12

1
P1
2
10 log
=
P1

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h)

V1

2
10 log
V12

c)

log49 7

i)

50 = 20 log

V2

V1

V2

V1
2

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50 = 20 log

V2
V1

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EEC6102

3.

y z x x

a) 3x = 3y3z
3x = 3y3z

d)

U01
1 :

log x2 = 3 log y

log x2 = 3 log y

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b)

9y =
y

9 =

e)

3z
3

3z

c) 32x = 2y
32x = 2y

3x

log x = 2 log y log z

log x = 2 log y log z

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f)

log x = log y + log z

log x = log y + log z

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EEC6102

g)

log x + log 3 y = log z 2

U01
1 :

h)

log7 3 = yx = log3 2
log7 2 = z

log x + log 3 y = log z 2 log7 3 = y

(i)

x = log3 2

(ii)

log7 2 = z

(iii)

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i)

y = loga 9x = loga 3

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EEC6102

U01
1 :

1.

a)

= 10 log10

P2
dB P2 P1
P1

V 22

P2

V 12

P1

b)

c)

3dB

a)

10 log10

P2
=
P1

b)

10 log10

P2
=
P1

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V2

V1

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U01
1 :

c)

2.

- Vc = V 1 e RC

V = 10V R = 400k C = 10 F VC = 0

a)

b)

1 = RC

c)

99%

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3.

U01
1 :

- Vc = V 1 e RC

V
I c = e RC V = 10V R = 400 k C =
R
10F

t
I (106)
VC

12

10

16

20

25
20

15

10

(V)

(A)

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10
()

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