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NewtonLeibniz 1516

19
19
Cauchy, RiemannWeierstrass

20 GrassmannPoincare
Cartan
Stokes

NewtonLeibniz Taylor

Riemann
Riemann
Riemann

Kummer

Euler-Maclaurin Stirling Fourier


Fourier

ii

Parseval

Lagrange
Jacobian
Riemann

Green Gauss Stokes

Riemann-Stieltjes
Riemann-Stieltjes Riemann

Green
Gauss Stokes
Gamma Stirling

Fourier Plancherel Fourier

1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.4 : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

25

2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

2.3 Cauchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

2.4 Stolz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

2.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

65

3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

3.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

3.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

3.2 () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

3.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

3.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

3.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

3.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

3.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

3.5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
iii

iv

115

4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Taylor

163

5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.6 LHopital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.7 Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.8 Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Riemann

6.1 Riemann

211

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

249

7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
7.1.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
7.1.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
7.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
279

8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
8.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
8.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
8.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
8.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

311

9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
9.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
9.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
9.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
9.3.2

Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

9.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
9.3.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
9.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

Fourier

353

10.1 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353


10.2 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
10.3 Parseval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
10.4 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
10.5 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
10.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

10.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

10.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378

10.5.4

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381

10.5.5

Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384

vi

387

11.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
11.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
11.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
11.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
11.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
11.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403

11.5.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407

11.5.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

411

12.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
12.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
12.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419
12.4 Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
12.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
12.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
12.7 Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
12.8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
12.8.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

12.8.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

453

13.1 Riemann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453


13.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462

13.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
13.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
13.4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474

13.4.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480

13.4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484

13.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490

499

14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

vii

14.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
14.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
14.5.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522

14.5.2

Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524

14.5.3

Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530

14.5.4

Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540


14.6.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540

14.6.2

Riemann-Stieltjes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543

555

15.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
15.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
15.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570
15.4 Stokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579

585

16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
16.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
16.2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

16.2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594

16.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
16.3.1

Beta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607

16.3.2

Gamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608

16.3.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609

16.3.4

Stirling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613

16.4 Fourier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617

635

637

viii

, .
, . ,
.

1.1

,
.
, .
: ,
, .
, . , A , x P A x
A , x A.
1.1.1. , Z,
Z t0, 1, 1, 2, 2, , n, n, u.

, ,
: A P ,
A tx | x P u.

. ,
. , , , H .
, 20 , 20
, .
A, B . A B , A B ,
A B. A B , , B x, x
A ( x R A), A B , A B.
Z` , N, Z .
1.1.2. A . , H A A . A
B , B A , A B.

, .
. , , ,
1

, .
. , ,

(
, ). ,
, .
1.1.3. A , A , 2A :
2A tB | B Au.

, A n , 2A 2n . A 2n .
, .
: ? ,
X, X , X P X, X
. ,
(, ).

. A, B
, A B

A B , A Y B,
A Y B tx | x P A x P Bu.

A B A B
, A X B,

1.1

A X B tx P A x P Bu.

1.1.4. A t1, 2, 3u, B t4, 5, 6u ,


A Y B t1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6u, A X B H;

A t1, 2, 3u, B t3, 4, 5u ,


A Y B t1, 2, 3, 4, 5u, A X B t3u.

, , .
1.1.1. A, B, C ,
p1q pq A Y B B Y A, A X B B X A;
p2q pq A Y pB Y Cq pA Y Bq Y C, A X pB X Cq pA X Bq X C;
p3q pq A X pB Y Cq pA X Bq Y pA X Cq, A Y pB X Cq pA Y Bq X pA Y Cq.

1.1

A X , X A A
X , Ac ,
Ac tx P X | x R Au.

1.1.5. X Z, A t1, 2, u,
Ac t0, 1, 2, u,

A Z` .
A, B X , A B A
B , A B AzB. , A Ac X A.
1.1.2. A, B X ,
p1q pAc qc A, Ac Y A X, Ac X A H;
p2q A B A X B c , pA Bq Y pB Aq A Y B A X B;
p3q pDe Morgan q pA Y Bqc Ac X B c , pA X Bqc Ac Y B c .

. , De Morgan
. x P pA Y Bqc , x R A Y B, x R A, x R B. x P Ac , x P B c ,
x P Ac X B c . pA Y Bqc Ac X B c . , x P Ac X B c , x P Ac , x P B c ,

x R A, x R B, x R A Y B, x P pA Y Bqc . Ac X B c pA Y Bqc .
pA Y Bqc Ac X B c . De Morgan
, .

A , A .
. A ,
A tx1 , x2 , , xn , u,

A . A , A ;
.
1.1.6. N, Z` ;
;
1.1.7. Z ; .
. Z :
Z : 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, , n, n,

Z . X , X . a1 P X, X
, X ta1 u , a2 P X ta1 u. , X ta1 , a2 u ,
a3 P X ta1 , a2 u. , an pn 1q,
A X .

1.1.8. pq n 1 , n 1 ,
n . .

. () ,
p1 2, p2 , p3 , , pk .

n 1 ` p1 p2 pk . n pi p1 i kq, n .
pi , pi n. n , .

, . A, B . px, yq,
x A , y B .
, A B , A B,
A B tpx, yq | x P A, y P Bu.

A B , A B .
1.1.9. A t1, 2, 3u, B t4, 5u,
A B tp1, 4q, p1, 5q, p2, 4q, p2, 5q, p3, 4q, p3, 5qu,
A B 6 . , , A, B m, n ,
A B mn .

1.1.3. A, B , A B .
. A, B ,
A ta1 , a2 , , ai , u, B tb1 , b2 , , bj , u.

A B
A B tpai , bj q | i, j 1, 2, u.

A B :
A B : pa1 , b1 q, pa1 , b2 q, pa2 , b1 q, pa1 , b3 q, pa2 , b2 q, pa3 , b1 q,

1.2

i ` j k ` l i ` j k ` l i k , pai , bj q
pak , bl q . , A B .

1.1
1. X , a P X. X a a ,

(: a a a
).
2. , n 2n .
3. :
p1q pAc qc A, Ac Y A X, Ac X A H;
p2q A B A X B c , pA Bq Y pB Aq A Y B A X B.
4. , , :
p1q A X B A X C, B C;
p2q A Y B A Y C, B C;
p3q A pB Cq pA Bq Y C.
5. , , .
6. , A, B , A Y B .
7. , A, B m, n , A B mn .
8. A , B , A B .

1.2

, .
. . ,
,
1, 2, 3, . ,
. : a ` b b ` a, ab ba ();
a ` pb ` cq pa ` bq ` c, apbcq pabqc (); apb ` cq ab ` ac ();
a ` c b ` c, a b () .

.
. , , ,
.
p
, p, q , q 0. ,
q
p, q 1 , q 0. Q .

. L ,
0, . L 1. 0 1 , L

. , 1 0 .
0

1.2
0 1 . ,
, L . ,
, . P x, P 0
x , |x| ,
$
&x,
x 0,
|x|
%x, x .
. x y L y x . x
y . : L

, L P . ,
1
q, L , P
q
p`1
p
p
. P
, P
q
q
q
1
, q , .
q
L , L . ,
?
, l, l 2,
p
: l , p, q ,
q
12 ` 12 l2

p2
, p2 2q 2 ,
q2

p 2k ,
2k 2 q 2 ,

q , p, q 2 , . ,

1.2

1.2.1. pq n , n ,

n .

. () n ,
?
?
, k2 n pk ` 1q2 . n k ` pq , k, p, q , p{q n
, 0 p{q 1.
p p2
n k 2 ` 2k ` 2 ,
q
q

p2 qpnq k 2 q 2kpq ql, l nq k 2 2kp.

l ,
l ?
p
l
p
,
nk` k` .
q
p
q
p

p{q l{p , .
, q ( q 1 ).

?
l 2 .
, .
().
. 19 ,
Dedekind . Dedekind Dedekind
, ,
, L . Dedekind
(). Dedekind , Cantor
. , ,
, . Cantor
, , .
R . a b ,
ra, bs tx P R | a x bu,

a, b ;
pa, bq tx P R | a x bu,

a, b ; ra, bq, pa, bs (),

ra, `8q tx P R | x au, pa, `8q tx P R | x au,

p8, bs tx P R | x bu, p8, bq tx P R | x bu,

, . R p8, 8q. : I
a b P I, ra, bs I. |I| I .
A R (). M P A, x P A,
x M , M A , M max A; m P A,
x P A, x m, m A , m min A. A

, A A .
A , , A p0, 1q
. : ,
.
A . M P R, x P A, x M ,
A , M A ; m P R, x P A,
x m, A , m A ; A ,

. , A M , x P A, |x| M .
1.2.1. p8, 0q , 0 ; p1, `8q , 1 ; p0, 1q
.
, () , () . , M
A , 0, M ` A . ,
, .
1.2.2 (). A , ,
A , sup A; A , , A ,

inf A.
1.2.2. A p0, 1q .
. , 0 A . a 0,

a
a`1

P p0, 1q,

a
a`1

a, a

A . 0 A , A 0. , 1
A .

, (),
.
.
, A , sup A `8; A ,
inf A 8. , A , ; A ,

. , :

1.2

p1q A M , x P A, x M ; , M

A , x1 P A, x1 M .
p2q A m, x P A, x m; , m `

A , x1 P A, x1 m ` .
p3q A , A tx | x P Au , inf pAq sup A;
A , A tx | x P Au , sup pAq inf A.

,
1.2.3. A, B ,
infpA ` Bq inf A ` inf B; suppA ` Bq sup A ` sup B.

A ` B tx ` y | x P A, y P Bu.
. . x P A, y P B, x sup A, y sup B,
x ` y sup A ` sup B.

sup A ` sup B A ` B . , 0, x1 P A,
y 1 P B,
x1 sup A , y 1 sup B ,

x1 ` y 1 sup A ` sup B 2.

M A ` B , M x1 ` y 1 ,
M sup A ` sup B 2.

(1.1)

M sup A ` sup B, sup A ` sup B A ` B




.
. : M sup A ` sup B,

1
psup A ` sup B M q 0
2

(1.1) .
, A, B , A B, min A min B, max A
max B. .

1.2.4. A B, B inf A inf B; B


sup A sup B.

10

. . x P A, x P B, x sup B. sup B


A , A , sup A sup B.

, . Newton
(n ):
pa ` bqn

Cnk ak bnk , @ a, b P R.

k0

, ,
|a ` b| |a| ` |b|, @ a, b P R, |x y| |x z| ` |z y|, @ x, y, z P R.

Cauchy ,
ab

` a ` b 2
a2 ` b2
, @ a, b P R, ab
, @ a, b P R.
2
2

1.2
1.

2`

3 ; , n,

n`

n ` 1

. (: .)
2. n,

n`1`

n 1 .

3. , r0, 1s

. (: .)
4. , , ; .

?
5. :
p1q

1
(
n P N ; p2q tx P R | x2 3x ` 1 0u.
n

6. a, b, c (). P p0, 1q,


a ` c b,

a b.
7. A , A tx | x P Au , inf pAq sup A; A

, A tx | x P Au , sup pAq inf A.

1.3

11

8. A , x P R,
infpx ` Aq x ` inf A, suppx ` Aq x ` sup A.
9. A, B ,
infpA ` Bq inf A ` sup B suppA ` Bq.
10. a, b, c, d ,

c
a
,
b
d
a
a`c
c

.
b
b`d
d

11. x P ra, bs, y P rc, ds,

1
|x y| pb aq ` pd cq ` |c a| ` |d b| .
2
12. a, b, c P R,
a
a

a2 ` b2 a2 ` c2 |b c|,

.
13. a, b, c, d P R,
pa2 ` b2 qpc2 ` d2 q pac ` bdq2 ` pad bcq2 ,

1.3

.
. ,
.
1.3.1 (). X, Y . x P X, Y
y , X Y ,
f : X Y, y f pxq,

f : X Y, x f pxq,

y f pxq x f , x y . X
f , f f pXq Y , f
,
f pXq tf pxq | x P Xu.

12

. , Y R .
y f pxq f pxq, x , y .
X, Y R , f : X Y

.
: , x y
; , , f
tpx, f pxqqu; , . ,
.
1.3.1. A .
A X , A : X R
$
&1, x P A,
A pxq
%0, x P X A.
A . , A B A B .
1.3.2. .
sgn : R R

sgnpxq

1, x 0,

&
0,

%1,

x 0,
x 0.

.
1.3.3. a, b p q,
f : R R, f pxq ax ` b,

.
1.3.2 (). f : X Y , x1 x2 P X,
f px1 q f px2 q, f ; f pXq Y , y P Y , x P X,
y f pxq, f .
. f : X Y , , f .
.
1.3.4. Z` N .

1.3

13

. f : Z` N :
f pnq n ` 1, @ n P Z` ,


f .

. , X X N .
.
1.3.5. a, b p q,
f : R R, f pxq x2 ` ax ` b,

`
a 2
a2
a2
`b
b , @ x P R,
f pxq x2 ` ax ` b x `
2
4
4

f . f .
1.3.6. pq n ,
f : R R, f pxq xn ,

f .
. x y xn y n , f . f .
y0 0, x0 P R, y0 xn0 .
A tr P R | rn y0 u,

0n 0 y0 , 0 P A, A . , py0 ` 1qn y0 ` 1 y0 ,
y0 ` 1 A . , A , x0 .
, 0, r1 P A,
r1 x0 ,

f (x) = xn
y0

px0 qn pr1 qn y0 .

rn

, 0 1 ,
n

px0 q

xn0

n1

x
Cnk px0 qk pqnk

k0

xn0

n1

k0

r x0

1.3 n
Cnk |x0 |k ,

14

, 0 1,
xn0

n1

Cnk |x0 |k px0 qn y0 ,

k0


xn0 y0 .

xn0 y0 , 0,
px0 ` qn xn0 `

n1

Cnk |x0 |k y0 ,

k0

x0 A . xn0 y0 .
1.3.7. n ,
f : r0, `8q r0, `8q, f pxq xn

.


. , .

1.3.3 (). f : X Y , y P Y ,
x P X, y f pxq,
f 1 : Y X, f 1 pyq x,

f .
. , . .
1

, n , f pxq xn , f 1 pxq x n ;
1

n , f 1 pxq x n x 0 .

1.3.8.

f: ,
r1, 1s, f pxq sin x
2 2

, x arcsin y.
1.3.4 (). f : Y Z, g : X Y ,
f g : X Z, f gpxq f pgpxqq, x P X,

f g .

1.3

15

f g

1.4
. , f : X Y
g : Y X, f g idY , g f idX ,
idX : X X, idX pxq x; idY : Y Y, idY pyq y

X Y .
1.3.9. n , hpxq xn px 0q
1
f pxq xn gpxq px 0q .
x
p
, (p, q , q ),
q
p

x q pxp q q px 0q, x q p1q q p|x|p q q px 0q,


p

, p p1q q 1, p p1q q 1. q ,
x 0 .
.
, , , ,
.
1.3.5 (). f, g : X R .
p1q , ,
f ` g : X R, x f pxq ` gpxq

f g ;
p2q
f g : X R, x f pxqgpxq

f g ;
p3q gpxq 0, @ x P X,
f {g : X R, x f pxq{gpxq

f g .

16

. ,
.
1.3.6 (). :
p1q f pxq C f pxq x p P Rq;
p2q f pxq ax pa 0, a 1q;
p3q f pxq loga x pa 0, a 1q;
p4q f pxq sin x, cos x, tan x ;
p5q f pxq arcsin x, arccos x, arctan x .

.
. .
. , a 0, x ax .
p
a 1 , ax 1. a 1, a0 1. x 0, x (p,
q
q ) , ax , q ap ; x
,
ax suptar | r P p0, xq X Qu;

x 0 ,
ax

1
;
ax

a 1,
ax

` 1 x
a

. , x
px 0q, .

.
. f px, f pxqq (x
f ) , R2 R R .
. :
p1q . f , f ; f ,

f ; .

1.3

17
y

1.5
p2q . x1 x2 , f px1 qpq f px2 q, f

() ; x1 x2 , f px1 qpq f px2 q,


f () ; .
y

1.6
p3q . f pxq f pxq, f ; f pxq f pxq,
f .
p4q . T 0, f pxq f px ` T q, f ,
T . .

1.3.10. f pxq x3 ; gpxq

1
1`x2

p8, 0s , r0, `8q .


1.3.11. R .
. f pxq,
gpxq

1
1
rf pxq f pxqs, hpxq rf pxq ` f pxqs,
2
2

18

gpxq , hpxq , f pxq gpxq ` hpxq.

1.3
1. Z Z` ? (: .)
2. : m n ,
m n, .

?
3. A, B X ,
Ac 1 A , AXB A B , AYB A ` B AXB .
4. n , f : p0, `8q p0, `8q, f pxq xn .
5. f : X Y , B Y .
f 1 pBq tx | x P X, f pxq P Bu,

B .
p1q f 1 pC Y Dq f 1 pCq Y f 1 pDq, f 1 pC X Dq f 1 pCq X f 1 pDq;
p2q f pf 1 pBqq B, f 1 pf pAqq A.
6. f pxq |x| px P Rq ?
7. , ?
p1q f pxq ?

x
x2

`1

, p2q f pxq

1
.
x`1

8. X , f : X R,

f
X

f pxi q, X tx1 , x2 , , xn u.

i1

(i) f, g , , ,
pf ` gq
f `
g.
X
X
X

(ii) A X ,
A #A, #A A .
X

(iii) A, B X , #pA Y Bq #A ` #B #pA X Bq.

. ?

1.4 :

19

1.4


, . R
, ,

. Q . ,
, ,
, , .
Dedekind 1872 , Dedekind
.
1.4.1 (Dedekind ). Q ,
p1q H, Q;
p2q p P , q P c , p q;
p3q p P , q P , p q;

Q , R.
. p1q Q , p3q ,
: p1q p2q, ,
.
1.4.1. Q .
p1q p q, q P , p P ;
p2q w 0, n, nw P , pn ` 1qw P c .

. p1q () p P c , q p,
.
p2q r P , m r{w, mw r , p1q mw P . s P c ,

m s{w mw P c . ,
tm P Z | mw P u

, n, n .
1.4.1. .
r P Q ,
r ts P Q | s ru,

r , r .

20

1.4.2. Q tr P Q | r2 2u Y tr P Q | r 0u,
.
, . ,
, : r 0, r 1, 1 P ;
r 0, r2 2,
rsr

s2 2

2r ` 2
r2 2

,
r`2
r`2
2pr2 2q
0,
pr ` 2q2

s P , r s.
xn :
x0 1, xn`1

2xn ` 2
, n 0,
xn ` 2

, txn u ( xn xn`1 ),
0 2 x2n`1

1
2p2 x2n q
p2 x2n q,
pxn ` 2q2
4

1
, n 1.
(1.2)
4n
Q R , .
0 2 x2n

, P R, , , .
, .
, , . .
, P R, :
, ,

, , , r P , r R .
s P , s r, s P , , ,
.
r, s P Q, r s r s , r s r s .
. .
A R R , P R. P A, ,
A . A , A 1 ,
1 , A , sup A. ,

1.4 :

21

1.4.2 (). R .
. A R , A ,

Q,

PA

. , A , ,
Q. .
r P , s R . P A, r P , s R , r s.
. : r P , P A, r P , s P ,
r s, s P .
A . , A .
1 , 1 , @ P A. 1 .

1.4.3. .
r P Q ,
A ts P R | s r, s P Qu ts | s P r u,

r sup A. ,
sup A

sr

tt P Q | t su tt P Q | t ru r .

sr

, P R ,
suptr | r P u.

Q R .
, P R,
` tr ` s | @ r P , s P u,

, ` Q . r1 P c , s1 P c , r P , s P , r r1 ,
s s1 , r ` s r1 ` s1 , r1 ` s1 R ` , ` Q.

p r ` s P ` , r P , s P . q P p ` qc , p q.
, q p, q s r, q s P , q pq sq ` s P ` ,
, p q.
` : p r `s P `, t P , r t, q t`s P `,

p q. , ` , . :

22
r, s P Q, r ` s pr ` sq . .

() ` ` . Q ` `

.
() p ` q ` ` p ` q. Q .
() ` 0 . r P , s P 0 , s 0, r ` s r, r ` s P ,

` 0 . , r P , r1 P , r r1 . r r1 P 0 ,
r r1 ` pr r1 q P ` 0 , ` 0 , ` 0 . 0 .
() P R,
tr P Q | s 0, r s P c u.

. q P c , r q 1, r 1 q P c ,
r P , . p P , r P , s 0, r s P c ,

p r s, r p s p, , p P c , Q.
.
` 0 . p P , r P , , s 0,
r s P c , p r s, p ` r s 0, p ` r P 0 , ` 0 .

, t P 0 , t{2 0, n, nt{2 P , pn ` 1qt{2 P c .


r pn ` 2qt{2, r pt{2q P c , r P ,
t nt{2 ` r P ` ,

0 ` .
, .
R` t P R | 0 u, , P R` ,
tp P Q | 0 r P , 0 s P p rsu,

, P R` .
1.4.4. tr P Q | r2 2u Y tr P Q | r 0u, 2 2 ,
?
2 .
, ,
tp P Q | 0 r, s P Q, r2 2, s2 2, p rsu.

1.4 :

23

r, s 0, r2 , s2 2 prsq2 4, rs 2, 2 . , t P 2 ,
n p2 tq1 ,
4n n p2 tq1 ,

1.4.2 (1.2) ,
0 2 x2n 4n 2 t,

t xn xn , 0 xn P Q, x2n 2, t P , 2 .

P R, 0 0 0 . ,
$

pqpq,
0 , 0 ,

&
rpqpqs, 0 , 0 ,

%rpqs,
0 , 0 .
. :
r, s P Q, prsq r s . r, s 0 : ,
r s tp P Q | r1 , s1 P Q, 0 r1 r, 0 s1 s p r1 s1 u
tp P Q | p rsu prsq .
() . , .
() pq pq.
() 1 . 0 : ,
1 tp P Q | p rs, 0 r P , 0 s 1u
tp P Q | 0 r P p ru .
() 0 , P R, 1 . , 0 ,

ts P Q | r P c s r1 u,

, 1 . , 1 .
r , pr q1 pr1 q .
() p ` q ` .

24

, ,
R , . , Q ,

f : Q R, r r

Q R , R Q ,
, ,
, R
. , .
1.4.3 (Archimedes ). 0 x P R, y P R, n,
y nx.
. r r . R
A tnx | n P Nu,

A . () , A ,
. 0 x, x , m, x mx,
pm ` 1qx P A, A .

A , y A , n, y nx.

1.4.4 (). a b P R, c P Q, a c b.
. a b 0 b a, Archimedes , n, 1
npb aq. Archimedes , m1 , m2 , na m1 , na m2 .

,
A tm1 P Z | na m1 u Z

, m P A, m
m 1 na m.

na m 1 ` na npb aq ` na nb,

c m{n P Q a c b.

, Dedekind.
, Cantor Cauchy
. ,
, .

, , , .
, N
. ,
, . , ,
, .

2.1

,
, , () ,
.
2.1.1

a1 , a2 , , an ,

, tan u. an n , .
,
tan | n 1, 2, u

, tan u , M ,
|an | M, @ n 1.

. tan u N f : N R, f pnq an .
n an , .
2.1.1 (). tan u , A P R. 0,
N N pq, n N ,
|an A| ,

tan u A , tan u A,
lim an A an A pn 8q.

n8

, , , n
, an .
25

26

n , N , N
. N .
, : lim an A 0,
n8

tan u pA , A ` q . , 0 0,
tan u pA 0 , A ` 0 q , tan u A
(, A).

, N tan u A :
0 0, N , n0 N |an0 A| 0 , tan u
A .
2.1.1. tan u , .
. tan u A , B , 0, N1 ,
N2 , n N1
|an A| ,

n N2
|an B| .

, n maxtN1 , N2 u ,
2 |an A| ` |an B| |A B|.

A B, |A B|{2, , A B.

, .
. , ,
.
2.1.1. tan u, an a, a , lim an a.
n8

. 0,
|an a| 0 , @ n 1.

, lim an a.
n8

2.1.2. tp1qn u .
. . , x0 P R, 1 1
px0 1, x0 ` 1q , p1qn .
2.1.3. |q| 1, lim q n 0.
n8

2.1

27

. q 0 . 0 |q| 1, 0, N log|q| ,
n N ,
|q n 0| |q|n |q|N ,

lim q n 0.
n8

.
1
1
: 0 |q| 1 ,
1.
1 0.
|q|
|q|
1
0, N
, n N ,

|q n 0| |q|n

1
1

,
p1 ` qn
n

,
1
p1 ` qn 1 ` n ` npn 1q2 ` ` n n.
2


lim q n 0.
n8

.
2.1.4. 0, lim

n8

. 0, N

1
1

1
0.
n
,nN

1 1 ,

0
n
n
N

, lim

n8

1
0.
n

2.1.5. q 0, q 1. lim

n8

1
0.
logq n
1

. q 1. 0, N q , n N
1

1
1

logq n
logq n
logq N
lim

n8

1
0.
logq n

2.1.6. C , lim an 0, lim Can 0.


n8

n8

. 0, 0
. lim an 0, N , n N
n8
|C| ` 1
|an | 0 ,

28

n N ,
|Can | |C||an | |C|0 ,


lim Can 0.
n8

.
2.1.2 (). tan u, tbn u, tcn u ,
an bn cn , @ n N0 ,

N0 .
lim an A lim cn ,

n8

n8

lim bn A.
n8

. 0, tan u tcn u A, N1 , N2 , n N1
A an A ` ,

n N2
A cn A ` .

N maxtN0 , N1 , N2 u, n N , an bn cn ,
A an bn cn A ` ,


lim bn A.
n8

. |an | bn , lim bn 0 lim an 0.


n8

n8

bn an bn .

2.1.7. A 0.99999 , : A 1 ?
. , A . , A
. , A tan u ,
an 0.99 9 (n 9).
|an 1| 10n ,

, tan u 1. , A 1.

. , A 1 . ,
, .
2.1.8. 0 1, lim rpn ` 1q n s 0.
n8

2.1

29

. n 1 ,
`

1
0 pn ` 1q n n 1 `
1
n
`

1
1

n 1`
1 1 .
n
n

lim rpn ` 1q n s 0.
n8

n
0.
n8 an

2.1.9. 0, a 1, lim
1

. a 1 ` , 0. n 1 ,
1
1
p1 ` qn 1 ` n ` npn 1q 2 ` ` n npn 1q 2 ,
2
2

n
n
2

,
n
n
2
a
p1 ` q
pn 1q
n
0.
n8 an

lim

an
0.
n8 n!

2.1.10. a 0, lim

. N0 |a|, n N0 ,
an |a|N0 |a|
|a|
|a|N0 |a|

,
n!
N0 ! N0 ` 1
n
N0 ! n
an
0.
n8 n!

lim

1
0.
2.1.11. lim ?
n
n8
n!

. 1 k n pk 1qpn kq 0, kpn k ` 1q n,

pn!q2 p1 nqp2pn 1qq pkpn k ` 1qq pn 1q nn , @ n 1.

1
1
0 ?
? , @ n 1.
n
n
n!
1
lim ?
0.
n8 n n!

2.1.12. a 0, lim

n8

?
n

a 1.

30

. a 1 ,

?
n

a 1 ` n , n 0.

a p1 ` n qn 1 ` nn ` ` nn nn ,

lim

?
n

n8

?
n

a 1 ` n 1 `

a
,
n

a 1.

0 a 1 , ,
c
1
n 1
1
1`
,
a
na

lim

?
n

n8

?
n

n8

?
n

a 1.

2.1.13. lim
.

?
1
n a 1,
1 ` na

n 1.

n 1 ` n , n 1 ,

1
1
n p1 ` n qn 1 ` nn ` npn 1qn2 ` ` nn npn 1qn2 ,
2
2

c
0 n

2
.
n1

, n 1 ,
1

lim

n8

?
n

?
n

c
n 1 ` n 1 `

2
,
n1


n 1.

2.1.14. a, b 0, lim

?
n

n8

an ` bn maxta, bu.

. a b,
a

?
n

an

?
n

an ` bn

lim

n8

?
n

?
n
2an a 2,

an ` bn a maxta, bu.

2.1.15. pq lim an A, lim


n8

?
n

n8

a1 ` a2 ` ` an
A.
n

2.1

31

. 0, lim an A, N0 , n N0 ,
n8

|an A|

.
2

(
N max N0 , 21 |a1 ` ` aN0 N0 A| ,

n N ,
a1 ` ` an
a1 ` ` aN0 N0 A paN0 `1 Aq ` ` pan Aq

A
`
n
n
n
|a1 ` ` aN0 N0 A| |aN0 `1 A| ` ` |an A|

`
n
n
|a1 ` ` aN0 N0 A| n N0

`
N
n 2

` .
2 2
a1 ` a2 ` ` an
A.

n
. , A, n A.

lim

n8

, , tan p1qn u, , n
0, tan u .
2.1.16. pq .
. A . A , an A pn 1q . A
,
an

rnAs
, @ n 1.
n

rxs x , an . A ,
nA 1 rnAs nA, @ n 1.

1
rnAs
an
A, @ n 1.
n
n

lim an A.
n8

2.1.2

,
.
2.1.3 (). tan u , tan u .

32

. tan u A. 1, , N , n N
|an A| 1,

|an | |A| ` 1, @ n N.

(
M max |ai | p1 i N q, |A| ` 1 ,


|an | M , @ n 1.

, . ,
. , tan u , A 0, N , n N ,
an A, tan u `8, tan u `8,
lim an `8, an `8 pn 8q.

n8

, A 0, N , n N , an A, tan u
8, tan u 8,
lim an 8, an 8 pn 8q.

n8

t|an |u `8, tan u 8,


lim an 8, an 8 pn 8q.

n8

2.1.17. |q| 1, tq n u .
. q 1 , q 1 0. A 0, N

A
, n N ,

q n p1 ` qn 1 ` n ` ` n n N A,

q n `8 pn 8q.
q 1 , |q|n `8, q n 8 pn 8q.

2.1.18. q 1, lim logq n `8.


n8

. A 0, N q A , n N ,
logq n logq N A,

lim logq n `8.


n8

, ,
. .

2.1

33

2.1.4 (). tan u A, t|an |u |A|.


. lim an A, 0, N , n N
n8

|an A| ,

|an | |A| |an A| , @ n N.




lim |an | |A|.


n8

2.1.5. tan u 0 |an | 0; tan u A


|an A| 0.
. .

2.1.6 (). tan u A, tbn u B,


p1q N0 , n N0 an bn , A B;
p2q , A B, N , n N an bn .

. p1q 0, N1 , N2 ,
|an A| , @ n N1 ; |bn B| , @ n N2 .

N maxtN0 , N1 , N2 u, n N ,
A B pA an q ` pan bn q ` pbn Bq pA an q ` pbn Bq 2,

, A B 0, A B.
p2q A B,

AB
2

0, N1 , N2 ,

|an A| , @ n N1 ; |bn B| , @ n N2 .

N maxtN1 , N2 u, n N ,
an bn pan Aq ` pA Bq ` pB bn q ` pA Bq 0,


an bn , @ n N .
2.1.7. lim an A, A 0, N , n N ,
n8

1
3
|A| |an | |A|.
2
2

34

. ,
1
3
|A| lim |an | |A| |A|,
n8
2
2

.
logq n
2.1.19. q 1, lim
0.
n8
n

. 0, ,
lim

?
n

n8

n 1 q ,

, N , n N ,
?
n

n q ,

logq n
, @ n N.
n

lim

n8

logq n
0.
n

2.1.8 (). tan u A, tbn u B,


p1q tan ` bn u A ` B, , ;
p2q tan bn u AB;
p3q B 0 , tan {bn u A{B.

. p1q 0, N1 , N2 ,
|an A|

, @ n N1 ; |bn B|
, @ n N2 .
2|| ` 1
2|| ` 1

N maxtN1 , N2 u, n N ,
|pan ` bn q pA ` Bq| |||an A| ` |||bn B|

||
` ||
2|| ` 1
2|| ` 1
1
1
` .
2
2

lim pan ` bn q A ` B.
n8

p2q , M ,
|bn | M, @ n 1.

0 |an bn AB| |pan Aqbn ` Apbn Bq| M |an A| ` |A||bn B|,

2.1

35

p1q lim an bn AB.


n8
1
1
p3q p2q, lim

. ,
n8 bn
B
|B|
.
N , n N , |bn |
2
1
1 |bn B|
2

|bn B|, @ n N.
bn
B
|bn ||B|
|B|2
lim

n8

1
1
.
bn
B

n2 n
.
n8 4n2 3n ` 1

2.1.20. lim

. ,
1 n1
n2 n

lim
n8 4n2 3n ` 1
n8 4 3 ` 12
n
n
10
1

.
400
4
lim

,
.
a1 , a2 , , an ,

,
1 n1 n2 nk

,
an1 , an2 , , ank ,

tan u , tank u. ta2k u ta2k1 u


.
2.1.9. p1q tan u A, tank u A.
p2q tan u A, tan u A.

. , .

(
1
2.1.21. an r1 ` p1qn s .
2

. a2k 1, a2k1 0, tan u ,


tan u .

2.1.22. pq tsin nu .

36

. . () lim sin n A,
n8

2 sin 1 cos n sinpn ` 1q sinpn 1q A A 0 pn 8q.

sin 1 0, cos n 0 pn 8q,


sin 2n 2 sin n cos n 2A 0 0 pn 8q,

A 0,
sin2 n ` cos2 n 0 ` 0 0 pn 8q.


sin2 x ` cos2 x 1 .

2.1
1. , :
p1q 0, N , n N , |an A| , lim an A;
n8

p2q P p0, 1q, N , n N , |an A| , lim an A;


n8

p3q 0, N , n N , |an A| 2, lim an A;


n8
1
,
p4q m, N , n N , |an A|
m
lim an A;
n8

2. :
3n2 ` 2n
3
1
; p2q lim
0;
n8 2n2 1
n8
2
npn ` 1q
?
n2 ` 2n

p3q lim
1; p4q lim arctan n .
n8
n8
n
2
p1q lim

3. :
?
?
p1q t n ` 1 n 1u;
p4q

p2q tsinpn2 qu; p3q t

pn ` 1q3 pn 1q3 (
; p5q tcos nu;
n2

a
n
n2 ` 1u;

1(
p6q p1qn `
.
n

4.
p1q

(
1
;
kpk
`
1q
k1

p2q

2n 1 (
sin n (
; p3q ?
;
3n 2
n

?
? ?
p4q t np n ` 1 n 1qu; p5q tn2 2n u;

p6q

k1

(
2k .

2.1

37

5. tan u `8 .
6. :
b
?
p1q lim n n `8;

n2 4n ` 1
`8;
n8
n8
2n 1
?
n3 pn ` 1q3
p3q lim
8; p4q lim p1qn p n 1q 8.
n8
n8
n`1
p2q lim

7. an A bn , lim pbn an q 0,
n8

lim an A lim bn .

n8

8. a, b, c 0, lim

?
n

n8

n8

an ` bn ` cn maxta, b, cu.
an
A.
n8 n

9. pq lim pan`1 an q A, lim


n8

10. pq :
p1q lim

n8

?
n

an A 1, lim an `8;
n8

an`1
p2q lim
A 1, lim an 8;
n8 an
n8
1
p3q lim an `8, lim pa1 ` a2 ` ` an q `8;
n8
n8 n
?
p4q lim an `8, an 0 pn 1q, lim n a1 a2 an `8.
n8
n8
?
p5q lim an 0, an 0 pn 1q, lim n a1 a2 an 0.
n8

n8

11. pq lim an A,
n8

lim

n8

1
1
pa1 ` 2a2 ` ` nan q A.
n2
2

12. :
`

p1q lim log2 pn ` 1q log2 n ;


n8

`1
1
1
`
` `
;
2
2
n8 n
pn ` 1q
p2nq2

`
1
1
1
`? 2
` ` ? 2
;
lim ? 2
n8
n `1
n `2
n `n
`
1 `
1 `
1
lim 1 2 q 1 2 1 2 ;
n8
2
3
n
1
lim
p1 ` 2 ` ` nq;
n8 n2
?
?
?
lim p n ` 2 2 n ` 1 ` nq.

p2q lim
p3q
p4q
p5q
p6q

n8

38
13. lim an 0, N , n N an 0.
n8

14. tan u lim an A, lim


n8

n8

an

A.

1
rnan s A, rxs x .
n
an`1
?
16. pq an 0, lim
A, lim n an A.
n8 an
n8
15. lim an A, lim
n8

n8

17. , tan u .
18. tan |n 1, 2, u , tan u tank u `8.

2.2

, . , ,
, ,
.
, ,
: , .
tan u ,
a1 a2 an ,

tan u , tan u
;
a1 a2 an ,

tan u , tan u
; .
2.2.1 (). tan u .
p1q tan u , lim an suptak | k 1u;
n8

p2q tan u , lim an inftak | k 1u.


n8

. p1q M suptak | k 1u, M . 0,


, aN ,
M aN M,

tan u , n N
M aN an M M ` ,

2.2

39

lim an M suptak | k 1u.


n8

M `8, A 0, , aN , aN A.
tan u , n N an aN A,
lim an `8 suptak | k 1u.

n8

p2q p1q , tan u p1q.

:
2.2.2. p q .
2.2.1. pq .
. tan u A. tan u A,
. , tan u , an A,
an A. , tan u an A,

. , an A, @ n 1.
tan u .
: n1 1. lim an A, n2 n1 1,
n8

an2 P pa1 , Aq. , n3 n2 , an3 P pan2 , Aq. ,




() tank u.

2.2.2. a1

2, an`1

an`1

2 ` an , n 1. tan u .

2 an 2, @ n 1.

2 ` an

2an an ,

tan u , , A, A

2 0.

2 ` A lim p2 ` an q lim a2n`1 A2 ,


n8

n8

A 2, tan u 2.
1`
1
2.2.3. a1 0, an`1 an `
, n 1. tan u .
2
an
. an 0, @ n 1.
an`1 1

1 `?
1`
1
1 2
an `
2
an ?
0,
2
an
2
an

n 2 ,
an`1

1 1
1`
an `
pan ` an q an ,
2
an
2

40

tan u n 2 , . A, A 1.
,
1`
1 1`
1
an `
A`
,
n8 2
an
2
A

A lim an`1 lim


n8

A 1, tan u 1.
2.2.4. a1 1, an`1

1
, n 1. tan u .
1 ` an

1
an 1, ta2k1 u , ta2k u ,
2
, A, B.

1
1

,
1 ` a2k1
1`A
1
1
lim

,
k8 1 ` a2k
1`B

B lim a2k lim


k8

k8

A lim a2k`1
k8

51
A B
, tan u
2
.

51
.
2

`
`
1 n`1
1 n
, bn 1 `
, n 1.
an 1 `
n
n

tan u , tbn u . ,
n

`
1 n
1
an 1 `

Cnk k
n
n
k0
n

npn 1q pn k ` 1q 1
k!
nk
k1
`
1`
1
1`
1
n 1
1`1`
1
` `
1
1
2!
n
n!
n
n
1`
1
1`
1
n 1
1`1`
1
q ` `
1
q p1
2!
n`1
n!
n`1
n`1
`
`
1
1
n
`
1
1
pn ` 1q!
n`1
n`1

1`

an`1 ,

tan u . , n 1 ,
0 an 1 ` 1 `
2`
2`

1
k!
k2

1
pk 1qk
k2
n

`
k2

1
1
1

3 3.
k1 k
n

2.2

41

tan u , e, .
, (,
)
e 2.7182818284590 .

1
n1
` n1

1`
1

1`

1 n
n
1
1` 2
1`
2
n 1
n 1
n

`
bn1 1 `

1 n`1
1 n `
1`
bn ,
n1
n

tbn u ,
`
1
lim bn lim an 1 `
lim an e,
n8
n8
n

n8

`
`
1 n `
1 n`1
1 n`2 `
1 n`1
1`
1`
e 1`
1`
, @ n 1. (2.1)
n
n`1
n`1
n

2.2.5. ten u e,
en 1 `

1
.
k!
k1

. an en , @ n 1. k 1,
n k ,
1`
1
2!
1`
1`1`
1
2!

an 1 ` 1 `

1
` `
n
1
` `
n

`
1`
1
n 1
1
1
n!
n
n
`
1`
1
k 1
1
1
,
k!
n
n

n 8,
e lim an 1 ` 1 `
n8

1
1
` ` .
2!
k!

k ,
an en e, @ n 1.


lim en e.
n8

2.2.6. :
n`1 n`1
n
,
p1q p n`1
e q? n! ep e q
n
n!
1
p2q lim
.
n8 n
e

@ n 1.

42

. (2.1), k 1, 2, , n,
` k ` 1 k
k

` k ` 1 k`1
k

n ,
pn ` 1qn`1
pn ` 1qn
en
,
n!
n!

p1q . p2q p1q .

e ln x, (2.1)
`
`
1
1
k ln 1 `
1 pk ` 1q ln 1 ` ,
k
k

`
1 1
1
1
1
ln 1 `
,
lnp1 ` kq ln k .
k`1
k
k
k`1
k

k 1, 2, , n, ,
1 1
1
1
1
` ` `
lnpn ` 1q 1 ` ` ` .
2 3
n`1
2
n

cn 1 `

1
1
` ` ln n,
2
n

cn lnpn ` 1q ln n 0,
cn`1 cn

`
1
1
1
lnpn ` 1q ` ln n
ln 1 `
0,
n`1
n`1
n

tcn u , , Euler ,
0.5772156649 .

2.2.7. lim

n8

1
1
` `
.
n`1
2n

. cn ,
1
1
` `
n`1
2n
`
1 `
1
1
1
1 ` ` `
lim 1 ` ` `
n8
2
2n
2
n
`

lim c2n ` lnp2nq pcn ` ln nq


lim

n8

n8

` ln 2 ln 2.

, . tan u ,
. an ,

2.2

43

n tan u , . ,
, .

,
an inftak | k nu, an suptak | k nu.

1.2.4 tan u tan u ,


an an an .

tan u tan u tan u ,


lim an lim an ,
n8

n8

lim an lim an .

n8

n8

!
p1qn )
2.2.8. an
.
n

. , n
1
(
1
1
1
an inf ,
,
, ;
n n`1 n`2
n

n ,
an inf

1
n

(
1
1
1
,
,
;
n`1 n`2
n`1

tan u

(
1 1 1 1
1, , , , , ,
3 3 5 5

tan u 0.
tan u

1 1 1 1
(
, , , , ,
2 2 4 4

tan u 0.
!
`
1 n )
2.2.9. an r1 ` p1qn s 1 `
.
n

. an 0, @ n 1. tan u 0.
`
1 n (
1 `
an 2e, @ n 1.
n
tan u 2e.

.
2.2.3. tan u , :
p1q tan u ;
p2q tan u ;
p3q lim pan an q 0.
n8

44

. p1q p2q: tan u A. 0, N , n N ,


A an A ` .

A an an A ` , @ n N.

tan u tan u A.
p2q p1q: an an an .


p2q p3q .

, , .
2.2.4. tan u, tbn u .
p1q N0 , n N0 an bn ,
lim an lim bn ,
n8

n8

lim an lim bn ;

n8

n8

p2q lim pan ` bn q lim an ` lim bn .


n8

n8

n8

. p1q n N0
bn bk ak , @ k n,

k ,
bn an , @ n N0 ,

lim bn lim an .
n8

n8

.
p2q an ` bn an ` bn .

2.2.10. an 0, an A pn 8q. bn

?
n

a1 a2 an ,

lim bn A.

n8

. , 0, N , n N ,
0 an A ` .

n N ,
bn

?
n

a1 a2 aN pA ` q

nN
n

b
n
a1 a2 aN pA ` qN pA ` q,

2.2

45

n 8,
lim bn A ` .

n8

lim bn A ,
n8

,
lim bn A lim bn ,

n8

n8

tbn u A.
2.2.11. bn 0, lim

n8

bn`1
A,
bn
a
lim n bn A.
n8

. a1 b1 , an`1
lim

n8

bn`1
bn ,

n 1. , tan u A. ,

a
?
n
bn lim n a1 a2 an A.
n8

2.2.12. pq tan u :
an 0, am`n am ` an , @ m, n 1.

an (
n

. 0 an na1 ,

an (

, n k , n

. k

n mk ` l, 0 l k 1.

an amk ` al mak ` la1

n
ak ` pk 1qa1 ,
k

ak
k1
an

`
a1 , @ n k.
n
k
n

n 8,
lim

n8

an
ak
k1
ak
lim
` lim
a1
.
n8 k
n8
n
n
k

k , k 8,
lim

n8

ak
an
lim
,
n
k8 k

46

an (
n

, .

2.2
1. :
p1q a1

2, an`1

p3q a1 0, an`1
2. c 0, a1

c, an`1

3. a1 0, an`1

2an ;

6p1 ` an q
;
7 ` an
?

p2q a1 1, an`1 1 `

an
;
1 ` an

p4q a1 P p0, 1q, an`1 an p1 an q.

c ` an , tan u .

2 ` an , tan u .

4. c, a1 0, an`1
5. a1 0, an`1

c
1`
an `
, tan u .
2
an

1
, tan u .
1 ` an

6. a1 c 0, an`1 c `

1
, tan u .
an

7. :
1
1
1
5
p1q a1 0, an`1 an `
; p2q a1 0, an`1 an `
;
2
an
2
8an
?
1 `
1 2
p3q a1 P p0, 2q, an`1 an ` an 1 an .
2
2
8. Bernoulli p1 ` xqn 1 ` nx px 1q, x

1
p1 ` nq2

`
1 n
Bernoulli an 1 `
.
n
9. :
`
` n ` 1 n
`
1 n
1 n
p1q lim 1
; p2q lim
; p3q lim 1 2 .
n8
n8 n ` 2
n8
n
n
10. pq :
`
1 n
p1q lim 1 `
;
n8
2n

`
2 n
p2q lim 1 `
;
n8
n

`
1
1 n
p3q lim 1 ` ` 2 .
n8
n n

1 1
1
11. lim 1 ` ` p1qn1
ln 2.
n8
2 3
n
12. :
!

(
p1qn )
1
.
p1q an 1 ` p1qn ; p2q an ? `
n
n

2.3 Cauchy

47

13. tan u ,
lim pan q lim an ,
n8

n8

lim pan q lim an .

n8

n8

14. , lim an A,
n8

lim

n8

1
pa1 ` a2 ` ` an q A.
n

15. lim an A, lim bn B,


n8

n8

lim

n8

1
pa1 bn ` a2 bn1 ` ` an b1 q AB.
n

16. pq 0 a b, a1 a, b1 b.
?
1
p1q an`1 an bn , bn`1 pan ` bn q, tan u tbn u .
2
1
2an bn
p2q an`1 pan ` bn q, bn`1
, tan u tbn u .
2
an ` bn

2.3

Cauchy

.
,
: an , n an .
.
2.3.1. tan u , 0, N N pq, m, n N
,
|am an | ,

tan u Cauchy .
2.3.1. n 1,
an 1 `

1
1
` ` ,
2
n

tan u Cauchy .
. n 1,
1
1
` `
n`1
2n
1
1
1
1
` `
n
,

2n
2n
2n
2

a2n an

tan u Cauchy .

48

2.3.2. n 1,
1
1
an 1 ` ? ` ` ? ,
n
n
2 2

tan u Cauchy .
.
?
?
1
1
1
1
1
n`1 n
1
?
?
? ?
a
a
,
?
n
2 pn ` 1q n ` 1
n`1
npn ` 1q
npn ` 1q n ` 1 ` n
, m n ,
1
1
?
` ` ?
m m
pn ` 1q n ` 1
` 1
` 1
1
1
2 ? ?
`2 ?
?
`
n
n`1
n`1
n`2
2
2
2
? ? ? ,
n
m
n

am an

tan u Cauchy .

2.3.3. tan u , 0, 0 q 1, N0 ,
n N0 ,
|an`1 an | q n ,

tan u Cauchy .
. m n N0 ,
|am an | |am am1 | ` |am1 am2 | ` ` |an`1 an |
q m1 ` q m2 ` ` q n
q n pq mn1 ` q mn2 ` ` q ` 1q

qn
.
1q

m n . q n 0 pn 8q, 0, N1 ,

q N1
.
1q

, m, n N maxtN0 , N1 u , m n,
|am an |

tan u Cauchy .

qn
q N1

,
1q
1q


2.3 Cauchy

49

2.3.1. Cauchy .
. , 1, N , m, n N ,
|am an | 1

M maxt|ak | ` 1 1 k N ` 1u, n N |an | M ; n N

,
|an | |an aN `1 | ` |aN `1 | 1 ` |aN `1 | M,


tan u .
, .
2.3.2 (Cauchy ). tan u Cauchy .
. : tan u A. 0, N , n N ,
|an A|

1
,
2

, m, n N ,
|am an | |am A| ` |A an |

1
1
` ,
2
2

tan u Cauchy .
: tan u Cauchy , 2.3.1, tan u , A
. tan u A.
, tan u Cauchy , 0, N , m, n N ,
|am an |

1
,
2

1
1
am an , @ m, n N.
2
2

m 8, ,
1
1
lim am an , @ n N.
m8
2
2

|A an |

1
, @ n N,
2


p1qn )
. p1q Cauchy , an
.
n

tan u A.

50

p2q Cauchy ,

. Cauchy .

2.3
1. Cauchy :
sin 1 sin 2
sin n
p1q an
` 2 ` ` n ;
2
2
2
1
1
?
?
p2q an 1 `
` `
;
n
2
1
1
p3q an 1 ` 2 ` ` 2 .
2
n
2. tan u
lim |an`p an | 0, @ p 1,

n8

tan u Cauchy ? (: .)
n 1

3. an 1 `
, Cauchy tan u .
k1 n!
4. |q| 1, an

q n , Cauchy tan u .

k1

5. an

1
p1qk1 , Cauchy tan u .
k
k1

6. tbn u . tan u
|an`1 an | bn`1 bn , @ n 1,

tan u Cauchy , .
7. 0 q 1 , tan u
|an`1 an | q|an an1 |, @ n 2,

tan u Cauchy . .
8. pq tan u . M ,
|a2 a1 | ` |a3 a2 | ` ` |an`1 an | M, @ n 1,

tan u . , Cauchy .
9. pq a0 a, a1 b,
1
pan1 ` an2 q, @ n 2,
2
1
tan u , lim an pa ` 2bq.
n8
3
an

2.4 Stolz

51

2.4


Stolz

, , .
,

. .
2.4.1. bk 0 p1 k nq,
m

ak
M, @ 1 k n,
bk

a1 ` a2 ` ` an
M.
b1 ` b2 ` ` bn

. ,
mbk ak M bk , @ 1 k n,

k 1 n ,
mpb1 ` b2 ` ` bn q pa1 ` a2 ` ` an q M pb1 ` b2 ` ` bn q,


2.4.2 (Stolz ). txn u, tyn u , tyn u


`8.
lim

n8

xn xn1
A,
yn yn1

lim

n8

xn
A.
yn

. .
p1q A . , , N , n N ,
A

xn xn1
A ` .
yn yn1

, n N ,
A

xn xN
pxn xn1 q ` ` pxN `1 xN q

A ` ,
yn yN
pyn yn1 q ` ` pyN `1 yN q

x
` x x
yn yN
xN AyN
n
n
N
A
A
`

yn
yn yN
yn
yn
|xN AyN |
.
`
|yn |

52

n 8, yn `8,
x

lim
A ,
n8 yn
,
x

A lim
A 0,
lim
n8
yn
n8 yn
xn
A.
yn
p2q A `8. , N , n N

lim

n8

xn xn1
1,
yn yn1

xn xn1 pyn yn1 q 0, @ n N.

, n N txn u ,
xn xN pxn xn1 q ` ` pxN `1 xN q
pyn yn1 q ` ` pyN `1 yN q yn yN ,

yn `8 xn `8. p1q xn yn ,
` xn xn1 1
yn
yn yn1
lim
lim
0,
n8 xn
n8 xn xn1
n8 yn yn1
lim

lim

n8

` yn 1
xn
lim
`8.
n8
yn
xn

p3q A 8. xn xn , p2q .

2.4.3 (Stolz ). tyn u 0, txn u


0.
lim

n8

xn xn1
A,
yn yn1

lim

n8

xn
A.
yn

. , .
p1q A .
lim

n8

xn xn`1
A.
yn yn`1

2.4 Stolz

53

0, N , n N ,
A

xn xn`1
A ` ,
yn yn`1

p1q , m n N ,
pA qpyn ym q pxn xm q pA ` qpyn ym q,

m 8,
pA qyn xn pA ` qyn , @ n N,

pA q

xn
pA ` q, @ n N,
yn

xn {yn A pn 8q.
p2q A `8. M 0, N , n N ,
xn xn`1
M.
yn yn`1

, m n N ,
xn xm M pyn ym q,

m 8,
xn M yn , @ n N,

xn
M, @ n N,
yn

xn {yn `8 pn 8q.
p3q A 8. p2q xn xn .

2.4.1. lim an A,
n8

lim

n8

A
a1 ` 2a2 ` ` nan
.
n2
2

. n2 n `8, Stolz ,
lim

n8

a1 ` 2a2 ` ` nan
nan
lim 2
n8 n pn 1q2
n2
n
A
lim
an .
n8 2n 1
2

54

2.4.2. k ,
1k ` 2k ` ` nk
1 1
lim n

.
n8
nk`1
k`1
2
. Stolz ,
1k ` 2k ` ` nk
1
lim n

n8
nk`1
k`1
k
k
pk ` 1qp1 ` 2 ` ` nk q nk`1
lim
n8
pk ` 1qnk
pk ` 1qnk rnk`1 pn 1qk`1 s
lim
n8
pk ` 1qrnk pn 1qk s
1
kpk ` 1qnk1 `
lim 2
n8 pk ` 1qknk1 `
1
.
2
k 1 , .

2.4.3. x1 P p0, 1q, xn`1 xn p1 xn q, @ n 1. lim nxn 1.


n8

. 0 xn 1, @ n 1.
xn`1 xn p1 xn q xn ,

txn u . xn a pn 8q, n 8,
a a p1 aq,

a 0, xn 0.
` 1
1
1

lim
1,
n8 xn`1
n8 1 xn
xn
lim

Stolz ,
lim nxn lim

n8

n8

n
n pn 1q
lim 1
1.
1 n8
xn
xn x1
n1


: Stolz , ?

2.4
1. lim an A, k ,
n8

lim

n8 nk`1

pa1 ` 2k a2 ` ` nk an q

A
.
k`1

2.4 Stolz

55

2. lim npan Aq B, k ,
n8

lim n

n8

a ` 2k a ` ` nk a
A B
A
1
2
n

` .
k`1
n
k`1
k
2

3. a1 P p0, 1q, an`1 an p1 an q, k .


lim

n8

1
1
pa1 ` 2k a2 ` ` nk an q .
k
n
k

4. k 2 ,
1k ` 2k ` ` nk
1
1
k
lim n2

.
k`1
n8
n
k ` 1 2n
12
5. :
3

p1q lim n 2 p1 `

n8

2 ` `

6. a1 1, an`1 an `

nq

n ?

1
2
2 3 1
; p2q lim n 2
k n2 .
n8
3
3
2
k1

1
,
2an

an
a2 n
1
p1q lim ? 1, p2q lim n
.
n8
n8 ln n
n
4
7. lim pan`1 an q A, (p ):
n8

n
an
A
1 p1
k
ak
A, p2q lim p`1
.
n8 n
n8 n
p`1
k1

p1q lim

8. lim pan`2 an q A,
n8

p1q lim

n8

an
A
an`1 an
, p2q lim
0.
n8
n
2
n

9. :

n
1
n1
1
1
n1
n1
1`
`
1`
1`
`
`
.
2
n ` 2 2npn ` 2q
npn ` 2q
n ` 2 2npn ` 2q2 2npn ` 2q3
10. Stolz

`
1 n 1
e.
lim n e 1 `
n
2

n8

11. p1q lim nan 0, lim p1 ` an qn 1;


n8

n8

1 1
;
n8
n
n
2
`
1
1
1
p3q Stolz lim n 1 ` ` ` ln n .
n8
2
n
2
p2q lim n

2 1

ln 1 `

56

2.5

, .
, , Cauchy .
, ,
.
.
2.5.1 (Cantor). tran , bn su ,
ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s .

lim pbn an q 0, c, c P ran , bn s, @ n 1.


n8

. , tan u b1 , tbn u
a1 . tan u tbn u , a, b. ,
an a b bn , @ n 1.

0 b a bn an 0 pn 8q,

a b. c a b P ran , bn s, @ n 1. c1 P ran , bn s, @ n 1,


c1 a b c.

a1

a2 an bn b2

b1

2.1
. ,
1
1
p0, 1q p0, q p0, q
2
n

, .
2.5.1. R .
. r0, 1s . () , r0, 1s ,
, ,
r0, 1s tx1 , x2 , , xn , u.

2.5

57

r0, 1s , x1 , ra1 , b1 s. ra1 , b1 s


, x2 , ra2 , b2 s. ra2 , b2 s ,

r0, 1s ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s ,

bn an

ba
3n

0 pn 8q, xn R ran , bn s. ,

P ran , bn s, @ n 1. P r0, 1s, xn , @ n 1. .

, ,
.
2.5.2. Q .
. . p{q
, p, q , p, q 1 . p ` q ,
:
1 1{1, 1{2, 2{1, 1{3, 3{1, 1{4, 2{3, 3{2, 4{1, ,

, p ` q r ` s, p ` q r ` s p r p{q r{s . ,
, .

2.5.2 (Bolzano). R .
. txn u , tx1 , x2 , u ra, bs. ra, bs ,
txn u , ra1 , b1 s, xn1 P ra1 , b1 s.
ra1 , b1 s , txn u , ra2 , b2 s,
xn2 P ra2 , b2 s, n2 n1 . ,
ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s rak , bk s , bk ak

1
pb aq 0,
2k

txn u txnk u, xnk P rak , bk s, k 1, 2, .


, c P rak , bk s, k 1, 2, . |xnk c| pbk ak q
txnk u c .

Bolznao , . ,

.
x0 P R. x0 x0 . 0,
px0 , x0 ` q x0 . A , x0 P A,

0, px0 , x0 ` q A, A R . R ,
. , .
, R , .

58

2.5.3. , pa, bq, pa, `8q p8, bq , ra, bs, ra, `8q,
p8, bs , Z . r0, 1q .

, P , A , tA u
, tA u .
A R , A ( P ) . a P A, ,
a P A , tA u A ; A , tA u

A . tA u A , 1 , tA1 u (1 P 1 )
A , tA1 u tA u . A

( 1 ), A .
2.5.4. n 1, An p0, 21{nq. tAn |n 1, 2, u
p0, 2q . , p0, 2q
. .
.
2.5.3 (Heine-Borel). ra, bs .
. () tA u ra, bs . ra, bs A
, ra, bs A ,
ra1 , b1 s. ra1 , b1 s , A ,
ra2 , b2 s. ,
ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s ,

bn an

ba
2n

0 pn 8q, ran , bn s A .

, P ran , bn s, @ n 1. tA u ra, bs ,
A0 , P A0 . A0 , 0,
p , ` q A0 .

an , bn pn 8q, N , n N
an , bn P p , ` q.

ran , bn s p , ` q A0 pn N q, ran , bn s A


+
an

bn

2.2

2.5

59

2.5.4. R .
. A , A rM, M s. tA u A
,
tAc X pM 1, M ` 1q, A u

rM, M s . Heine-Borel , ,
A , Ac X pM 1, M ` 1q


A .

Heine-Borel Bolzano . : tan u

, an ra, bs. c P ra, bs, c


tan u . () , x P ra, bs, x 0,
px x , x ` x q Ix tan u . , tIx uxPra,bs ra, bs
, , ra, bs tan u , an
ra, bs .

, tan u , c. , an1 P
pc 1, c ` 1q. n2 n1 , an2 P pc 1{2, c ` 1{2q. ,
tank u, ank P pc 1{k, c ` 1{kq, k 1, 2, . , tank u c.

. ,
, . ,
. ,
, , .
:
2.5.5. :
p1q pBolzano Cauchy q R , R

Cauchy ;
p2q pCauchy q R Cauchy , R

p q p q .
. p1q tan u Cauchy , tan u , tank u,
A. Cauchy , 0, N0 , K,
m, n N0 , k K ,
|am an |

1
1
, |ank A| .
2
2

k maxtN0 , Ku, nk k maxtN0 , Ku. n nk ,


|an A| |an ank | ` |ank A|

1
1
` ,
2
2

60

tan u A.
p2q A M . M P A, M A .
M R A. m P A, rm, M s A . rm, M s ,
m ` M

m`M
, M A , a1
, b1 M ; a1 m,
2
2
m`M
b1
. , ra1 , b1 s A , b1 A , b1 R A (?).
2
ra1 , b1 s , , tan u tbn u,

:
ran , bn s X A H, @ n 1;
bn A , bn R A, @ n 1;
bn an

M m
;
2n

|an`1 an |

M m
M m
, |bn bn`1 | n`1 .
2n`1
2

2.3.3 tan u tbn u Cauchy , c, c




A .


,
.
.
2.5.5. f pxq ra, bs ,
f paq a, f pbq b.

P pa, bq, f pq p q.
a`b
a`b
. ra, bs , f p
q
, . ,
2
2
`
`a ` b a ` b
a`b
a ` b a ` b
a`b

, a1 a, b1
;f

, a1
,
f
2
2
2
2
2
2
` a1 ` b1
b1 b, f pa1 q a1 , f pb1 q b1 . ra1 , b1 s , f

2
` a1 ` b1
a1 ` b1
a1 ` b1
, . , f

, a2 a1 , b2
2
2
2
`

a1 ` b1
a1 ` b1
a1 ` b1
a1 ` b1
;f

, a2
, b2 b1 , f pa2 q a2 ,
2
2
2
2
f pb2 q b2 . , ,

ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s , bn an

ba
0.
2n

2.5

61

, P ran , bn s, @ n 1. an , bn f ,

an f pan q f pq f pbn q bn , @ n 1

n 8, f pq .

A , x0 P A. 0, px0 , x0 ` q A, x0 A
.
2.5.6. ra, bs , pa, bq ; Q
R Q .
Baire .
2.5.6 (Baire). tAn u ,
A


(
An x n 1 x P An

n1

.
. . x0 P A , 0 0, rx0 0 , x0 ` 0 s A.
A1 , x1 P px0 0 , x0 ` 0 q A1 . A1 ,
1 0,
rx1 1 , x1 ` 1 s px0 0 , x0 ` 0 q, rx1 1 , x1 ` 1 s X A1 H.

1 1. A2 , x2 P px1 1 , x1 ` 1 q A2 . A2
, 2 0,
rx2 2 , x2 ` 2 s px1 1 , x1 ` 1 q, rx2 2 , x2 ` 2 s X A2 H.
1
2 . ,
2
rx1 1 , x1 ` 1 s rx2 2 , x2 ` 2 s rxn n , xn ` n s ,

rxn n , xn ` n s X An H, n
P rxn n , xn ` n s, @ n 1.
R

1
pn 1q. ,
n

An A,

n1

P rx1 1 , x1 ` 1 s px0 0 , x0 ` 0 q A .
Baire R .
R .

62

2.5.7. R A A .
. . : A .
pn, nq pn 1q, ,
AR

pn, nq,

n1

tpn, nqu A , tpni , ni quki1 .


N maxtni | i 1, 2, , ku

pni , ni q pN, N q,

i1

A . A , x0 P Ac ,
A

`
n1

1
1
R x0 , x0 `
R tx0 u,
n
n

A , nj p1 j lq,
A

`
j1

1
1
1
1
R x0
, x0 `
,
R x0 , x0 `
nj
nj
M
M

M maxtnj | j 1, 2, , lu.
`
1
1
1
1
x0
, x0 `
x0
, x0 `
Ac ,
M
M
M
M

x0 Ac , Ac , A .

R , ,
R R .
2.5.8. R A A R.
. . A , x0 P A. A ,
0,
px0 , x0 ` q A.

y0 supty | rx0 , yq Au,

y0 x0 , rx0 , y0 q A. y0 `8, y0 P A , 0,
py0 , y0 ` q A,

2.5

63

px0 , y0 ` q A, y0 ; y0 P Ac , A ,
1 0,
py0 1 , y0 ` 1 q Ac ,

rx0 , y0 q A . y0 `8, rx0 , `8q A.


p8, x0 s A, A R.

2.5.9. f pxq R . x0 P R, 0 0
c0 ,
f pxq c0 , @ x P px0 0 , x0 ` 0 q,

f . , R .
. c P f pRq,
f 1 pcq tx P R | f pxq cu

f 1 pcq . , c c1 , f 1 pcq X f 1 pc1 q H,

R f 1 pcq
f 1 pc1 q,
c1 c

R f 1 pcq , f 1 pcq , , f 1 pcq R,




f pxq c.

2.5
1. pan , bn q
pa1 , b1 q pa2 , b2 q pan , bn q , bn an 0 pn 8q,

tan u tbn u ,
c P pan , bn q, @ n 1.
2. A R,

(
dpAq sup |x1 x2 | x1 , x2 P A ,

A . , A dpAq 8.
3. A , tan u A . tan u , A.
4. : An R
A1 A2 An ,

dpAn q 0 pn 8q, c P An , n 1, 2, .

64

5. , (:

).
6. tA u p P q ,


(
A x P , x P A ,

. ,


(
A x x P A , @ P ,

.
`

Ac ,

Ac .

7. , .
8. pq pa, bq .
9. An pn 1q .

An .

n1

10. tan u , . (

: Bolzano .)
11. tan u Cauchy , 0 0 tank u,
|ank`1 ank | 0 , k 1, 2, .
12. f pxq I , x P I, x 0 Mx ,

|f pyq| Mx , @ y P px x , x ` x q X I,

f . , .
13. f R , x0 P R, 0, f
px0 , x0 ` q . f R .
14. pq , .
15. pq x P R f : R R , f f pRq

, , ,
. , .

, .
.

3.1

, ()
.
3.1.1

x0 P R, 0. px0 ` , x0 ` q x0 ,
px0 , x0 q Y px0 , x0 ` q x0 .
3.1.1. f pxq x0 px0 0 , x0 qYpx0 , x0 `0 q
. A P R, 0, 0 0 ,
0 |x x0 | ,
|f pxq A| ,

f pxq x0 p x x0 q A,
lim f pxq A f pxq A px x0 q.

xx0

, f x0 f x0 , f
x0 .
3.1.1.

x2 1
x0 1 .
2x2 3x ` 1

. x 1
x2 1
px ` 1qpx 1q
x`1

,
2
2x 3x ` 1
px 1qp2x 1q
2x 1

, 0, mint 41 , 6 u, 0 |x 1|

x`1
3px 1q
x2 1

6|x 1| .
2x2 3x ` 1
2x 1
2x 1


x0 1 2.
65

66

, x0 : A P R,
0, 0 0 , x x0 0 ,
|f pxq A| ,

f pxq x0 p x x
0 q A,
lim f pxq A f pxq A px x
0 q.

xx
0

f pxq x0 f px
0 q f px0 0q. A P R,

0, 0 0 , 0 x x0 ,
|f pxq A| ,

f pxq x0 p x x`
0 q A,
lim f pxq A f pxq A px x`
0 q.

xx`
0

f pxq x0 f px`
0 q f px0 ` 0q. , f x0 ,

.
3.1.2.
$
&1,
f pxq
%0,

x 0,
x 0,

f x0 0 .
. f 0 0, 1, f 0 0,
1. , f 0 .

,
3.1.1. f x0 f x0
.
. . f x0 A. ,
0, 1 0, 2 0,
|f pxq A| , x P px0 1 , x0 q; |f pxq A| , x P px0 , x0 ` 2 q.

mint1 , 2 u,
|f pxq A| , 0 |x x0 | ,

f x0 A.
3.1.3. f pxq rxs .

3.1

67
y

. k x k ` 1 (k

f (x) = [x]

) , f pxq k. , x0
, f x x0

+1

f px0 q rx0 s; x0 , f
x x0 x0 1,

x
2

x0 .

,
.
3.1.2 ().

3.1 rxs

x0
f1 pxq f pxq f2 pxq.

f1 , f2 x0 A, f x0 A.
. , , .

3.1.3 (). A, B f x0 , A B.
.
0 |A B| |f pxq A| ` |f pxq B|


3.1.4 (). f x0 A, |f | x0
|A|.
.

0 |f pxq| |A| |f pxq A|




.
.
3.1.4.

sin x
x0 0 .
x

68

.
2
1 (), O

. 0 x

, A, D , AOD

x, DC, BA OA ,
B OD .

OAD, OAD

OAB ,

1
1
1
sin x x tan x,
2
2
2

sin x

1, @ x P p0, q.
x
2
sin x
cos x
,
3.2
x

x P p 2 , 0q . 0 |x| 2 ,
sin x

` x 2
x2
x

1 1 cos x 2 sin2 2

x
2
2
2
cos x

sin x
1.
x0 x
lim

. |x|

,
2
| sin x| 1

|x|,
2

:
| sin x| |x|, @ x P R,

x 0 .
3.1.5.
lim sin x sin x0 ,

xx0

lim cos x cos x0 , @ x0 P R.

xx0

. p1q 0, , 0 |x x0 | ,

x ` x0
x x0
| sin x sin x0 | 2 cos
sin
2
2
x x0

2
|x x0 | .
2
p2q cos x p1q , :

`
x sin
x0 cos x0 .
lim cos x lim sin
xx0
xx0
2
2

3.1

69

3.1.6. x0 0. f pxq

x x0 .

. x0 0 , 0, 2 , 0 x
?
?
?
| x 0| x ,
?
lim` x 0.

x0
?
x0 0 , 0, x0 , 0 |x x0 |

?
?
|x x0 |
|x x0 |
,
| x x0 | ?
? ?
x ` x0
x0

lim

xx0

x0 .

3.1.7.

x sin

1
x0 0 .
x

. x 0
?
?
x sin 1 x,
x

lim

x0`

x sin

1
0.
x

3.1.8. a 0. ax x0 0 .
. a 1 ax 1, lim ax 1; a 1 , 1 0,
x0

mint loga p1 q, loga p1 ` qu,

0 |x|
loga p1 q x loga p1 ` q,

1 ax 1 ` ,

|ax 1| ,

lim ax 1.
x0

0 a 1 , 1 0,
mint| loga p1 q|, | loga p1 ` q|u,

0 |x| ,
loga p1 ` q x loga p1 q,

70

1 ax 1 ` ,

|ax 1| ,


lim ax 1.
x0

3.1.9. a 0, a 1. f pxq loga x x0 1 .


. a 1. 0, 0,
a 1 1 ` a ,

0 |x 1| ,
a 1 x 1 ` a ,

| loga x 0| ,


lim loga x 0.
x1

.
3.1.2. f x0 . A 0,
0, 0 |x x0 | , f pxq A, f x0 `8,
lim f pxq `8 f pxq `8 px x0 q.

xx0

A 0, 0, 0 |x x0 | , f pxq A, f x0
8,
lim f pxq 8 f pxq 8 px x0 q.

xx0

, . f
x0 , . , f x0

|f | x0 `8.
3.1.3. f `8 pa, `8q . A P R,
0, M a, x M ,
|f pxq A| ,

3.1

71

f `8 A,
lim f pxq A f pxq A px `8q.

x`8

, f 8 p8, aq . A P R,
0, m a, x m ,
|f pxq A| ,

f 8 A,
lim f pxq A f pxq A px 8q.

x8

f 8 `8 A, f 8 () A,

lim f pxq A f pxq A px 8q.

x8

f , .
.
3.1.10. p1 ` x1 qx .
. x 1 ,
`

1`

1 rxs `
1 x `
1 rxs`1
1`
1`
,
rxs ` 1
x
rxs

rxs x .
`
1`

1 rxs`1 `
1 1 `
1 x `
1 rxs `
1
1`
1`
1`
1`
.
rxs ` 1
rxs ` 1
x
rxs
rxs

`
1 n
e
lim 1 `
n8
n

lim

x`8

1`

1 x
e.
x


lim p1 ` x1 qx e.
x8

3.1.2

, .
3.1.5 (Heine). f x0 , f x0
A xn x0 pn 8q xn x0 p@ nq,
lim f pxn q A.

n8

72

. . , 0, 0, 0 |x x0 |
,
|f pxq A| .

xn x0 , xn x0 . , , N , n N
0 |xn x0 | . n N ,
|f pxn q A| ,

lim f pxn q A.
n8

. f x0 A (),
0 0, 0, x ,
0 |x x0 | , |f px q A| 0 .

, @ n 1, xn ,
0 |xn x0 |

1
, |f pxn q A| 0 .
n


xn x0 , xn x0 , f pxn q A.
. p1q Heine :
f pxq x0 @ xn x0 pxn x0 q, lim f pxn q .
n8

: f pxn q ,
. () x1n x0 , x1n x0 , f px1n q A x2n x0 , x2n x0 ,
f px2n q B. B A , xn , x2k x12k , x2k1 x22k1 pk 1q,

xn x0 , xn x0 f pxn q , .
p2q , ,
Heine .

3.1.11. f pxq sin

1
x0 0 .
x

1
1
yn
, xn , yn 0, xn , yn 0,
n
2n ` 2
f pxn q 0, f pyn q 1, f x0 0 .


. xn

3.1.6 (Cauchy ). f x0 , f
x0 0, 0, 0 |x1 x0 | ,
0 |x2 x0 | ,
|f px1 q f px2 q| .

3.1

73

. : f x0 A, 0, 0,

0 |x x0 | , |f pxq A| . , 0 |x1 x0 | , 0 |x2 x0 | ,


2

1
1
|f px1 q f px2 q| |f px1 q A| ` |f px2 q A| ` .
2
2
: Heine . xn x0 , xn x0 ,
tf pxn qu Cauchy , Cauchy , tf pxn qu .
Heine f x0 ().

. p1q , Cauchy .
p2q , f x0 0 0,

0, x1 , x2 ,
0 |x1 x0 | , 0 |x2 x0 | , |f px1 q f px2 q| 0 .

3.1.12. Dirichlet
Dpxq

$
&1,

xPQ

%0,

x P R Q,

.
. x0 0 1, 1, p2q


D x0 .

3.1.7 (). px0 , x0 q , f


, , f x0 p q.
. Heine .

. f , f x0 `8; f
, f x0 8; .
,
, .
3.1.8. p1q p q f x0 , f x0
.
p2q p q f, g x0 A, B. f pxq gpxq x0

, A B; , A B, x0
f pxq gpxq; , A 0, x0 f pxq 0.
p3q p q f , g x0 ,
lim rf pxq ` gpxqs lim f pxq ` lim gpxq, , ;
xx0

xx0

xx0

74
lim f pxqgpxq lim f pxq lim gpxq;
xx0

xx0

xx0

lim f pxq{gpxq lim f pxq{ lim gpxq, lim gpxq 0.


xx0

xx0

xx0

xx0

. .
.
3.1.9 (). f pyq y0 A, gpxq x0
y0 , x0 , gpxq y0 ,
f pgpxqq x0 A.

. 0, lim f pyq A , 0, 0 |y y0 | ,
yy0

|f pyq A| .

gpxq y0 px x0 q, , 0, 0 |x x0 | ,
0 |gpxq y0 | ,

|f pgpxqq A| ,

f pgpxqq x0 A.

. p1q gpxq y0 , :
$
&1, y 0,
f pyq
%0, y 0,
gpxq 0, lim f pyq 1, f pgpxqq 0. , f py0 q A
y0

(?).
p2q .

, .
1

3.1.13. p1 ` xq x x0 0 .
. y

1
,
x
`
1
1 y
p1 ` xq x 1 `
y

x 0 y 8, 3.1.10,
`
1
1 y
e.
lim p1 ` xq x lim 1 `
y8
y

x0

3.1

75

3.1.14. a 0, a 1. f pxq loga x x0 0 .


. lim loga x 0,
x1

lim loga x loga x0 ` lim loga

xx0

xx0

3.1.15. a 0,

`x
loga x0 .
x0

ax 1
x0 0 .
x

. a 1. y ax 1, x 0 y 0.
ax 1
y
lim
x0
y0 loga p1 ` yq
x
1
lim
1
y0 log rp1 ` yq y s
a
1
ln a.

loga e
lim

3.1.16. a 1, k P R,
xk
0.
x`8 ax
lim

. k 0, x 1 ,
0

xk
prxs ` 1qk
prxs ` 1qk

a,
ax
arxs
arxs`1

2.1.9
xk
0.
x`8 ax
lim

k 0, x 1 ,
0

xk
ax arxs ,
ax


.
3.1.17. P pxq, Qpxq , lim P pxq{Qpxq.
x8

. P pxq, Qpxq n.
P pxq a0 xn ` a1 xn1 ` ` an , Qpxq b0 xn ` b1 xn1 ` ` bn ,

a0 , b0 0.

P pxq
a0 ` a1 x1 ` ` an xn

Qpxq
b0 ` b1 x1 ` ` bn xn

lim

x8

a0
P pxq
.
Qpxq
b0

76

3.1
1. :
p1q lim f pxq `8,
xx
0

p3q

p2q lim f pxq 8,

lim f pxq 8, p4q

x`8

xx`
0

lim f pxq `8.

x8

2.
x1
1
;
2
x0 x 3
3
x2 3
1;
p4q lim 2
x`8 x 5
x1
p7q lim ? 2
0;
x1`
x 1
p1q lim

a
4x 4
2;
p3q lim
4 x2 0;
2

x1 x 1
x2
?
?
x
p5q lim 2
8; p6q lim p x ` 1 xq 0;
x`8
x2 x 4
a
x2 ` x
p8q lim
8; p9q lim px x2 aq 0.
x8 x ` 2
x`8
p2q lim

3. (m, n )
?
x4 1
px ` hq2 h2
;
p2q lim
; p3q lim 3x ` 1;
x1 x 1
x0
x0
x
x2 ` 1
x2 ` 2
1 xm
p4q lim
;
p5q
lim
;
p6q
lim
;
x8 2x2 x 1
x0 3x2 ` 4x
x1 1 xn
?
?
?
a2 ` x |a|
1`x 1x
p1 ` xqn 1
; p8q lim
; p9q lim
.
p7q lim
x0
x0
x0
x
x
x
p1q lim

4. (m, n )
?
m
x1
p2q lim ?
;
x1 n x 1
1
1
` m
n
p1 ` mxq n p1 ` nxq m
p3q lim
; p4q lim

.
x0
x1 1 xm
x
1 xn
p1 ` mxqn p1 ` nxqm
;
x0
x2

p1q lim

5.
sin 4x
1 cos 2x
tan x sin x
;
p2q lim
;
p3q lim
;
x0
x0
x
x2
x3
2
2
1
sin x sin a
sinpx3 q
p4q lim x sin 2 ; p5q lim
; p6q lim
.
xa
x0
x0 sin2 x
x
xa
p1q lim

x0

6. (k 0)
1
p1q lim xr s;
x0
x

rxs
ln x
;
p3q lim
;
x`8 xk
x
` 1 ` x x
1
p1 ` xqa 1
; p6q lim
.
p4q lim p1 ` x2 q x ; p5q lim
x`8 3 ` x
x0
x0
x
p2q lim

x`8

3.2 ()

77

7.
a
a
n2 ` 1q; p2q lim sin2 p n2 ` nq;
n`8
n`8
`
x
x
x
n x
p3q lim cos ? ;
p4q lim cos cos cos n ;
n`8
n`8
n
2
4
2
` n ` x n
1
p5q lim n sin ;
p6q lim
.
n8
n8 n 1
n
p1q lim sinp

8. 0 a 1, lim rp1 ` xqa xa s.


x`8

9. lim sinpsinp psin xqqq (n ).


n`8

10. lim Rpxq, Rpxq Riemann :


xx0

1q , x pq , p, q , p q;

&
Rpxq 1, x 0, 1;

%0, x p0, 1q .
11. f , lim f pxq C, f C.
x`8

12. pq f, g , lim rf pxq gpxqs 0, f g.


x`8

1
f pxq
f p2xq f pxq 0, lim
0.
x0 x
x0 x

13. pq lim f pxq 0, lim


x0

3.2

()

, ,
, .
3.2.1 (). f x0 0, f
x x0 , f pxq op1q px x0 q; x x0 |f | `8,
f x x0 .
. p1q () , .
;
p2q : tan u tbn u ,

an {bn 0 pn 8q, tan u tbn u , an opbn q;


.
3.2.1.

x ` 1 1 op1q px 0q.

78

.
?

x`11 ?

x
0 px 0q,
x`1`1

x ` 1 1 x 0 .

. , f , g x x0
() ,
p1q f {g x x0 , x x0 f g ()

() ,
f pxq opgpxqq px x0 q;
p2q f {g x0 ,
f pxq Opgpxqq px x0 q;
p3q f {g x0 A 0, x x0 f g
() ,
f pxq O pgpxqq px x0 q;

, A 1, x x0 f g () ,
f g px x0 q.
p4q k 0.
|f pxq| O p|x x0 |k q px x0 q,

x x0 f k ;
|f pxq| O p|x x0 |k q px x0 q,

x x0 f k . k .
. , f pxq xk .
1
3.2.2. 1 cos x x2 px 0q.
2

. ,
` 1 2
2 sin2 12 x
1
1 cos x

lim
2
.
2
2
x0
x0
x
x
2
2
lim

3.2.3. P pxq n , P pxq O pxn q px 8q.


. Qpxq xn .
.

3.2 ()

79

3.2.1 (). x x0 , f f1 , g g1 . f1 {g1 x0


, f {g x0 , ; .
.
f {g pf {f1 qpf1 {g1 qpg1 {gq,

x x0 f {f1 1, g{g1 1 .

. .
3.2.4. lim

x0

sin x
.
sin x

. x 0 sin x x, sin x x,
lim

x0

3.2.5. lim

x0

sin x
lim
.
sin x x0 x

tan x sin x
.
x3

. x 0 ,
tan x sin x

`1 1
sin x
p1 cos xq x x2 x3 ,
cos x
2
2

tan x sin x
1
.
3
x
2
, , ,
lim

x0

x 0 ,
tan x sin x x,


tan x sin x .
3.2.6. lim

x0

ln cos x
.
tan2 x

.
lnp1 ` xq x px 0q.

, 3.1.13,
1
lnp1 ` xq
lnrp1 ` xq x s ln e 1 px 0q.
x

, x 0 ,
1
ln cos x lnr1 p1 cos xqs p1 cos xq x2 .
2

tan2 x

sin2 x
x2 px 0q,
cos2 x

80

lim

x0

ln cos x
1
.
2
tan2 x

3.2
1. :
b
?
?
3
p1q x sin x x 2 px 0` q;
p2q 1 ` x 1 op1q px 0q;
a
x2
1
p3q 1 ` x2 1
px 0q; p4q
1 ` x2 ` Opx4 q px 0q.
2
1 x2
2. x 0` , :
?
?
?
p1q x sin x;
p2q 1 ` x 1 x; p3q lnp1 ` xq lnp1 xq;
?
?
?
p4q 3 1 ` 3x 1; p5q 4x2 5x ` 10x6 ; p6q 1 ` tan x 1 ` sin x.
3. x `8 , :
x5 ` 1
x4
;
p3q 2
;
4
x `1
x x`1
c
b
?
p5q 1 ` 1 ` x; p6q x ln2 x.

p1q x 5x3 ` x6 ; p2q


b
?
p4q x2 ` x;

4. f pxq op1q px x0 q, x x0
p1q opf pxqq ` opf pxqq opf pxqq;
p2q opcf pxqq opf pxqq, c ;
p3q gpxq opf pxqq opf pxqgpxqq, gpxq ;
p4q ropf pxqqsk opf k pxqq;
1
p5q
1 f pxq ` opf pxqq.
1 ` f pxq
5. :
?
x tan x
1 ` x4 1
p1q lim
;
p2q lim
;
x0 1 cos x
x0 1 cos2 x
?
tanptan xq
1 ` x ` x2 1
p3q lim
; p4q lim
.
x0
x0
x
sin 2x
6. P pxq , P pxq opxn q px 8q, P pxq n.
7. f : p0, `8q R f p2xq f pxq, f pxq op1q px `8q.
f 0.
8. pq f pxq op1q, f p2xq f pxq Opxq px 0q. f pxq Opxq px 0q.

3.3

81

3.3

,
.
3.3.1

3.3.1 (). f x0 f x0
f px0 q, f x0 , x0 f ; f x0
f px0 q, f x0 ; f x0 f px0 q,
f x0 ; .
. p1q x0 f , x0 f . , f x0
f x0 . Heine
: f x0 x0 xn , f pxn q f px0 q
pn 8q.
p2q f x0 : 0, 0,
|x x0 | ,
|f pxq f px0 q| .
p3q : 0, 0, |x x0 | ,
f pxq f px0 q ,

f x0 ; 0, 0, |x x0 | ,
f pxq f px0 q ` ,

f x0 .
p4q R X f : X R

: x0 P X f x P X, x x0 f pxq f px0 q. ,
X ra, bs , f ra, bs f pa, bq , a

, b .
3.3.1. , :
C pq, x, sin x, cos x,

x, loga x pa 0, a 1q.

3.3.2. f , |f | .
. f x0 ,

0 |f pxq| |f px0 q| |f pxq f px0 q|

82

|f pxq| x0 .
.
1
px 0q .
x

(
. x0 0. 0, min 21 x0 , 12 x20 , |x x0 |

3.3.3. f pxq

1
1 |x x0 |
2|x x0 |

,

x x0
|xx0 |
x20

f pxq x0 . , x0 0 , f x0 .
1
.

x
3.3.4. f pxq ax pa 0q .
. a 1 f pxq 1 , . a 1, x0 P R,
lim ax lim ax0 axx0 ax0 lim ay ax0 .

xx0

xx0

y0

f pxq .

.
3.3.1 (). f pxq, gpxq x0 ,
p1q f pxq ` gpxq x0 , , ;
p2q f pxqgpxq x0 ;
p3q gpx0 q 0 , f pxq{gpxq x0 .

. .

3.3.5. f , g , maxtf, gu mintf, gu .


. f , g , f ` g, f g .
maxtf, gu

(
(
1
1
pf ` gq ` |f g| , mintf, gu
pf ` gq |f g| .
2
2

maxtf, gu mintf, gu .

3.3.6. .
f pxq x , x2 x x, x3 x x x, , xn pn 1q
; , f pxq x1 , xn pn 1q . ,
() .
3.3.7. .

3.3

83

sin x, cos x ,
csc x

1
1
sin x
cos x
, sec x
, tan x
, cot x
sin x
cos x
cos x
sin x


3.3.2 (). f pyq y0 , gpxq x0


y0 ,
lim f pgpxqq f

xx0

lim gpxq f py0 q,

xx0

, g x0 , f pgpxqq x0 .
. f pyq y0 , 0, 0, |y y0 |
,
|f pyq f py0 q| .

, gpxq y0 px x0 q, 0, 0 |x x0 | ,
|gpxq y0 | ,

|f pgpxqq f py0 q| ,

f pgpxqq f py0 q f

lim gpxq .

xx0

3.3.8. 0, f pxq x .
. 0. f pxq x 0 . , 0,
1

, |x|
1

|x 0| p|x|q p q .

f pxq x 0 .
x 0, x e ln x , , f pxq ;
x 0, x p1q e ln |x| , f pxq .

0,
x

` 1
x

x 0 . , , .

84
3.3.2

, .
3.3.9. f pxq rxs , rxs x
.
. k x k ` 1 pk q , rxs k. , x , f pxq
x . x k , f pxq k k 1, k.


f pxq .

3.3.2. x0 f pxq . f pxq x0 f px0 0q


f px0 ` 0q , x0 ;
.
;
.
, f pxq rxs .
3.3.10. Riemann
$
1

, x pq , p, q , p q;

&q
Rpxq 1, x 0, 1;

%0, x p0, 1q .
.
. x0 P r0, 1s, Rpxq x0 0, f pxq
, .
1
0, ( p
p
q
pq pq , txi uki1 .
p

mint|xi x0 | xi x0 ,

1
) ,

i 1, 2, , ku,

x P r0, 1s, 0 |x x0 | , x , Rpxq 0; x

,
Rpxq

1
,
p

,
|Rpxq 0| Rpxq ,

Rpxq x0 0.

3.3

85

$
&sin 1 ,
x
3.3.11. f pxq
%0,

x 0,

x0

. f pxq x 0 , x 0 f pxq


. f pxq .
.

3.3.3. f pxq pa, bq , x0 P pa, bq. x0 f pxq


, x0 .
. f pxq x0 , f
,
f px0 0q f px0 q f px0 ` 0q,

f ,
f px0 0q f px0 q f px0 ` 0q.


, x0 f pxq , x0 .

3.3.4. pq f pxq I , f pxq


.
. f pxq , I . x1 x2 ,
f px1 0q f px1 q f px1 ` 0q f px2 0q f px2 q f px2 ` 0q.
y
f (x2 + 0)
f (x2 0)
f (x1 + 0)
f (x1 0)
x
0

x1

x2

3.3

86

, pf px1 0q, f px1 ` 0qq pf px2 0q, f px2 ` 0qq .


x pf px 0q, f px ` 0qq, .


, f pxq .

3.3.5. f pxq I , f pxq


f pIq .
. f pxq . f pIq , f pxq ,
x0 pf px0 0q, f px0 ` 0qq , .
f .


f , f pIq .

3.3.6. I f pxq ,
.
. f pxq . f pIq J .
f : I J , . y1 y2 P J, x1 f 1 py1 q,
x2 f 1 py2 q. x1 x2 , f , y1 f px1 q f px2 q y2 ,

.
x1 f 1 py1 q x2 f 1 py2 q,

f 1 J . f 1 pJq I ,


f 1 .

. ,
.
3.3.7. .
. , , ,
. , .


,
.
3.3.12. f pxq

?
` 2 ` x 1` 1`?2x1
1`x

x0 1 .

. f pxq ,
lim f pxq f p1q

x1

?
` 3 1` 1`?21
2

` 3 1`?2
2

3.3

87

3.3
1. x 0 :
p1q f pxq

a
rxs lnp1 ` xq
|x|, p2q f pxq sinprxsq, p3q f pxq
.
1 ` sin x

2. :

p1q f pxq sgnpxq

1, x 0,

&
0,

%1,

x 0,
x 0.

$ x
&
, x k,
p2q f pxq sin x
%1,
x k.

3. :
$
$
&x,
&p1 ` x2 q x12 , x 0,
x ,
p1q f pxq
p2q f pxq
%x, x .
%0,
x 0.
4. :
$
$
&sinpxq, x ,
&e x12 , x 0,
p2q f pxq
p1q f pxq
%0,
%0,
x 0.
x .
5. a, b, c , :
$

1,
x 1,

&ax2 ` bx ` c, |x| 1, x 0,
f pxq

2,
x 0,

%3,
x 1.
6. , f 2 , |f | .
7. f pxq x0 , f px0 q 0, , 0, |x x0 |
1
f pxq f px0 q.
2
8. , , ;

, . (:
.)

88

9. f pxq ra, bs , x P ra, bs, y P ra, bs,


f pyq

1
f pxq,
2

, P ra, bs, f pq 0.
10. f pxq , c 0 ,

fc pxq

c,

&

f pxq c ,

f pxq,

%c,

|f pxq| c ,
f pxq c

.
11. f ra, bs ,
M pxq sup f ptq, mpxq inf f ptq, x P ra, bs,
atx

atx

M pxq mpxq ra, bs .


12. pq f pxq r0, 1s , 0,
|f p2xq f pxq| x , @ x P r0, 1s,

, C,
|f pxq f p0q| Cx , @ x P r0, 1s.
13. pq f pxq pa, bq , x,
y P pa, bq,
f

`x ` y
2

1
f pxq ` f pyq ,
2

f pa, bq .
14. pq R f
f px ` yq f pxq ` f pyq, @ x, y P R.

f , c, f pxq cx, @ x P R.
15. pq f R , x, y P R f px ` yq f pxqf pyq,

f , a 0, f pxq ax , @ x P R.

3.4

3.4

89

,
. , .
3.4.1

.
, ,
.
3.4.1 (). f pxq ra, bs , f pxq
ra, bs .

. .
: . f pxq , txn u ra, bs,
|f pxn q| n, n 1, 2, .

txn u , txni u,
lim xni x0 P ra, bs.

i8

f pxq x0 ,
lim f pxni q f px0 q.

i8

, tf pxni qu , |f pxni q| ni p @ i 1q .
: x P ra, bs, f x , x 0,
|f px1 q f pxq| 1, @ x1 P px x , x ` x q X ra, bs.

(
px x , x ` x q xPra,bs ra, bs ,

(
pxi xi , xi ` xi q, i 1, 2, . . . , k .

M max t|f pxi q| ` 1u. x P ra, bs, x P pxi xi , xi ` xi q,


1ik

|f pxq| |f pxq f pxi q| ` |f pxi q| 1 ` |f pxi q| M,

f pxq .
1
. , f pxq p0, 1s , .
x

90

3.4.2 (). f pxq ra, bs , f pxq


ra, bs , x , x P ra, bs,
f px q f pxq f px q, @ x P ra, bs.

. .
: , f pxq , f pra, bsq .
M , txn u ra, bs,
M

1
f pxn q M.
n

, f pxn q M pn 8q. txn u ,


txni u,
lim xni x P ra, bs.

i8

f pxq x , f pxni q f px q pi 8q. M f px q, M


f pxq . , f .

: . M f , f pxq M , @ x P ra, bs.


F pxq

1
, x P ra, bs.
M f pxq

F pxq ra, bs . , K 0, F pxq K.

f pxq M

1
, @ x P ra, bs.
K

M f , M f pxq . . 
. , f pxq x, x P p0, 1s , p0, 1s
.
3.4.3 (, Bolzano). f pxq ra, bs ,
f paqf pbq 0, P pa, bq, f pq 0.

. .
: . f paq 0, f pbq 0. () f pxq 0,
`a ` b
a`b
@ x P pa, bq. ra, bs , f
0, a1 a, b1
;
2
2
`a ` b
a`b
f
0, a1
, b1 b, f pa1 q 0, f pb1 q 0. ra1 , b1 s
2
2
, ra2 , b2 s f pa2 q 0, f pb2 q 0 . ,

ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s ,

3.4

91

f pan q 0, f pbn q 0,
bn an

ba
0, n 8.
2n

, x0 P ra, bs,
lim an lim bn x0 .

n8

n8

f ,
0 lim f pan q f px0 q lim f pbn q 0,
n8

n8

f px0 q 0. x0 a, b, .
: f paq 0, f pbq 0.

(
A x P ra, bs f pxq 0 ,

a P A. A , f a. ,
xn P ra, bs, f pxn q 0, xn .
f pq lim f pxn q 0,
n8

, b. A f p, bs , f f pq 0,


f pq 0. P pa, bq.
y
f (b)

x
0

f (a)

3.4
. f paqf pbq 0, P ra, bs, f pq 0. ,
f paqf pbq 0, f paq 0 f pbq 0, a b ; f paqf pbq 0

.
3.4.4 (). f pxq ra, bs , f paq
f pbq , P pa, bq, f pq .

92

. f paq f pbq , pf paq qpf pbq q 0.




, , f pxq pa, bq , f pq .

3.4.5. f pxq ra, bs , f pra, bsq rm, M s, m,


M f ra, bs .

. m M f pxq , . m M . ,
f pra, bsq rm, M s. , , x , x , f px q m, f px q
M . , m M f pxq , rm, M s f pra, bsq.


f pra, bsq rm, M s.

3.4.6. f pxq I , f pIq p


q.
. f pxq , f pIq . , y1 y2 P f pIq,
f px1 q y1 , f px2 q y2 , x1 , x2 ,


ry1 , y2 s f pIq. y1 , y2 f pIq .

3.4.7. f pxq I , f pxq f pxq


.
. . x1 x2 P I. f pxq , f px1 q
f px2 q. f px1 q f px2 q, f pxq rx1 , x2 s . (

) x1 x2 P rx1 , x2 s, f px1 q f px2 q. :


p1q f px2 q f px1 q. f px2 q f px1 q f px2 q, , P rx2 , x2 s,

f pq f px1 q, f pxq ;
p2q f px2 q f px1 q. f px1 q f px2 q f px1 q, , P rx1 , x1 s,

f pq f px2 q, f pxq .
f px1 q f px2 q, f pxq rx1 , x2 s
. , f pxq , f pxq I


.
y

x
0

x1 x

x2

x1

3.5

x
x2

3.4

93

3.4.1. f : ra, bs ra, bs , P ra, bs, f pq .


. F pxq f pxq x, x P ra, bs. F pxq ,
F paqF pbq pf paq aqpf pbq bq 0,

, P ra, bs, F pq 0, f pq .

3.4.2. .
. P pxq a0 x2n1 ` a1 x2n2 ` ` a2n2 x ` a2n1 2n 1
pn 1q , ai P R p0 i 2n 1q, a0 0. a0 0,
lim

x8

`
P pxq
a1
a2n1
lim a0 `
` ` 2n1 a0 0,
2n1
x8
x
x
x

x1 0 x2 P R,
P px1 q
P px2 q
0,
2n1 0,
x1
x2n1
2

P px1 q 0, P px2 q 0. , , P px1 , x2 q,




P pq 0.
3.4.2

.
3.4.1 (). f pxq I , 0,
pq 0, x1 , x2 P I, |x1 x2 |
|f px1 q f px2 q| ,

f pxq I .
. p1q , .
, x0 , x0
, ,
, .
p2q , : f pxq I

0 0, I tan u, tbn u, an bn 0 pn 8q,


|f pan q f pbn q| 0 .
1
3.4.3. f pxq sin , x P p0, `8q .
x

94

. an

1
1
, bn
2n
2n `

an bn

, @ n 1.

1
1

2n 2n `

1
0 pn 8q,
2np4n ` 1q

|f pan q f pbn q| 1, @ n 1.

f pxq p0, `8q . 3.4.8 ,




0, f pxq r, `8q .

3.4.4. f pxq sin x, x P R .


. 0, . x1 , x2 P R, |x1 x2 | ,

x1 ` x2
x1 x2
cos
| sin x1 sin x2 | 2 sin
2
2

x
1
2

2 sin
2
|x1 x2 | .


sin x p8, `8q .


sin x Lipschitz .

3.4.5. f pxq I . 0 1,
M ,
|f px1 q f px2 q| M |x1 x2 | , @ x1 , x2 P I,

f pxq I Holder . 1 Lipschitz .


H
older : 0,

` 1
,
M

x1 , x2 P I, |x1 x2 | ,
|f px1 q f px2 q| M |x1 x2 | M

`
.
M

, .
3.4.8. f pxq, gpxq I .
p1q f pxq ` gpxq I ;
p2q f pxq, gpxq , f pxqgpxq ;
p3q f pxq , 0 0, gpxq 0 , @ x P I, f pxq{gpxq

;
p4q .

3.4

95

3.4.9 (Cantor). .
. . f pxq ra, bs .
: () f pxq , 0 0, tan u,
tbn u ra, bs, an bn 0 pn 8q,
|f pan q f pbn q| 0 .

tbn u , tbni u, bni x0 P ra, bs.


ani pani bni q ` bni 0 ` x0 x0 pi 8q.

f pxq x0 ,
0 |f pani q f pbni q| |f px0 q f px0 q| 0 pi 8q,

.
: 0, f pxq , x P ra, bs, x 0,
|f px1 q f pxq|

, px

x
x
2 , x ` 2 q xPra,bs

, @ x1 P px x , x ` x q X ra, bs.
2

ra, bs , ,

xi (1 i k),
ra, bs

`
x
x
xi i , x ` i .
2
2
i1

(
xi
i 1, 2, , k ,
2
x1 , x2 P ra, bs, |x1 x2 | ,
min

`
x
x
x1 P xi i , xi ` i , p iq
2
2

|x2 xi | |x2 x1 | ` |x1 xi | `

xi
xi ,
2

x2 P pxi xi , xi ` xi q. ,
|f px1 q f px2 q| |f px1 q f pxi q| ` |f pxi q f px2 q| 2

f pxq ra, bs .

,
2


, , .
, .
, . ,
.

96

3.4.2 (). f pxq x0 ,

f px0 , rq sup |f px1 q f px2 q| x1 , x2 P px0 r, x0 ` rq pr 0q

f px0 r, x0 ` rq . , f px0 , rq r 0` ,
f px0 q lim f px0 , rq
r0`

p q, f x0 .
. p1q f px0 , rq
f px0 , rq

sup

f pxq

xPpx0 r,x0 `rq

inf
xPpx0 r,x0 `rq

f pxq,

.
p2q x0 .

3.4.6.

$
&1,
f pxq x
%0,

x 0,
x 0,

x 0 .
.
` 1
f 0,
n `8 pn 8q,
n
f x 0 `8.

3.4.7.

$
&sin 1 ,
x
f pxq
%0,

x 0,
x 0,

x 0 .
. |f pxq| 1, f p0q 2. , n 1,
an

1
2n `

, bn

1
2n

an , bn 0 pn 8q,
|f pan q f pbn q| |1 p1q| 2,

f x 0 2.

, , f pxq x0 f px0 q .
2.2.3 .

3.4

97

3.4.10. f pxq x0 f px0 q 0.


. f pxq x0 . 0, 0, |x x0 |
|f pxq f px0 q|

.
2

, @ x1 , x2 P px0 r, x0 ` rq p0 r q,
|f px1 q f px2 q| |f px1 q f px0 q| ` |f px0 q f px2 q| 2

.
2

0 r
f px0 , rq .

f px0 q lim` f px0 , rq 0.


r0

, lim` f px0 , rq f px0 q 0, 0, 0,


r0

f px0 , rq , @ 0 r .

, |x x0 | x,
|f pxq f px0 q| f px0 , q ,


f pxq x0 .

. f I , r 0.

(
f prq sup |f px1 q f px2 q| @ x1 , x2 P I, |x1 x2 | r ,

f prq r 0` .
3.4.11. f I lim` f prq 0.
r0

3.4
1. f ra, `8q , lim f pxq A, f ra, `8q ,
x`8

f .
2. , f ra, bs , f pxq 0, @ x P ra, bs. f ra, bs

, c 0, |f pxq| c, @ x P ra, bs.


3. f pxq ra, bs , xi pi 1, 2, , nq ra, bs .
P ra, bs,
f pq

1
f px1 q ` f px2 q ` ` f pxn q .
n

98

4. f pa, bq , f pa ` 0qf pb 0q 0, P pa, bq, f pq 0.


5. x sin x 1 .
6. x3 ` 2x 1 , p0, 1q .
7. f pxq P pxq . , f : R R .
8. :
p1q

1
x, x 0, p2q x cos , x 0, p3q cospx2 q, x P R.
x

9. f pxq ra, `8q , lim f pxq A . f


x`8

ra, `8q . (: , .)
10. f pxq pa, bq . , f pxq pa, bq f
a b . (: Cauchy .)
11. f pxq pa, bq , 0.
tx P pa, bq | f pxq u tx P pa, bq | @ r 0, f px, rq u,

tx P pa, bq | f pxq u tx P pa, bq | r 0, f px, rq u,

tx P pa, bq | f pxq u .
12. pq f . f pxq x .
13. f R , f pf pxqq x. , P R, f pq .
14. f pxq R , lim f pf pxqq 8, lim f pxq 8.
x8

x8

15. R f pxq, f pf pxqq ex ? (: f .)


16. pq f pxq r0, 1s , f p0q f p1q. , n,

n P r0, 1s,
`
1
.
f pn q f n `
n
17. pq , R ; sinpx2 q

.
18. pq a 0, f pxq ra, `8q Lipschitz .

f pxq
ra, `8q
x

3.5

99

3.5

,
. , ,
, , .
,
, , .
3.5.1

f ra, bs ,

f , x a, x b y 0 (x
y = f (x)

) ,
b

f pxqdx , f
a

ra, bs .
x

p1q f pxq c ,

3.6

b
f pxqdx cpb aq.
a

p2q f pxq ra, bs , ,


b
1
f pxqdx rf paq ` f pbqspb aq.
2
a
y

f (x) c

f (x) = l(x)

x
0

x
0

3.7
f , p1q . ,
f , g ,
b
b
b
rf pxq ` gpxqsdx
f pxqdx `
gpxqdx,
a

rf pxq gpxqsdx
a

f pxqdx
a

gpxqdx,
a

100

.
f , M , |f pxq| M , @ x P ra, bs,
b

f pxqdx M pb aq.
a

, ,
1
b
1

f pxqdx f paq ` f pbq pb aq |f paq| ` |f pbq| pb aq M pb aq.


2
2
a
f , c P pa, bq,
b

c
f pxqdx

b
f pxqdx `

f pxqdx.
c

, ra, bs f pxq
f pxq f paq `

f pbq f paq
f pbq f paq
px aq f pxq f pbq `
px bq,
ba
ba

b
f pxqdx `

1
1
rf paq ` f pcqspc aq ` rf pcq ` f pbqspb cq
2
2
f pbq f paq
1
pc bqspc aq
rf paq ` f pbq `
2
ba
1
f pbq f paq
` rf paq ` f pbq `
pc aqspb cq
2
ba
1
1
rf paq ` f pbqspc aq ` rf paq ` f pbqspb cq
2
2
1
rf paq ` f pbqspb aq
2
b

f pxqdx.

f pxqdx
c

p3q f pxq ra, bs ,

ra, bs
a x0 x1 xn b

f pxq rxi1 , xi s
,
b
f pxqdx
a

3.8

xi

i1 xi1

f pxqdx,

3.5

101

: ra, bs
a x10 x11 x1m b

f pxq rx1i1 , x1i s , txi , x1i u


ra, bs , f
, p2q , f
txi u tx1i u f .
.
, p2q .
y
p4q f ra, bs ,
, f ra, bs
.
f . , n, ra, bs n ,
i
xi a ` pb aq, i 0, 1, , n.
n
rxi1 , xi s li pxq

x
0

3.9

li pxi1 q f pxi1 q, li pxi q f pxi q , li pxq


li pxq f pxi1 q `

f pxi q f pxi1 q
px xi1 q.
xi xi1

ra, bs fn pxq
fn pxq li pxq, x P rxi1 , xi s, i 1, , n.

3.5.1. f, fn , 0, N N pq, n N
|f pxq fn pxq| , @ x P ra, bs.

. . 0, 0,

|f px1 q f px2 q| , @ |x1 x2 | .


1
N pb aq{, n N pb aq . , x P rxi1 , xi s
n
p1 i nq,
|f pxq fn pxq| |f pxq li pxq|

f pxi q f pxi1 q
px xi1 q
f pxq f pxi1 q
xi xi1
`
xi x
`
x xi1

f pxq f pxi1 q
` f pxq f pxi q

xi xi1
xi xi1
x xi1
xi x
`

xi xi1
xi xi1
.

102

.
, m, n N ,
|fm pxq fn pxq| |fm pxq f pxq| ` |f pxq fn pxq| 2,

fm pxq fn pxq ,
b
b `
b

fm pxq fn pxq dx 2pb aq,


fn pxqdx
fm pxqdx
a

! b

)
fn pxqdx Cauchy , ,

b
f pxqdx lim

n8 a

fn pxqdx.

f pxq ra, bs , p3q


, .
, f
n

1
1
i1
i
f pa `
pb aqq ` f pa ` pb aqq pb aq
n8
2
n
n
n
i1

f pxqdx lim
a

i
1 `
f a ` pb aq pb aq,
n8 n
n
i1

lim

n
1
f pa` ni pbaqq ,
n i1
f pxq ra, bs

(3.1)

. , f pxq ra, bs
f pxq ,

.
.
3.5.1.

x
0

3.10

b
cos xdx.
a

. ra, bs n ,
`
`
1
1
1
1
sin a ` pi ` qh sin a ` pi qh
sin h cospa ` ihq
2
2
2
2

3.5

103

(3.1) ( h pb aq{n)
n
`

1
i
cos a ` pb aq pb aq
n8 n
n
i1

cos xdx lim


a

n
`
`
ba
1 b a
1 b a
sin a ` pi ` q
sin a ` pi q
n8 2n sin ba
2
n
2 n
2n i1
`
`
ba
1 b a
b a
lim
sin a ` pn ` q
sin a `
ba
n8 2n sin
2 n
2n
2n

lim

sin b sin a.

3.5.2. f pxq ax r0, 1s , a 0, a 1.


. r0, 1s n , (3.1)
1

n
1 1 a1
1 i
a n lim a n 1
n8 n
n8 n
an 1
i1

ax dx lim

lim pa 1q
t0`

tat
a1

.
1
ln a

at

, (3.1). ,
, N , n N , rxi1 , xi s i ,
|f pxi q f pi q| , i 1, 2, , n.

n
n
n
1

1
1

f pxi qpb aq
f pi qpb aq
|f pxi q f pi q|pb aq pb aq,

n i1
n i1
n i1

n
1
f pi qpb aq, @ i P rxi1 , xi s.
n8 n
i1

f pxqdx lim
a

(3.2)

, f pxq
, .
1
ra, bs , b a 0.
x2
?
. ra, bs n , rxi1 , xi s i xi1 xi ,

3.5.3. f pxq

b
a

n
n

` 1
1
1
xi xi1
dx

lim

lim

n8
n8
x2
x
x
x
x
i1 i
i1
i
i1
i1
`1
1 1 1

.
lim
n8 x0
xn
a b

104
3.5.2

f ra, bs , :
a
b
a
f pxqdx 0;
f pxqdx f pxqdx.
a

, (3.1) , :
() f, g ra, bs , , P R,
b

b
pf pxq ` gpxqqdx

b
f pxqdx `

gpxqdx;
a

|f pxq| M , @ x P ra, bs, f pxqdx M pb aq;


a

b
b
() f g ra, bs ,
f pxqdx
gpxqdx;
a
a

, |f | f |f | f pxqdx
|f pxq|dx;
a

() f , a, b, c ,
c

b
f pxqdx

c
f pxqdx `

f pxqdx;
b

, a b c. 0, ra, bs, rb, cs


, pbq pbq,
|f pxq pxq| , @ x P ra, bs; |f pxq pxq| , @ x P rb, cs.

ra, cs gpxq, ra, bs g , rb, cs g ,

|f pxq gpxq| , @ x P ra, cs.

,
b
c
c

f pxqdx
f pxqdx
f pxqdx
a
a
b
b
c
c

gpxqdx
f pxqdx
f pxqdx ` pc aq
a
a
b
c
b

rgpxq f pxqsdx ` rgpxq f pxqsdx ` pc aq


a

pb aq ` pc bq ` pc aq 2pc aq,

, .

3.5

105

f pxq ra, bs ,

f pxqdx 0,

f 0. . ,
f px0 q 0, f , rc, ds ra, bs,
f pxq

1
f px0 q, @ x P rc, ds.
2

b
c
d
b
d
f px0 q
f pxqdx f pxqdx ` f pxqdx ` f pxqdx f pxqdx
pd cq 0,
2
a
a
c
d
c
f pxq ra, bs .
3.5.4. f ra, bs , c P ra, bs.
x
F pxq
f ptqdt, x P ra, bs,
c

F Lipschitz .
. |f pxq| M , @ x P ra, bs. x1 x2 P ra, bs,
x1
x2

|F px2 q F px1 q|
f pxqdx
f pxqdx
c
c
x2
x2

f pxqdx
|f pxq|dx
x1

x1

M |x2 x1 |.


F Lipschitz .

3.5.5. f ra, bs , ra, bs g,


b
f pxqgpxqdx 0,
a

f 0.
. g f ,
b
b
2
f pxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx 0,
a

f 0, f 0.
2

, (3.1) (3.2) .
, . ,
. , ra, bs a x0 x1 xn b,
: a x0 x1 xn b

106

ra, bs (). }} max |xi xi1 |. 0,


1in

, 0, }}
|f pxq f px1 q| , @ x, x1 P rxi1 , xi s, i 1, 2, , n.

i P rxi1 , xi s,
b
f pxqdx
a

n xi

f pxqdx

i1 xi1
n

n xi

f pi qpxi xi1 q `
f pxq f pi q dx
i1 xi1

i1

n
n

b

f pi qpxi xi1 q
pxi xi1 q pb aq,
f pxqdx
a

i1

i1

b
f pxqdx lim

}}0

f pi qpxi xi1 q,

i1

(3.2) .

3.5.6. f pxq

1
ra, bs , b a 0.
x

. ra, bs :
a aq aq 2 aq n b,
1

q p ab q n 1. i aq i1 p1 i nq,
b
a

1
1
dx lim
paq i aq i1 q
i1
n8
x
aq
i1
` b 1

n
lim npq 1q lim n
1
n8
n8
a
pb{aqt 1
lim
lnpb{aq.
t
t0`

3.5.7. f pxq

1
r0, 1s .
1 ` x2

. r0, 1s :
0 tan

2
i
tan
tan
1,
4n
4n
4n

(3.3)

3.5

107

xi xi1 ,
1
0

dx
xi xi1

lim
2
n8
1`x
1 ` xi xi1
i1

lim

tan

` i

4n

lim n tan
.
n8
4n
4
n8

i1

pi 1q
4n

, . , f pxq ra, bs
, f pt ` cq t P ra c, b cs , (3.1)
b
bc
f pxqdx
f pt ` cqdt;
a

ac

, 0 ,
b

b{
f pxqdx

3.5.8. x 0,

f ptqdt.
a{

at dt pa 0, a 1q.

. t xs, 3.5.2,
x
1
ax 1
ax 1
at dt x pax qs ds x

.
ln ax
ln a
0
0
3.5.2 (). f, g ra, bs . g ,
P ra, bs,
b

b
f pxqgpxqdx f pq

gpxqdx.
a

. g 0. f ra, bs m, M ,
mgpxq f pxqgpxq M gpxq, @ x P ra, bs.

,
b
b
b
m gpxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx M
gpxqdx.
a

gpxqdx 0, P ra, bs .

gpxqdx 0,

b
a

gpxqdx

1 b
a

f pxqgpxqdx M,

108

P ra, bs,
f pq

gpxqdx

1 b

f pxqgpxqdx,

.
. g 1, : P ra, bs,
b

f pxqdx f pqpb aq, f pq

1
ba

b
f pxqdx.
a

f pq f pxq ra, bs .
3.5.9. f r0, as ,

1 x
lim
f ptqdt f p0q.
x0` x 0
. , x P p0, aq , x P r0, xs,

1 x
f ptqdt f pq.
x 0
x 0` , 0` . f .

3.5.10. pq f r0, as ,
x
f0 pxq f pxq, fn pxq
fn1 ptqdt, n 1, 2, .
0

, n,x P r0, xs
fn pxq f pq

xn
.
n!

. n . n 1 . n 1
,
m

xn1
xn1
fn1 pxq M
,
pn 1q!
pn 1q!

m, M f . tn1 r0, xs xn {n ()

xn

n!

x
fn1 ptqdt M
0

xn
,
n!


3.5
3.5.3


109

.
.
` 1
1
1
3.5.11. lim
`
` `
.
n`8 n ` 1
n`2
2n
.

1
1
1
`
` `
n`1 n`2
2n
1 1
1
lim
` `
n
n`8 n 1 ` 1
1
`
n
n
2
1
1
1

dx
dt ln 2.
1
`
x
0
1 t
lim

n`8

3.5.12. f :
f px ` yq f pxq ` f pyq, @ x, y P R.

. f , f px ` tq f pxq ` f ptq t ,
x`y
y
y
f ptqdt
f px ` tqdt f pxqy `
f ptqdt,
x

x`y

x
f ptqdt f pxqy `

y
f ptqdt `

f ptqdt.
0

x, y f pxqy f pyqx. , y 1


f pxq f p1qx Cx.

3.5.13 (Young ). f r0, `8q , f p0q 0,


f

pyq f , a, b 0
a
b
ab
f pxqdx `
f 1 pyqdy,
0

b f paq.
. .
p1q b f paq. f : r0, as r0, bs , f 1 : r0, bs r0, as

. r0, as n :
: 0 x0 x1 xn a,

yi f pxi q p0 i nq r0, bs :
1 : 0 f px0 q y0 y1 yn b

110

f , n 8 } 1 } 0.
a

b
f pxqdx `

f 1 pyqdy

lim

n8

lim

n8

lim

n8

f pxi qpxi xi1 q ` lim

n8

f 1 pf pxi1 qqpf pxi q f pxi1 qq

i1
n

i1

f pxi qpxi xi1 q ` xi1 pf pxi q f pxi1 qq

i1
n

f pxi qxi xi1 f pxi1 q

i1

lim rxn f pxn q x0 f px0 qs


n8

af paq 0f p0q af paq ab.


p2q 0 b f paq. f , P p0, aq b f pq. p1q,
a

b
f pxqdx `

f 1 pyqdy

a
f pxqdx `

f pq
f pxqdx `

f 1 pyqdy

f pqpa q `

f pq
f pxqdx `

f 1 pyqdy

f pqpa q ` f pq af pq ab.


p3q b f paq. f f 1 p2q.


y

y
y = f (x)

b = f (a)

y = f (x)

f (a)
b

x
0

x
a

3.11 Young
, f pxq xp1 pp 1q,
1

f 1 pyq y p1 y q1 , p

1 1
` 1q
p q

3.5

111

a, b 0 ,
a
ab

xp1 dx `

y q1 dy

ap
bq
` .
p
q

Young ( 3.5p3q),
bq ap . p q 2 , Young .
3.5.14 (Holder ). f, g ra, bs , p 1,

1 1
` 1.
p q

b
f pxqgpxqdx

f p pxqdx

p1 b

g q pxqdx

q1

f p cg q cf p g q , c .
.
b

f p pxqdx 0,

g q pxqdx 0.

Young ,
b
a

f pxqgpxq
1 f p pxq
1 g q pxq

`
,

p1 b
q1
p b p
q b q
p
q
f pxqdx
g pxqdx
f pxqdx
g pxqdx
a

ra, bs ,
b
b
b
p
f pxqdx
g q pxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx
1 a
1 a
a
` b
b
p1 b
q1 p b
q
p
p
q
f pxqdx
g q pxqdx
f pxqdx
g pxqdx
a

1 1
` 1.
p q

. Young .

3.5.15. f ra, bs , g T ,
T

b
1 b
gpxqdx.
f
pxqdx
lim
f pxqgpnxqdx
n8 a
T a
0
. gpxq , gpxq C
,
C

1
T

gpxqdx. pg q

, 0, N , n N ,
|f px1 q f px2 q| , @ |x1 x2 | T {n.

112

n ,
i1
i
k
k`1
T a T,
T b
T,
n
n
n
n

i, k .
pj`1q
T
n
j
nT

gpnxqdx

1
n

pj`1qT

gptqdt 0, @ j P Z

jT

b
f pxqgpnxqdx
a

i
nT

f pxqgpnxqdx `

f pxqgpnxqdx `
a

j
`
fp T q
n
ji

j
nT

f pxqgpnxqdx `
a

b
f pxqgpnxqdx `

f pxqgpnxqdx
k
nT

pj`1q
T
n
j
nT

pj`1q
T
n

i
nT

k1

ji

k1

pj`1q
T
n
j
nT

ji

i
nT

k1

j
f pxq f p T q gpnxqdx
n
b

gpnxqdx `

f pxqgpnxqdx
k
nT

k1

pj`1q
T
n
j
nT

ji

j
f pxq f p T q gpnxqdx `
n

b
f pxqgpnxqdx.
k
nT

, n ,
b
T
pk iq
T

T max |g| ` max |f | max |g|


f pxqgpnxqdx max |f | max |g| `
n
n
n
a
2T

max |f | max |g| ` pb aq max |g|,


n

b
lim

n8 a

f pxqgpnxqdx 0.

. , n , gpnxq ,


f .
y

x
0

3.12

3.5

113

3.5
1. f ,

.
b
2.
sin x dx.
a

3. p1q b a 0, 1.
b
x dx,

x dx.

p2q b, 0,

1 ` 2 ` ` n
.
n8
n`1
lim

4. ,
x
f pxq
1

dt
, x0
t

f pxyq f pxq ` f pyq, @ x, y 0.


5. g , T , b a T
b
T
gpxqdx
gpxqdx.
a

6. arctan x

x
0

1
dt.
1 ` t2

7. , pa, bq .
8. f ra, bs , ra, bs gpaq gpbq 0
b
g,
f pxqgpxqdx 0, f 0.
a

gpxqdx 0
9. f ra, bs , ra, bs
a
b
g,
f pxqgpxqdx 0, f C . (: f
a

C, g f C g 2 .)
x
x
10. pq e 1 `
et dt
0

ex 1 ` x `

x2
xn1
xn x
` `
`
e , P r0, 1s.
2!
pn 1q!
n!

114
11. f ra, bs ,
b
b
pa ` bq f pxqdx 2 xf pxqdx,
a

f . (: px

a`b
2 qpf pxq

f p a`b
2 qq.)

12. pq f ra, bs .
b
n1
lim
|f pxq|n dx max |f pxq|.
n`8

xPra,bs

13. f, g ra, bs , Holder


b
2 b
b

f n`1 pxqgpxqdx
f n pxqgpxqdx
f n`2 pxqgpxqdx .
a

14. pq f, g ra, bs ,
b
f n`1 pxqgpxqdx
a
lim b
max f pxq.
n8
xPra,bs
n
f pxqgpxqdx
a

15. Young Holder : ai , bi 0 pi 1, 2, , nq,


n

ai bi

n
`

i1

i1

api

n
p1 `

bqi

q1

, p, q 0,

i1

1 1
` 1.
p q

16. f pxq ra, bs ,


b
b
lim
f pxq sin nx dx lim
f pxq cos nx dx 0.
n8 a

n8 a

17. pq f pxq r0, `8q ,


$ x

&1
f ptqdt, x 0,
F pxq x 0

%f p0q,
x0

r0, `8q .
18. pq f pxq ra, bs ,
1 b
1 b
r1

r
exp
lim
f pxq dx
ln f pxq dx ,
ba a
r0` b a a

Holder r .

,
. NewtonLeibniz .

4.1

, , .
, ,
. .
4.1.1 (). f x0 ,
lim

xx0

f pxq f px0 q
x x0

, f x0 , f x0 , f 1 px0 q.
. p1q y f pxq, x x x0 , y f pxq f px0 q,
f 1 px0 q lim

x0

y
f px0 ` xq f px0 q
lim
.
x x0
x

df
px0 q, f x .
dx
p2q , :

A P R, 0, 0, 0 |x x0 |
f pxq f px q

0
A ,

x x0

f x0 , A.
4.1.1. :
C, xn pn 1q, ax pa 0, a 1q, ln x, sin x, cos x.

. , . ,
, .
n 1 , Newton ,
px0 ` xqn xn0 ` nxn1
x ` ,
0
115

116

x .
px0 ` xqn xn0
nxn1
,
0
x0
x
lim

pxn q1 nxn1 .
a 0, a 1 , 3.1.15
ax0 `x ax0
ax 1
ax0 lim
ax0 ln a,
x0
x0
x
x
lim

pax q1 ax ln a. , pex q1 ex .
x0 0 , 3.1.13
lnp1 ` x
1
lnpx0 ` xq ln x0
x0 q
lim

,
x0
x0
x
x
x0
lim

pln xq1 1{x.


x0 P R,
`
sinpx0 ` xq sin x0
2
x
x
lim
sin
cos x0 `
cos x0 ,
x0
x0 x
x
2
2
lim

psin xq1 cos x. pcos xq1 sin x.


, .


1
px0 q,
f

1
f`
px0 q. f x0 .

4.1.2. f pxq |x| x0 0 .


. x 0 ,
lim

x0

f pxq f p0q
|x|
x
lim
lim
1.
x0
x0 x
x0 x

f1 p0q 1. , x 0 ,
lim

x0`

f pxq f p0q
|x|
x
lim
lim
1.
x0
x0` x
x0` x


f`1 p0q 1. f x0 0 .
4.1.3. f pxq :
f pxq

f x0 0 .

$ 1
&e |x| ,

x 0,

%0,

x 0.

4.1

117

. f x0 0 :
1

1
f`
p0q lim

x0`

e |x|
y
lim y 0,
y`8 e
x


f1 p0q 0, f x0 0 .
.
4.1.1. f x0 , f x0 .
. f x0 ,

f pxq f px0 q
px x0 q f 1 px0 q 0 0,
lim f pxq f px0 q lim
xx0
xx0
x x0

f x0 .

4.1.2 (). f, g x , f g x ;
, , f ` g x .
p1q pf ` gq1 f 1 ` g 1
1

p2q pf gq f g ` f g

p q ;

p q.

. p1q .
p2q f , g x0 .

f pxqgpxq f px0 qgpx0 q f pxq f px0 q gpxq ` f px0 q gpxq gpx0 q

f pxqgpxq f px0 qgpx0 q


x x0
f pxq f px0 q
gpxq gpx0 q
lim
gpxq ` lim f px0 q
xx0
xx0
x x0
x x0

pf gq1 px0 q lim

xx0

f 1 px0 qgpx0 q ` f px0 qg 1 px0 q.




f , g x0 .

4.1.3. f, g x0 , gpx0 q 0.
` f 1
g

f
x0 ,
g

f 1 g f g1
.
g2

. g x0 , g x0 . gpx0 q 0 , g x0
1
. 1{g x0 :
g
lim

xx0

1
gpxq gpx0 q
g 1 px0 q
1{gpxq 1{gpx0 q
lim
2
.
xx0 gpx0 qgpxq
x x0
x x0
g px0 q

118

f
1
f , ,
g
g
` f 1

f1

`1
g

`f

` 1 1
g

f 1 g f g1
,
g2


.
4.1.4. :
loga x pa 0, a 1q, csc x, sec x, tan x, cot x.

. pln xq1 1{x


ploga xq1

` ln x 1
ln a

1
.
x ln a

psin xq1 cos x


` 1 1
1
2 psin xq1
sin x
sin x
1
2 cos x csc x cot x.
sin x

pcsc xq1

pcos xq1 sin x


` 1 1
1
2 pcos xq1
cos x
cos x
1

sin x sec x tan x.


cos2 x

psec xq1

,
cos x cos x sin xp sin xq
1

sec2 x,
cos2 x
cos2 x
p sin xq sin x cos x cos x
csc2 x.
pcot xq1
sin2 x
.
ptan xq1

,
. f x0 , px0 , f px0 qq px, f pxqq
()
yptq

f pxq f px0 q
pt x0 q ` f px0 q, @ t P R.
x x0

x x0 , . f x0 ,
px0 , f px0 qq f 1 px0 q , f x0 ,
yptq f 1 px0 qpt x0 q ` f px0 q.

px x0 q ` f 1 px0 qpy f px0 qq 0

f x0 .

4.1

119
y

f (x)
f (x0 )
x
0

x0

4.1
, f x0
. , f x0 ,
. , , ,
,
. .
4.1.2 (). f x0 , A,
f pxq f px0 q ` Apx x0 q ` opx x0 q px x0 q,

f x0 , x Ax f x0 , df px0 q.
.
4.1.4. f x0 , f x0 f x0
, f 1 px0 q.
. f x0 ,
lim

xx0

f pxq f px0 q f 1 px0 qpx x0 q


f pxq f px0 q
lim
f 1 px0 q 0,
xx0
x x0
x x0

f pxq f px0 q f 1 px0 qpx x0 q opx x0 q px x0 q,

f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` opx x0 q px x0 q.

120

f x0 .
, f x0 , f pxq f px0 q ` Apx x0 q ` opx x0 q,
lim

xx0

f pxq f px0 q
Apx x0 q ` opx x0 q
lim
A,
xx0
x x0
x x0

f x0 , f 1 px0 q A.

f .
, x0 df px0 q
df px0 q f 1 px0 qdxpx0 q,

dxpx0 q x x0 ().
4.1.5 (). g x0 , f gpx0 q ,
f g f pgq x0 ,
rf pgqs1 px0 q f 1 pgpx0 qqg 1 px0 q.

. g x0 , x x0
gpxq gpx0 q ` g 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` opx x0 q.

x x0 , C, |gpxq gpx0 q| C|x x0 |. f gpx0 q

f pgpxqq f pgpx0 qq ` f 1 pgpx0 qq gpxq gpx0 q ` o gpxq gpx0 q


f pgpx0 qq ` f 1 pgpx0 qqg 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` f 1 pgpx0 qqopx x0 q ` opx x0 q
f pgpx0 qq ` f 1 pgpx0 qqg 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` opx x0 q.

f pgq x0 (), f 1 pgpx0 qqg 1 px0 q.


,
rf pgphqqs1 f 1 pgphqqg 1 phqh1 .

4.1.5. :
ln |x|, x p 0q.

. , x 0 , p|x|q1 sgnx.
pln |x|q1

1
1
1
p|x|q1
sgnx .
|x|
|x|
x

4.1

121

0, x 0,
`
1
px q1 e ln x e ln x p ln xq1
x

1
x1 ;
x

1, x 0
x
lim x1 0;
x0
x0 x
p
x 0 . , , p, q ,
q
q .
px q1 p0q lim

px q1 pp1q q e ln |x| q1 p1q q e ln |x| p ln |x|q1


x

1
x1 .
x


4.1.6 (). f x0 g. f
x0 , f 1 px0 q 0, g y0 f px0 q ,
g 1 py0 q

1
f 1 px0 q

. f x0 ,
f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` opx x0 q px x0 q.

(4.1)

x x0
f pxq f px0 q rf 1 px0 q ` op1qspx x0 q.

f 1 px0 q 0 , , x x0 , C 0
|f pxq f px0 q| C|x x0 |, |y y0 | C|gpyq gpy0 q|.

, y y0 , x gpyq gpy0 q x0 . (4.1) x gpyq, x0 gpy0 q

y y0 ` f 1 px0 q gpyq gpy0 q ` o gpyq gpy0 q py y0 q


`

y0 ` f 1 px0 q gpyq gpy0 q ` opy y0 q py y0 q,

1
py y0 q ` opy y0 q py y0 q.
f 1 px0 q
1
g y0 f px0 q , 1
.

f px0 q
. f 1 px0 q 0 . f pxq x3 R R
gpyq gpy0 q `

, f , gpyq y 1{3 y 0 .

122

4.1.6. :
arcsin x, arccos x, arctan x, arccotx.

. sin x : r 2 , 2 s r1, 1s . ,
parcsin xq1

1
1
1
a
?
.
2
cos arcsin x
1 x2
1 sin arcsin x

arccos x , : arcsin x ` arccos x


parccos xq1

,
2

1
1
arcsin x ?
.
2
1 x2

tan x : p 2 , 2 q p8, 8q . ,
parctan xq1

sec2

1
1
1

.
2
arctan x
1 ` x2
1 ` tan arctan x

parccotxq1

1
1
1

csc2 arccotx
1 ` x2
1 ` cot2 arccotx


, sinh x cosh x:
sinh x

ex ex
ex ` ex
, cosh x
;
2
2

tanh x coth x:
tanh x

sinh x
cosh x
, coth x
;
cosh x
sinh x

,
sinhpx ` yq sinh x cosh y ` cosh x sinh y,
sinhpx yq sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y,
coshpx ` yq cosh x cosh y ` sinh x sinh y,
coshpx yq cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y,

cosh2 x sinh2 x 1, 1 ptanh xq2

1
1
, pcoth xq2 1
.
cosh2 x
sinh2 x

4.1

123

4.1.7. psinh xq1 cosh x, pcosh xq1 sinh x, ptanh xq1 1 ptanh xq2 ,
pcoth xq1 1 pcoth xq2 .


. ex , .
, .
1. pCq1 0 pC q;

2. px q1 x1 p 0q;

3. pex q1 ex ;

4. pax q1 ax ln a pa 0, a 1q;
1
6. ploga |x|q1
pa 0, a 1q;
x ln a
1
8. parcsin xq1 ?
;
1 x2
1
10. parccos xq1 ?
;
1 x2
12. pcsc xq1 csc x cot x;
1
14. parctan xq1
;
1 ` x2
1
16. parccotxq1
;
1 ` x2
18. pcosh xq1 sinh x;

1
;
x
7. psin xq1 cos x;
5. pln |x|q1

9. pcos xq1 sin x;


11. psec xq1 sec x tan x;
13. ptan xq1 sec2 x;
15. pcot xq1 csc2 x;
17. psinh xq1 cosh x;

19. ptanh xq1 1 ptanh xq2 ; 20. pcoth xq1 1 pcoth xq2 .

.
4.1.7. f pxq lnpx `

1 ` x2 q .

. ,
a
a
a
1

lnpx ` 1 ` x2 q px ` 1 ` x2 q1 x1 ` p 1 ` x2 q1
a

1
1
px ` 1 ` x2 q1 1 ` p1 ` x2 q 2 p1 ` x2 q1
2
a

1
px ` 1 ` x2 q1 1 ` xp1 ` x2 q 2
1
?
.
1 ` x2
4.1.8. upxq 0, upxq, vpxq , f pxq upxqvpxq .
. f pxq upxqvpxq :
pln f pxqq1 pvpxq ln upxqq1 v 1 pxq ln upxq ` vpxq

1 1
u pxq,
upxq

u1 pxq
f 1 pxq f pxqpln f pxqq1 upxqvpxq v 1 pxq ln upxq ` vpxq
.
upxq

, .

124

. , f x
f 1 pxq , x , , x df pxq
, df , f . , x dx
, x x . df pxq
, ,
df f 1 pxqdx.

, f dx (f ) 1 .
,
4.1.8. f, g ,
p1q dpf ` gq df ` dg, , ;
p2q dpf gq gdf ` f dg;
gdf f dg
p3q dpf {gq
, g 0.
g2

, ,
4.1.9. f , g , f pgq ,
drf pgqs f 1 pgqdg.

. ,
drf pgqs rf pgqs1 dx f 1 pgqg 1 dx f 1 pgqdg.

df f 1 dx , x g


.
.
4.1.9.
f pxq lnpx2 ex `

a
1 ` x2 q

.
. ,
a
a
df px2 ex ` 1 ` x2 q1 dpx2 ex ` 1 ` x2 q
a
`

1
px2 ex ` 1 ` x2 q1 ex p2xqdx ` x2 ex dx ` ?
dp1 ` x2 q
2
2 1`x
a

`
x
2 x
1
x
2 x
2
dx,
px e ` 1 ` x q
2xe ` x e ` ?
2
1`x

4.1

125

f
f 1 pxq px2 ex `

a
`

x
1 ` x2 q1 2xex ` x2 ex ` ?
.
2
1`x

, , ,
.
4.1.10. y 2 ` 2ey x2 y f pxq, f .
. y 2 ` 2ey x2
2ydy ` 2ey dy 2xdx,

dy

x
dx,
ey y

x
.
y
.

ey

4.1
1. f pxq x0 ,

1
lim n f px0 ` q f px0 q .
n

n8

2. f pxq x0 ,
f px0 ` hq f px0 hq
.
h0
h
lim

3. f pxq xpx 1q2 px 2q2 x 0, 1, 2 .


4. f pxq

1 ` x x 0, 1, 2 .
f pxq
.
x0 x

5. f p0q 0, f x 0 , lim

6. f pxq px aqpxq, pxq a , f 1 paq.


7.
$
&x2 , x ,
f pxq
%0,
x ,

x 0 .

126
8.
$
&x2 sin 1 , x 0,
x
f pxq
%0,
x 0,

x 0 .
9.
$
&x sin 1 , x 0,
x
f pxq
%0,
x 0,

x 0 ?
10. a, b ,
$
&x2 ,
x 1,
f pxq
%ax ` b, x 1,

x 1 .
11.
p1q f pxq 2x3 ` 4x2 3;

p2q f pxq px ` 1q2 px ` 2qpx ` 3q3 ;

p3q f pxq p1 ` nxm qp1 ` mxn q; p4q f pxq paxm ` bqn pcxn ` dqm ;
?
p6q f pxq lnpsin xq ` ex sin x.
p5q f pxq x 1 ` x2 ;
12.
a
p1q f pxq sin2 x;

2 ` sin x
;
p3q f pxq
x
sin x
xex 1
p4q f pxq
;
p5q f pxq
;
p6q f pxq
1 ` tan x
sin x
` 1 x2
xp p1 xqq
p7q f pxq ln
; p8q f pxq
; p9q f pxq
2
1`x
1`x
p2q f pxq

x ln x 1
;
1`x x
x
;
p1 xq2 p1 ` xq
x sin x ` cos x
.
x sin x cos x

13.
p1q f pxq ex

sin x

p2q f pxq ?

x
;
a2 ` x2

p3q f pxq arcsinpcos2 xq;

arcsin x
p4q f pxq ?
; p5q f pxq lnplnpln xqq; p6q f pxq lnpsin x ` cos xq;
1 x2
b
?
p9q f pxq sinpsinpcos xqq.
p7q f pxq x ` x; p8q f pxq ex sin x;
14.
x

p1q f pxq px sin xqx ; p2q f pxq pxqa ; p3q f pxq pcos xqsin x ` psin xqcos x ;
c
a
n
1x
p4q f pxq x
; p5q f pxq ax ;
p6q f pxq px ` 1 ` x2 qn .
1`x

4.2

127

15. f pxq , y 1 :
p1q y f px sin xq;

p2q y f pex qef pxq ; p3q y f pcos xq sin x;

p4q y f pf pf pxqqq; p5q y f ptan xq;

p6q y rf pln xqsn .

16. upxq, vpxq , y 1 :


a
?
v
p1q y u2 pxq ` v 2 pxq; p2q y arctan upxq
u;
vpxq ; p3q y
u
1
v
e
p4q y 2 ;
p5q y ? 2
; p6q y u .
2
v
u `v
17. p1 ` xqn
p1q

kCnk n2n1 ; p2q

k0

k 2 Cnk npn ` 1q2n2 .

k0

18. , , ,

.
`

19. pq aij pxq , det aij pxq nn .


20. pq Riemann
$
& 1 , x q P p0, 1q X Q, p, q ,
p
Rpxq p
%0, x p0, 1q .

Riemann Rpxq .

4.2

, , ,
. , .
4.2.1 (). f x0 , f 1 x0 ,
f x0 2 .
f 2 px0 q pf 1 q1 px0 q,

f x0 2 . , f x0 n pn 1q , n
f pnq x0 , f x0 n ` 1 ,
f pn`1q px0 q pf pnq q1 px0 q,

f n ` 1 .

128

, f p1q f 1 , f p2q f 2 , f p3q f 3 . f p0q f .


:
f2

d2 f
d3 f
, f p3q f 3
, .
2
dx
dx3

4.2.1. f pxq ax ` b 2 .
. f 1 pxq pax ` bq1 a, f 2 pxq paq1 0. 2 ,


.
4.2.2. f pxq x2 2 .
. f 1 pxq px2 q1 2x, f 2 pxq p2xq1 2, 2 .

4.2.2. f I n , f I n
; f , f 1 , f p1 q , f P C 1 pIq;
, f I n , n f pnq , f n ,
f P C n pIq. f I , f , f P C 8 pIq.
4.2.3. .
.
$
&x 32 sin 1 , x P p0, 1s,
x
f pxq
%0,
x 0.

f x 0 :
3

?
x 2 sin x1
1
f p0q lim
lim x sin 0,
x
x
x0`
x0`
1

?
?
x sin 1 x 0 px 0` q.
x

x 0 , ,
3 1
3 1
1
1
x 2 sin x 2 2 cos
2
x
x
x
1
3 1
1
1
x 2 sin x 2 cos .
2
x
x

f 1 pxq

f 1 xn

1
pn 1, 2, q f 1 pxn q 8, f 1 . 
2n

4.2

129

4.2.4. k 1, 2, ,
$
&x2k`1 sin 1 , x 0
x
f pxq
%0,
x0
C k , C k`1 .
. , f 1 p0q 0,
$
&p2k ` 1qx2k sin 1 x2k1 cos 1 , x 0,
x
x
f 1 pxq
%0,
x 0.
,
$
&2kp2k ` 1qx2k1 sin 1 4kx2k2 cos 1 x2k3 sin 1 , x 0,
x
x
x
f 2 pxq
%0,
x 0.

f pkq p0q 0, x 0 ,
f pkq pxq x2 pxq x sin

1
1
x2 pxq x cos ,
x
x

pxq x 0 . f pkq x 0 .

4.2.5. pq
f pxq

$
&0,
1
x

%e

x0
,

x0

.
. , f 1 p0q 0,
$
&0,
x 0,
f 1 pxq
1
% 1 e x , x 0.
x2

$
&0,
x 0,
f pkq pxq
%p p 1 qe x1 , x 0,
k x

pk ptq 2k . k 1 p1 ptq t2 . f pkq ,


pk`1q

p0q 0,
1

pk`1q
f`
p0q

pk p x1 qe x
lim
x
x0`
tpk ptq
lim
0.
t`8
et

130

f pk`1q p0q 0. x 0
f pk`1q pxq p1k

` 1 `

x
`1

pk`1

pk`1 ptq t pk ptq


2

t2 p1k ptq.

`1 1 1
1 1
e x ` pk
e x
2
x
x x2
1

e x ,

f .

4.2.1. f, g n ,
p1q pf ` gqpnq f pnq ` g pnq , @ , P R;
n

p2q pLeibnizq pf gqpnq


Cnk f pnkq g pkq , Cnk
k0

n!
.
k!pn kq!

. p1q .
p2q n . n 1 . n k

, n k ` 1
pf gqpk`1q rpf gqpkq s1

Ckl rf pklq g plq s1

l0

Ckl rf pkl`1q g plq ` f pklq g pl`1q s

l0
k

Ck0 f pk`1q g `

Ckl f pkl`1q g plq `

l1

f pk`1q g `

k1

Ckl f pklq g pl`1q ` Ckk f g pk`1q

l0

rCkl ` Ckl1 sf pkl`1q g plq ` f g pk`1q

l1

k`1

l
f pk`1lq g plq ,
Ck`1

l0
l
Ckl ` Ckl1 Ck`1
.

.
4.2.6. pn pxq an xn ` an1 xn1 ` ` a1 x ` a0 n,
pnq

pkq

p1q pn pxq n!an , pn 0, @ k n;


1 pkq
p2q ak pn p0q, k 0, 1, , n.
k!

. ,
nk
ppkq
` pn 1q pn kqan1 xn1k ` ` k!ak ,
n pxq npn 1q pn k ` 1qan x

1 k n. , k n p1q, x 0 p2q.
4.2.7. f pxq ax .

4.2

131

. f 1 pxq ax ln a, f 2 pxq ax pln aq2 , , f pnq pxq ax pln aqn .

4.2.8. f pxq sin x, cos x .


. psin xq1 cos x sinpx ` 2 q, psin xq2 sin x sinpx ` q. ,
psin xqpkq sinpx `

k
2 q,

`
`
k
pk ` 1q
psin xqpk`1q cos x `
sin x `
,
2
2

psin xqpnq sinpx `


4.2.9.
1 1
q
. p 1x

n
2 q.

pcos xqpnq cospx `

n
2 q.

1
1
,
.
1 x 2 3x ` x2

1
p1xq2 ,

1 2
p 1x
q

2
p1xq3 ,

1 pnq
n!

,
1x
p1 xqn`1

pnq ` 1
1 pnq
n!
n!
1

.
2 3x ` x2
1x 2x
p1 xqn`1
p2 xqn`1


.
4.2.10. pq f pxq arctan x, f pnq pxq.
. y arctan x, x tan y,
y1

`
1

cos2 y cos y sin y `


.
2
1`x
2

x ,
`

` cos y cos y `
y 2 y 1 sin y sin y `
2
2
`

2
cos y cos 2y `
2
`

2
cos y sin 2 y `
.
2

x ,
`

.
f pnq pxq y pnq pn 1q! cosn y sin n y `
2

4.2.11. f, g 3 , f pgq 3 .
. rf pgqs1 f 1 pgqg 1 , rf pgqs2 rf 1 pgqg 1 s1 f 2 pgqg 1 g 1 ` f 1 pgqg 2 ,
rf pgqsp3q rf 2 pgqg 1 g 1 ` f 1 pgqg 2 s1 f p3q pgqpg 1 q3 ` 3f 2 pgqg 2 g 1 ` f 1 pgqg p3q .

132

, Leibniz .

4.2
1. :
p1q f pxq ex cos x, f p5q ;
p2q f pxq x2 ln x ` x ln2 x, f 2 ;
p3q f pxq x2 ex , f p10q ;
p4q f pxq x5 cos x, f p50q ;
p5q f pxq px2 ` 1q cosh x, f p10q ;
p6q f pxq x sinh x, f p100q .
2. n :
ax ` b
ln x
;
p2q f pxq sin ax sin bx; p3q f pxq
;
cx ` d
x
xn
p4q f pxq x ln x;
p5q f pxq
;
p6q f pxq xn eax ;
1`x
1
ex
p7q f pxq 2
; p8q f pxq x cos ax;
p9q f pxq .
x 2x 8
x
p1q f pxq

3. :
p1qn1 pn 1q!
, @ n 1;
xn
p2q psin4 x ` cos4 xqpnq 4n1 cosp4x ` 2 nq, @ n 1;

p1q pln xqpnq

p3q peax sin bxqpnq pa2 ` b2 q 2 eax sinpbx ` nq,


sin ?
4. f pxq

b
a
, cos ? 2
.
2
`b
a ` b2

a2

1 ` x .

5. f pxq ex cos x .
6. f , y :
p1q y f px3 q, p2q y f pex q, p3q y f pf pxqq, p4q y f pln xq.
7. y ex sin x y 2 2y 1 ` 2y 0.
8. y a sinpx ` q ` b cospx ` q y 2 ` 2 y 0.

4.3

133

9. y aex ` bex y 2 p ` qy 1 ` y 0.
10. y arcsin x xy 1 p1 x2 qy 2 , y pnq p0q.
11. pq p1 xqn
$
n
&0,

m 0, 1, , n 1,
p1qk Cnk k m
%p1qn n!, m n.
k0

4.3

, . ,
? f ,
F 1 pxq f pxq

(4.2)

. , (4.2) ? , ?
, f (4.2) ; F , F ` C (C )
, .
4.3.1. f I , f 1 0 f C
.
. . f 1 0, I a b,
f paq f pbq. 0 .

A tx P ra, bs |f pxq f paq| |x a|u ra, bs.

a P A, A . A . f P A.
b. , b, f 1 pq 0 1 ,
1 b,

f p 1 q f pq f p 1 q f pq

f
pq

1
1

|f p 1 q f pq| | 1 |.

, 1 b
|f p 1 q f paq| |f p 1 q f pq| ` |f pq f paq|
| 1 | ` | a| | 1 a|.

1 P A, , b.
|f paq f pbq| |a b|.

134

, 0` , f paq f pbq.

. p1q , , .
.
.
p2q M |f 1 | M , M `

|f paq f pbq| M |a b|,

f Lipschitz .
, f 1 0, f ().

(4.2). F1 , F2 (4.2) , pF1 F2 q1 0,


F1 F2 C .

4.3.1 (). (4.2) F f .


, .
:
4.3.2 (). f I ,

f pxqdx

f , F f ,

f pxqdx F pxq ` C, x P I,

C .
, F f , dF f pxqdx,

d
f pxqdx f pxqdx,

4.3

135

1.
0 dx C;

3.
ex dx ex ` C;

1
5.
ln |x| ` C;
x
7.

x`1
` C p 1q;
x` 1

a
4.
ax dx
` C pa 0, a 1q;
ln
a

a
1
?
6.
dx lnpx ` 1 ` x2 q ` C;
2
1`x

1
?
8.
dx arcsin x ` C;
1 x2
1
?
10.
dx arccos x ` C;
1
x2

1
dx arctan x ` C;
12.
1 ` x2
1
14.
dx arccotx ` C;
1
`
x2

cos x dx sin x ` C;

9.

sin x dx cos x ` C;

sec2 x dx tan x ` C;

csc2 x dx cot x ` C;

11.
13.

15.

cosh x dx sinh x ` C;

17.

x dx

2.

16.

tanh2 x dx x tanh x ` C; 18.

sinh x dx cosh x ` C;

coth2 x dx x coth x ` C.

, , ?
.
4.3.2 (Newton-Leibniz). I . ,
f , a P I,

x
F pxq

f ptqdt, x P I
a

f .
. x0 P I. f , 0, 0,
|f pxq f px0 q| , @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I.

F pxq F px q
1 x

0
f px0 q
f ptqdt f px0 q

x x0
x x 0 x0
1 x

f ptq f px0 q dt
x x 0 x0
x

|f ptq f px0 q|dt ,

|x x0 | x0

F x0 ,
F 1 px0 q f px0 q.

x0 F f .

136
y

f (x)

F
x
0

x0
lim F
x0 x

= f (x)

4.2 Newton-Leibniz
. p1q , ,
.
p2q f , .

Newton-Leibniz
. f I ,

G f , C, Gpxq

f ptqdt ` C,

b
a

f pxqdx Gpbq Gpaq G (Newton-Leibniz ).


a

f ,
b

f pxqdx
f pxqdx ,
a

,
.
Newton-Leibniz ( G )
b
b

G1 pxqdx Gpbq Gpaq G (Newton-Leibniz ).


a

, : G x ,
G1 . G1 ,

(). , ,
.
Newton-Leibniz ,
.
4.3.1. 0,

x dx.

. Newton-Leibniz ,
1
x`1 1
1
x dx
.

`1 0
`1
0

4.3

137

, .
x
1
4.3.2. x 0,
dt.
1 t

. Newton-Leibniz ,
x
x
1

dt ln t ln x.
t
1
1
1
1 x ,
t
, .

2
4.3.3.
sin 2x dx.

.
psin2 xq1 2 sin xpsin xq1 2 sin x cos x sin 2x,

Newton-Leibniz ,

sin 2x dx sin2 x 1.
0

4.3.4.

1
2

?
0

1
dx.
1 x2

. Newton-Leibniz ,

1
2

?
0

4.3.5.

1
0

12

dx arcsin x .
2
6
0
1x

1
dx.
1 ` x2

. Newton-Leibniz ,
1
1
1

dx

arctan
x
.
2
4
0
0 1`x
4.3.6.

1
?
0

1
dx.
1 ` x2

. Newton-Leibniz ,
1
1
a
?
1
2 q lnp1 `
?
dx

lnpx
`
1
`
x
2q.
0
1 ` x2
0
.

138

4.3.3 (). f, g I ,

rf pxq ` gpxqsdx f pxqdx ` gpxqdx,


, .
. .

1
4.3.7.
dx.
sin2 x cos2 x
. ,

1
sin2 x ` cos2 x
dx

dx
2
2
2
sin x cos2 x
sin x cos x
1
1

dx
2 dx `
cos2 x
sin x
tan x cot x ` C.

, .
.
4.3.8. a 0,

x2

1
dx.
a2

. ,

1
1
1
1
dx

dx

dx
x2 a2
2a
xa
x`a

ln |x a| ln |x ` a| ` C
2a
x a
1
` C.
ln

2a
x`a
.
4.3.4. f F . f , g ,

gpxqdx xgpxq F pgpxqq ` C.


. Gpxq xgpxq F pgpxqq, f pgpxqq x ,
G1 pxq gpxq ` xg 1 pxq F 1 pgpxqqg 1 pxq
gpxq ` xg 1 pxq f pgpxqqg 1 pxq
gpxq ` xg 1 pxq xg 1 pxq gpxq.

Gpxq g .

4.3

139

4.3.9.

cot x dx.

.
pln | sin x|q1

1
psin xq1 cot x,
sin x

cot x dx ln | sin x| ` C.

4.3.10.

arccotx dx.

. ,

arccotx dx xarccotx ln | sin arccotx| ` C


xarccotx `

1
lnp1 ` x2 q ` C.
2

.
.

4.3
1. :

`
1
2
2 3
p1q p3x ` 1qdx;
p2q p2 ` x q dx; p3q
x ` ? dx;
x

x
x 2
2
x
x 3
p4q p2 ` 3 q dx;
p5q tan x dx;
p6q pe e q dx;
3

2
x ` 3x 2
2x
p7q
dx; p8q
dx;
p9q
cos2 x dx.
x
1 ` x2
2. :

cos 2x
p1q cos x cos 2x dx; p2q sinp2xqdx;
p3q
dx;
2 x sin2 x
cos
3x

?
e `1
cos 2x
p4q
dx;
p5q
dx; p6q
1 sin 2x dx.
x
e `1
cos x sin x
3. :

p1q e|x| dx, p2q |x|dx, p3q maxp1, x2 qdx, p4q | sin x|dx.

4. , F ptq f ptq ,

1
F pax ` bq f pax ` bq .
a

140
5.

1
p1 x2 q2 dx, p2q
p1q
0

sin2 x dx, p3q

1
arccos x dx.

cot x dx, p4q

6.
1
p1q
0

1
dx, p2q
p1 ` xqp2 ` xq

sin xdx, p3q


0

x dx.

7. f pa, bq , |f 1 pxq| M , @ x P pa, bq. , lim f pxq


xa`

lim f pxq .

xb

8. f ra, bs , pa, bq , f ;

.
9. f T , F T F pT q F p0q.
10. f , ; f , F

F p0q 0.

4.4

. , ,
, .
, ( Newton-Leibniz
).
4.4.1

4.4.1 (). f puq J , u pxq


I , pIq J.
p1q f J F , F pq f pq1 I ,

1
f ppxqq pxqdx f puqdu ` C F ppxqq ` C;
p2q , , pIq J. f ppxqq1 pxq G, f

Gp1 puqq,

f puqdu Gp1 puqq ` C.

. p1q F 1 f , ,
rF pqs1 f pq1 ,

4.4

141

F pq f pq1 .
p2q 1 , p1 puqq u ,
r1 puqs1

1
, x 1 puq.
1 pxq

rGp1 puqqs1 G1 p1 puqqr1 puqs1 f puq1 p1 puqq

1
f puq,
1 pxq


Gp1 puqq f puq .

. p1q , u u pxq x
().
p2q , 1 pxq 0, @ x P I, ,
1 .
p3q Newton-Leibniz , f , ,

.
4.4.1.

cot x dx.

. u sin x,

cos x
dx
sin x

d sin x

sin x

du

cot x dx

ln |u| ` C ln | sin x| ` C.

4.4.2.
. u

1
dx.
xp1 ` xq

x,
?
d x
1`x

du
2
1 ` u2

1
?
dx 2
xp1 ` xq

2 arctan u ` C 2 arctan

4.4.3.

x ` C.

xex dx.

. u x2 ,
1

1 1 x2
1 2 1
1
x2
xe dx
e dpx2 q ex pe 1q.
2
2
2
0
0
0

142

4.4.4.

1
dx.
1 ` ex

. u ex , du ex dx,

1
ex
dx

dx
x
1`e
1 ` ex

du

1`u
lnp1 ` uq ` C lnp1 ` ex q ` C.

4.4.5. sec x dx.

. u sin x,

cos x
d sin x
sec x dx
dx
cos2 x
1 sin2 x

1
1 ` u
du
ln
`C

2
1u
2
1u
1 1 ` sin x
ln
` C.
2
1 sin x
aa
4.4.6.
a2 x2 dx pa 0q.
0

. x a sin t, t P r0, 2 s.
aa

2
2
a x dx
0

a cos tpa cos tqdt

1 2 2
a
p1 ` cos 2tqdt
2
0

1
1
a2 pt ` sin 2tq02
2
2
2
a .
4
4.4.2

4.4.2 (). upxq, vpxq I , u1 pxqvpxq


, upxqv 1 pxq ,

upxqv 1 pxqdx upxqvpxq u1 pxqvpxqdx.


. u1 pxqvpxq ,
rupxqvpxqs1 u1 pxqvpxq ` upxqv 1 pxq

1
upxqvpxq u1 pxqvpxqdx upxqv 1 pxq.

4.4

upxqvpxq

143

u1 pxqvpxqdx upxqv 1 pxq .

. p1q

upxqdvpxq upxqvpxq vpxqdupxq.


p2q u, v , . ,
b
a

b b

upxqv pxqdx upxqvpxq


u1 pxqvpxqdx.
1

4.4.7.

x2 ln x dx.

1
. upxq ln x, vpxq x3 ,
3

`1
2
x ln x dx ln x d x3
3

1 3
1 3
x dpln xq
x ln x
3
3

1
1 31
x3 ln x
x dx
3
3 x
1
1
x3 ln x x3 ` C.
3
9

x , ln x.

4.4.8. x2 cos x dx.


. upxq x2 , vpxq sin x,

x2 cos x dx x2 dpsin xq

x2 sin x sin xdpx2 q

x2 sin x ` 2 xdpcos xq

2
x sin x ` 2x cos x 2 cos x dx
x2 sin x ` 2x cos x 2 sin x ` C.

x , x .
a
4.4.9.
1 ` x2 dx.

144

. :
a

a
1 ` x2 dx x 1 ` x2

a
x 1 ` x2

a
x 1 ` x2

a
2
x 1`x

a
xp 1 ` x2 q1 dx
x2
dx
1 ` x2
1 ` x2 1
?
dx
1 ` x2

a
1
2
1 ` x dx ` ?
dx
1 ` x2
?

,
a

1 a
1
1 ` x2 dx x 1 ` x2 ` ?
dx
2
1 ` x2
a
a

1
x 1 ` x2 ` lnpx ` 1 ` x2 q ` C.
2

.
4.4.10. a 0, I

ax

cos bxdx J

eax sin bxdx.

. ,

1
cos bxdpeax q
I e cos bxdx
a

1 ax

e cos bx ` b eax sin bxdx


a
1
b
eax cos bx ` J.
a
a

ax

1
eax sin bxdx
sin bxdpeax q
a

1 ax
e sin bx b eax cos bxdx

a
1
b
eax sin bx I.
a
a

I, J
I

a sin bx b cos bx ax
b sin bx ` a cos bx ax
e ` C1 , J
e ` C2 .
a2 ` b2
a2 ` b2

4.4.11.

tan4 x dx.

4.4

. In

145

tann x dx, I0

In

. ,
4

tan x dx
0

tann2 xpsec2 x 1qdx

tann2 x dptan xq In2

tann1 x 4
In2
n1 0
1
In2 .

n1

1
2
, I4 I2 .
4
3
4
3
, .

dx
4.4.12. In
, a 0, n .
2
px ` a2 qn

, I2 1 I0 1

1
x
arctan ` C. n 1 ,
a
a

x
x2
dx

`
2n
dx
In
2
2
n
2
2
n
2
px ` a q
px ` a q
px ` a2 qn`1

x2 ` a2
x
1
2
2
`
2n
dx

a
dx
px ` a2 qn
px2 ` a2 qn`1
px2 ` a2 qn`1
x
2
` 2nIn 2na2 In`1 .
px ` a2 qn

. I0 x ` C, I1

In`1

2n 1
1
x
In `
,
2na2
2na2 px2 ` a2 qn


In .
4.4.3

Rpxq

P pxq
Qpxq

, P, Q x . P Q, R
. , . ,
.
, :
Ax ` B
A
, k 1;
, k 1, p2 4q 0.
k
2
px aq
px ` px ` qqk

146

:
p1q k 1:

A
dx A ln |x a| ` C;
xa

p2q k 1:

A
px aq1k
` C;
dx

A
px aqk
1k

p3q k 1:
A
Ap
Ax ` B
2 p2x ` pq ` pB 2 q

dx
x2 ` px ` q
x2 ` px ` q

A
p2x ` pq
Ap
dx

dx ` pB
q
2
2
2
x ` px ` q
2
x ` px ` q

A dpx2 ` px ` qq
Ap
dx

` pB
q
p 2
2
x2 ` px ` q
2
px ` q ` pq

p2
4 q

A
2B Ap
2x ` p
lnpx2 ` px ` qq ` a
arctan a
` C;
2
2
4q p
4q p2

p4q k 1 , p3q ,

Ax ` B
A px2 ` px ` qq1k
Ap
dt
dx
` pB
q
,
px2 ` px ` qqk
2
1k
2
pt2 ` a2 qk
a
t x ` p2 , a 12 4q p2 .

.
, .
, .

x3 ` 1
dx.
4.4.13.
x2 2x ` 3
. :
x3 ` 1
xpx2 2x ` 3q 2x2 3x ` 1

` 2
x2 2x ` 3
x2 2x ` 3
x 2x ` 3
x5
2px2 2x ` 3q
` 2
x`
x2 2x ` 3
x 2x ` 3
px 1q 4
x`2`
,
px 1q2 ` 2

?
1
1
x1
x3 ` 1
dx 2x ` x2 ` lnpx2 2x ` 3q 2 2 arctan ? ` C.
x2 2x ` 3
2
2
2

1
4.4.14.
dx.
3
x `1

4.4

147

. :
x3

1
1
A
Bx ` C

` 2
,
2
`1
px ` 1qpx x ` 1q
x`1 x x`1

,
1 Apx2 x ` 1q ` pBx ` Cqpx ` 1q,

x ,
A ` B 0, A ` B ` C 0, A ` C 1,
1
1
2
A , B
, C ,
3
3
3

1
1
1
1
x ` 2
dx
dx `
dx
x3 ` 1
3 x`1
3 x2 x ` 1

1
1
1
dx
ln |x ` 1| lnpx2 x ` 1q `
2
3
6
2 x x`1
1
1
1
2
1
ln |x ` 1| lnpx2 x ` 1q ` ? arctan ? px q ` C.
3
6
2
3
3

5x ` 6
4.4.15.
dx.
x3 ` 4x2 ` 5x ` 2

. :
5x ` 6
A
B
C
5x ` 6

`
`
,
x3 ` 4x2 ` 5x ` 2
px ` 1q2 px ` 2q
x ` 1 px ` 1q2
x`2

5x ` 6 Apx ` 1qpx ` 2q ` Bpx ` 2q ` Cpx ` 1q2 ,

x A, B, C, , x
: x 1 B 1; x 2 C 4; x 0 A 4.
x3

4
1
4
5x ` 6

,
2
2
` 4x ` 5x ` 2
x ` 1 px ` 1q
x`2

5x ` 6
1
dx 4 ln |x ` 1|
4 ln |x ` 2| ` C.
x3 ` 4x2 ` 5x ` 2
x`1

1
4.4.16.
dx.
4
x `1

148

. x4 ` 1 px2 `

2x ` 1qpx2

2x ` 1q,

1
Ax ` B
Cx ` D
?
`
,
2 ?
x4 ` 1
x ` 2x ` 1 x2 2x ` 1

,
?
?
1
1
2
2
A
, B , C
, D ,
4
2
4
2

4.4.4

?
?
?
?
1
2
x` 2
2
x 2
?
?
dx

dx

dx
x4 ` 1
4
4
x2 ` 2x ` 1
x2 2x ` 1
?
?
?
?
2 x2 ` 2x ` 1
2
?

ln 2
arctanp 2x ` 1q
`
8
4
x 2x ` 1
?
?
2
`
arctanp 2x 1q ` C.
4

, x
. ,
. tan x, cot x, sec x csc x sin x cos x
, Rpsin x, cos xq.
, :
x
t tan ,
2

x 2 arctan t, dx

2
dt,
1 ` t2

sin x

2 sin x2 cos x2
2 tan x2
2t

,
2 x
x
1 ` t2
tan2 x2 ` 1
sin 2 ` cos2 2

cos x

cos2
cos2

x
2
x
2

sin2
` sin2

x
2
x
2

1 tan2
1 ` tan2

x
2
x
2

1 t2
,
1 ` t2

,
. , t sin x, t cos x
t tan x , .

4.4.17.

dx
.
sin x ` 2 cos x ` 3

4.4

149

x
. t tan ,
2

dx

sin x ` 2 cos x ` 3

2dt
2t ` 2p1 t2 q ` 3p1 ` t2 q

dt
2
2
t ` 2t ` 5

dt
2
pt ` 1q2 ` 4
`1
t`1
x
arctan
` C arctan p1 ` tan q ` C.
2
2
2

4.4.18.

1 r2
dx p0 r 1q.
1 2r cos x ` r2

x
. t tan ,
2

1 r2
dx 2
1 2r cos x ` r2

1 r2
dt
p1 ` r2 qp1 ` t2 q 2rp1 t2 q

dt
2p1 r2 q
p1 rq2 ` p1 ` rq2 t2
`1 ` r
x
2 arctan
tan
` C.
1r
2

4.4.19.

sin5 x
dx.
cos3 x

. t cos x,

sin5 x
dx
cos3 x

sin4 x
dpcos xq
cos3 x

p1 t2 q2

dt
t3

`1

` t dt
t3
t
1
1
2 ` 2 ln |t| t2 ` C
2t
2
1
1

` 2 ln | arccos x| cos2 x ` C.
2 cos2 x
2

4.4.20.

dx
.
sin x cos x
2

150

. t sin x,

dx

sin2 x cos x

dpsin xq
sin2 x cos2 x

dt

2
t p1 t2 q

1
1
1

`
`
dt
t2
2p1 tq 2p1 ` tq

1 1 1 ` t
` ln
`C
t
2
1t
1
1 1 ` sin x

` ln
` C.
sin x 2 1 sin x

4.4.21.

a2

dx
pa, b 0q.
sin x ` b2 cos2 x
2

. t tan x,

4.4.5

cos2 xdptan xq
a2 sin2 x ` b2 cos2 x

dptan xq

a2 tan2 x ` b2
`a

arctan
tan x ` C.
ab
b

dx

a2 sin2 x ` b2 cos2 x

.
Rpx1 , x2 , , xn q x1 , x2 , , xn .
b
b
m ax`b
p1q Rpx, n ax`b
cx`d , ,
cx`d q , ad bc 0, n,
, m 1 . k ,
t

` ax ` b k1
cx ` d

ad bc
dtk b
, dx
ktk1 dt,
k
a ct
pa ctk q2

R t .
4.4.22.

x`

a
3

1
dx.
p2x ` 3q2

4.4

151

. 2x ` 3 t3 ,

1
3t2
a
dx

dt
t3 ` 2t2 3
x ` 3 p2x ` 3q2

3t2

dt
pt 1qpt2 ` 3t ` 3q

3 ` 1
6t ` 3

` 2
dt
7
t 1 t ` 3t ` 3
?
3
9
2t ` 3
12 3
ln |t 1| ` lnpt2 ` 3t ` 3q
arctan ? ` C.
7
7
7
3
?
t 3 2x ` 3 .

c
dx
3 1 x
4.4.23.
.
1`x1x
.

1x
t3 ,
1`x
x

c
3

6t2 dt
1 t3
,
dx

,
1 ` t3
p1 ` t3 q2

1 ` t3 6t2 dt
2t3 p1 ` t3 q2

dt
3
1 ` t3
?
2 `
1
1
ln |t ` 1| ` lnpt2 t ` 1q 3 arctan ? t
` C.
2
2
3

1 x dx

1`x1x

1x
.

1`x
?
p2q Rpx, ax2 ` bx ` cq , Rpx, yq x, y

, a 0 b2 4ac 0, a 0, b2 4ac 0.
`
b 2 4ac b2
ax2 ` bx ` c a x `
`
,
2a
4a2

a 0 ,
ux`

4ac b2
b
,
, k2
2a
4a2

a
a
Rpu, u2 ` k 2 q,
Rpu, u2 k 2 q,
u k sec t, u k tan t ,
.

152

a 0, b2 4ac 0 ,
b
ux` , k
2a

b2 4ac
,
4a2

a
a
Rpu, u2 k 2 q,
Rpu, k 2 u2 q,
u k sec t, u k sin t ,
.
. , a 0,
a
?
?
ax2 ` bx ` c a x ` t pt a xq,

x t :
x

t2 c
? ,
b 2 at

t ; c 0,
a
?
?
ax2 ` bx ` c tx ` c ptx cq,

x t :

?
2 ct b
x
,
a t2

t ; b2 4ac 0, ax2 ` bx ` c 0
:
ax2 ` bx ` c apx qpx q,

a
ax2 ` bx ` c tpx q,

x t :
x

a t2
,
a t2

t ; Euler
, .

dx
?
.
4.4.24.
2
x x ` 3x 4
?
. x2 ` 3x 4 px 1qpx ` 4q, x2 ` 3x 4 px 1qt,
x

10tdt
t2 ` 4
, dx 2
,
2
t 1
pt 1q2

4.4

153

t2 1 t2 1 10tdt
t2 ` 4 5t pt2 1q2

dt
2
2
t `4
t
arctan ` C
2?
x2 ` 3x 4
` C.
arctan
2px 1q

dx
?

x x2 ` 3x 4

4.4.25.

p1 `

1
?

x2 q

1 x2

dx.

. x sin t p|t| 2 q,

1
?
dx
2
p1 ` x q 1 x2

dt
1 ` sin2 t

csc2 t
dt

1 ` csc2 t

dpcot tq

2 ` cot2 t
cot t
1
? arctan ? ` C
2
2
?
1
1 x2
? arctan ?
` C.
2
2x

, ,
:
2

ex , sinpx2 q, cospx2 q,

sin x cos x a
1
,
, 1 k 2 sin2 x, a
p0 k 1q.
x
x
1 k 2 sin2 x

4.4
1. :

dx
; p2q cos mx cos nxdx; p3q sin mx cos nxdx;
p1q
1 ` cos x

dx
dx
p3q
;
p5q
;
p6q
sin mx sin nxdx;
cos4 x
1 ` sin x

p7q cot 2xdx; p8q sinh x sinh 2xdx; p9q sinh2 x cosh2 xdx.

154
2. :

2
p1q xex dx;

p4q p1 ` ex q1 dx;

1
p7q xp1 x2 q 2 dx;

dx
p10q
;
4 x2

p13q pex ` e2x qdx;

dx
?
? ;
p16q
xp1 ` xq

p19q sin2 2x dx;

3
p22q px2 a2 q 2 dx;

p25q x5 p1 ` xq1 dx;

dx
p28q
;
cos3 x
3. :

p1q ln2 x dx;

p4q x sin2 xdx;

p7q csc3 xdx;

p10q x2 arccos xdx;

2
p13q x3 ex dx;

p16q xex sin xdx;

p19q parcsin xq2 dx;


a
p22q x2 a2 ` x2 dx;
?
p25q e x dx;

p28q x2 arcsin xdx;

p2q

psin xq

p5q

p8q

p11q

xdx
;
4 ` x2
1

p3q

dx;

p2x ` 3x q2 dx;
dx
;
x ln x

p6q

p9q

p12q

dx
;
xp1 xq

pex ` ex q1 dx;
1

x 2 p1 ` xq1 dx;
x2

a
1 ` x3 dx;

dx
;
a2 sin2 x ` b2 cos2 x
x

e dx
dx
a
p17q
;
p18q
;
2 ` ex
px aqpb xq

3
3
p20q px2 ` a2 q 2 dx; p21q pa2 x2 q 2 dx;

parctan xq2
dx
p23q
dx; p24q
;
1 ` x2
px ` aqpx ` bq

p26q pax2 ` bq1 dx; p27q px aq2 px ` bq2 dx;

dx
p29q sin x sin 3xdx; p30q
.
a sin x ` b cos x
p14q

p2q

p5q
p8q
p11q
p14q
p17q
p20q
p23q
p26q
p29q

sin3 x cos xdx;

x2 e3x dx;
x2 sin 2xdx;

a
xp1 x3 qdx;

x2 arctan xdx;

sinpln xqdx;

x2 pln xq2 dx;

ex sin 6xdx;

?
x sin xdx;

?
arctan xdx;

1`x
dx;
x ln
1x

p15q

cospln xqdx;

p3q

p6q

arcsin xp1 xq 2 dx;

lnpx `

p9q

a
1 ` x2 qdx;

x5 ex dx;

e2x sin2 xdx;

x7 p1 x4 q2 dx;

x2 p1 ` x2 q2 dx;

p12q
p15q
p18q
p21q

sin x lnptan xqdx;

p24q

p27q

p30q

sin2 x lnpsin xqdx;


1

x2 px2 2q 2 dx.

4.4

155

4. (m, n ):

p1q sinn xdx;


p2q cosn xdx;
p3q sinn xdx;

n
n
p4q cos xdx; p5q parcsin xq dx;
p6q pln xqn dx;

p7q xn ex dx;
p8q sinm x cosn xdx; p9q xn p1 ` xq1 dx.
5. :

px2 ` 1qdx
dx
p2x ` 3qdx
; p2q
;
p3q
p1q
;
px 2qpx ` 5q
px ` 1q2 px 1q
px ` 1qpx ` 2q2

px3 ` 1qdx
xdx
px 2qdx
p4q
;
p5q
; p6q
;
x3 5x2 ` 6x
px ` 1qp2x ` 1q
x2 3x ` 2

px ` 4qdx
x3 dx
dx
p7q
;
p8q
;
p9q
;
x3 ` 2x 3
px2 ` 1q2
x4 ` x2 ` 1

dx
1 ` x4
4x ` 3
p10q
;
p11q
dx;
p12q
dx;
4
6
1`x
1`x
px 2q3

4
4
dx
x dx
px ` 1qdx
p13q
;
p14q
;
p15q
;
3
2
1`x
x `1
xpx2 ` 1q2

3
dx
dx
x `1
dx;
p17q
;
p18q
.
p16q
3
2
2
3
2
x x
px ` 9q
px ` 1q3
6. Pn pxq n ,

Pn pxq
dx.
px aqn`1
7. :

sin2 x cos x
p1q
dx;
p2q
1 ` 4 cos2 x

sin x cos x
p4q
dx; p5q
sin x ` cos x

dx
p7q
;
p8q
sin x cos4 x

dx
;
p11q
p10q
3 ` cos x

sin x cos x
dx
p3q
;
4 dx;
4
1 ` sin x
sin x ` cos4 x

sin xdx
sin2 x
;
p6q
dx;
sin3 x ` cos3 x
1 ` sin2 x

dx
dx
;
p9q
;
1 ` 3 cos x
p3 ` cos xq sin x

dx
; p12q tan xptan x ` aqdx.
sin xp2 ` cos xq

8. :

c
dx
xa
dx
?
?
p1q
dx;
p3q
;
p2q
;
3
bx
1` 1`x
x x x2
?

x`1`1
dx
dx
?
?
?
;
p5q
dx;
p6q
;
p4q
x`11
p1 x2 q 1 ` x2
x a2 x2
?
3

1 ` x2
x dx
x2 dx
?
p7q
dx;
p8q
;
p9q
.
2 ` x2
1 ` x2
1 2x x2

156

9. :

?
1
12
32
52
2
p2q sin x cos x dx; p3q
p1q sin x cos x dx;
1 ` sin x dx;

dx
dx
x ` sin x
p4q
; p5q
;
p6q
dx.
sinpx ` aq cospx ` bq
sin x sin
1 ` cos x
10. pq (a 0):

dx
In
.
pax2 ` bx ` cqn
11. pq a, b 0, :

dx
Imn
.
px ` aqm px ` bqn

4.5

. , f F
d
F 1 f . ,
,
dx
d
F F 1,
dx
d2
dn
, 2 , n n .
dx
dx
n

dk
P
ak pxq k ,
dx
k0

d0
dx0

1. P n
P

ak pxqpkq pxq.

k0

P n ,
P f n . ,

.
4.5.1. n 0, pn`1q 0 n .
. n . n 0 . n k 1 ,
n k ,
p1 qpkq pk`1q 0

1 pk1 k 1 ,

pk1 pxqdx
k .

4.5

157

4.5.2. , 1 .
. 1 ,
pex q1 1 ex ` pqex 0,

ex C ,
Cex .

1, p0q 1 1 ex ,


.
.
4.5.3. g, h , 1 g ` h.
. ,

` gpxqdx 1
e
1 e gpxqdx ` pgqe gpxqdx
he

gpxqdx

gpxqdx

hpxq e

gpxqdx

dx ` C,

gpxqdx

hpxq e

gpxqdx

dx ` Ce

gpxqdx

, : ,
2 c, 2 c,

p1 1 q1 2 2 cp q 0,

1 1 C .
4.5.4. 0 , 2 2 .
. , ex ex . , ,
, C11 , C21 ,
1 ex ex C11 , 1 ex ` ex C21 .

C1 ex ` C2 ex .

().

158

4.5.5. 0 , 2 2 .
. , cos x sin x , ,
, , C11 , C21 ,
1 sin x cos x C11 , 1 cos x ` sin x C21 .

C1 cos x ` C2 sin x.

().

4.5.6. pq .
, () ,
sin x
1.
lim
x0 x

f 2 pxq f pxq, f p0q 0, f 1 p0q 1.

(4.3)

, f , gpxq f 1 pxq
g 2 pxq gpxq, gp0q 1, g 1 p0q 0.

(4.4)

p1q . f1 , f2 (4.3) , h f1 f2 ,
h2 pxq hpxq, hp0q h1 p0q 0.

1
h2 pxq ` h12 pxq 2phh1 ` h1 h2 q 2phh1 h1 hq 0,

h2 ` h12 , . f1 f2 .
, (4.4) . f (4.3) , f 2 ` g 2 1,
, f , g .
p2q . f (4.3) , .
Newton-Leibniz f 1 g, g 1 f
x
x
t

f pxq
gptqdt
1 f psqds dt
0
0
0
xt
x
f psqdsdt
0 0
xt
sv

x
s
f puqdudv dsdt
0 0
0 0
xtsv
x3
`
f puqdudvdsdt,
x
3!
0 0 0 0

4.5

159

.
f pxq lim

n8

p1qi1

i1

x2i1
.
p2i 1q!

() f , f (4.3).
p3q g f 1 .() , f 1 p0q 1

f 1 0. x y 0 ,
y
f pxq f pyq
f 1 ptqdt 0,
x

f r0, `8q . f , lim f pxq A


x`8

. , x0 0, x x0 f pxq A{2.
x
A
gpxq gpx0 q
f ptqdt gpx0 q px x0 q, @ x x0 .
2
x0
g .
p4q g f 1 {2, f r0, {2s () .
f 2 ` g 2 1 f p{2q 1. , f p{2 xq (4.4).

,
f p{2 xq gpxq, @ x P R.

f , g f 1
f p xq f p{2 px {2qq gpx {2q gp{2 xq f pxq,

f r{2, s () , f .
f p ` xq f pxq f pxq, f p2 ` xq f p ` xq f pxq,

f , 2 .
, sin x f pxq, cos x gpxq, sin x .


, .
4.5.7. b, c , 2 ` b1 ` c 0.

. . ,
,
`

e 2 x

, ,

2 e 2 x ` b1 e 2 x `
` b2
4

` b
c e 2 x .

b2 b x
e 2
4

160
p1q

b2
4

c 0 ,
b

pxq e 2 x pC1 x ` C2 q;
p2q

b2
4

c 0 ,
c
c

b2
b2
2b x
pxq e
C1 cos c
x ` C2 sin c
x ;
4
4

p3q

b2
4

c 0 ,
2b x

pxq e

b
2
b4 c x

C1 e

` C2 e

b2
4

c x

4.5.8. 0 , g , 2 2 ` g.
. f0 :
f0 pxq C1 pxqex ` C2 pxqex ,

,
C11 pxqex ` C21 pxqex 0.

(4.5)

f01 pxq C1 pxqex ` C2 pxqex ,


f02 pxq C11 pxqex ` C21 pxqex ` 2 f0 pxq,

C11 pxqex ` C21 pxqex gpxq,

(4.6)

(4.5) (4.6) C1 pxq, C2 pxq:

1
1
C1 pxq
ex gpxqdx, C2 pxq
ex gpxqdx.
2
2

1
f0 pxq ex
2

1 x
e gpxqdx `
e
2
x

ex gpxqdx.

f pxq , f f0 2 2 , .
.
4.5.9. 0 , g , 2 2 ` g.
. ,

1
1
f0 pxq cos x gpxq sin xdx ` sin x gpxq cos xdx.

4.5

161


4.5
1. b, c , g , 2 ` b1 ` c g.
2. , f 1 p1 ` f 2 q .
3. f R ,
f1

`x ` y
2

f pxq f pyq
, @ x y.
xy

f , .
4.
fn pxq

i1

p1qi1

x2i1
x2i2
, gn pxq
p1qi1
.
p2i 1q!
p2i 2q!
i1

p1q m n
|fm pxq fn pxq| ` |gm pxq gn pxq|

|x|n`1 |x|
e .
pn ` 1q!

tfn u, tgn u Cauchy , . f, g. m 8

|f pxq fn pxq| ` |gpxq gn pxq|

|x|n`1 |x|
e .
pn ` 1q!

p2q |fn pxq| ` |gn pxq| e|x| .


x

|fn pxq fn pyq|


gn ptqdt e|x|`|y| |x y|,
y

n 8 f . g .
x
x
fn pxq
gptqdt
rgn ptq gptqsdt
0

x
f pxq lim fn pxq
n8

gptqdt.
0

x
gpxq 1

f ptqdt.
0

162
5. 4.5.6

sinpx ` yq sin x cos y ` cos x sin y.


6. ex :
(1)
f 1 pxq f pxq, f p0q 1.

(4.7)

.
(2) f (4.7) ,
x
f pxq 1 `

xt
f ptqdt 1 ` x `

f psqdsdt 1 ` x `
0

x2
` .
2!

(3)
n

xi
n8
i!
i1

f pxq 1 ` lim

, (4.7) .
(4) f px ` yq f pxqf pyq.
(5) f pxq ,
lim f pxq 0,

x8

lim f pxq `8.

x`8

(6) x 0 ,
f pxq 1 ` x `

x2
xn
` `
, @ n 1.
2!
n!

7. f p0, `8q ,
2f pxq f px2 q, @ x 0.

f pxq c ln x.
8. p, q , f ra, bs f 2 ` pf 1 ` qf 0. q 0,
f paq f pbq 0, f .

Taylor

, .
, .

5.1

, ,
.
5.1.1 (). f I , x0 P I. 0,

f pxq f px0 qpf pxq f px0 qq, @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I,

x0 f I () , f px0 q () .
x0 P I,
f pxq f px0 qpf pxq f px0 qq, @ x P I,

x0 f I () , f px0 q () .
, () () .
, , .
x0 , ,
.
5.1.1 (Fermat). x0 f I , x0 I .
f x0 , f 1 px0 q 0.
. x0 f (

f ). x0 I ,
0, px0 , x0 ` q I. x0 f

, ,
f pxq f px0 q, @ x P px0 , x0 ` q.

, x P px0 , x0 q ,
f 1 px0 q lim

xx
0

x
0

x0

5.1

f pxq f px0 q
0,
x x0
163

Taylor

164

x P px0 , x0 ` q ,
f 1 px0 q lim

xx`
0

f pxq f px0 q
0,
x x0


f 1 px0 q 0.

. p1q x0 I , f x0 (),
. r0, 1s f pxq x . x0 f I
, I , :
x0 I , x0 f () , f`1 px0 q 0p 0q;
1
x0 I , x0 f () , f
px0 q 0p 0q;

p2q , f pxq |x|, x P r1, 1s x0 0

, f x0 0 , .
p3q f 1 px0 q 0 f . ,

, f pxq x3 , x0 0 f , .
5.1.2 (Darboux). pq f ra, bs , f 1 f`1 paq
f1 pbq .
. k f`1 paq f1 pbq . gpxq f pxq kx,
1
1
1
1
g`
paq g
pbq pf`
paq kqpf
pbq kq 0,
1
paq 0,
, k f a b ; , g`
1
g
pbq 0, g a b , g ra, bs

. Fermat , g 1 pq 0, f 1 pq k.

. , f I , f
1

. , Dirichlet .
5.1.1. f pxq x3 x ` 1 r1, 1s .
. f pxq x3 x ` 1 , r1, 1s
. :
f 1 pxq 3x2 1 0

x ?13 , ?13 . f 1, ?13 , ?13 , 1. f


:
1
2
1
2
f p1q 1, f p ? q 1 ` ? , f p ? q 1 ? , f p1q 1.
3
3 3
3
3 3

f 1 `

2
?
,
3 3

2
?
.
3 3

, . .

5.1

165

5.1.2. f pxq x3 x2 ` 1 r1, 2s .


. : f 1 pxq 3x2 2x 0 x 0, 32 . f
1, 0, 32 , 2, f :
2
23
f p1q 1, f p0q 1, f p q
, f p2q 5.
3
27

f 1, 5.
, ,


.
.
5.1.3. f : R R ,
lim f pxq lim f pxq `8p8q,

x8

x`8

f R ( ) .
. lim f pxq lim f pxq `8. , M 0
x8

x`8

|x| M f pxq f p0q. f , rM, M s


. f x0 , f px0 q f p0q ( 0 P rM, M s).
,
f px0 q f p0q f pxq, @ x P p8, M q Y pM, `8q,

x0 f p8, `8q .

, , pa, `8q ,
: f
lim f pxq lim f pxq `8p8q
x`8

xa`

f pa, `8q () .
5.1.3. ai , i 1, 2, , n R n . R ,
ai p1 i nq .

. x P R,
f pxq

px ai q2 , x P R.

i1

f . , |x| `8 , f pxq `8,


, f . f , .
f 1 pxq 2

i1

px ai q 0

Taylor

166

n
1
ai ,
n i1

.
p

5.1.4. p 1, f pxq x

x
, x P r0, `8q .
p

. , f p0q 0, x `8 , f pxq 8.

f pxq , .
x
0

f 1 pxq 1 xp1 0

x 1, 0 f p0q f p1q 1 1{p,


x 1 ,

5.2

1
f pxq f p1q 1 , @ x 0.
p

p
,
p1
x

xp
1
` , @ x 0.
p
q

a, b 0, x ab p1 ,
ab

bq
ap
` .
p
q

Young , ap bq .

5.1.5. .
x M1 M2 , M1 M2
v1 v2 . M1 A p0, aq x M2
C pb, cq , a, b, c 0. x .

, A x C
, . A p0, aq
px, 0q C pb, cq
f pxq

1a 2
1a 2
a ` x2 `
c ` pb xq2 .
v1
v2

, |x| `8 f pxq `8, f . f ,


f 1 pxq

1
x
1
bx
?
a
,

v1 a2 ` x2
v2 c2 ` pb xq2

5.1

167
y
A = (0, a)

x
0

B = (b, c)

5.3
, x 0 f 1 pxq 0; x b f 1 pxq 0. x P p0, bq , f 1 pxq
f 1 pxq

1 x2 12
1 pb xq2 12

,
v1 a2 ` x2
v2 c2 ` pb xq2

f 1 pxq p0, bq . , f pxq


, f , x ,
1
x
1
bx
?
a

.
v1 a2 ` x2
v2 c2 ` pb xq2


sin
sin
sin
v1

,
.
v1
v2
sin
v2

.
, x , ,


5.1
1. :
p1q f pxq 2x3 x4 ; p2q f pxq x2 3x ` 2; p3q f pxq x `

1
px 0q.
x

2. :
p1q f pxq x4 p1 xq, x P r0, 1s; p2q f pxq x4 2x2 ` 5, x P r2, 2s.
3. f pxq sin3 x ` cos3 x px P Rq .

Taylor

168
4. f pxq x3 ex px P Rq .
5. f pxq

ln x
px 0q .
x

6. .
7. p 1, Bernoulli : p1 ` xqp 1 ` px, @ x 1.
8. pq f pxq p8, `8q , limx8 f 1 pxq A, limx`8 f 1 pxq B.

, A B, P p0, 1q, P R,
f 1 pq A ` p1 qB.
9. pq f pxq I n , x1 , x2 , , xk I . ,
P I,

1 pnq
f px1 q ` f pnq px2 q ` ` f pnq pxk q f pnq pq.
k
10. pq f pxq I , x0 P I. lim f 1 pxq , f 1 pxq x0
xx0

11. pq f pxq pa, bq , f 1 pxq , f 1 pxq pa, bq .

5.2

5.2.1 (Rolle). f ra, bs pa, bq f paq f pbq.


P pa, bq, f 1 pq 0.
. f ra, bs M m.
M m, f f 1 0; M m, f paq f pbq m M

f P pa, bq Fermat f 1 pq 0.

5.2.2 (Lagrange). f ra, bs , pa, bq ,


P pa, bq,
f 1 pq

f pbq f paq
, f pbq f paq f 1 pqpb aq.
ba

f pbq f paq
px aq ,
F pxq f pxq f paq `
ba

F paq F pbq 0, F Rolle . P pa, bq, F 1 pq 0.


.

5.2

169

. Lagrange : .
lpxq f paq `

f pbq f paq
px aq,
ba

lpxq lpaq f paq, lpbq f pbq , pa, f paqq


pb, f pbqq . Lagrange X ,
.
y
y

x
0

x
0

5.4 Rolle Lagrange


5.2.3 (Cauchy). f, g ra, bs , pa, bq , g 1 pxq
0, @ x P pa, bq. P pa, bq,
f 1 pq
f pbq f paq
1 .
gpbq gpaq
g pq

. Rolle g 1 0 gpbq gpaq.

f pbq f paq
F pxq f pxq f paq `
pgpxq gpaqq ,
gpbq gpaq

F paq F pbq 0, F Rolle , P pa, bq, F 1 pq 0.


.

: gpxq x, Cauchy Lagrange .


. ()
() , Newton-Leibniz
.
5.2.1. | sin x sin y| |x y|, @ x, y P R.
. psin xq1 cos x, Lagrange
| sin x sin y| | cos ||x y| |x y|, @ x, y P R.

. , f 1 , f Lipschitz ,
.

Taylor

170

5.2.2. f ra, bs , pa, bq , f paq f pbq 0.


, P pa, bq,
f 1 pq ` f pq 0.

. gpxq ex f pxq, gpxq ra, bs , pa, bq ,


gpaq ea f paq 0, gpbq eb f pbq 0.

Rolle , P pa, bq, g 1 pq 0.


g 1 pxq ex f pxq ` ex f 1 pxq,


e 0, f pq ` f 1 pq 0.
5.2.3. ex 1 ` x, @ x P R, x 0 .
. ex Lagrange
ex 1 ex e0 ex x, P p0, 1q.

x 0 , ex 1; x 0 ex 1. , x 0 ex 1 x.

. ai 0 p1 i nq,
A

n
n

1
1
ai pq, G
ain pq.
n i1
i1

ex 1 ` x

n
n
A
1 ai
1 ln ai
e G

G
n i1 G
n i1

n
1 `
ai
1 ` ln
1,
n i1
G

A G, ai G. .

5.2.4. f pxq ra, bs , pa, bq . f paq f pbq 0,


c P ra, bs, P pa, bq,
f pcq

f 2 pq
pc aqpc bq.
2

. c P pa, bq,
F pxq f pxq

f pcq
px aqpx bq, x P ra, bs.
pc aqpc bq

F paq F pcq F pbq 0, Rolle , 1 P pa, cq, 2 P pc, bq,


F 1 p1 q 0, F 1 p2 q 0.

5.2

171

F 1 pxq r1 , 2 s , Rolle , P p1 , 2 q,
F 2 pq 0.

F 2 pxq f 2 pxq

2f pcq
,
pc aqpc bq


x .

. . , f n , f pxq 0
n txi uni1 , c P ra, bs, P pa, bq,
f pcq

n
1 pnq
f pq pc xi q.
n!
i1

(5.1)

. , c xi
p1 i nq,
n

f pcq
px xi q, x P ra, bs.
i1 pc xi q i1

F pxq f pxq n

F pxq n ` 1 c, xi p1 i nq, F Rolle ,

P pa, bq, F pnq pq 0. n ni1 px xi q n


n! .

f n , txi uni1 ra, bs n ,


pn1 pxq

px xj q
f pxi q,
pxi xj q
i1 ji

pn1 n 1 , f txi uni1 ,


f Lagrange . f pn1 n , (5.1) (
pn1 n )
f pxq pn1 pxq

n
1 pnq
f pq px xi q, P pa, bq.
n!
i1

(5.2)

, ,
.
5.2.5. pLegendreq
, n 1.

dn 2
px 1qn p1, 1q n
dxn

d 2
. , px2 1qn 1 1, Rolle ,
px 1qn
dx
d 2
p1, 1q , 11 . n 1 , 1 1
px 1qn ,
dx

Taylor

172

d2 2
px 1qn p1, 11 q p11 , 1q 21 22 .
dx2
d2 2
n 2, 1 1
px 1qn , 1, 21 , 22 1.
dx2
d3
Rolle , 3 px2 1qn p1, 1q .
dx
n .

Rolle

. ,
.

5.2
1. x3 3x ` c r0, 1s .
2. f pxq ra, bs , pa, bq , f paq f pbq 0. ,
P pa, bq, f 1 pq 2f pq.
1
1
pbq 0. ,
paqf
3. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f pbq 0, f`

P pa, bq, f 2 pq 0.
4. ai , pi 0,

pi 1. ex 1 ` x

i1
n

pi ai

i1

aipi . ()

i1

5. f pxq ra, bs , pa, bq . l lpaq f paq,


lpbq f pbq , c P ra, bs, P pa, bq,
f pcq lpcq

f 2 pq
pc aqpc bq.
2

6. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f 1 paq f pbq 0. ,


c P ra, bs, P pa, bq,
f pcq
7. ex

1 p3q
f pqpc aq2 pc bq.
6

dn n x
px e q n .
dxn

8. f ra, bs , M 0,
|f 1 pxq| M,

@ x P ra, bs.

f paq ` f pbq 1

f pxq
M pb aq,
2
2

@ x P ra, bs.

5.3

173

9. pq f x0 , xn x0 yn , xn x0 , yn x0 ,
lim

n8

f pxn q f pyn q
f 1 px0 q.
xn yn

10. pq f pa, bq , a xi yi b, i 1, 2, , n. ,
P pa, bq,
n

rf pyi q f pxi qs f 1 pq

i1

pyi xi q.

i1

11. pq f ra, `8q ,


f paq 0,

|f 1 pxq| |f pxq|,

@ x P ra, `8q.

f 0.

5.3

.
, .
5.3.1. f ra, bs , pa, bq . f 1 pxq 0, @ x P pa, bq,
f .
. x, y P ra, bs, Lagrange , P pa, bq,
f pxq f pyq f 1 pqpx yq 0,


f .

5.3.2. f ra, bs , pa, bq . f


f .
1

. f , , x0 P pa, bq ,
f 1 px0 q lim

xx0

f pxq f px0 q
,
x x0

f pxq f px0 q
, f 1 px0 q 0.
x x0
, f 1 pxq 0, x P pa, bq. x1 x2 P ra, bs, Lagrange

f ,

, P px1 , x2 q,
f px2 q f px1 q f 1 pqpx2 x1 q 0,

Taylor

174

f .

. f 0, f ; f 0, f
1

. , , f pxq x3 , f 1 p0q 0.
, ,
, .
5.3.3 (). f I , f
, f : I f pIq , .
. f 1 pxq 0, @ x P I, Lagrange f , 3.4.7
f , 3.3.6 f , 4.1.6 f


.
.

5.3.4. 0, f px0 , x0 ` q , px0 , x0 q Y px0 , x0 ` q


.
f 1 pxq 0, x P px0 , x0 q; f 1 pxq 0, x P px0 , x0 ` q,

x0 f ;
f 1 pxq 0, x P px0 , x0 q; f 1 pxq 0, x P px0 , x0 ` q,

x0 f .
. . 5.3.2 f px0 , x0 s ,
rx0 , x0 ` q , x0 .

5.3.1. x 1 x 0,
x
lnp1 ` xq x.
1`x

. f pxq lnp1 ` xq x, x 1. f p0q 0,


f 1 pxq

x
1
1
,
1`x
1`x

1 x 0 f 1 pxq 0, x 0 f 1 pxq 0, f pxq p1, 0q


, p0, `8q , f pxq f p0q 0, @ x 1,
x 0 .

, gpxq lnp1 ` xq
g 1 pxq

x
,
1`x

1
1
x

,
2
1 ` x p1 ` xq
p1 ` xq2

5.3

175

gpxq p1, 0q , p0, `8q ,




gpxq gp0q 0, x 0 .
5.3.2. b a 1, bab aba .
. ,
bab aba ln b ` b ln a ln a ` a ln b

f pxq

ln a
ln b

.
a1
b1

ln x
(x 1). ,
x1
f 1 pxq

px 1q x ln x
0, @ x 1.
xpx 1q2

f pxq p1, `8q , .

5.3.5. f x0 , f 1 px0 q 0.
p1q f 2 px0 q 0, x0 f ( ) ;
p2q f 2 px0 q 0, x0 f ( ) .

. p1q . f 2 px0 q 0, ,
lim

xx0

f 1 pxq f 1 px0 q
f 1 pxq
lim
f 2 px0 q 0,
xx0
x x0
x x0

, 0, x P px0 , x0 q f 1 pxq 0; x P px0 , x0 ` q


f 1 pxq 0. 5.3.4 x0 f () .

5.3.6. f x0 , x0 f p q ,
2

f px0 q 0p 0q.

. x0 f , x0 . f 2 px0 q 0,
, x0 f , .

. x0 f , f px0 q 0, x0 ,
2

. , .
x3
, @ x 0, x 0 .
6
x3
. f pxq sin x x ` ,
6

5.3.3. sin x x

f 1 pxq cos x 1 `

x2
, f 2 pxq sin x ` x 0.
2

f 2 0 f 1 . f 1 p0q 0, x 0 f 1 pxq f 1 p0q 0, f pxq


r0, `8q . f p0q 0 f pxq 0, @ x 0. f 2
x 0 0, f 1 r0, `8q , f r0, `8q

Taylor

176

5.3.4. f pxq R . f , P R,
2

f pq 0.

. () f 2 , Darboux f 2 . f 2
, f 1 . x0 P R, f 1 px0 q 0. f 1 px0 q 0,
x x0
x
f pxq f px0 q

f 1 ptqdt f 1 px0 qpx x0 q `8, x `8.

x0

f 1 px0 q 0, x x0
x0
f px0 q f pxq
f 1 ptqdt f 1 px0 qpx0 xq 8, x 8.
x

f .

5.3
1. :
p1q arcsin x ` arccos x

2,

@ x P r1, 1s;

2x
p2q 2 arctan x ` arcsin 1`x
2 , @ x 1.

2. :
x3

, @ x P p0, q;
3
2
2x

p2q
sin x x, @ x P p0, q;

2
x2
x2
p3q x
lnp1 ` xq x
, @ x 0;
2
2p1 ` xq
p1q tan x x `

p4q ny n1 px yq xn y n nxn1 px yq (n 1), @ x y 0.


3. ex 1 ` x `

x2
xn
` `
, @ x 0.
2!
n!

x
tan x

, @ x P p0, 2 q.
x
sin x
? ?
?
5. 1, 2, 3 3, , n n, ?
4.

x
tan x

, x P p0, {2q.
sin x
x
`
1 x
px 0q .
7. 1 `
x
6.

8. pq

1
1
, x P p0, q.
sin x x

5.4

177

9. f ra, bs . f 2 0, c P pa, bq f , c
f ra, bs .
10. f pxq I , .
11. f pxq R . lim

x8

f pxq
0, P R, f 2 pq 0.
|x|

12. pq f p0q 0, f 1 pxq ,

5.4

f pxq
p0, `8q .
x

, f , f 2 0, f
. , (5.2) (n 2), f ra, bs ,
f pxq lpxq

1 2
f pqpx aqpx bq, P pa, bq,
2

(5.3)

lpxq lpaq f paq, lpbq f pbq ,


lpxq

f pbq f paq
f pbq f paq
px aq ` f paq, lpxq f pbq
pb xq.
ba
ba

(5.4)

, f 2 0 ,
f pxq lpxq, @ x P pa, bq.

(5.5)

,
f pxq lpxq maxtlpaq, lpbqu maxtf paq, f pbqu, @ x P ra, bs.

5.4.1 (). f I . a b P I,
(5.5) , f I .

(5.5) , .
, . (5.5) ,
.
y

x
0

x
0

5.5

Taylor

178

(5.4) , f pxq lpxq


f pxq f paq
f pbq f paq
f pbq f pxq

, @ x P pa, bq.
xa
ba
bx

(5.6)

f pxq f paq
f pbq f pxq

, @ x P pa, bq.
xa
bx

(5.6) : , k, l 0,

(5.7)
m
n
,
k
l

m
m`n
n

.
k
k`l
l

(5.7) ,
f pxq f paq
pf pxq f paqq ` pf pbq f pxqq
f pbq f pxq

,
xa
px aq ` pb xq
bx

(5.6).
x P ra, bs , x
x ta ` p1 tqb, t

bx
P r0, 1s.
ba

lpxq lpxq tf paq ` p1 tqf pbq. (5.5)


f pta ` p1 tqbq tf paq ` p1 tqf pbq, @ t P p0, 1q.

5.4.1. Young .
f pxq ex , f 2 pxq ex 0 f () . ,
a, b 0, p, q p 1, 1{p ` 1{q 1 ,
1

ab e p ln a

` q1 ln bq

1 ln ap 1 ln bq
ap
bq
e
` e

` ,
p
q
p
q

Young .
,
5.4.1 (Jensen ). f I . f
n

xi P I, i 0 pi 1, , nq,
i 1,
i1

n
`
i1

n

i xi
i f pxi q.
i1

5.4

179

. . n . n 1 ,
n 2 . n k , n k ` 1 ,
0 k`1 1,
k

i
1.
1

k`1
i1

,
f

` k`1

`
i xi f p1 k`1 q

i
xi ` k`1 xk`1
1 k`1
i1

i1

p1 k`1 qf
p1 k`1 q

k`1

k
`

i
xi ` k`1 f pxk`1 q
1

k`1
i1

i
f pxi q ` k`1 f pxk`1 q
1 k`1
i1

i f pxi q.

i1

n k ` 1 , .
5.4.2. .

f pxq ln x px 0q. f 2 pxq x2 0 f () .


Jensen , ai 0
1
a1 ` a2 ` ` an
pln a1 ` ln a2 ` ` ln an q ln
,
n
n

pa1 a2 an q n

1
pa1 ` a2 ` ` an q,
n

@ ai 0 p1 i nq.

, .
5.4.2 (). f I , ra, bs I I
, f ra, bs Lipschitz . ,
.
. , a1 , b1 P I, a1 a, b b1 . x y P ra, bs,
f ,
f pa1 q f pxq
f pyq f pxq
f pa1 q f paq

1
a a
a1 x
yx
f pb1 q f pbq
f pb1 q f pyq

b1 y
b1 b

Taylor

180

! f pa1 q f paq f pb1 q f pbq )


M max
,
,
a1 a
b1 b

|f pxq f pyq| M |x y|, @ x, y P ra, bs.




f ra, bs Lipschitz .

b b

5.6
. ,
f p0q 1, f pxq 0, x 0

r0, `8q , x 0 .
, .
5.4.3. f I , f
x1 x2 P I,
f

` x1 ` x2
2

1
f px1 q ` f px2 q .
2

( )

. . a b P I, lpxq (5.4) .
, gpxq f pxq lpxq . g , g
x0 P ra, bs M , M 0 . x0 a x0 b,
M 0; x0 P pa, bq, x0 pa ` bq{2. a x0
x1 2x0 a, x1 P ra, bs,
M gpx0 q g

` a ` x1
2

1
gpaq ` gpx1 q M,
2

M gpaq 0.

, x0 ,
x0 . ,

5.4

181

5.4.4. pq f I , f I ,
f .
. f x0 . a, b P I, a x0 b. x0 ta ` p1 tqb,
t P p0, 1q.
max f f px0 q tf paq ` p1 tqf pbq t max f ` p1 tq max f max f,

f paq f pbq max f , f f px0 q.

5.4.3. f pxq ln x px 0q .
x, y 0 ,
?
?
p x yq2 0

xy

1
px ` yq,
2

x`y
1
pln x ` ln yq ln
,
2
2
ln x .

.
5.4.5 (). pq f I , x I , f
x , f1 pxq f`1 pxq.
. x1 , x2 P I, x1 x x2 , f ,
f pxq f px1 q
f px2 q f pxq

,
x x1
x2 x
f pxq f px1 q
x1 ,
x x1
f pxq f px1 q
1
, lim
f
pxq ,
x x1
x1 x
f

1
f
pxq

, x2 x` ,

f px2 q f pxq
.
x2 x

f px2 q f pxq
,
x2 x
1
f
pxq lim
x2

x`

f px2 q f pxq
1
f`
pxq,
x2 x

. p1q , f pxq |x| , x 0


();
p2q .

Taylor

182

.
5.4.6. f I ,
p1q f f 1 ;
p2q f x0 P I, x P I,

f pxq f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` f px0 q.

x0

5.7

. p1q f , x1 x2 .
x P px1 , x2 q
f pxq f px1 q
f px2 q f px1 q
f px2 q f pxq

,
x x1
x2 x1
x2 x

x x1 x x2 ,
f 1 px1 q

f px2 q f px1 q
f 1 px2 q,
x2 x1

f 1 .
, f , a x b, , 1 P pa, xq, 2 P px, bq,

f pxq f paq f 1 p1 qpx aq, f pbq f pxq f 1 p2 qpb xq.

f 1 , f 1 p1 q f 1 p2 q,
f pxq f paq
f pbq f pxq
f 1 p1 q f 1 p2 q
.
xa
bx

(5.6)-(5.7) f .
p2q f , x0 P I. x x0 , p1q ,
f 1 px0 q

f pxq f px0 q
;
x x0

x x0 , p1q ,
f px0 q f pxq
f 1 px0 q;
x0 x

f pxq f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` f px0 q.

, , a x b,
f pxq f paq
f pbq f pxq
f 1 pxq
,
xa
bx

5.4

183


(5.6)-(5.7) f .

. ,
. ,
5.4.7. pq f I . f f1
, f . .
. f Jensen . , x0 P I,
1
Lpxq f
px0 qpx x0 q ` f px0 q, gpxq f pxq Lpxq.
1
1
1
1
1
g
pxq f
pxq f
px0 q. f
, x x0 g
pxq 0;
1
x x0 , g
pxq 0. 4.3.1 , x0

g , x0 g . g gpx0 q 0,
1
f pxq Lpxq f
px0 qpx x0 q ` f px0 q, x P I.

, xi P I, i 0,

i 1. x0

i1
n

(5.8)

i xi , (5.8)

i1

1
i f pxi q f
px0 q

i1

i pxi x0 q ` f px0 q

i1

i1

f px0 q,


f Jensen .
.
5.4.8. f I , f f 2 0.

. f , f f 1 ,
f 1 f 2 .

5.4.4. p 1,
` a ` b p
2

ap ` bp
, @ a, b 0.
2

. a b . a, b 0. f pxq xp ,
x 0. f 2 pxq ppp 1qxp2 0, f pxq p0, `8q ,
f

`a ` b

f paq ` f pbq
, @ a, b 0.
2


Taylor

184

5.4.5. P pa, bq , x px, 0q P


.
, P x , px0 , 0q, f pxq |x x0 |
; P x ,
f pxq

a
px aq2 ` b2 , x P R

,
xa
f 1 pxq a
,
px aq2 ` b2

1
px aq2
b2
f 2 pxq a

3
3 0,
px aq2 ` b2
rpx aq2 ` b2 s 2
rpx aq2 ` b2 s 2

f pxq .
, f
f

`x ` y
2

P = (a, b)

1
f pxq ` f pyq ,
2

P , px, 0q, py, 0q

P P
, .
5.8
5.4
1. :
p1q f pxq xp px 0, 0 p 1q; p2q f pxq ax pa 0q; p3q f pxq x ln x.
2. f pxq ln


x
0,
.
sin x
2

3. f pxq ra, bs , pa, bq , f paq f pbq 0,


c P pa, bq f pcq 0. , P pa, bq, f 2 pq 0.
4. , f , g I , maxtf, gu I .
5. f pxq gpxq , f , f pgpxqq .
6. .

5.4

185

7. a, b 0, :
2 arctan

a`b
arctan a ` arctan b.
2

8. ai 0 p1 i nq, :
1
a1

9. ai 0 p1 i nq,

1
a2

n
` `

1
an

?
n

a1 a2 an .

ai 1,

i1

xa1 1 xa2 2 xann

ai xi , @ xi 0,

i1

.
10. f I , x0 I . x0 f , f
x0 , x0 .
11. , R .
12. pq f pxq I , x0 P I, 0,

f pxq px0 , x0 ` q , f pxq I .


1
1
13. pq f I , x0 I . f
px0 q k f`
px0 q,

f pxq kpx x0 q ` f px0 q, @ x P I.

Jensen .
14. pq I , g : ra, bs I .

Jensen
b
1 b

gpxqdx
pgpxqqdx.
ba a
ba a
15. f ra, bs , Hadamard
b
`a ` b
1
f paq ` f pbq

f pxqdx
.
f
2
ba a
2
16. pq f p8, `8q , x P R,
f px ` hq ` f px hq 2f pxq
0,
h0
h2
lim

f pxq .

Taylor

186

5.5

, ,
: f , f , f
, f , f .
: . f x0 ,
, x0 f ; . lim` f pxq 8
xx0

lim f pxq 8 x x0 f ; lim rf pxq pax ` bqs 0


x`8

xx0

lim rf pxq pax ` bqs 0, y ax ` b f .


x8

5.5.1. f pxq x3 .
: f 1 pxq 3x2 0, f . f 2 pxq 6x, f
p8, 0q , p0, `8q . f , x 8 f pxq 8,
x `8 f pxq `8. , f .
y
y

y = x3

x
y = x1/2

x
0

5.9
1

5.5.2. f pxq x 2 .
f p0, `8q. :
3 5
1 3
f 1 pxq x 2 0, f 2 pxq x 2 0,
2
4

f . lim` f pxq `8, x 0 f ;


x0

, lim f pxq 0, y 0 f ().


x`8

5.5

187

5.5.3. f pxq

1
.
1 ` x2

, :
f 1 pxq

2x
3x2 1
2
,
f
pxq

2
,
p1 ` x2 q2
p1 ` x2 q3

1
f 0, ? . f p8, 0s , r0, `8q
3
1
1
1
1
, p8, ? q p ? , `8q , p ? , ? q .
3
3
3
3
lim f pxq 0, y 0 f .

x8

y
y=

1
1 + x2
x

5.10 ()
5.5.4. f pxq

2x
.
1 ` x2

. :
f 1 pxq

2p1 x2 q
4xpx2 3q
2
,
f
pxq

.
p1 ` x2 q2
p1 ` x2 q3

x 1 f , f p8, 1q , p1, 1q , p1, `8q

. f p1q 1 f , f p1q 1 f .
?
?
?
3, 0 f , f p8, 3q , p 3, 0q ,
?
?
p0, 3q , p 3, `8q .
lim f pxq 0, y 0 f .
x8

y
y=

2x
1 + x2
x

5.11 ()

Taylor

188

5.5
1. x0 f , f 2 px0 q 0.
f pxq
8, f .
x8 x

2. lim

3.
p1q f pxq sin3 x ` cos3 x, x P R;

1 2x
` 1, x 0;
x2
?
p4q f pxq 1 ` x2 , x P R.
p2q f pxq

p3q f pxq x3 x2 x ` 1, x P R;
4.
2

p1q f pxq ex , x P R;
p2q f pxq p2 ` xqe x , x 0;
1
p3q f pxq pex ` ex q, x P R; p4q f pxq x2 ex , x P R.
2
5. f pxq x3 ` px ` q , f pxq 0

p, q .
6. , : R , f p0q 0,
lim pf pxq |x|q 0 ?

|x|`8

5.6

LH
opital

, lim

xx0

f pxq
.
gpxq

:
(1) p 00 q : x x0 , f pxq 0, gpxq 0;
(2) p 8
8 q : x x0 , f pxq 8, gpxq 8.

.
, .
5.6.1 (LHopital ). f , g pa, bq , g 1 pxq 0, @ x P pa, bq.

lim f pxq 0 lim gpxq.

xa`

xa`

lim

xa`

f 1 pxq
g 1 pxq

5.6 LHopital

189

( 8),
lim

xa`

f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
.
gpxq xa` g pxq

. f paq gpaq 0, f ra, bq . Cauchy ,


@ x P pa, bq, P pa, xq,
f pxq f paq
f 1 pq
f pxq

1 .
gpxq
gpxq gpaq
g pq

x a` , a` ,
f 1 pq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
,
1
g pq
xa` g pxq

lim

xa`

f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
.
`
gpxq xa g pxq

(5.9)

1
paq 0, :
. p1q f`1 paq g`

lim

xa`

f pxq
f 1 pxq
f 2 pxq
lim 1
lim 2
,
`
`
gpxq xa g pxq xa g pxq

.
p2q pa, bq p8, bq pa, 8q , :
f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
,
x8 gpxq
x8 g pxq
lim

f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
.
x`8 gpxq
x`8 g pxq
lim

1
.
t
p3q , (5.9) (),

, (5.9) , x 0 f pxq x2 sin x1 , gpxq x


.
5.6.1.
lim

x0

x sin x
.
x3

. LHopital
x sin x
1 cos x
sin x
1
lim
lim
.
3
2
x0
x0
x0 6x
x
3x
6
lim

5.6.2. f 2 px0 q ,
f px0 ` hq f px0 q f 1 px0 qh
.
h0
h2
lim

Taylor

190

. LHopital
f px0 ` hq f px0 q f 1 px0 qh
f 1 px0 ` hq f 1 px0 q

lim
h0
h0
h2
2h
1 2
f px0 q.
2
lim

5.6.3. lim re1 p1 ` x1 qx sx .


x8

. f pxq,
lnp1 ` x1 q x1

`
1
ln f pxq x x ln 1 `
1
.
x
x2

y 1{x, LHopital
lnp1 ` yq y
p1 ` yq1 1
1

lim
,
y0
y0
y2
2y
2

lim ln f pxq lim

x8

lim f pxq e1{2 .


x8

5.6.2 (LHopital ). f , g pa, bq , g 1 pxq 0, @ x P pa, bq.

lim gpxq 8.

xa`

lim

xa`

f 1 pxq
l
g 1 pxq

( 8),
lim

xa`

f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim 1
l.
gpxq xa` g pxq

. l , l 8 . ,
0, 0, x P pa, a ` q
l

f 1 pxq

1
l` .
2
g pxq
2

c a ` , x P pa, cq , Cauchy , P px, cq,


f pxq f pcq
f 1 pq
1 .
gpxq gpcq
g pq

f pxq f pcq `

f 1 pq `
gpxq gpcq ,
g 1 pq

f pxq
f 1 pq f pcq f 1 pq gpcq
1
`
1
.
gpxq
g pq
gpxq
g pq gpxq

(5.10)

5.6 LHopital

191

(5.10) gpxq 8 px a` q , ,
x P pa, a ` q
f pxq

l ,

gpxq


.
. .
5.6.4. f pa, `8q .
p1q lim x f 1 pxq 1, lim f pxq `8.
x`8

x`8

p2q 0,
lim p f pxq ` x f 1 pxqq ,

x`8

lim f pxq

x`8

. p1q x `8 , ln x `8,
f pxq
f 1 pxq
lim
lim x f 1 pxq 1,
1
x`8 ln x
x`8
x`8
x
lim

, f pxq `8 px `8q.
p2q 0 , x `8 px `8q,
x1 f ` x f 1
x f
lim

x`8
x`8 x
x1

1
lim
p f pxq ` x f 1 q .
x`8

lim f pxq lim

x`8

5.6
1. :
1
ex 1
tan x x
;
p2q lim
;
p3q lim x 1x ;
x0 sin x
x0 x sin x
x1
`1
` tan x 12
ax xa
1
x
p4q lim
;
;
p5q lim
x
; p6q lim
xa x a
x0 x
x0
e 1
x
`1
1 sin2 x
x cot x 1
1
2
p7q lim
;
p8q
lim
;
p9q lim 2
;
2
2
x0
x1
x0
x
1x
x
sin2 x

p1q lim

2. pa 0q:
`

lnpx ln xq
x 1{x
1
; p2q lim tan
; p3q lim x p1 ` qx e ;
a
x8
x8
x
2x ` 1
x
ax
bx
e

e
p4q lim xx ;
p5q lim
;
p6q lim ln x lnp1 xq;
x0 sin ax sin bx
x0`
x1
x
x
1
`

1
`
2
e `e
p7q lim
; p8q lim
arccos x x ;
arctan x ln x .
p9q lim
4
x`8
x`8 2
x0
x
p1q

lim

x`8

Taylor

192
3. :
p1q lim

x0

` sin x
x

1
x2

, p2q lim

` ax1 ` ax2 ` ` axn x1

x0

pai 0q.

4. f 3 px0 q ,

1
f px0 ` 3hq 3f px0 ` 2hq ` 3f px0 ` hq f px0 q .
3
h0 h
lim

5. f x0 2 , f 2 px0 q 0. , h

, phq p0 1q,
f px0 ` hq f px0 q f 1 px0 ` hqh.

lim 12 .
h0

f pxq
0.
x`8 x

6. f pxq pa, `8q , lim f 1 pxq 0, lim


x`8

7. f pxq pa, `8q , lim rf pxq ` f 1 pxqs l, lim f pxq l.


x`8

x`8

(: ex f pxq.)
8. ai P R p1 i nq,
lim

x0

1 cospa1 xq cospa2 xq cospan xq


.
x2

9. f 2 px0 q , f 1 px0 q 0.

1
1
.
lim
1
xx0 f pxq f px0 q
f px0 qpx x0 q
10. pq a1 P p0, q, an`1 sin an pn 1q. lim

n8

5.7

nan

3.

Taylor

. f
, :
(1) f pxq x0 ,
f pxq f px0 q op1q px x0 q,

, x0 f f px0 q .
(2) f pxq x0 ,
f pxq rf px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 qs opx x0 q px x0 q,

5.7 Taylor

193

, x0 f L ,
Lpxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q.
(3) f 2 px0 q , 5.6.2,
1
f pxq rf px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` f 2 px0 qpx x0 q2 s oppx x0 q2 q px x0 q,
2

f x0 . ,
5.7.1 ( Peano Taylor ). f x0 n ,
pq f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q `
`

1 2
f px0 qpx x0 q2 `
2!

1 pnq
f px0 qpx x0 qn ` oppx x0 qn q px x0 q.
n!

f pnq px0 q
Rn pxq Rn pf, xq f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` `
px x0 qn ,
n!

Rn pxq oppx x0 qn q px x0 q. . n 1, 2
. n k pq , n k ` 1 , f 1 pxq
,
1
Rk`1
pf, xq Rk pf 1 , xq oppx x0 qk q px x0 q.

LHopital
lim

xx0

1
Rk`1
pf, xq
Rk`1 pf, xq

lim
0,
k`1
xx0 pk ` 1qpx x0 qk
px x0 q

pq n k ` 1 , .

Rn Taylor . f ,

. , ,
x
x
f pxq f px0 q `
f 1 ptqdt f px0 q `
f 1 ptqdpt xq
x0
x0
x
x

f px0 q ` f 1 ptqpt xq `
f 2 ptqpx tqdt
x0
x
x0
1
f px0 q ` f px0 qpx x0 q `
f 2 ptqpx tqdt,
x0

(). .

Taylor

194

5.7.2 (Taylor). f pa, bq n`1 , x0 , x P pa, bq.


px, x0 q( px0 , xq) , , Taylor
Rn pxq

1
f pn`1q pqpx x0 qn`1 , pLagrange q
pn ` 1q!

Rn pxq

1 pn`1q
f
pqpx qn px x0 q. pCauchy q
n!

. , t
F ptq f ptq `

f pkq ptq
px tqk , t P pa, bq.
k!
k1

t ,
F 1 ptq f 1 ptq `

n pk`1q

f pkq ptq
f
ptq
px tqk
px tqk1
k!
pk 1q!
k1

1 pn`1q
f
ptqpx tqn .
n!

F ,
F pxq F px0 q Rn pxq.

Lagrange , x0 ` px x0 q p0 1q,
Rn pxq F 1 pqpx x0 q

1 pn`1q
f
pqpx qn px x0 q. pCauchy q
n!

Gptq px tqn`1 , Cauchy , x0 ` px x0 q


p0 1q,
Rn pxq
F pxq F px0 q
F 1 pq
f pn`1q pq

,
n`1
px x0 q
Gpxq Gpx0 q
G pq
pn ` 1q!

Rn pxq

1
f pn`1q pqpx x0 qn`1 . pLagrange q
pn ` 1q!

Taylor .

. p1q f n ra, bs ( F ra, bs


), x a x b, , ,
.
p2q x0 , f pa, x0 s n ` 1 , f pxq

x0 Taylor .
p3q , Taylor .

Lagrange , .

5.7 Taylor

195

5.7.3. gpxq pa, bq n ` 1 , x0 P pa, bq.


gpx0 q g 1 px0 q g pnq px0 q 0,

c P pa, bq, x0 ` pc x0 q p0 1q,


g pn`1q pq
pc x0 qn`1 .
pn ` 1q!

gpcq

. c x0 .
hpxq gpxq

gpcq
px x0 qn`1 , x P pa, bq.
pc x0 qn`1

hpcq 0, hpx0 q h1 px0 q hpnq px0 q 0. hpcq hpx0 q 0


Rolle , c x0 1 , h1 p1 q 0.
h1 p1 q h1 px0 q 0 , 1 x0 2 , h2 p2 q 0.

, c x0 , hpn`1q pq 0.
g pn`1q pq

gpcq
pn ` 1q! 0,
pc x0 qn`1


. gpxq ra, bs , c a b, .
, f pa, bq n ` 1 , x0 P pa, bq, Taylor Rn pxq
():
Rn px0 q Rn1 px0 q Rnpnq px0 q 0, Rnpn`1q pxq f pn`1q pxq.

Rn pxq Rn pxq Lagrange . ,


f ra, bs , x a, b .
f n ` 1 ,
x
x pn`1q
f
ptq
Rn pxq F pxq F px0 q
F 1 ptqdt
px tqn dt.
n!
x0
x0
Taylor , . , px tqn
, , P px0 , xq ( px, x0 q),
Rn pxq

1 pn`1q
f
pq
n!

px tqn dt

x0

Lagrange . Cauchy .
5.7.1. pq .

f pn`1q pq
px x0 qn`1 .
pn ` 1q!

Taylor

196

f pxq p1 ` xq2n`1 , f pxq x0 0


p1 ` xq2n`1

k
C2n`1
xk ` Rn pxq,

k0

Taylor
Rn pxq

1
n!

, x 1
1
p1 t2 qn dt
0

x
0

p2n ` 1q!
p1 ` tqn px tqn dt,
n!

pn!q2
Rn p1q
p2n ` 1q!

pn!q2
k
p22n`1
C2n`1
q
p2n ` 1q!
k0

pn!q2
p2nq!!
p22n`1 22n q
,
p2n ` 1q!
p2n ` 1q!!

k
C2n`1

k0

n
1 k
2n`1k
pC
` C2n`1
q
2 k0 2n`1
2n`1
1 k
C
22n .
2 k0 2n`1

f x0 ,
8

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn
n!
n0

f x0 Taylor Taylor . Taylor x0 0


Maclaurin . lim Rn pxq 0,
n8

f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn .
n!
n0

f Taylor .
5.7.2. f pxq
, .

1
p1, 1q . x 0 f Taylor
1x

. f
f pnq pxq

n!
, n 1, 2, .
p1 xqn`1

5.7 Taylor

197

f pnq p0q n!, f x 0 Taylor


8

f pnq p0q n
x 1 ` x ` x2 ` ` xn ` .
n!
n0

Rn pxq

1
xn`1
p1 ` x ` x2 ` ` xn q
0 pn 8q,
1x
1x

1
1 ` x ` x2 ` ` xn ` , @ x P p1, 1q.
1x

5.7.3. f pxq ex x 0 Taylor .


. f f , f pnq p0q 1 pn 1q, ex x 0
Taylor
8
8

f pnq p0q n
xn
x
.
n!
n!
n0
n0

Lagrange
Rn pxq

e
ex
xn`1
xn`1 p0 1q,
pn ` 1q!
pn ` 1q!

|Rn pxq| e|x|

|x|n`1
0 pn 8q.
pn ` 1q!

ex 1 ` x `

x3
xn
x2
`
` `
, @ x P p8, `8q.
2!
3!
n!

e1`1`

1
1
1
` ` `
` .
2! 3!
n!

e :
1
1
1
1
`
`
`
`
2 23 34 45
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 ` 1 ` ` ` ` ` 3.
2 2 3 3 4 4 5

2e1`1`

e . , e

p
q

, q! e q!p1 ` 1 ` `

1
q! q

. ( P p0, 1q),
`
e
1

1,
0 q! e q! 1 ` 1 ` `
q!
q`1

Taylor

198

5.7.4. sin x, cos x x 0 Taylor .


.
`
n
sinpnq pxq sin x ` .
2

sinp2k`1q p0q p1qk , sinp2kq p0q 0.

Taylor Lagrange
sin x x

x3
x5
p1qn x2n`1
p1qn`1 x2n`3 cos x
`
` `
`
p0 1q.
3!
5!
p2n ` 1q!
p2n ` 3q!

,
sin x

p1qn x2n`1
, @ x P p8, 8q.
p2n ` 1q!
n0

cos x

p1qn x2n
x2
x4
x6
1
`

` , @ x P p8, 8q.
p2nq!
2!
4!
6!
n0

Taylor , .
5.7.4 (Taylor ). f x0 n ,
f pxq

ak px x0 qk ` oppx x0 qn q px x0 q,

k0

1 pkq
f px0 q, k 0, 1, , n.
k!
. Taylor Peano , f pxq
ak

f pxq

1 pkq
f px0 qpx x0 qk ` oppx x0 qn q px x0 q.
k!
k0

bk ak

1 pkq
f px0 q, k 0, 1, , n,
k!

bk px x0 qk oppx x0 qn q px x0 q.

k0

, x x0 b0 0. , x x0 , x x0
b1 0. , px x0 qk x x0
bk 0 p0 k nq, .

Taylor ,
.

5.7 Taylor

199

5.7.5. f pxq x0 0 Taylor

an xn ,

n0
8

p1q f pxq Taylor

p1qn an xn ;

n0
8

p2q f px q Taylor

an xkn , k ;

n0
8

p3q xk f pxq Taylor

an xk`n , k ;

n0
8

p4q f 1 pxq Taylor


nan xn1
pn ` 1qan`1 xn ;
n1
n0
x
8

an n`1
p5q
f ptqdt Taylor
x
;
n0 n ` 1
0
8

p6q gpxq x0 0 Taylor


bn xn , f pxq ` gpxq
n0

Taylor

pan ` bn qx , P R.
n

n0

, ,
1
1 ` x ` x2 ` x3 ` ` xn ` , @ x P p1, 1q.
1x

1
1 x ` x2 x3 ` x4 ` , @ x P p1, 1q,
1`x
1
1 ` x2 ` x4 ` x6 ` , @ x P p1, 1q,
1 x2
1
1 x2 ` x4 x6 ` , @ x P p1, 1q,
1 ` x2

x
lnp1 xq
0

x2
x3
xn
dt
x


,
1t
2
3
n

pq

x2
x3
xn
Rn pxq lnp1 xq ` x `
`
` `

2
3
n

x
0

tn
dt,
1t

1 x 0,
x
|x|n`1

tn dt
|Rn pxq|
0 pn 8q,
n`1
0

0 x 1,
1
|Rn pxq|
1x

x
0

tn dt

xn`1
0 pn 8q,
p1 xqpn ` 1q

pq x P r1, 1q . x x,
lnp1 ` xq x

x2
x3
x4
x5
`

`
, @ x P p1, 1s.
2
3
4
5

Taylor

200

, x 1,
ln 2 1

1 1 1 1 1
` ` ` .
2 3 4 5 6

,
x

x5
x2n1
dt
x3
`
` ` p1qn1
` Rn pxq,
x
2
3
5
2n 1
0 1`t
x 2n
t
Rn pxq p1qn
dt. x P r1, 1s
1
` t2
0
arctan x

|x|
|Rn pxq|

t2n dt

|x|2n`1
0 pn 8q,
2n ` 1

arctan x x

x3
x5
x7
`

` , @ x P r1, 1s.
3
5
7

x 1,
1 1 1

1 ` ` .
4
3 5 7

pLeibniz-Gregoryq

ex 1 x `

x2
x3
x4
x5
xn

`
p1qn ,
2!
3!
4!
5!
n!
n0

sinh x

x3
x5
1 x
x2n`1
pe ex q x `
`
`
,
2
3!
5!
p2n ` 1q!
n0

cosh x

1 x
x2
x4
x6
x2n
pe ` ex q 1 `
`
`
`
.
2
2!
4!
6!
p2nq!
n0

, Taylor , Taylor
. ,
Taylor .

5.7.5. Taylor , .

$
&0,
x 0;
pxq
%e x1 , x 0.

, p8, 0q Y p0, 8q . ( 4.2.5),


x 0 , pnq p0q 0, n 0. , ,

x 0 Taylor 0.

5.7 Taylor

201

. .

5.7
1. f x0 n , Taylor Rn pxq
Rn px0 q Rn1 px0 q Rnpnq px0 q 0.
2. f pxq x n , f pxq x x0 Taylor ,
Peano Rn pxq . (: .)
3. f pxq pa, bq n ` 1 , f x0 Peano Rn`1 pxq

Rn`1 pxq

1
rf pn`1q pq f pn`1q px0 qspx x0 qn`1 ,
pn ` 1q!

x0 ` px x0 q p0 1q.
4.
Rn pxq

1
n!

f pn`1q ptqpx tqn dt

x0

f Taylor

1
Rn pxq f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q ` f 2 px0 qpx x0 q2 `
2!

1
` f pnq px0 qpx x0 qn .
n!
5. f ra, bs , f 2 0. Taylor ,
p1q f pxq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q, @ x, x0 P ra, bs;
p2q f pxq f px1 q `

f px2 qf px1 q
px
x2 x1

x1 q, @ x1 x2 , x1 x x2 .

6. x0 0 Taylor x4 :
?
1
1 ` x ` x2
sin x
sin x
paq x cot x, pbq e
, pcq ? , pdq
, peq p1 ` xq x .
2
x
1x`x
7. x0 0 Taylor x6 :
2

paq e2xx ,

pbq lnpcos xq,

8. x0 0 Taylor :
x
2
1
paq sinh x, pbq
et dt,
0

pcq ?

1
1 x2

x
pcq
0

sin t
dt.
t

Taylor

202
9. f pxq

1 ` x x0 0 Taylor .

10. f pxq, gpxq p1, 1q ,


|f pnq pxq g pnq pxq| n!|x|, @ x P p1, 1q, n 0, 1, 2, .

f pxq gpxq.
11. 5.7.3: F pxq gpxq, Gpxq px x0 qn`1

Cauchy .
12. f x0
f pxq

ak px x0 qk ` oppx x0 qn q px x0 q,

k0

f pxq x0 n ?
13. pq f pxq ra, bs , f 1 paq f 1 pbq 0. , P pa, bq,

|f 2 pq|

5.8

4
|f pbq f paq|.
pb aq2

Taylor

Taylor .
(1)

, x0 f , f 1 px0 q 0.
, f 2 px0 q 0, x0 ; f 2 px0 q 0, x0 .
Taylor , .

5.8.1. f x0 n ,
f 1 px0 q f 2 px0 q f pn1q px0 q 0, f pnq px0 q 0,

p1q n , f pnq px0 q 0, x0 ; f pnq px0 q 0,


x0 ;
p2q n , x0 .

. , f x0 Taylor :
f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn ` oppx x0 qn q
n!

1 pnq
f px0 q ` op1q .
f px0 q ` px x0 qn
n!

f pxq f px0 q `

5.8 Taylor

203


.
(2) Jensen

(5.3) , Jensen .
5.8.2. f ra, bs , pa, bq . xi P ra, bs p1 i
nq , P pa, bq,
f

i 0,

n
`


1
i j pxi xj q2 ,
i xi
i f pxi q f 2 pq
2
ij
i1
i1

(5.11)

i 1.

i1
n

. x

i xi P ra, bs. x
, i 0 , xi

i1

, (5.11) , . x P pa, bq. x , f


Taylor ,
1
f pxi q f p
xq ` f 1 p
xqpxi x
q ` f 2 pi qpxi x
q2 , i P pa, bq.
2

i f pxi q f p
xq

i1

i ` f 1 p
xq

i1

i pxi x
q `

i1

n
1 2
f pi qi pxi x
q2
2 i1

n
1 2
f pi qi pxi x
q2 .
f p
xq `
2 i1

m mintf 2 pi qu, M maxtf 2 pi qu,


n

i pxi x
q2

i1

i x2i x
2

i1

n
1
i j pxi xj q2
2 i,j1

n
n
n

m
M
i j pxi xj q2
i f pxi q f p
xq
i j pxi xj q2 .
4 i,j1
4
i1
i,j1

f 2 (Darboux ), P pa, bq,


n

i f pxi q f p
xq

i1

1 2
f pq
i j pxi xj q2 .
4
i,j1

.
(3)

, Taylor , .

Taylor

204

5.8.1.

`
1
lim x x2 ln 1 `
.
x8
x

. x 8 , x1 0,
`
`1
1 1
1
ln 1 `
2 ` o 2 px 8q,
x
x 2x
x

`
1 1
1
x x2 ln 1 `
` op1q px 8q.
x
2
2

5.8.2. f 0 , |f 2 | M , f p0q 0,
n

`k 1
f 2 f 1 p0q.
n8
n
2
k1

lim

. Taylor ,
f

`k
k
f p0q ` f 1 p0q 2 ` Rk,n ,
n2
n

|Rk,n |

` k 2
1 2
1 k2
|f pk,n q| 2 M 4 ,
2
n
2 n

n
n

Rk,n M n4
k 2 0 pn 8q,
2
k1
k1

n
n
n

`k
1
k`
Rk,n
f 2 f 1 p0q 2
n
n k1
k1
k1

f 1 p0q

n`1
` op1q pn 8q,
2n

(4)

, Taylor ,
, .
5.8.3. e , 104 .
.
e1`1`

1
1
1
e
` ` `
`
p0 1q.
2! 3!
n! pn ` 1q!

n 7 ,
0

e
e
3

104 ,
pn ` 1q!
pn ` 1q!
8!

5.8 Taylor

205

e1`1`

1
1
1
` ` `
2.71825.
2! 3!
7!

5.8.4. .
.
arctan u ` arctan v arctan

` u`v
1 uv

1
1

arctan 1 arctan ` arctan


4
2
3
1
1
2 arctan ` arctan
3
7
Taylor
arctan x x

x3
x5
x7
`

`
3
5
7

, .
. , 4 5
4 7 , . ,
. Taylor ,
.
(5) Stirling

2.2.6 n! p ne qn . an n!pe{nqn ,
?
1
n ` 1 1pn` 1 q lnp1` 1 q
an`1
e
1n lnp1` n
q
2
n .
e

?
e
1
n
an
n
p1 ` n q

`
`
`
1
1
1
ln 1 `
ln 1
ln 1 `
n
2n ` 1
2n ` 1
lnp1 ` xq Taylor
`
1

1
1
1
1
1
ln 1 `
2
`
`
` .
n
2n ` 1 3 p2n ` 1q3
5 p2n ` 1q5

(5.12)

`
1
1
1
1
1 `
ln 1 `
1
`
`
0 n`
2
4
2
n
3 p2n ` 1q
p2n ` 1q
1
1 `1
1
1

12 npn ` 1q
12 n n ` 1
1

tn 2 an u , tn 2 e 12n an u ,
, C.
? n
1
1
1
n 2 e 12n an C n 2 an , an C ne 12n , 0 n 1.

Taylor

206

n!
? ` n n n
n! C n
e 12n , 0 n 1.
e

C ,
lim

n8

?
p2nq!!
n r2n n!s2
C
lim
? .
p2n ` 1q!! n8 2n ` 1 p2nq!
2 2

,
1

p1 x2 qn` 2 dx

p1 x2 qn`1 dx

(5.13)

p2n ` 1q!!
,
p2n ` 2q!! 2

p1 x2 qn` 2 dx

p1 x2 qn dx

5.7.1 ()
p2n ` 1q!!
p2nq!!
p2n ` 2q!!

.
p2n ` 3q!!
p2n ` 2q!! 2
p2n ` 1q!!

n, n 8
?
2
C
C
?
? ,
C 2
2 2
2 2

2. Stirling
n!

2n

` n n
e

e 12n , 0 n 1.

(5.14)

. (1) (5.12) n 1 ln 2 ,
.
(2) (5.13) Wallis , .
(6) Newton

: f pxq,
f pxq 0

? f pxq , ,
. , . :
pq f ra, bs , f paqf pbq 0; f 1 f 2 pa, bq .

, , f pxq 0 pa, bq
. , f 1 f 2 . f
, f paq 0, f pbq 0.

5.8 Taylor

207

f , pb, f pbqq y f pxq ,


y f pbq f 1 pbqpx aq,

x
x1 b

f pbq
.
f 1 pbq

f , x1 b .
px1 , f px1 qq y f pxq , x px2 , 0q,
x2 x1

f px1 q
.
f 1 px1 q

x2 x1 .
y

x
0

x2

x1

x0

5.12 Newton
txn u,
xn`1 xn

f pxn q
, n 0.
f 1 pxn q

(5.15)

x0 b. txn u , xn b, @ n 1. lim xn
n8

, 1 . 1 b. (5.15) n 8
1 1

f p 1 q
,
f 1 p 1 q

f p 1 q 0, 1 . , xn f pxq 0 ,
Newton , (5.15) Newton .
xn . Taylor ,
c P p, xn q,
1
0 f pq f pxn q ` f 1 pxn qp xn q ` f 2 pcqp xn q2 ,
2

Taylor

208

(5.15) ,
xn`1

1 f 2 pcq
pxn q2 ,
2 f 1 pxn q

|xn`1 |

M
|xn |2 ,
2m

(5.16)

M sup |f 2 pxq|, m inf |f 1 pxq|.


xPpa,bq

xPpa,bq

(5.16) , txn u .
, , pa, f paqq
f pxq 0. , f 1 f 2 , pb, f pbqq
; f 1 f 2 pa, f paqq .
?
51
5.8.5.
.
2
?
5
. Taylor
,
2
:
?
1 12
5 `
1`
2
4
11 1 1
1 1
1`

`
`
2 4 8 42
16 43
1.118...
, x0 1.118,
5 p2 1.118q2 3.04 104 ,

5
3.04
104 0.34 104 .
x0 ?
2
2p 5 ` 2x0 q
?
5
1
4
Newton ,
f pxq 2 ,
2
x
5
0

xn`1 xn

1 `
4
f pxn q
xn ` xn 1 x2n ,
1
f pxn q
2
5

?
2
` 5
2 `?
5
xn`1
xn .
0
5 ` xn
2
5
2
x0 , x1 1.11803398720,
?
?
2
` 5
2 `?
5
0
x1
x0 1.56 109 ,
5 ` x0
2
5
2

5.8 Taylor

209

?
1.11803398720

5
1.11803398876,
2

x1 0.5 0.61803398 8 .
5
, f pxq x2 Newton .
4
xn`1 xn

f pxn q
xn
5 1

`
,
1
f pxn q
2
8 xn

?
1 `
5
5 2

xn
.
2
2xn
2

?
0 xn`1

x0 1.118034,
?
0 x0

5
1.28 108 ,
2

x0 x1 1.11803398874989490480...,
?
1
5

1.282 1016 0.733 1016 ,


0 x1
2
2 1.118034

0.61803398874989483150 0.61803398874989490481,

0.618033988749894, 15 .
. ,
Newton .

5.8
1. :

2
1
p1q lim x p1 ` qx e ,
p2q lim pcos xq1{x ,
x`8
x0
x
!e

)
1
sin2 x x2 cos x
p3q lim
x ` x2 p1 ` qx e , p4q lim
.
x`8 2
x0
x
x4
2. :
2

?
cos x ex {2
,
x 1 ` 2 x , p2q lim
x`8
x0
x4

1
1
1`1
p3q lim x p1 ` qx ex lnp1 ` q ,
p4q lim
cot x .
x`8
x0 x x
x
x
3

p1q lim x 2

x`1`

3. Taylor ln 1.2 , .

Taylor

210

4. f pxq x0 n ` 1 , f pn`1q px0 q 0, Taylor


1
f px0 ` hq f px0 q ` f 1 px0 qh ` ` f pnq px0 ` hqhn , 0 1.
n!
1
lim
.
h0
n`1
5. f pxq x 0 , f 1 p0q 0, f 2 p0q .
lim

x0

f pxq f plnp1 ` xqq


.
x3

(: .)
6. lim n sinp2en!q. (: e Taylor .)
n8

7. Newton

2 , 6 .

8. pq a1 P R, an`1 arctan an pn 1q. lim na2n .


n8

9. pq f pxq pa, `8q , lim f pxq lim f 3 pxq


x`8

x`8

, lim f 1 pxq lim f 2 pxq lim f 3 pxq 0. (: LHopital


x`8

x`8

x`8

f pxq
lim
, f px 1q Taylor .)
x`8 x3
10. pq f R ,
M0 sup |f pxq| 8, M2 sup |f 2 pxq| 8.
xPR

xPR

M1 supxPR |f 1 pxq| 8, M12 2M0 M2 .


(: f px hq Taylor .)

Riemann

. ,
. , f pxq 1, x P r0, 1q; f pxq 2,
x P r1, 2s r0, 2s , f pxq x 0, x 2

y 0 , f pxq .
Riemann , .
Lebesgue .

6.1

Riemann

f pxq ra, bs (), x a,


y b, y 0 y f pxq . ,

, : ra, bs
a x0 x1 xn b,

i f pi qxi , i P rxi1 , xi s, xi xi xi1 .


n

f pi qxi ABCD . , ra, bs


i1

, ,
n

SABCD lim

}}0

f pi qxi ,

i1

}} max txi u. ,

1in

f pxqdx.
a

y = f (x)

D
0

6.1
211

Riemann

212

, f pxq ra, bs, ra, bs n ` 1 a


x0 x1 xn b, ra, bs n i rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq,

ra, bs ,
: a x0 x1 xn b.

i xi xi xi1 ,
}} max txi u,
1in

.
, i P i rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq.
n

f pi qxi

i1

f ra, bs Riemann .
y

y = f (x)

f (i )
D
0

x
xi1 i xi

6.2 Riemann
6.1.1 (Riemann ). f , I, 0,
0, , }} ,
n

f pi qxi I , @ i P rxi1 , xi s, i 1, , n,

i1

f ra, bs Riemann , I f ra, bs p q ,


b
I

f pxq dx lim
a

}}0

f pi qxi .

i1

f , ra, bs , a, b .

6.1 Riemann

213

. p1q x ,
b
b
f pxq dx
f ptq dt.
a

p2q f ra, bs ,

f pxq dx ;

6.1.1 (). f ra, bs , f ra, bs ,


.
. f ra, bs , , I . 1,
, 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 xn b,

}} , i P rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq,
n

f pi qxi I 1.

i1

, n

ba
, ra, bs n ,

xi a `

}}

i
pb aq, i 0, , n,
n

ba
.
n

n
b a

i
i1

f pi q I 1, @ i P a `
pb aq, a ` pb aq ,

n i1
n
n

f pi q

i1

n
p1 ` |I|q.
ba

j P t1, 2, , nu, i j , i a `

i
pb aq,
n

! `
)
i

f a ` pb aq ,
0in
n

M max

:
`

i
n

p1 ` |I|q
|f pj q|
f a ` pb aq `
n
ba
ij
pn 1qM `

n
p1 ` |I|q,
ba

Riemann

214

j1
j
j P a `
pb aq, a ` pb aq ,
a
a
n
|f pxq| pn 1qM `
p1 ` |I|q, @ x P ra, bs,
ba

f .
, Dirichlet Dpxq : , i
rxi1 , xi s , 0; i rxi1 , xi s , 1.


Dpxq .

, ?
, Riemann
.
: a x0 x1 xn b,

Mi

sup

f pxq, mi

xPrxi1 ,xi s

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

f pxq,

Mi xi , s

i1

mi xi ,

i1

S f Darboux , , Spq Sp, f q; s


Darboux , , spq sp, f q.
y

6.3
, Riemann . ,
i M i mi

sup

f pxq

xPrxi1 ,xi s

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

f pxq

f rxi1 , xi s . ,
Ss

i1

i xi .

6.1 Riemann

215

Riemann f S s (

). Darboux .
f , M sup f pxq, m inf f pxq.
xPra,bs

xPra,bs

, .
6.1.2. 1 k ,
Spq Sp 1 q Spq pM mqk}},
spq sp 1 q spq ` pM mqk}}.

, , , .
. , k 1 . , x,
x
pxj1 , xj q . ,
Spq

Mi xi Mj xj `

i1

Mi xi ,

ij

Sp 1 q Mj1 p
x xj1 q ` Mj2 pxj x
q `

Mi xi ,

ij

x, xj s . Mj1 Mj ,
Mj1 Mj2 f rxj1 , xs r
Mj2 Mj ,
q
x xj1 q ` pMj Mj2 qpxj x
0 Spq Sp 1 q pMj Mj1 qp
pM mqp
x xj1 q ` pM mqpxj x
q
pM mqxj pM mq}}.

Spq Sp 1 q Spq pM mq}}. .

6.1.3. 1 2 ,
sp1 q Sp2 q.

. 1 Y 2 1 2 (
), 1 Y 2 1 , 2
. 6.1.2,
sp1 q sp1 Y 2 q Sp1 Y 2 q Sp2 q.

.
.

Riemann

216

6.1.4 (Darboux). lim Spq inf Spq,

}}0

lim spq sup spq.

}}0

. , :
mpb aq spq Spq M pb aq,

inf Spq sup spq .

0, , 1 ,

Sp 1 q inf Spq ` .

1 k . , Y 1 k .
6.1.2,

Spq pM mqk}} Sp Y 1 q Sp 1 q inf Spq ` .

, }}
,
2pM m ` 1qk
inf Spq Spq pM mqk

` inf Spq `

2pM m ` 1qk
2

inf Spq ` ,

lim Spq inf Spq.

}}0

inf Spq f ra, bs , sup spq f ra, bs .

Riemann Darboux ,

2.2.3.
6.1.5 (). f ra, bs , :
p1q f ra, bs Riemann .
p2q f ra, bs .
n

p3q lim
i xi 0.
}}0 i1

p4q 0, ra, bs ,
Spq spq

i xi .

i1

. p1q p2q: f ra, bs , I. 0,


0, }} ,
I

i1

f pi q xi I ` .

6.1 Riemann

217

,
I

i1
n

inf
xPrxi1 ,xi s

sup

f pxq xi spq
f pxq xi Spq

i1 xPrxi1 ,xi s

I ` ,

lim spq lim Spq I. Darboux f .


}}0

}}0

p2q p1q: sup spq inf Spq I. Darboux , 0,

0, }} ,
I spq

f pi q xi Spq I ` ,

i1

lim
}}0

f pi q xi I,

i1

f ra, bs , I.
p2q p3q: Darboux
lim
}}0

i xi lim pSpq spqq inf Spq sup spq.

}}0

i1

p3q p4q: .
p4q p2q: , Spq spq ,
spq sup sp 1 q inf1 Sp 1 q Spq

0 inf1 Sp 1 q sup sp 1 q Spq spq .

f .
p1q p2q p3q p4q .

6.1.6. p1q r, s ra, bs, f ra, bs , f r, s


.
p2q c P pa, bq, f ra, cs rc, bs , f ra, bs .

. p1q 0, f ra, bs , 6.1.5 p3q, 0,


n

}} ,
i xi . r, s 1 , } 1 } . ,
i1

ra, bs , 1 ra, bs r, s , }} ,

i xi .
i xi
1

Riemann

218

6.1.5 p4q , f r, s .


(2) 6.1.5 p4q , .

6.1.1. f, g ra, bs , f g ra, bs .


. , K 0,
|f pxq| K, |gpxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.

0, 6.1.5 p3q, 0, }} ,

i pf q xi

,
i pgq xi
.
2K ` 1
2K
`1

rxi1 , xi s ,
i pf gq

sup

|f px1 qgpx1 q f px2 qgpx2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

sup

|f px1 qgpx1 q f px1 qgpx2 q ` f px1 qgpx2 q f px2 qgpx2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

sup

|f px1 q||gpx1 q gpx2 q| ` |gpx2 q||f px1 q f px2 q|

x1 ,x2 Prxi1 ,xi s

Kpi pgq ` i pf qq,

i pf gq xi K

pi pf q ` i pgqq xi

i pf q xi ` K

i pgq xi

`K
.
2K ` 1
2K ` 1

6.1.5 f g .

6.1.5 , .
6.1.7 (). p1q f ra, bs , f ra, bs ;
p2q f ra, bs , f ;
p3q f ra, bs , f ;

. p1q (3.3).
p2q 6.1.5 p4q . 0, x
k pk 1, , N q f

, p
xk , x
k ` q pk 1, , N q
, 0
4pM m ` 1qN
. , ra, bs , f

. , ,

6.1 Riemann

219

. r
xk , x
k ` s
2pb aq
p1 k N q ra, bs , . ,
f

Spq spq

pb aq ` pM mq
2
2pb aq
i1

2N
` pM mq
.
2
4pM m ` 1qN

6.1.5 p4q f .
p3q f ra, bs , f . 0, ra, bs

, }}
,
f pbq f paq ` 1
n

i xi

i1

f pxi q f pxi1 q xi
i1
n

f
pbq

f
paq ` 1
i1
`

f pxn q f px0 q
f pbq f paq ` 1
`

f pbq f paq
,
f pbq f paq ` 1

f pxi q f pxi1 q

6.1.5 p3q f .

f ra, bs , ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

f pxi1 , xi q , f .
6.1.8. .
. .

6.1.2. pq r0, 1s .
. Rpxq
$
1

, x pq P p0, 1q, p, q ,

&q
Rpxq 1, x 0, 1,

%0, x P p0, 1q .
1

2
p
, 0 Rpxq 1. 0, , q , r0, 1s
q
2

N N pq .
, }} ,
4N

Riemann

220

2N , Rpxq
0

Rpi qxi 2N }} `

,
2

xi ,
2 i


Rpxq r0, 1s , .

, f , ,
f ,
. .
6.1.9 (Riemann). f ra, bs , f
, 0, ra, bs ,

xi .

. () f , 6.1.5 p4q, , 0, ,
n

i xi ,

i1

xi

i xi ,

i1

xi .

() , 0, ra, bs ,

xi

i 2pbaq

.
2pM m ` 1q

,
n

i xi

i xi `

i 2pbaq

i1

i xi

i 2pbaq

2pb aq
i

2pbaq

xi ` pM mq

xi

i 2pbaq

pb aq ` pM mq
.
2pb aq
2pM m ` 1q

6.1.5 p4q f .

6.1 Riemann

221

6.1.3. pq f ra, bs , r, s , pr, sq ra, bs.


f r, s .

. f ra, bs , . 0, 0, x, y P

. r, s ,
ra, bs, |x y| , |f pxq f pyq|
2p q
6.1.9, r, s : t0 t1 tm ,

ti

i pq

,
4K ` 1

K max |f pxq|.
xPra,bs

i pf q ti

i1

i pf q ti `

i pq

2K

i pf q ti

i pq

ti `

i pq

2K

2p q

ti

i pq

`
p q .
4K ` 1 2p q


6.1.5 p4q f r, s .
. f , , f pq ().
, Lebesgue .

6.1.2 (). A R, 0, A
tIi u,
n

|Ii | , @ n 1,

i1

A .
6.1.4. p1q ; p2q ; p3q
; p4q .
. p1q A txi uni1 , 0,
`

, xi `
, i 1, 2, , n.
Ii xi
2n
2n

, tIi u A ,
n

i1

A .

|Ii |

i1

,
2n

Riemann

222
p2q A txi u8
i1 , 0,
`
Ii xi

2i`1

, xi `

2i`1

, i 1, 2, .

, tIi u A ,
n

|Ii |

i1

i1

,
2i`1

A .
p3q , .
p4q Ai pi 1q . 0, i, Ai

tIij u, tIij u i .
2
, tIij u tAi u

` 2 ` 3 ` .
2 2
2


tAi u .

f ra, bs . , f x P ra, bs

pf, xq lim supt|f px1 q f px2 q| : x1 , x2 P px r, x ` rq X ra, bsu.


r0`

f x pf, xq 0. 0,
D tx P ra, bs | pf, xq u,

f () Df

n1

D n1 .

6.1.10 (Lebsegue). f ra, bs Riemann


Df .
. () f ra, bs Riemann . 0, 0,
ra, bs
: a x0 x1 xn b,

i xi .
2
i1

x P D X pxi1 , xi q, i pf, xq .

xi .
2
D Xpx
,x qH

i1

6.1 Riemann

223

pxi1 , xi q

xi

i0

D Xpxi1 ,xi qH

, xi `
,
4pn ` 1q
4pn ` 1q

xi `

D Xpxi1 ,xi qH

2

pn ` 1q ` ,
4pn ` 1q
2 2

D . Df

n1

D n1 .

() |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs. , Df , 0,

tpj , j q|j 1, 2, u, Df pj , j q,
j

pj j q
j

x P ra, bs

.
4K ` 1

pj , j q, f x , x Ix , f

. tpj , j q, Ix u ra, bs ,
2pb aq
, Lebesgue , ra, bs

Ix

: a x0 x1 xn b,

rxi1 , xi s pj , j q Ix .
n

i1

i xi

i xi `

xi `

rxi1 ,xi spj ,j q

2K

pj j q `

2K

i xi

rxi1 ,xi sIx

rxi1 ,xi spj ,j q

2K

2pb aq

xi

rxi1 ,xi sIx

pb aq
2pb aq

` .
4K ` 1 2

f ra, bs Riemann .

6.1.11 (Lebesgue ). tU uP ra, bs ,


0, I ra, bs
U .
1
,
n
In U . In ran , bn s, tan u ,

. () , In , n 1, 2, , |In |

, tan u , P ra, bs. , tbn u .

Riemann

224

tU u ra, bs , , P U . U ,
0, p , ` q U . , n ,
an , bn P p , ` q U ,


In ran , bn s U . In .

Lebesgue ,
.

6.1
1. r0, 1s :
$
&1, x P Q,
p1q f pxq
%1,
x P R Q.
$
&sgnpsin q, x 0,
x
p3q f pxq
%0,
x 0.

$
&x, x P Q,
p2q f pxq
%0, x P R Q.
$
& 1 r 1 s, x 0,
x
p4q f pxq x
%0,
x 0.

2. f pxq ra, bs , f px ` cq ra c, b cs ,
b

bc
f pxqdx

f px ` cqdx.
ac

3. :
b
p1q
a

x a ` b dx;
2

b
p2q
a

`
a ` b 2
x
dx.
2

4. f pxq ra, bs , gpxq f pxq , gpxq ,


b

gpxqdx.

f pxqdx
a

5. f pxq r0, 1s ,

f pxqdx A 0. , r, s,

1
A, @ x P r, s. (: .)
2
1
6. f pxq r0, 1s ,
f pxqdx 0. , 0,
f pxq

r, s, f pxq , @ x P r, s.

6.2

225

7. f pxq ra, bs . ,

, f .
8. f pxq ra, bs , C 0, |f pxq| C pa x bq.
1
ra, bs .
f
9. f pxq ra, bs ,
f pxq inf tf ptqu, f pxq sup tf ptqu
tPra,xs

tPra,xs

ra, bs .
10. f pxq, gpxq ra, bs , f pxq gpxq ,
b
b
f pxqdx
gpxqdx.
a

11. pq f pxq 0 ra, bs ,

b
f pxqdx 0.
a

12. pq () .
13. pq f, g , f g ,

. (: , .)
14. pq f , g f , g

, .

6.2

,
a b ,
a b ,

b
f pxqdx

b
b

f pxqdx,
a

f pxqdx 0.
a

6.2.1. p1q f, g ra, bs , , P R, f ` g ra, bs ,

b
pf ` gqdx

b
f pxqdx `

gpxqdx.
a

p2q f ra, bs , c P pa, bq, f ra, cs rc, bs ,


b
c
b
f pxqdx
f pxqdx `
f pxqdx.
a

Riemann

226

. p1q 0, f, g , 0, ra, bs }}

b
b
n
n

f pi q xi
f pxqdx ,
gpi q xi
gpxqdx ,

i1

i1

b
b

n
rf pi q ` gpi qs xi

f
pxqdx
`

gpxqdx

i1

b
b
n
n

f pi q xi
gpi q xi
gpxqdx
||
f pxqdx ` ||
a

i1

i1

|| ` || p|| ` ||q ,

, f ` g ,
b

b
f pxqdx `

gpxqdx.

p2q f . 1 , 2 ra, cs rc, bs ,

}1 } 0, }2 } 0 , 1 Y 2 }} 0.
b
f pxqdx lim

}1 }0
}2 }0

f pi q xi lim

}1 }0

1 Y2

f pi qxi ` lim

}2 }0

f pi qxi

b
f pxqdx `

f pxqdx.
c

. , a, b, c f ,
, p2q .
6.2.2. p1q f ra, bs , ;
p2q f, g ra, bs , f pxq gpxq,
b

b
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

p3q f ra, bs , |f pxq| ,


b
b

|f pxq|dx.
f pxqdx
a

. p1q f , , .
p2q 6.2.1 p1q, f g ra, bs , p1q
b
0

b
pf gqdx

b
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

6.2

227

p3q f ra, bs , 0, ra, bs

i pf q xi .

|f pxq| |f pyq| |f pxq f pyq|, i p|f |q i pf q,

i p|f |q xi ,

|f | .

|f pi q| xi ,
f pi q xi

b
b

|f pxq|dx.
f pxqdx
a

.
6.2.3 (). f, g ra, bs , gpxq ,
, inf f pxq sup f pxq,
xPra,bs

xPra,bs

b
f pxqgpxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

. , gpxq 0.
`

inf f pxq gpxq f pxqgpxq sup f pxq gpxq.

xPra,bs

xPra,bs

6.2.2
b
inf f pxq

xPra,bs

b
gpxqdx

b
f pxqgpxqdx sup f pxq

xPra,bs

gpxqdx.
a

b
b
f pxqgpxqdx 0, . ,
gpxqdx 0,
,
a
a
b
f pxqgpxqdx
a b
, inf f pxq sup f pxq.

xPra,bs
xPra,bs
gpxqdx
a

. . gpxq 1 ,
b
f pxqdx pb aq.
a

Riemann

228

6.2.4. f pxq ra, bs ,


x
F pxq
f ptqdt, x P ra, bs,
a

F ra, bs .


. 3.5.4 , .
6.2.5 (). f ra, bs .

p1q g ra, bs , gpxq 0, @ x P ra, bs, P ra, bs

f pxqgpxqdx gpaq

f pxqdx.

p2q g ra, bs , gpxq 0, @ x P ra, bs, P ra, bs

b
f pxqgpxqdx gpbq

f pxqdx.

p3q , g ra, bs , P ra, bs,


b

b
f pxqgpxqdx gpaq
f pxqdx ` gpbq
f pxqdx.
a

. p1q F pxq

f ptqdt. 6.2.4 F , M

m. f ra, bs , f . |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.


g , , g . 0, ra, bs : a x0
x1 xn b,

i pgq xi .

i1

( F px0 q F paq 0)
b
n xi

f pxqgpxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx
a

i1 xi1
n

xi
rgpxq gpxi1 qs f pxqdx `

i1 xi1
n xi

xi
gpxi1 q

i1
n

|gpxq gpxi1 q| |f pxq|dx `

i1 xi1

gpxi1 q rF pxi q F pxi1 qs

i1

i pgq xi `

i1

K `M

f pxqdx
xi1

n1

F pxi q rgpxi1 q gpxi qs ` F pbq gpxn1 q

i1
n1

rgpxi1 q gpxi qs ` M gpxn1 q

i1

K ` M gpaq.

6.2

229

f pxq, ( F m)
b
f pxq gpxqdx K m gpaq,
a

,
b
m gpaq K

f pxqgpxqdx M gpaq ` K ,
a

0` ,
b
f pxqgpxqdx M gpaq.

m gpaq
a

gpaq 0,

f pxqgpxqdx 0. gpaq 0,

b
f pxqgpxqdx
m

M,

gpaq

b
f pxqgpxqdx

, P ra, bs F pq
b

gpaq

f pxqgpxqdx gpaq F pq gpaq


a

p2q F pxq

f pxqdx.
a

. p1q ,
f ptqdt, F M

x
n xi

b
f pxqgpxqdx
a

f pxqgpxqdx

i1 xi1
n xi

rgpxq gpxi qsf pxqdx `

i1 xi1
n

i pgq xi `

i1

i1

xi
gpxi q

f pxqdx
xi1

gpxi qrF pxi1 q F pxi qs

i1

K ` gpx1 q F px0 q `

n1

F pxi qrgpxi`1 q gpxi qs

i1

gpx1 q ` M

K `M

n1

i1

gpbq.
K `M

p1q .

rgpxi`1 q gpxi qs

Riemann

230

p3q g , hpxq gpxq gpbq, h , h 0. p1q,

P ra, bs,
b

f pxq hpxqdx hpaq

f pxqdx.
a

hpxq gpxq gpbq , . g . 


. Abel ,
.
6.2.1. lim

n8 0

xn
dx 0.
1`x

1
1
1
xn

1, xn
xn ,
2
1`x
2
1`x

1 n
1
1 1 n
x
x dx
dx
xn dx.
2 0
1
`
x
0
0

. x P r0, 1s ,

n `8 , 0. .

6.2.2. 0, b a 0,
b
sin x 2

dx .
ex
x
a
a

. gpxq

b
a

ex

ex
, f pxq sin x , P ra, bs,
x

ea
sin x
dx

x
a

sin x dx
a

ea
pcos a cos q,
a

b
2
sin x
ea

dx 2
,
ex
x
a
a
a


.
6.2.3. lim

A8 0

sin x
dx .
x

. 0, B A 0 ,
A

B sin x
sin x B sin x
2

dx
dx
dx
0 pA 8q,

x
x
x
A
0
0
A

Cauchy .
6.2.4. pq .

6.2

231

. . ra, bs tIi u ,
Ii ra, bs. i Ii ,
i pxq 1, x P Ii ; i pxq 0, x R Ii .

i ra, bs ,
b
i pxq dx |Ii |.
a

tIi u ra, bs

i pxq 1, @ x P ra, bs.

|Ii |

b
i

i pxq dx

b
a

i pxq dx b a.

ra, bs , ,
b a. , ra, bs .

6.2.5 (). f pxq ra, bs , 0,


gpxq,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

. f , 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

i pf qxi .

i1

ra, bs g,
gpxq f pxi1 q, @ x P rxi1 , xi q, i 1, 2, , n.

b
|f pxq gpxq|dx
a

n xi

i1 xi1
n xi

i1 xi1
n xi

i1 xi1
n

|f pxq gpxq|dx
|f pxq f pxi1 q|dx
i pf qdx

i pf qpxi xi1 q .

i1

Riemann

232

gpxq .
. ,
inf f pxq g sup f pxq.

xPra,bs

xPra,bs

6.2.6 (Riemann-Lebesgue). f pxq ra, bs ,


b
lim

`8 a

b
f pxq sin xdx 0,

lim

`8 a

f pxq cos xdx 0.

. . f , 0, ra, bs
: a x0 x1 x2 xn b,

i pf qxi

i1

1
.
2

f , K, |f pxq| K, @ x P ra, bs.

4nK
,

n xi
b

f
pxq
sin
xdx

f pxq sin xdx

i1 xi1

n xi
n xi

rf pxq f pxi1 qs sin xdx `


f pxi1 q sin xdx
i1 xi1

n xi

i1 xi1
n

i pf qxi `

i1

|f pxq f pxi1 q|dx `

i1 xi1
xi

|f pxi1 q|

i1

xi1

sin xdx

1
K | cos xi1 cos xi |

i1

1
2nK
`
.
2

. .

6.2
1. f, g ra, bs , maxtf, gu mintf, gu .
2. f pxq ra, bs . f 2 pxq , |f pxq| .
3. , . (: Riemann

.)

6.2

233

4. f pxq ra, bs , P ra, bs,


b

f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
a

5. f pxq, gpxq ra, bs , Cauchy-Schwarz :


b
b
2 b
2
f pxqgpxq dx
f pxq dx g 2 pxq dx.
a

6. f pxq 0 ra, bs , P R,
b
2 b
2 b
2
f pxq cos x dx `
f pxq sin x dx
f pxq dx .
a

(: f

f , .)

7. :
2

p1q
sin4 x dx
0

sin3 x dx; p2q

ex dx

8. f pxq r0, 1s , lim

n`8 0

9. f pxq r0, 1s , lim n


n`8

ex dx.

xn f pxqdx 0.

xn f pxqdx f p1q. (: nxn

r0, 1s 1, r0, s , 0 1.)


10. :

p1q lim

n8 0

sinn x dx 0;

n`p
lim

n8 n

cos x
dx 0 pp 0q.
x

11. pq f pxq ra, bs , 0, gpxq,


inf f gpxq sup f ,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

12. pq f pxq rc, ds , ra, bs pc, dq,


b
lim
|f px ` hq f pxq|dx 0.
h0 a

13. pq a, b 0, f pxq ra, bs ,

xf pxqdx 0,

x f pxqdx ab
a

f pxqdx.
a

14. pq f pxq, gpxq ra, bs ,


b
b
b
1
f pxqgpxqdx
f pxqdx gpxqdx.
ba a
a
a

Riemann

234

6.3

6.3.1
x (). f ra, bs , x0 P ra, bs ,
F pxq
f ptqdt x0 ,
a

F 1 px0 q f px0 q.


. 4.3.2 , .

6.3.2. f ra, bs , upxq : pc, dq ra, bs vpxq : pc, dq ra, bs


,
upxq

f ptqdt

f pupxqqu1 pxq f pvpxqqv 1 pxq.

vpxq

. ,
upxq

f ptqdt

upxq

vpxq

vpxq
f ptqdt

u
a

f ptqdt

f ptqdt

uupxq

u pxq

vpxq
a

f ptqdt

vvpxq

v 1 pxq

f pupxqqu1 pxq f pvpxqqv 1 pxq.

6.3.1. F pxq

2x
x

. t 0

F 1 pxq

sin t
dt, F 1 pxq F 1 p0q.
t

sin t
sin t
1,
R .
t
t

sinpxq
1
sinp2xq
2
p1q psin x ` sin 2xq
2x
x
x


, x 0 , F 1 p0q 1 ` 2 3.

6.3.3 (Newton-Leibniz ). F ra, bs , F 1 f ra, bs


Riemann ,
b
f pxqdx F pbq F paq.
a

b
a

F 1 pxqdx F pbq F paq F pxq .


a

. ra, bs : a x0 x1 xn b, ,
i P pxi1 , xi q,
F pxi q F pxi1 q F 1 pi qpxi xi1 q f pi qxi , i 1, , n.

6.3

235

F pbq F paq

rF pxi q F pxi1 qs

f pi qxi ,

i1

i1

f , }} 0

f pxq dx,

b
F pbq F paq

f pxq dx.
a

. (1) , ,
.
(2) , ,
$
&x2 sin 12 , x 0,
x
F pxq
%0,
x 0,

r0, 1s ,
$
&2x sin 12
x
F 1 pxq
%0,

2
x

cos x12 , x 0,
x 0,

, Riemann .
.
6.3.2. f ra, bs , f paq 0,
b

pb aq2 b 1
2
f pxqdx
rf pxqs2 dx.
2
a
a
. f 2 pxq:

2
`
2 x 1
f 2 pxq f pxq f paq
f ptqdt
a
x
x
1
2
2

rf ptqs dt
1 dt
pCauchy Schwarzq
a

b
px aq

rf 1 ptqs2 dt,

f 2 pxqdx

b
px aq

a
b

rf 1 ptqs2 dt dx

rf 1 ptqs2 dt

pb aq2

b
a

px aq2 b

2
a

rf 1 pxqs2 dx.

Riemann

236

6.3.4 (). f pxq ra, bs , x ptq r, s ,


pr, sq ra, bs, pq a, pq b,
b

f pxqdx
f pptqq 1 ptqdt.
a

. f , , f F , F 1 pxq f pxq,
rF pptqqs1 F 1 pptqq 1 ptq f pptqq 1 ptq.

Newton-Leibniz ,

1
f pptqq ptqdt
rF pptqqs1 dt

F pptqq F ppqq F ppqq


b
F pbq F paq
f pxqdx.
a

. p1q 6.3.3 , ptq , 1 ptq ,


;
p2q () f , :
(
) gptq r, s Riemann , c P r, s

gptq dt, G . f Gpr, sq , Gpq a,

Gpxq
c

Gpq b, f pGptqqgptq r, s ,
b

f pxqdx

f pGptqqgptqdt.

,
, .
6.3.5 (). pq r, s , 1 .
f pr, sq , pq a, pq b, f pptqq1 ptq r, s
,
b

f pxqdx

f pptqq1 ptqdt.

. . r, s
: t0 t1 tn ,

ra, bs
1 : a pq x0 pt1 q x1 ptn q xn b,

6.3

237

. , i P pti1 , ti q,
pti q pti1 q 1 pi qpti ti1 q,

, 1 , , }} , } 1 }
. pi q P rpti1 q, pti qs rxi1 , xi s,
n

f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq

i1

f ra, bs Riemann ,
lim
}}0

b
f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq

f pxqdx.
a

i1

, i P rti1 , ti s, f pptqq1 ptq Riemann


n

f ppi qq1 pi qpti ti1 q,


i1
n
n

f ppi qqppti q pti1 qq


f ppi qq1 pi qpti ti1 q

i1

i1

rf ppi qq f ppi qqsppti q pti1 qq


i1
n

`
f ppi qqp1 pi q 1 pi qqpti ti1 q
i1

i pf qxi ` sup |f pxq|


xPra,bs

i1

i p1 qti ,

i1

f 1 , }} 0 ,
f pptqqptq Riemann , f ra, bs .

6.3.6 (). upxq, vpxq ra, bs ,


b
b b

upxqv 1 pxqdx upxqvpxq


u1 pxqvpxqdx.
a

. , upxqv 1 pxq u1 pxqvpxq . 6.3.3


b
b
1
upxqv pxqdx `
u1 pxqvpxqdx
a
a
b
`

upxqv 1 pxq ` u1 pxqvpxq dx


a
b
b

puvq1 pxqdx upxqvpxq .


a

Riemann

238

6.3.3.
? 2
2a ? 2

t sin 2t2
x a2
x sin x
p1q
dt;
p2q
dx
pa

0q;
p3q
dx.
2
4
2
1 ` sin t
x
0
a
0 1 ` cos x
. p1q
t sin 2t2 2t sin t2 cos t2 sin t2 psin t2 q1 ,

x sin t2 ,
1

1
x

dx rx lnp1 ` xqs 1 ln 2.
0
0 1`x
a

p2q x
, x a 2a , t 0 ,
cos t
3
?
3

1
1
3
2
3 3
sin t cos tdt 2 sin t 2 .

2
3a
8a
0
0 a

(3)

I
0

x sin x
dx
1 ` cos2 x
x sin x
dx `
1 ` cos2 x

x sin x
dx,
1 ` cos2 x

x t,

0
x sin t
p tq sin t

dx
dt
1 ` cos2 x

1 ` cos2 t
2
2
2
2
sin t
t sin t

dt
dt,
2t
1
`
cos
1
`
cos2 t
0
0

I
0

`
2
sin t
2

dt

arctanpcos
tq
.

1 ` cos2 t
4
0

6.3.4. pm P Z` q
2

Im
sinm x dx, Jm
0

cosm x dx.

. . I0 {2, I1 1. m 2
2
2
m
Im
sin x dx
sinm1 x dpcos xq
0
0
2
2
m1

p sin
xqpcos xq 0 `
pm 1q sinm2 x cos2 x dx
0
2
sinm2 x p1 sin2 xq dx
pm 1q
0

pm 1qIm2 pm 1qIm ,

6.3

Im

239

m1
Im2 .
m
I2n

2n 1
2n 1 2n 3
p2n 1q!!
I2n2
I2n4
.
2n
2n 2n 2
p2nq!! 2

I2n`1

p2nq!!
.
p2n ` 1q!!

t Jm Im .
2
. 0 x {2 , sin2n`1 x sin2n x sin2n1 x,

I2n`1 I2n I2n1 ,

,
p2nq!!
p2n 1q!!
p2n 2q!!

,
p2n ` 1q!!
p2nq!! 2
p2n 1q!!

p2nq!! 2 1
1 p2nq!! 2

,
2n ` 1 p2n 1q!!
2
p2n 1q!! 2n
1

, , Wallis :
2n 2
2

p2nq!! 2 1
lim
.
n8 p2n 1q!!
2
2n ` 1

6.3.5. f T . a P R,
a`T
T
f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
a

a`T
0
T
a`T
f pxqdx
f pxqdx `
f pxq `
f pxqdx.
a

x t ` T
a
a
f pt ` T qdt
f ptqdt,
0

.
6.3.6. pq f ra, bs ,
b
b
F pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx,
a

x
F pxq

f ptqdt, x P ra, bs.


a

Riemann

240

. f . F , F 1 f .
b
b b

F pxqdx F pxqx
F 1 pxqxdx
a
a
a
b
b
bF pbq
xf pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx.
a

, 0, g,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

x
Gpxq

gptqdt, x P ra, bs,


a

x `

|F pxq Gpxq|
f ptq gptq dt , @ x P ra, bs,
a

b
Gpxqdx

pb xqgpxqdx.
a

b
b
b
b`


F pxq Gpxq dx pb xq f pxq gpxq dx
F pxqdx pb xqf pxqdx
a
a
a
a
b
b

F pxq Gpxqdx ` pb xq|f pxq gpxq|dx

a
a
b
pb aq ` pb aq |f pxq gpxq|dx
a

2pb aq,

f .

6.3
1. :
2

d cos x a
d x
dt
d b
a
p1q
1 ` t2 dt, p2q
sinpx ` tqdt.
, p3q
dx 0
dx sin x 1 ` sin2 t
dx a
2. :

4
a
?
1`x
? dx;
p1q
cos2 xdx;
p2q
a x dx;
p3q
x
1
0

02

sin2 x dx
;
p5q
sin3 x dx;
p6q
x2 cos x dx;
p4q
1
`
cos
x
02
0a a

1
lnp1 ` xq
2
2
2
2
p7q
cos x cos 4x dx; p8q
x a x dx; p9q
dx.
1`x
0
0
0

6.3

241

3. , 3 ` 1{15 3 ` 1{7:
1
p1q
0

p1 x2 qx4
dx;
1 ` x2

1
p2q
0

p1 xq4 x4
dx.
1 ` x2

4. :
p1q lim p n12 `
n8

1
psin
n8 n
1
lim 4 p1 `
n8 n

p2q lim
p3q

2
n1
n2 ` ` n2 q;

2
n ` sin n ` `
3
3

sin n1
n q;

2 ` ` n q.

5. :
x
1
p1q lim 4
x0 x

x
0

1
sin3 tdt; p2q lim
x0 x

cos t2 dt; p3q

lim

x`8

et dt

0 x

dt.
2

e2t

6. m,
n ,
p1q
sin2 mx dx
cos2 mx dx ,

p2q
sin mx sin nx dx
cos mx cos nx dx 0 pm nq,

p3q
sin mx cos nx dx 0.

7. ( m, n ):
1

1
1
xn
xn
dx;
p2q
dx;
p3q
p1 x2 qn dx;
2
1
`
x
1
`
x
02
02
02
n
n
cos x sin nxdx; p5q
cos x cos nxdx; p6q
cosm x sinn xdx;
p4q
04
02
02
sin nx
sin2 nx
n
p7q
tan xdx;
p8q
dx;
p9q
dx.
sin x
sin2 x
0
0
0

p1q

8. f pxq r0, 1s ,


xf psin xqdx
f psin xqdx,
2 0
0

x sin x

dx.
1
`
cos2 x
0
9. :
1
p1q
0

lnp1 ` xq
dx;
1 ` x2

1
p2q
0

arctan x
dx.
1`x

Riemann

242

10. 0 , 1,
?
1
dx
1
1 `
a
? .
?
?
ln
1
1 2x ` 2 1 2x ` 2
1
11. f pxq ra, bs ,

b
1 b
1
px aqpx bqf 2 pxqdx.
f pxqdx rf paq ` f pbqspb aq `
2
2 a
a
12. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f pbq 0. , P pa, bq,

b
4

|f 1 pq|
f
pxqdx

.
pb aq2 a
(: px

a`b
1
2 qf pxq

.)

13. f pxq T , ,

1
1 T
lim
f pxqdx
f pxqdx.
8 0
T 0
14. pq f pxq r0, 1s ,
1
nf pxq

lim
dx f p0q.
2
2
n8 0 1 ` n x
2
15. pq f pxq r1, 1s ,
1
hf pxq
lim
dx f p0q.
2
2
`
h0
1 h ` x

6.4


.
, , ,

.
, .
(1)

f ra, bs . c P ra, bs,


f pcqpb aq f ra, bs . , f , |f 1 pxq| M1 ,
@ x P pa, bq. ,
b
b
b

f pxqdx f pcqpb aq pf pxq f pcqqdx f 1 pqpx cqdx


a

|f 1 pq||x c|dx M1

1
M1 rpc aq2 ` pb cq2 s.
2

|x c|dx
a

6.4

, c

243
a`b
.
2

b
1
`a ` b

pb aq M1 pb aq2 .
f pxqdx f
2
4
a

(6.1)

, f , (),
a`b
. f , |f 2 pxq| M2 , @ x P ra, bs. f
2
Taylor ,
f pxq f

`a ` b
2

` f1

,
b
f pxqdx f

` a ` b `
2

`a ` b
2

a ` b 1 2 `
a ` b 2
` f pq x
,
2
2
2

1
pb aq `
2

b
a

`
a ` b 2
f 2 pq x
dx,
2

b
b
1
`
a ` b 2
1
a`b

qpb aq M2
x
dx
M2 pb aq3 .
f pxqdx f p
2
2
2
24
a
a

(6.2)

, ra, bs n ,
,
Rn

n
n

` xi1 ` xi b a

ba `
2i 1
f

f a`
pb aq ,
2
n
n i1
n
i1

(6.3)

f ra, bs . f ,
n
b

` b a 2
M1
1

f
pxqdx

R
M1

pb aq2 ;

n
4
n
4n
a
i1

f ,
n
b

` b a 3
M2
1

M2

pb aq3 .
f pxqdx Rn
2
24
n
24n
a
i1

(6.4)

(6.5)

(2)

f ra, bs , f , |f 2 pxq| M2 , @ x P ra, bs,


(5.3)
|f pxq lpxq|

1
M2 px aqpb xq, x P ra, bs,
2

lpxq

xb
xa
f paq `
f pbq, x P ra, bs.
ab
ba

Riemann

244

b
lpxqdx
a

f paq ` f pbq
pb aq,
2

.
b
1
b
f paq ` f pbq
M2

pb aq M2 px aqpb xqdx
pb aq3 . (6.6)
f pxqdx
2
2
12
a
a
ra, bs n , , f

Tn

n1
n

f paq ` f pbq
b a `
i
f pxi1 q ` f pxi q b a

f a ` pb aq `
. (6.7)
2
n
n
n
2
i1
i1

n
b

` b a 3
1
M2

M2

pb aq3 .
f pxqdx Tn
2
12
n
12n
a
i1

(6.8)

(3) Simpson

f , |f 3 pxq| M3 , @ x P ra, bs.


`a ` b

pa, f paqq,

, fp

a`b
q , pb, f pbqq
2

,
p2 paq f paq, p2

`a ` b
2

`a ` b
, p2 pbq f pbq
2

,
p2 pxq

px
pa

a`b
2 qpx bq
f paq`
a`b
2 qpa bq

` a ` b px aqpx a`b
px aqpx bq
2 q
f
f pbq,
`
a`b
a`b
2
p a`b
pb

aqpb

aqp

bq
2
2
2 q

b
p2 pxqdx
a

`a ` b

b a
f paq ` 4f
` f pbq ,
6
2

f ra, bs , Simpson .
,
f pxq p2 pxq

`
1 3
a ` b
f pqpx aq x
px bq, P pa, bq.
6
2

b
`a ` b

b a

f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
f pxqdx
6
2
a
b

a ` b
1
M3
pb aq4 .
M3 px aqx
pb xqdx
6
2
192
a

(6.9)

6.4

245

`
a ` b
px bqdx 0,
px aq x
2
a

. f . ,
`
a ` b
gpxq f pxq p2 pxq px aq x
px bq
2

a`b
a`b
. c a,
, b.
2
2
F pxq gpxq

`
gpcq
a ` b 2
px aq x
px bq,
a`b 2
2
pc aqpc 2 q pc bq

1 a`b
F paq F p a`b
2 q F pbq F pcq 0, F p 2 q 0. Rolle ,

1 , 2 , 3
F 1 p1 q F 1 p2 q F 1 p3 q 0,
a`b
, F 1 Rolle , ,
2
F p4q pq 0.

f p4q pq

gpcq
4! 0,
2
pc aqpc a`b
2 q pc bq

(c x)
gpxq

`
1 p4q
a ` b 2
f pqpx aq x
px bq,
24
2

ra, bs ,
b

`a ` b

b a
f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
6
2
a

`
1 b p4q
a ` b 2

f pqpx aq x
px bqdx,
24 a
2
f pxqdx

|f p4q pxq| M4 ,
b
`a ` b

b a

f paq ` 4f
` f pbq
f pxqdx
6
2
a
b
`
a ` b 2
M4
1
M4 px aq x
pb xqdx
pb aq5 .

24
2
180
24
a

(6.10)

ra, bs n ,
Simpson :
Sn

` xi1 ` xi

b a
f pxi1 q ` 4f
` f pxi q .
6n
2
i1

(6.11)

Riemann

246

. f ,
b

M3

pb aq4 ;
f pxqdx Sn
192n3
a

(6.12)

f ,
b

f pxqdx Sn
a

M4
pb aq5 .
180p2nq4

(6.13)

(4) Newton-Cotes

,
f . , ra, bs m ,
xi a `

i
pb aq, i 0, 1, , m.
m

txi u f Lagrange pm ,
pm pxq

x xj
f pxi q,
x
xj
i0 ji i

pm f :
b
m

pm pxqdx pb aq
Cpm, iqf pxi q,
a

(Newton-Cotes)

i0

, Cpm, iq f :

x xj
1 m tj
dx
dt
m 0 ji i j
a ji xi xj

1 p1qmi m

pt jqdt.
m i!pm iq! 0 ji

Cpm, iq

1
ba

f m ` 1 , ,
m

f pxq pm pxq

f pm`1q pq
px xi q,
pm ` 1q! i0

|f pm`1q pxq| Mm`1 ,


b
b
m
b

Mm`1

pm pxqdx
|x xi |dx
f pxqdx
pm ` 1q! a i0
a
a
m
Mm`1 pb aqm`2 m

|t i|dt.
pm ` 1q!mm`2 0 i0
, , .
1

1
6.4.1.
dx .
2
4
0 1`x

6.4

247

. n 2 .
R2

1 1
3 336
fp q ` fp q
0.791;
2
4
4
425

T2

31
11
1
1
f p0q ` f p q ` f p1q
0.775;
2 2
2
2
40

Simpson

1
1
1
3
f p0q ` 4f p q ` 2f p q ` 4f p q ` f p1q
12
4
2
4
8011

0.78539.
10200

S2

1 ` x2

, f pxq

f p4q pxq parctan xqp5q 24 cos5 parctan xq sin 5parctan x `

q,
2

|f p4q pxq| 24. n 2 Simpson


24
1

0.0005.
180 44
1920

6.4
1. :
Rn 2T2n Tn .
2. , Simpson :
Sn

2
1
Rn ` Tn .
3
3

3. C, |f 3 pxq| M f :
b

f paq ` f pbq

pb aq CM pb aq4 .
f pxqdx
2
a
4. f pxq ra, bs , P pa, bq,
b
f pxqdx pb aqf
a

`a ` b
2

1
pb aq3 f 2 pq.
24

Riemann

248

5. f pxq ra, bs , |f 1 pxq| M , @ x P ra, bs.


b
1
f paq ` f pbq

pb aq M pb aq2 .
f pxqdx
2
4
a
6. f , Simpson .
7. Newton-Cotes :
Cpm, iq Cpm, m iq, 0 i m;

Cpm, iq 1.

i0

8. Newton-Cotes .
9. ra, bs 2k ,
xi a `

i
pb aq, i 0, 1, , 2k.
2k

b
2k

px xi qdx 0.

a i0

10. f 2k ` 2 , p2k f ,
b

b
f pxqdx

1
p2k pxqdx
p2k ` 2q!

b
a

2k
`
a ` b
f p2k`2q pq x
px xi qdx.
2
i0

11. , Simpson ln 2

2
1

1
dx ,
x

12. f ra, bs 4 , :
b
f pxqdx
a

1
24

b
a

f paq ` f pbq
pb aq
2

f p4q pxqpx aq2 px bq2 dx

1
pb aq2 rf 1 pbq f 1 paqs.
12

,
, . ,
.
Stirling .
, .

7.1
7.1.1

I r, s , : I R2
ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P I.

xptq, yptq , R2 . xptq, yptq


(), () .
y

x
0

7.1
, ,

Lpq

rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

. :
a
a
| a2 ` b2 a2 ` c2 | |b c|, @ a, b, c P R.
r, s t0 t1 tn , pxpti q, ypti qq
, ,
n a

Lpq
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,
i1

249

250

, i , i P pti1 , ti q,
xpti q xpti1 q x1 pi qpti ti1 q, ypti q ypti1 q y 1 pi qpti ti1 q,

a
a
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti .

a
a

px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti |y 1 pi q y 1 pi q|ti ,

|y 1 pi q y 1 pi q|ti

i1

i py 1 qti 0, p}} maxt|ti ti1 |u 0q

i1

Lpq lim

}}0

lim

}}0

n a

pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2


i1
n a

px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti

i1
1

rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

. px ptqq ` py 1 ptqq2 0,
t
1
s ptq rpx1 puqq2 ` py 1 puqq2 s 2 du, t P r, s.
1

: r, s r0, Lpqs , , t psq, s


. psq ppsqq, s P r0, Lpqs.
}
1 psq}

a
p
x1 psqq2 ` p
y 1 psqq2 1.

7.2

7.1

251

7.1.1.
pxptq, yptqq papt sin tq, ap1 cos tqq, a 0

.
. t P r0, 2s
2
1
l
rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt
0
2
1

arp1 cos tq2 ` sin2 ts 2 dt


0
2
t
2a
sin dt 8a.
2
0
. (), .
7.1.2

p1q f 0 ra, bs , y f pxq, x a, x b pa bq


y 0
b
S

f pxq dx.
a

, f , , ,
b
S
|f pxq| dx
a

. , y f2 pxq, y f1 pxq x a, x b

b
S

|f2 pxq f1 pxq| dx.


a

y
y

y = f2 (x)
y = |f (x)|

x
0

b
y = f1 (x)
0

7.3

x
b

252

p2q ,

r rpq, P r, s

, rpq , 2. ,
,

1 2
1 2
r pi q i
r pq d.
2
2
}}0
i1

S lim

7.4

.
p3q ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r, s , yptq 0, x t

, xpr, sq ra, bs. x a, x b y 0

yptqx1 ptqdt.

. , x
,

|yptqx1 ptq|dt.

()

()
x
0

x
0

7.5
t , ,

S
yptqx1 ptqdt
xptqy 1 ptqdt,

yptqx ptqdt yptqxptq


y 1 ptqxptqdt
1

y 1 ptqxptqdt,

7.1

253

S ryptqx1 ptq y 1 ptqxptqs dt.


2
7.1.2.
.

x2 y 2
`
1
a2 b2

. ,
a c
x2
S4
b 1 2 dx
a
0
2 a
4b
1 sin2 t a cos t dt
0
2
4ab
cos2 t dt ab.

x
a

7.6

7.1.3. px2 ` y 2 q2
a2 px2 y 2 q .

r2 = a2 cos 2

. x r cos , y r sin


3 3
r2 a2 cos 2, P r , s Y r ,
s.
4 4
4 4

7.7

,
S 4

1
2

r2 pq d 2a2

cos 2 d a2 .

p4q

y
(t) = (x(t), y(t))

ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r, s, yptq 0.


x

1
S
2yptqrpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

x
0

: r, s
, ti1 , ti

7.8

,
a
pypti1 q ` ypti qq pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,

254

a
pypti1 q ` ypti qq pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 ,

i1

, ,
pypti1 q ` ypti qq 2ypi q, pi P rti1 , ti sq

a
a
pxpti q xpti1 qq2 ` pypti q ypti1 qq2 px1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 ti ,

, .
S lim

}}0

2ypi qrpx1 pi qq2 ` py 1 pi qq2 s 2 ti

i1
1

2yptqrpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 s 2 dt.

7.1.4. x2 `pybq2 a2 p0 a bq

x .
b

(a cos t, b + a sin t)
t

.
xptq a cos t, yptq b ` a sin t, t P r0, 2s.

2
1
S
2pb ` a sin tqra2 sin2 t ` a2 cos2 ts 2 dt
0
2
2a
pb ` a sin tq dt 4 2 ab.

x
0

7.9 ()

7.1.3

p1q

R3 , x a x b pa bq . Spxq
x P ra, bs x . Spxq x ,

b
V

Spxqdx.
a

, A B , .
5 6 () , 17 Cavalieri
.

7.1

255

a
z
0
y

7.10
7.1.5.
.

x2 y 2 z 2
` 2 ` 2 1
a2
b
c

. x P pa, aq,
0
`
z2
x2
y2
c
`

,
b2
c2
a2
z

`
`
x2 12 `
x2 12
x2
Spxq b 1 2 c 1 2
bc 1 2 ,
7.11
a
a
a

a
a
`
x2
4
V
Spxq dx
bc 1 2 dx abc.
a
3
a
a

x
a

p2q
y

f ra, bs ,

|y| |f (x)|

tpx, yq | a x b, 0 |y| |f pxq|u

x
0 a

x .
x P ra, bs ,

Spxq f pxq.

7.12


b
V

b
Spxq dx

f 2 pxq dx.

256

7.1.6. h, r

x
0

. ,
h
` r 2
1
V
x dx r2 h.
h
3
0
7.1.4

7.13

p1q

m ,
, k, ,
mg kv m

dv
,
dt

, g , v , .

k
d kt
pe m vq ge m t ,
dt

,
e

k
mt

t
vg

e m s ds

mg k t
pe m 1q,
k

vptq

, t 8 vptq
p2q

k
mg
p1 e m t q.
k

mg
, .
k

, , :
? , .
, x
F GM mx2 ,

, G , M , m . ,
GM mR2 mg,

R . r pr Rq
r
r
`1
1
GM mx2 dx
mgR2 x2 dx mgR2
.
R r
R
R

7.1

257

,
W lim mgR2
r8

`1
R

1
mgR.
r

, v0 ,
1
mv 2 mgR,
2 0

v0

a
a
2gR 2 9.81pm{s2 q 6.371 106 m 11.2 pkm{sq.

p3q

, .
? ,
.
, f ,
k, n , F , F
.
F + F
F

kN

7.14
, .
N , kN . F, F ` F ,
,
$
&N pF ` F q sin ` F sin ,
2
2
%pF ` F q cos F cos ` kN.
2

N , 0,
dF
F
lim
kF,
0
d

258

F pq f ek .

2n , F f e2kn . , k
F 10e3 kg 100000kg.
7.1.5

1
, n 6, f 10kg,
4

p1q Stirling

f ra, bs , (5.3)
|f pxq lpxq|

1
M px aqpb xq, @ x P ra, bs,
2

, M max |f 2 pxq|,
xPra,bs

lpxq f paq `

f pbq f paq
px aq, x P ra, bs.
ba

b
b
1 b
1

M pb aq3 .
lpxqdx M px aqpb xqdx
f pxqdx
2
12
a
a
a
f ra, bs .
y
y = ln x

x
0

7.15
f ln x r1, ns .
n
n n

An
ln x dx x ln x
pln xq1 xdx n ln n n ` 1,
1

1
1
1
Bn pln 1 ` ln 2q ` pln 2 ` ln 3q ` ` plnpn 1q ` ln nq
2
2
2
1
ln n! ln n,
2

, ln x ,
k`1
1
1 1
0
ln x dx pln k ` lnpk ` 1qq
.
2
12 k 2
k

7.1

259

Cn An Bn , Cn n 1 , n .
n1
8

`1
1 1
1
1 1

1
`

,
12 k1 k 2
12
k k`1
6
k1

0 Cn

lim Cn C ,
n8

8
1 1
12 kn k 2

11
1
1
1`1
1

`
`
`
`
.
2
2
12 n
npn ` 1q pn ` 1qpn ` 2q
12 n
n

0 C Cn

C . ,
Cn An Bn n ln n n ` 1 ln n! `

1
ln n,
2

n! e1Cn nn` 2 en .

Wallis ,
?
pn!q2 22n 1
p2nq!!
1
? lim
? ,
n8 p2nq!
n8
n
p2n 1q!! n
lim

n! p2nq! ,
?

e1C
e2p1Cn q n2n`1 e2n 22n
? ? ,
1
p2n`
q
n8 e1C2n p2nq
n
2 e2n
2

lim

n!
n!

2n

` n n
e

eCCn ,

p Stirling q

1 eCCn e 12 p n2 ` n q 1 `
p2q .

1
1
`
, @ n 1.
12n 10n2

2, ,

. 1761 , Lambert . 1947 , Niven


, Niven .
a
. , , a, b .
b
f pxq

n .

1 n
x pa bxqn , x P r0, s,
n!

260
p1q f pxq f p xq, x P r0, s;
p2q f pkq p0q , k 1, 2, . . . , 2n;
p3q f pkq pq , k 1, 2, . . . , 2n.

, p1q . p2q , 0 k n f pkq p0q 0; n k 2n


,
f pkq p0q

1 kn 2nk
C
a
pbqkn k!,
n! n

. p3q p1q p2q .

F pxq f pxq f p2q pxq ` f p4q pxq ` p1qn f p2nq pxq,

F 2 pxq ` F pxq f pxq,

f pxq sin x dx rF 1 pxq sin x F pxq cos xs0 F pq ` F p0q P Z.

1
paqn ,
, p0, q 0 f pxq n!

1
f pxq sin x dx
f pxq dx
0

paqn

0, pn 8q
n!


7.1
1. :
3

p1q y x 2 , p0 x 4q;
p2q x et cos t, y et sin t, t P r0, 2s;
p3q x a cos4 t, y a sin4 t, a 0, t P r0, s;
p4q y 2 2ax, a 0, 0 x a.
2. :
p1q y 2 ax, y a1 x2 , a 0;
p2q y x2 2x, y x2 ;

7.1

261

p3q y xpx 1qpx 2q, y 0;


p4q y 2 x2 pa2 x2 q, a 0;
p5q r ap1 cos q, a 0, P r0, 2s;
p6q r a sin 3, a 0.
3. :
p1q y tan x x , x P r0, 4 s;
p2q x apt sin tq, y ap1 cos tq y a, a 0, t P r 2 , 3
2 s;
p3q x2 ` y 2 a2 x , a 0;
p4q r2 a2 cos 2

4.

4. :
p1q x ` y ` z 2 1, x 0, y 0;
p2q x2 ` y 2 a2 , y 2 ` z 2 a2 , a 0;
p3q z 2 bpa xq, x2 ` y 2 ax, a 0, b 0;
p4q x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` xy ` yz ` zx a2 , a 0.
5. :
p1q x apt sin tq, y ap1 cos tq, t P r0, 2s x ;
p2q px aq2 ` y 2 b2 pa b 0q y ;
p3q y 2 2ax pa 0q x b pb 0q ;
p4q y sin x, x P r0, s x .
6. cn p1 `

1
2

` `

1
nq
1

f pxq ln x f pxq x

ln n pn 1q. Stirling ,

p1q lim cn ;
n8

p2q lim cn c, lim npcn cq 12 .


n8

n8

7. : r0, 1s R2 ,
Lpq |p1q p0q|,

Lpq , |p q| p q .

262

7.2

, Riemann
. ,
, ? ,
, rR, `8q .
, .
1
, p0, 1s f pxq ? ,
x
, y f pxq x 0, x 1 y 0

1
y=
x

, .
.
7.2.1 (). a P R, ra, `8q

f ra, As Riemann ,

lim

f pxq dx
`8

p q,

7.16

A
A`8 a

f pxq dx ,

`8
f pxq dx lim

`8

f pxq dx,

A`8 a

f pxq dx .

`8

,
f pxq dx,
f pxq dx.
8
8
`8
a
`8

f pxq dx
f pxq dx
f pxq dx ,
8

`8

`8

f pxq dx
8

f pxq dx `

f pxq dx, @ a P R.

,
A
lim

A`8 A

f pxq dx

f p8, `8q , ,
Cauchy ,
A

`8
f pxq dx lim

pV.P.q
8

A`8 A

f pxq dx.

7.2

263

:
( Cauchy ) f pxq ra, `8q 0,

M M pq, B A M ,
B

f pxq dx .

p8, as p8, `8q .


`8
1
7.2.1.
dx pp P Rq .
xp
1
. A 1 ,
A
1

$
&ln A,
p 1,
1
dx

% 1 pA1p 1q, p 1.
xp
1p

p 1 ,
`8
1
1
1
dx lim
pA1p 1q
.
p
A`8
x
1

p
p

1
1
, f ra, `8q F , ,
A
lim

A`8 a

f pxq dx lim F pAq F paq,


A`8

lim F pAq .
A`8

7.2.2.

`8
8

1
dx .
1 ` x2

1
arctan x,
1 ` x2
`8
`8
0
1
1
1
dx
dx `
dx
2
2
2
1`x
8 1 ` x
0
8 1 ` x
0
`8
arctan x8 ` arctan x0

` .
2
2

, .
7.2.2 (). f ra1 , bs pa a1 bq Riemann
,
b
f pxq dx

lim

a1 a`

a1

264

p q,

f pxq dx ,

b
f pxq dx lim

a1 a`

f pxq dx,
a1

f pxq dx .

, f ra, bs Riemann , f Riemann


. f a , ra, bs Riemann , a f
. , ra, bq ,
, Cauchy .
, , ,
,
, .
1
1
7.2.3.
dx pp P Rq .
p
0 x
. 0 a 1 ,
1
a

$
& ln a,
p 1,
1
dx

% 1 p1 a1p q, p 1.
xp
1p

p 1 ,
1
1
1
1
dx lim
p1 a1p q
.
p
a0 1 p
1p
0 x
7.2.4.

1
?
1

1
dx.
1 x2

. 1.
1
0
1
1
1
1
?
?
?
dx

dx
`
dx
2
2
1

x
1

x
1
x2
1
1
0
0
1
arcsin x1 ` arcsin x0

` .
2
2
Riemann , , ,
.
7.2.1. a, b, c 8 `8,

7.2

265

p1q f ra, bs, rb, cs , f ra, cs ,


c

b
f pxq dx

c
f pxq dx `

f pxq dx;

p2q f , g ra, bs , f ` g p, P Rq ra, bs

,
b

b
rf pxq ` gpxqs dx

b
f pxq dx `

7.2.5.

gpxq dx.
a

1
ln x dx .
0

. lim` x ln x 0
x0

1
0

7.2.6.

1 1
1

ln x dx x ln x
x dx 1.
x
0
0
`8

cospx2 q dx .

. r1, `8q . x
`8
1

1
cospx q dx
2
2

`8
1

t,

cos t
? dt.
t

Cauchy :

B

cos t sin t B 1 B sin t

?
?
dt
`

dt
3
t A 2

t
A t2
A
B
3
2
1
1
1
t 2 dt ? 0 pB A `8q.
? `? `
2
A
B
A
A
.
, f ra, `8q f pxq 0 px
`8q.

7.2
1. f ra, bs . a1 P pa, bq, f ra1 , bs
Riemann , f ra, bs ,
b
f pxq dx

lim

a1 a`

a1

f pxq dx.
a

266

2. :
`8
`8
`8
dx
ln x
dx
p1q
; p2q
dx;
p3q
;
2
p
2
xpln
xq
x
2
1`8
e`8 x ln x ln pln xq
2`8 ?
2
p5q
xex dx;
p6q
x5 ex dx;
p4q
e x dx;
0`8
0`8
0`8
dx
dx
dx
p7q
; p8q
; p9q
.
xp1 ` xq
px ` 2qpx ` 3q
x2 ` 2x ` 2
1
0
0
3. :
1
1
1
x3
xdx
arcsin x
?
?
?
p1q
dx;
p2q
;
p3q
dx;
2
2
2
1x
1x
?
01 1 x
1
1
1

dx
arcsin x
xdx
?
a
a
p4q
; p5q
; p6q
dx.
px qp xq
xp1 xq
0 p2 xq 1 x

0
4. :
`8
`8
dx
2
? .
p1q
| cos x |dx; p2q
x x
e
0
0
5. :
1
1
2
dx
ln x
dx
p1q
; p2q
dx; p3q
.
2
0 ln x
0 1x
0 px 1q
6. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8

f pxqdx 0, f pxq 0.

7. f pxq 0, f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8
f pxqdx 0.
a

8. f pxq ra, `8q , f pxq ra, `8q ,


lim f pxq 0.

x`8

(: Cauchy .)
9. f pxq ra, `8q , f pxq ra, `8q , f 1 pxq

, lim f pxq 0. (: .)
x`8

10. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8
a

lim f pxq 0.

f pxqdx

`8

f 1 pxqdx ,

x`8

`8

11. pq ,
a
`8
2

f pxqdx .
a

f pxqdx , f pxq ,

7.3

267

12. pq ,

`8

f pxqdx , f pxq ,

lim f pxq 0.

x`8

7.3

Cauchy .
, . ,
A
f ,
f pxq dx A ,
a

, :
`8
7.3.1. f 0,
f pxq dx
a

A
F pAq

f pxq dx
a

A P ra, `8q ; .
:
`8
7.3.2. 0 f M g, M 0 ,
gpxq dx
a
`8
`8
,
f pxq dx ;
f pxq dx ,
a
a
`8
gpxq dx ; .
a

.
A
F pAq

A
f pxq dx, GpAq

gpxq dx,
a

0 F pAq M GpAq, A P ra, `8q. , GpAq , F pAq ;




F pAq , GpAq .
lim f pxq
x`8 gpxq

. p1q M . l
,
`8
`8
gpxq dx ; l 0 ,
f pxq dx
0 l 8 ,
a
a
`8
`8
`8

gpxq dx ,
f pxq dx ; l `8 ,
gpxq dx
a
a
a
`8
,
f pxq dx .
a

p2q f xp , Cauchy :
(i) p 1, C 0,
0 f pxq

C
p@ x x0 q,
xp

268

`8
a

f pxq dx ;
(ii) p 1, C 0,
f pxq

`8

C
p@ x x0 q,
xp

f pxq dx ;

, C , lim xp f pxq l ,
x`8
`8
(iii) p 1, 0 l `8,
f pxq dx ;
a`8
(iv) p 1, 0 l `8,
f pxq dx ;
a

p3q , xp , Cauchy

.
7.3.1.

`8
1

x2

1
dx .
`x`1

.
1
0 ?
x2 , @ x 1,
2
x x `x`1


.
7.3.2.

`8

xa ex dx pa P Rq .

x2`a
0,
x`8 ex

lim x2 xa ex lim

x`8

.
7.3.3.

`8
1

1
dx .
xp1 ` ln xq

. F pxq lnp1 ` ln xq, Newton-Leibniz




, .
, .
f ,
f ` pxq maxt0, f pxqu,

f pxq maxt0, f pxqu,

f ` f , f f ` f . , f ` f ,
f , f , |f | f ` ` f
. f , |f | , f .

7.3

7.3.4.

269

`8
1

cos x
dx pp 1q .
xp

.
cos x

xp , @ x 1,
xp


p 1 xp , .
`8
cos xp dx pp 1q .
7.3.5.
1
1

. x t p (Cauchy ),
.
1
p1 ` cos 2xp q,
2

| cos xp | cos2 xp

cos 2xp , cos xp r1, `8q .

,
.
7.3.3 (Dirichlet). F pAq

f pxq dx ra, `8q , gpxq


`8
ra, `8q , lim gpxq 0,
f pxqgpxq dx .
a

x`8

. |F pAq| C, @ A a.
A
B
B

f
pxq
dx

f
pxq
dx

f pxq dx 2C, @ A, B a.

lim gpxq 0, 0, M 0, x M
x`8

|gpxq|

.
4C

, A, B M

B
B

f pxqgpxq dx gpAq
f pxq dx ` gpBq
f pxq dx

f pxq dx `
f pxq dx

4C A
4C

2C `
2C .

4C
4C

Cauchy

`8

f pxqgpxq dx .

7.3.6.

`8
0

sin x
dx p0 p 2q .
xp

270

.
lim xp1

x`0

sin x
1,
xp

sin x
x1p . p 2 x1p
xp
sin x
p0, 1s . p r1, `8q .
x
A
1
sin x dx , p pp 0q r1, `8q , Dirichlet
x
1
.


p0, 1s

. , 0 p 1 , ; 1 p 2
.
`8

7.3.4 (Abel).
f pxq dx , gpxq ra, `8q
a
`8
,
f pxqgpxq dx .
a

. g ,
|gpxq| C, @ x P ra, `8q.

f , 0, M 0, A, B M
B

.
f pxq dx

2C
A
,

B
B

f pxqgpxq dx gpAq
f pxq dx ` gpBq
f pxq dx

C
f pxq dx ` C
f pxq dx
A

`C
.
C
2C
2C

Cauchy

`8

f pxqgpxq dx .

, .
`8
sin x
7.3.7. a 0,
eax
dx .
x
0
. eax r0, `8q ,

sin x
r0, `8q
x


, Abel .
`8
sin x
7.3.8.
arctan x dx pp 0q .
xp
1

7.3

271

sin x
, gpxq arctan x, f r1, `8q , g
xp
r1, `8q , Abel .


. f pxq

7.3
1. :
`8
`8
`8
dx
dx
x3 dx
?
?
?
;
p2q
p1q
;
p3q
;
3
4
7
1`8 x2 ` 1
0`8 1 ` x
0`8 1 `2 x
sin x
x arctan x
x
?
? dx; p5q
p4q
dx; p6q
dx;
3
6
x
1
`
x
1
1`8
1`8 ` x
0`8
cos x
lnp1 ` xq
2 arctan x
p7q
dx; p8q
dx; p9q
dx.
2
n
1
`
x
x
x
1
1
0
2. :
1
1
1
dx
dx
dx
?
?
?
p1q
;
p2q
;
p3q
;
3
3
4
0 1 x
02 x ln x
01 1 x
1 cos x
dx
ln x
?
p4q
;
p5q
dx; p6q
dx;
m
2
x
01 sin x
01
01 p1 xq
1
1
ln x
dx
p7q
sin dx; p8q
dx;
p9q
.

2
x
x
1

x
ln
x
0
0
0.5
3. pp 0q:
`8
p1q
1`8
p4q
0

?
`8
`8
sin x
cos x
lnpln xq
dx;
p2q
dx; p3q
sin xdx;
?x
1`8 x 1
e`8 ln x
sin x
x sin x
sin xp1 cos xq
dx; p5q
dx; p6q
dx.
1`x
x
xp
1
0

4. (p, q 0):
`8
p1q
1`8
p4q
0

`8
1
ln x
xp
xp
?
;
p2q
dx;
p3q
dx;
q
4
xp
02 1 ` x
0`8 1 x
x
e 1
| sin x|
dx
dx; p5q
; p6q
dx.
p
p
q
x
xp
0
0 sin x cos x

5. f pxq r1, `8q ,

. (: .)

`8
1

f 2 pxqdx ,

`8
1

f pxq
dx
x

`8
6. f pxq ra, As pA 8q .
|f pxq|dx , lim f pxq L,
x`8
a
`8
L 0,
f 2 pxqdx .
a

272
7. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8

(: rA{2, As .)

f pxqdx , lim xf pxq 0.


x`8

8. f pxq ra, `8q ,

`8a
`8
f pxq{x dx ,
f pxqdx
a

. (: , .)
`8
9.
f pxqdx , x `8 xf pxq ,
a

lim xf pxq ln x 0.

x`8

10. pq f pxq 0 r0, `8q ,

`8
0

lim

`8

dx
,
f pxq

f pxqdx `8.
0

11. pq
`8
xp

dx
dx pp, q P Rq
lnq x

7.4


. .
`8
7.4.1. I
eax sin bx dx pa 0q.
0

. ,
a sin bx ` b cos bx ax
F pxq
e
,
a2 ` b2
, Newton-Leibniz ,
b
.
I F p`8q F p0q F p0q 2
a ` b2
`
1 r2
7.4.2. I
dx p0 r 1q.
2
1 2r cos x ` r
. t tan x2 ,
`8
I
8

`8

1 r2
2dt
1t2
2 1 ` t2
`
r
1 2r 1`t
2

2p1 r2 q
dt
2
2 2
8 p1 rq ` p1 ` rq t
1 ` r `8
t
2.
2 arctan
1 r 8

7.4

273

7.4.3. I

`8
0

1
dx.
1 ` x4

1
. x ,
t
`8
I
0

t2 dt

1 ` t4

`8
0

t2
dt,
1 ` t4

`8
2I
0

`8

`8

`8

1 ` x2
dx
1 ` x4
1 ` x12
dx
x2 ` x12
dpx x1 q
px x1 q2 ` 2
du

? .
u2 ` 2
2

I ? .
2 2

7.4.4. In

`8

xn ex dx pn q.

. n 0 ,
`8
I0

`8

ex dx ex
1,
0

n 1 ,
`8
In

`8
`8

xn ex dx ex xn
`n
xn1 ex dx
0

`8
n

n1 x

dx nIn1 ,

In n!, @ n 0.

7.4.5.

`8
0

1
dx pn 1q.
p1 ` x2 qn

. n 1 ,
`8
I1
0

`8
1

dx

arctan
x
,

2
1`x
2
0

274

n 2 ,
`8

`8
1
1 ` x2 x2
In
dx

dx
p1 ` x2 qn
p1 ` x2 qn
0
0
`8
x2
In1 `
dx
p1 ` x2 qn
0
`8
`8
1
x
1
1

dx
In1 `

2
n1
2pn 1q p1 ` x q
2pn 1q 0 p1 ` x2 qn1
0
2n 3

In1 .
2n 2

p2n 3q!!

, @ n 1.
2 p2n 2q!!

In

7.4.6.

`8

ex dx pEuler-Poisson q.

. Taylor
et 1 ` t, @ t P R,

1 x2 ex

1
, @ x 0.
1 ` x2

1
`8
`8
2 n
nx2
p1 x q dx
e
dx
0

1
dx,
p1 ` x2 qn

t
x sin t, x ? ,
n
,
`8
2
1
p2n 3q!!
p2nq!!
?
ex dx
,
p2n ` 1q!!
n 0
2 p2n 2q!!

Wallis

rp2nq!!s2
lim
n8 rp2n 1q!!s2 p2n ` 1q
2

?
`8
?
p2nq!!

x2

.
e
dx lim n
n8
p2n
`
1q!!
2
0
7.4.7. I

`8
0

eax

xb2

dx pa, b 0q.

7.4

. x

b 1
a t,

275

`8

tb2 at2

I
0

b 1
dt,
a t2

`8
2I

`
1`

e
0

e2
?

ab

a
a

`8

b 1
dx
a x2

?
?
p ax xb q2

?
2 ab

ax2 xb2

`?
d ax

`8

u2

c
du

b
x

2?ab
e
.
a

1
I
2

7.4.8.

`8
0

2?ab
e
.
a

sin2 x
dx.
x2

. sinp2n 1qx sinp2n 3qx 2 sin x cos 2pn 1qx


2
sinp2n 1qx

dx , @ n 1.
sin
x
2
0
sin2 nx sin2 pn 1qx sinp2n 1qx sin x
2
n

2 sinp2k 1qx
sin2 nx

dx
dx n, @ n 1.
2
sin
x
2
sin
x
0
k1 0

x3
r0, s , x
sin x x
2
3!

1 2 sin2 nx

1 2 sin2 nx
dx
dx

n 0
x2
2
n 0 sin2 x

1 sin2 nx `
2 1
1 2 1`
2 1

dx
`
1
dx.
2
2
n 0
x
6
n x
24

t
, n `8,
n
`8

sin2 x
`
2 1 `8 sin2 x
dx 1
dx.
x2
2
6
x2
0
0

0`

`8
0

sin2 x

dx .
x2
2

. ,
`8
sin x

dx .
x
2
0

276

7.4.9. I

ln sin x dx pEuler q.

. x 2t,
4
4
4

I2
ln sin 2t dt ln 2 ` 2
ln sin t dt ` 2
ln cos t dt,
2
0
0
0
t

I2
0

s,

ln sin 2t dt ln 2 ` 2
2

ln sin s ds,

ln sin t dt ` 2

ln 2 ` 2I,
2

I 2 ln 2.
Riemann , .
7.4.1. f p0, bs ,
n
b k
f p bq;
n8 n
n
k1

f pxq dx lim
0

, f r0, bq ,
n
b k1
fp
bq;
n8 n
n
k1

f pxq dx lim
0

. f p0, bs , f 0 ( f pxq f pbq).

b k`1
fp
bq
n
n

k`1
n b

f pxq dx
k
nb

b k
f p bq,
n n

b
n
b k
f p bq
f pxq dx
n k1 n
0

b
f pxq dx
b
n

n1
n
b k
b k
f p bq
f p bq,
n k1 n
n k1 n

f pxq dx , lim nb
f p nk bq
n8
k1
0
b
b
n

b
k

f pxq dx. , lim n


f pxq dx ,
f p n bq ,

n8

, .

k1

b
n

7.4

277


f r0, bq , , .

, , ,
.

7.4
1. (n ):
`8
`8
2
p1q
x2n1 ex dx; p2q
0

dx
; p3q
px2 ` a2 qn

`8

eax cos bx dx pa 0q.

2. (n , a 0):
1
1
1 n
`8
p1 xqn
x dx
n
?
p1q
pln xq dx; p2q
dx; p3q
; p4q
eax sinn xdx.
x
0
0
0 1x
0
3. :
`8
2
1c
2
1 ex
1
1 ` sin x x
p1q
dx; p2q
e dx; p3q
ln dx.
2
1 ` cos x
x
x
0
0
4
4. :
1

2
arcsin x
x cot xdx; p3q
p1q
x ln sin xdx; p2q
dx;
x
0

0
02

x2
x2
x sin x
dx;
p6q
p4q
dx; p5q
dx.
2
0 sin x
0 1 cos x
0 1 cos x
5. :
`8
p1q
0

1 ` x4
dx; p3q
1 ` x6

`8

dx
p P Rq; p2q
2
p1 ` x qp1 ` x q

`8

dx
; p2q
1 ` x3

1 ` x4
dx.
1 ` x6

6. :
`8
p1q
0

ln x
dx.
1 ` x2

7. ,
`8

b
1 `8
f rpax q2 sdx
f py 2 qdx pa, b 0q.
x
a
0
0
8. f pxq r0, `8q , c 0,

`8
c

`8
0

f pxq
,
x

f pxq f pxq

dx f p0q ln
p, 0q.
x

278

9. f pxq p0, `8q , b a 0,

b
a

,
lim f pxq L,

x0`

`8
0

f pxq
dx
x

lim f pxq M,

x`8

f pxq f pxq

dx rL M s ln
p, 0q.
x

10. ( a, b 0):
`8
p1q
0

x
1 dx

; p2q
ex ex
2 x2

`8
0

11. :
2

2
p1q
ln | sin x a|dx p0 a 1q; p2q
0

(: p2q (9.13) .)

b sin ax a sin bx
dx.
x2

lnpsin2 x ` aqdx pa 0q.

Taylor , ,
. , ()
, , .

8.1

a1 , a2 , , an , ,
8

an a1 ` a2 ` ` an `

n1

, an , Sn

ak a1 ` ` an n

k1

.
lim Sn S ,
n8

an , S,

n1
8

an S.

n1
8

an . .

n1

an , an 0 pn 8q.

n1

an Sn Sn1 S S 0 pn 8q.
8

(Cauchy ):
an 0,
n1

N N pq, n N
|an`1 ` an`2 ` ` an`p | , @ p 1.

an`1 ` an`2 ` ` an`p Sn`p Sn ,

tSn u Cauchy .
8

1
8.1.1.
.
n1 npn ` 1q
.
n
n

`1
1
1
1
Sn

1
1 pn 8q,
kpk ` 1q k1 k k ` 1
n`1
k1


.
279

280

8.1.2.
. n 1 ,

1
.
n2
n1

1
1
1
1

. ,
2
n
npn 1q
n1 n

n`p

n`p
1
1
1
1
1
1


0 pn 8q,
2
k
k1 k
n n`p
n
kn`1
kn`1

Cauchy , (, 2 {6).
8 1

( ).
8.1.3.
n1 n
. n 1,
2n

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

`
` `

`
` `
,
k
n`1 n`2
2n
2n 2n
2n
2
kn`1


Cauchy , .
8

8.1.4.
sin n .
n1

. , sin n 0 pn 8q.
sinpn ` 1q sin n cos 1 ` cos n sin 1

, cos n 0 pn 8q.
sin2 n ` cos2 n 1,


, .
8

8.1.5. q 0, q 1 ,

q n ; q 1 ,

n1

).

q n (

n1

. 0 q 1 ,
n

Sn

qk q

k1

1 qn
q

,
1q
1q

; q 1 , q n 0, .

8
8
8

8.1.1. p1q
an
bn ,
pan ` bn q ,
n1
8

n1

pan ` bn q

n1
8

an `

n1

p2q .

n1
8

n1

bn , p, P Rq.

8.1

281


. , .

8.1
1. :
p1q
p4q

n
;
2n
1
n1
8

sin2 n
n1

npn ` 1q

n
;
n
2
n1
8

`
1
p5q
ln 1 `
;
n
n1

p2q

1
?
;
n
n2
n1
8

` 1
p1qn
p6q
`
.
2n ` 1 2n ` 2
n1
p3q

2. :
8

1
;
np2n
1q
n1
8

1
p3q
;
npn ` 3q
n1
8

p1qn1
;
p5q
n
n1
p1q

3.

p2q

?
?
?
p n ` 2 2 n ` 1 ` nq;
n1
8

1
?
;
?
pn ` 1q n ` n n ` 1
n1
8

1
p6q
.
npn ` 1qpn ` 2q
n1

p4q

an Sn . S2n S, an 0,

n1

4.

an .

n1

|an`1 an | , tan u . (: Cauchy .)

n1

5. nan ,

npan an1 q ,

n2

6. ,

7.

an .

n1

a2n ,

n1
8

an
. (: .)
n
n1

sinpn ` q , , .

n1

8.

an ,

n1

mintan , 1u .

n1

9. tan u , r1, `8q f pxq : x P rk, k ` 1q


8

, f pxq ak pk 1, 2, q. ,
an
n1
8

f pxqdx ,
1
8

n1

8
an

f pxqdx.
1

282
10.

a2n

n1

b2n ,

n1

an bn ,

n1
8
8
8

`
1 `
1

an bn
a2n 2
b2n 2 .
n1

11. |an | bn ,

bn ,

n1

n1

n1

an .

n1

8.2

an 0,

an . , Sn

n1

an n

k1

.
()

an tSn u tSn u .

n1

an 0 .
8.2.1.

n1

1
.
n pn ` 1q

.
?

2
1
?
? ?
?
n pn ` 1q
np n ` 1 ` nq n ` 1
?
?
n`1 n
?
2 ?
n n`1
1
1
2 ? ?
,
n
n`1

Sn

k1

1
1
1
1
? ?
2.
2
2 1 ?
n`1
k`1
k pk ` 1q
k
k1

.
8.2.2. q 1 , 0 an q 1 p @ n 1q,
8

an
qn
n1

, 0 1 .

8.2

283

. 0 an q 1 ,
0 Sn

ak
qk
k1

pq 1q

1
k
q
k1

1 q n 1.

0 1 . an , S
Spqq 0.a1 a2 a3 an ,

S P r0, 1s q . q 10 10 .
r0, 1s q , ,

0.999

9 1 10n
9
lim
1.
n
n8 10 1 101
10
n1

q 2 , an 0 1. , 0
1, (,


). , .
8

8.2.1 ().

an

n1

bn ,

n1

M 0,

p1q

bn

n1

an M bn , @ n 1.
8
8

an ; p2q
an
bn .

n1

n1

pq

n1

. .
. p1q pq n .
p2q pq
an
M,
bn
M , ,
lim

n8

an
,
bn

(i) 0 `8,

an

n1

(ii) 0,

n1

bn

n1
8

bn ;

an ; 8,

n1

n1

bn

n1

an

284
p3q

an
,
bn
an`1
bn`1

an
bn

(i)

bn

an ; (ii)

an

bn .

n1

n1

n1

n1

an
q
bn

p4q (Cauchy ) 8.2.1 bn q n (q ),

:
n ,

?
n

an q 1,

an ;

n1

n,

?
n

an 1,

an .

n1

q ? :
lim

?
n

n8
8

1 ,

an .

an ; 1 , ( 1 ).

n1

p5q (dAlembert ) p3q bn q n , :


8

an`1
q 1,
n ,
an ;
an
n1
8

an`1
1( n ),

an .
an
n1
, q .
lim

n8

an`1
,
an

1 , 1 ( 1 ).
8

1
1
8.2.3.
n lnp1 ` n q .
n1

. Taylor ,
0

`
`1
1
1 1 1
ln 1 `

`o 2 .
2
n
n
2n
n

lim

n8

lnp1 `

1 M 1
1
q
,
2
n
n
2

8 1

, .
2
n1 n

8.2.4. p P R,


8 `

n1

2
p n
n

.
`
p n
ep ,
an 1
n
p 0 ; p 0 . , p 0 .
?
n

8.2

8.2.5. x 0,

285
8

n1

n!p nx qn .

.
an`1
x
x

,
an
e
p1 ` n1 qn

0 x e ; x e . x e ,
`
an`1
1 n
e{ 1 `
1,
an
n

8 1
8 1

,
,
. s P R,
2
n1 n
n1 n
8 1

? .
s
n1 n

8.2.2 (). f pxq r1, `8q ,


`8
8

an f pnq pn 1q.
an
f pxqdx
n1

.
x
F pxq

y = f (x)

f ptqdt, @ x 1.
1

f , n x n`1

an`1 f pn ` 1q f pxq f pnq an ,

x
n

n+1

8.1

an`1

n`1

f ptqdt an ,
n

Sn a1 ` F pnq, F pnq Sn1 .

Sn

ak . Sn F pnq n ,
`8
8

,
an
f pxqdx .

k1

n1

8.2.6. s P R,

8 1

.
s
n1 n

286

. s 0 , 0, . s 0 , f pxq xs , f
,
x
F pxq

x
f ptqdt

$
& ln x,
s 1,
ts dt
1
1s
%
px
1q, s 1.
1s

1
0 s 1 , F pxq `8 px `8q; s 1 , F pxq
px `8q.
s1
8 1
8 1

s 1 ,
; s 1
.
s
s
n1 n
n1 n
8 1

. psq
Riemann-Zeta , ,
s
n1 n
.

8.2.7.

1
, s P R.
pn
`
1qplnpn
` 1qqs
n1

. s 0 ,

8 1

1
,
,
n`1
n1 n

. s 0.
f ptq

1
,
p1 ` tqplnp1 ` tqqs

f ,
x
x
dt
F pxq
f ptqdt
p1
`
tqplnp1
` tqqs
1
$1
& ln lnp1 ` xq ln ln 2,
s 1,

1
%
plnp1 ` xqq1s pln 2q1s , s 1.
1s
s 1 ; s 1 .

1
1
,
, bn s
n
n ln n
. , ,
. .
8.2.3 (Kummer).

n1

an ,

bn , n

n1
8

1
an
1

0,
an ;
bn an`1
bn`1
n1
8
8

an
1
1

0
bn ,
an .
p2q
bn an`1
bn`1
n1
n1
p1q

. p1q
an`1

1 an
an`1

, @ n N.
bn
bn`1

8.2

n N

287

n
ak`1
1 ak

kN bk
bk`1

1 aN
an`1
SN `

bN
bn`1
1 aN
,
SN `
bN

Sn`1 SN `

tSn u ,

an .

n1

p2q

1
an
1

0
bn an`1
bn`1

an
an`1

,
bn
bn`1

t abnn u n , an

a1
b1 bn ,

bn

n1

an . 

n1

. p1q , :
1
an
1

,
lim
n8 bn an`1
bn`1
0

n1

an ; 0

bn

n1

an .

n1

p2q bn 1, Kummer dAlembert .


1
p3q (Raabe) bn , ( )
n
a

n
(i) n
1 1
an ;
an`1
n1
a

n
(ii) n
1 1
an .
an`1
n1
Raabe ().
1
, : ( )
p4q (Gauss) bn
n ln n
` 1
an

pq
1` `o
,
an`1
n
n ln n

an ; 1 .

n1

, Raabe , 1 ,
1
an
1

lim
n8 bn an`1
bn`1
#
+

` 1
1
lim n ln n 1 ` ` o
pn ` 1q lnpn ` 1q
n8
n
n ln n
n
1 0.
lim pn ` 1q ln
n8
n`1

288

bn , Kummer ,

n1

an .

n1

8.2.8. :
s
8
8

n!
p2n 1q!!
1
p1q
p 0q; p2q

.
p ` 1qp ` 2q p ` nq
p2nq!!
2n ` 1
n1
n1
. p1q
lim n

n8

` an

` ` n ` 1

1 lim n
1 ,
n8
an`1
n`1

Raabe , 1 , 1 . 1 , an
.

1
,
n`1

p2q
2n ` 2 s 2n ` 3 `
an
1 s `
2

1`
1`
an`1
2n ` 1 2n ` 1
2n ` 1
2n ` 1
`
s
1 `
2
1`
` Op 2 q 1 `
2n ` 1
n
2n ` 1
1
s`2
` Op 2 q
1`
2n ` 1
n
ps ` 2q{2
1
1`
` Op 2 q,
n
n
Gauss , s 0 ; s 0 .

, ,
.
8

8.2.9 (Cauchy ). an .

an

n1

2k a2k .

k0

. Sn

an , Tn

k1

2k a2k . 2k n 2k`1 ,

k0

Sn a1 ` a2 ` pa3 ` a4 q ` ` pa2k1 `1 ` ` a2k q


a1 ` a2 ` 2a4 ` ` 2k1 a2k
1
pa1 ` 2a2 ` ` 2k a2k q
2
Tk {2.

Sn , Tn ,

an

n1

2k a2k . ,

k0

Sn a1 ` pa2 ` a3 q ` ` pa2k ` ` a2k`1 1 q


a1 ` 2a2 ` ` 2k a2k
Tk .

8.2

2k a2k

289


an .

n1

k0

, Cauchy .
8.2.10. pp q:
8

1
,
np
n1

1
.
npln nqp
n2

. , p 0 . p 0. an
, Cauchy , :
8

k0

2k

np

2kp1pq ,
2kp
k0

, 21p 1, p 1 ; 21p 1, p 1 .
,
8

2k

k1

1
1
p

pln
2q
,
k
p
2 pk ln 2q
kp
k1

, p 1 , .

8.2
1. :
8

1
;
n
` n2
n1
8

1
1
p4q
tan ;
n
n
n1

p1q

p2q
p5q

n1
8

2n sin
?

n1

;
3n

p3q

p6q

1
n3

`1

1 cos

n1
8

1
;
n

ln n
.
np
n1

2. :
p1q

1
;
ln n
pln
nq
n2

p2q

n2

1
;
n ln n

p3q

1
.
ln ln n
pln
nq
n3

3. :
p1q
p3q
p5q

1 3 5 p2n 1q
; p2q
n!
n1
8

?
p n a 1qp pa 1q;
p4q
n1
8

`
1 p
1 n sin
;
n
n1

p6q

n!
;
n
n
n1
8

n2
;
2n
n1
8

` n
n1

2n ` 1

290
4.

an ,

n1

5.

a2n .

n1

an ,

n1

n`1
an .
n
n1

6. an 0, Sn a1 ` a2 ` ` an ,
8

an
;
p1q
2
S
n1 n
8
8

a
? n
p2q
an .
Sn
n1
n1
7.

an ,

n1
8

an`1
, Sn
Sn
n1

an .

n1

8. :
p1q
p3q

n!en
;
nn`p
n1
8

p2n 1q!!
n1

p2nq!!

ppp ` 1q pp ` n 1q 1
q pp 0, q 0q;
n!
n
n1
?
8

n!
?
?
p4q
pa 0q.
?
1qpa ` 2q pa ` nq
n1 pa `

p2q
;

9. an 0, Sn a1 ` a2 ` ` an ,
8

an
;
p1q 1 ,

S
n1 n
8
8

an
p2q 1 ,

an .
S
n1 n
n1
10. an 0 n .
8

` an`1

an

n1
8

11.

`
an

1
an`1
n1

1 .

an ,

n1

1
n
an
1` `
.
an`1
n n ln n

n n 1,

an ; n n 1,

n1
8

n1

an . Bertrand .

8.3

291
8

12. an ,

an ,

n1

13.

1(
min an ,
.
n
n1

an , ank

n1

14. pq

an ,

n1

lim

bn ,

n1

n8

15. pq

1
.
nk

bn
`8.
an

an ,

n1

bn ,

n1

bn
0.
n8 an
lim

16.

an ,

n1

17. pq an 0,

8 1

pan ` an`1 ` ` a2n q .


n1 n

8
8

1
n
.
.
a
a ` a2 ` ` an
n1 n
n1 1

8.3

, Taylor :
8

1 1 1

1
1 ` `
,
p1qn1
4
3 5 7
2n 1
n1

ln 2 1

1 1 1
1
` `
p1qn1 .
2 3 4
n
n1

, .
8

8.3.1 (Leibniz). an 0,
p1qn1 an .
n1

. Cauchy . Sn`p Sn :
Sn`p Sn p1qn an`1 ` p1qn`1 an`2 ` ` p1qn`p1 an`p
p1qn ran`1 an`2 ` an`3 an`4 ` ` p1qp1 an`p s.

p 2k 1 ,
p1qn pSn`p Sn q an`1 pan`2 an`3 q pan`4 an`5 q an`1 ,
p1qn pSn`p Sn q pan`1 an`2 q ` pan`3 an`4 q ` ` an`2k1
0,

292

pq |Sn`p Sn | an`1 0 pn 8q.

p 2k , . .

. pq p 8
|S Sn | an`1 ,
8

p1qn1 an , .

n1

8.3.1.

1
p1qn1 ? .
n
n1

1
. ? , Leibniz .

n
, ,

() .
8.3.2 (). tak u, tbk u ,
n1

ak`1 pbk`1 bk q `

km

n1

bk pak`1 ak q an bn am bm .

km

. , :
n1

ak`1 pbk`1 bk q `

km

n1

n1

bk pak`1 ak q

km

rak`1 bk`1 ak`1 bk ` bk ak`1 bk ak s

km

n1

pak`1 bk`1 ak bk q

km

an bn am bm .


.
8.3.2. .
ak bk k, ,
n1

pk ` 1q `

k0

n1

k n2 0,

k0

k1

k n2 ` n,

8.3

293

1 ` 2 ` ` n

1
npn ` 1q.
2

, ak k2 , bk k ,
n1

pk ` 1q2 `

k0

n1

kp2k ` 1q n3 ,

k0

12 ` 22 ` ` n2

1
npn ` 1qp2n ` 1q.
6


.
b0 0,
B0 0, Bk b1 ` b2 ` ` bk pk 1q,

Bk bk ,
8.3.3 (Abel ). ai , bi pi 1q ,
n

ai bi

im`1

n1

pai ai`1 qBi ` an Bn am`1 Bm , @ m 0.

(8.1)

im`1

. ,
n
n
n
n

ai bi
ai pBi Bi1 q
ai Bi
ai Bi1
im`1

im`1

im`1

ai Bi

im`1

n1

n1

im`1

ai`1 Bi

im

pai ai`1 qBi ` an Bn am`1 Bm .

im`1

8.3.4 (Abel ). a1 , a2 , , an , |Bi | M pi 1q,

ai bi 2M p|an | ` |am`1 |q, @ m 0.

im`1

. (8.1)
n

ai bi M

im`1

n1

|ai ai`1 | ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q

im`1

n1

M
pai ai`1 q ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q
im`1

M |am`1 an | ` M p|an | ` |am`1 |q


2M p|am`1 | ` |an |q.

294

, tai u .
8.3.5 (Dirichlet). tan u 0,

bn ,

n1

an bn .

n1

. , M 0
n

bi M, @ n 1.

i1

Abel ,
n`p

ai bi 2M p|an`1 | ` |an`p |q 4M |an`1 | 0.

in`1
8

Cauchy

an bn .

n1

. r1, `8q f pxq, gpxq : x P rk, k ` 1q ,


f pxq ak , gpxq bk pk 1, 2, q. f pxq gpxq

Dirichlet , f pxqgpxq r1, `8q ,


8

an bn . Dirichlet Dirichlet
n1

. Abel .
8

8.3.6 (Abel). tan u ,

bn ,

n1

an bn

n1

. tan u lim an a . tan au 0.


n8
8

Dirichlet ,
pan aqbn .
n1
8

n1

an bn

pan aqbn `

n1

a bn

n1

.
8.3.3.
. an

8 1

sin nx .
n1 n

1
0, bn sin nx.
n
x
1
1
2 sin sin kx cospk qx cospk ` qx
2
2
2

$
&0,
x 2k,
bn `
L
1
x
x
% cos cospn ` qx 2 sin , x 2k.
k1
2
2
2
bn . Dirichlet , .
n

8.3

8.3.4.

295

n1

. an

nan ,

an .

n1

1
1
pnan q, 0,
nan , Abel ,
n
n
n1

an .

n1

, , .
8.3.1 ().

|an | ,

n1

an p ,

n1

|an`1 ` ` an`p | |an`1 | ` ` |an`p | 0,

an q.

n1

an

n1

|an | ,

n1
8

8.3.5.

an .

n1

p1qn1

n1

xn
px P Rq .
n

|x|n
?
, n an |x|. |x| 1 ; |x| 1
n
. x 1 ; x 1 .


. an

8.3
1. :
p1q

n1
8

p1qn

1
;
n ln n

sin n
;
ln n
n2
8
a

p5q
sinp n2 ` 1q;

p3q

n1

`
p1qn
;
ln 1 ?
n
n1
8

n`1 1
? ;
p4q
p1qn
n
n
n1
8

`
1
1
p6q
p1qn ? `
.
n ln n
n1
p2q

2. ak k 3 , bk k,

k 3 .

k1

3. Abel ,
n

ai bi M p|a1 | ` 2|an |q.

i1

296
4. Abel , tai u ,
n

ai bi M a1 .

i1

5. , :
8

sinpnxq
;
n!
n1
8

`

p3q
p1qn1 1 cos ? ;
n
n1
8

?
p5q
p1qn p n n 1q;

p2q

p6q

n1

6.

an , tbn u ,

n1

an ,

n1

8.

p1qn1

n1

nx` n

, x P R.

an bn .

a3n ? .

n1

|an`1 an | an ,

n1
8

n1
8

n1

7. pq

ln n
p1qn ? ;
n
n1
8
a

p4q
sinp n2 ` x2 q;

p1q

bn ,

n1

an bn . (: Abel .)

n1

9.

|an`1 an | ,

n1

bn ,

n1

an bn .

n1

10. tan u . :
8

p1qn

n1

11.

a1 ` a2 ` ` an
.
n

an ,

n1

lim

n8

a1 ` 2a2 ` ` nan
0.
n

12. pq an 0, nan 0,

an . n ln n an 0.

n1

13. an bn cn pn 1q.

n1

an

n1

cn ,

n1

bn .

8.4

297

8.4


8.4.1

, .
: , ,
? , i, j pi, j 1, 2, q aij .
8.4.1 ().

aij Ai i

j1

, 0, N , n N ,
n

aij Ai , @ i 1.

(8.2)

j1

8.4.1.

aij Ai i , lim aij aj


i8

j1

pj 1q, lim Ai ,
i8

aj ,

j1

lim Ai

i8

aj ,

j1

lim

i8

j1

aij

j1

lim aij .

i8

. , 0, N0 , n N0 ,
n

aij Ai , @ i 1.

4
j1
, m n N0
m
m
n



1

aij
aij Ai `
aij Ai , @ i 1.

2
jn`1
j1
j1
i 8,

Cauchy

m

1

aj ,

2
jn`1
8

aj , m 8

j1
8

1

aj , @ n N0 .

2
jn`1

298

j 1, 2, , N0 , aij aj , N , i N ,
|aij aj |

, j 1, 2, , N0 .
4N0

, i N ,
N0
N0
N0
8


aij
aj `
aij `
aj Ai
Ai
j1

j1

i1

j1

aj

jN0 `1

1
` N0
` .
4
4N0
2

tAi u

aj .

j1

. .
8.4.2. lim aij aj pj 1q, |aij | bj pi 1q,
i8

bj ,

j1

aj ,

j1
8

aj

j1

j1

lim aij lim

i8

i8

aij .

j1

. aij aj , |aij | bj |aj | bj , j 1, 2, .

bj

j1

aj . 0, N , n N ,

j1

bj .

jn`1

, i 1,
n
8
8
8

aij
aij
aij
bj ,

j1

j1

jn`1

jn`1

aij i . .

j1

. ,

bj .

j1

8.4.3.

|aij | Aj pj 1q,

i1
8

Aj , i 1,

j1

aij ,

j1
8
8

i1 j1

aij

8
8

j1 i1

aij .

8.4

299

. , , |aij | Aj , j 1, 2, . , i 1,
8

aij .

j1
k
k

aij
|aij | Aj , j 1.

i1

i1

,
8
8

k
8

aij lim

k8

i1 j1

lim

8
k

k8

aij

j1 i1

lim

j1

aij

i1 j1

k8

8
8

aij

i1

aij .

j1 i1

.
. .
8.4.1.

|an | , f pxq

an xn , x P r1, 1s.

n2

n2
8

1
fp q
an pnq,
n
n1
n2

psq Riemann-Zeta .
.

8
8

1
|an |

|an |, @ m 1,
mn
m2 n2
n2

m2 , 8.4.3

m1
8
8
8
8

an
an

,
n
m
mn
m1 n2
n2 m1

n2

an pnq

m1

fp

1
q.
m

, ln 2 . ,
1 n
x
lim
dx 0
n8 0 1 ` x

300

1
1
1 ` p1qn xn`1
dx lim
dx
n8 0
1`x
0 1`x
1
n
lim
pxqk dx

ln 2

n8 0
k0
n 1

lim

n8

pxqk dx

k0 0

p1qk
.

k`1
k0

ln 2

n1

1
1
1

,
2n 1 2n
2np2n
1q
n1

f pxq

x2
1 n
x
,
n
2
2p2 xq
n2

1
n2
ln 2.
fp q
n
2p2 n1 q
n1
n1

, ,
ln 2

1
pnq,
n
2
n2

ln 2 , .
8.4.2

,
. ,
pa0 ` a1 ` ` am qpb0 ` b1 ` ` bn q

m`n

ai bj .

k0 i`jk

, :

n0

an

bn ,

n0

cn ,

n0

cn

i`jn

Cauchy .

ai bj , n 0.

8.4

301

8.4.4 (Cauchy).

an

n0

bn ,

n0

,
8

cn

8
`

n0

an

8
`

n0

bn .

n0

. .

. , tai bj u , ()
, .
Cauchy , .
8.4.5 (Mertens).

an

n0

bn ,

n0

, ,
8

n0

cn

8
`

an

n0

8
`

bn .

n0

an .

n0

An

k0

ak , Bn

bk , Cn

k0

ck .

k0

An A, Bn B,
Cn

ai bj a0 Bn ` a1 Bn1 ` ` an B0 An B ` n ,

i`jn

n a0 pBn Bq ` a1 pBn1 Bq ` ` an pB0 Bq.

n 0 . Bn B, tBn u n , K,

|Bn B| K, @ n 0.

an , 0, N0 , n N0

n0

|aN0 `1 | ` ` |an |

.
2K ` 1

L |a0 | ` |a1 | ` ` |aN0 |. Bn B 0, N1 , n N1


|Bn B|

.
2L ` 1

302

n N0 ` N1 ,
|n |

N0

|ak ||Bnk B| ` p|aN0 `1 | ` ` |an |qK

k0

p|a0 | ` |a1 | ` ` |aN0 |q `


K
2L ` 1
2K ` 1

L`
K

2L ` 1
2K ` 1

.


n 0, Cn An B ` n AB.

. , an bn
1
n1 ?

, . , ,
n
. , .
p1q

8.4.6 (Abel).

cn C ,

n0

f pxq

cn xn , x P r0, 1q,

n0

lim f pxq C.
x1

. tcn u , x P r0, 1q ,

cn xn .

n0

C1 0, Cn

ck , n 0.

k0

ck xk

k0

pCk Ck1 qxk

k0

k0

Ck xk x

n1

Ck xk

k0

Cn xn ` p1 xq

n1

Ck xk

k0

Cn xn ` Cp1 xn q ` p1 xq

n1

pCk Cqxk .

k0

n 8
f pxq C ` p1 xq

k0

pCk Cqxk .

8.4

303

Ck C 0, 0, N , k N
|Ck C|

1
.
2

|Ck C|,

k0

|f pxq C| M p1 xq ` p1 xq

, 0 1 x

1 k
1
x M p1 xq ` .
2
2
kN `1

,
2M ` 1
|f pxq C| M

` .
2M ` 1 2


lim f pxq C.
x1

8.4.7 (Abel).

an ,

n0
8

cn

n0

. x P r0, 1q ,

n0
8
`

8
`

n0
8

cn ,

n0

an

bn .

n0
8

an xn

n0
8

bn

bn xn ,

n0

cn xn . Cauchy ,

n0
8

cn xn

n0

8
`

an xn

n0

8
`

bn xn .

n0

x 1 , Abel .
8.4.2. ln 2 .
ln 2
ln 2

p1qn
,
n`1
n0

Cauchy
8

n0

p1qn

` 1
1
1
1

p1qn
`
pi ` 1qpj ` 1q n0
n ` 2 i`jn i ` 1 j ` 1
i`jn

n0
8

p1qn

1
1
2 `
1 ` ` `
n`2
2
n`1

2p1qn1 `
1
1
1 ` ` `
.
n`1
2
n
n1

304

1 `
1
1
1` ``
,
n`1
2
n
,

cn

1
p1qn1 `
1
1
pln 2q2
1 ` ` `
.
2
n
`
1
2
n
n1

8.4.3. ex .
,
f pxq

xn
, x P R.
n!
n0

f p0q 1,
f pxqf pyq

xi y j
,
i! j!
n0 i`jn

,
n
xi y j
px ` yqn
1 i i ni
Cn x y

,
i! j!
n! i0
n!
i`jn

f pxqf pyq f px ` yq, x, y P R.

f pxq ax , a f p1q e.
ex .
sin x cos x .
8.4.3

, ,
. ,
p1 , p2 , , pn ,

,
8

pn p1 p2 pn

n1

.
Pn

k1

pk , n 1

8.4

305

. tPn u , , ,
,
8

pn lim Pn .
n8

n1

, , .
pn , . pn .
8

pn ,
n1

lim pn lim

n8

n8

Pn
P {P 1,
Pn1

, n , pn 0. ,
pn 0, @ n 1.

Pn

pk ek1

ln pk

k1

, ,
8.4.8. pn 0, @ n 1.
8

p1q
pn
ln pn ,
n1

n1
8

pn en1

ln pn

n1

p2q pn 1 ` an . n an 0 p an 0 q,

pn

n1

p3q

an ;

n1
8

an

n1

n1

a2n ,

p1 ` an q .

n1

. p1q . p2q
lim

n8

lnp1 ` an q
1
an

. p3q (an )
ran lnp1 ` an qs
1

2
n8
an
2
lim

p1q.

306

8.4.4. Wallis .
Wallis
p2nq!! 2 1

lim
,
n8 p2n 1q!!
2
2n ` 1

2n
2n

,
2
2n 1 2n ` 1
n1

2np2n ` 2q

.
4
p2n ` 1q2
n1

8.4.5. Riemann-Zeta .
tpn u ,
1
1
1
1
1 ` s ` 2s ` ` ms `
pn
pn
pn
1 pns

1
1 `
p1 2s q1 p1 3s q1 p1 ps
n q

1
1
1
` s ` ` s `
2s
3
n

psq

n1

1 1
.
psn

8.4.6. sinh x .
,
ex

ex ex
ex ` ex
`
sinh x ` cosh x,
2
2

ep2n`1qx psinh x ` cosh xq2n`1

2n`1

k
C2n`1
pcosh xqk psinh xq2n`1k

k0

2l
C2n`1
pcosh xq2l psinh xq2n`12l `

l0

2l`1
C2n`1
pcosh xq2l`1 psinh xq2n2l ,

l0

cosh2 x sinh2 x 1 ,
sinhp2n ` 1qx sinh x

l0

2l
C2n`1
psinh2 x ` 1ql psinh2 xqnl .

8.4
?

, e

1x

307

cos x `

sinp2n ` 1qx sin x

1 sin x
n

2l
C2n`1
p1 sin2 xql p sin2 xqnl .

l0

, P pyq

2l
C2n`1
py ` 1ql y nl

l0

sin2

` k
, k 1, 2, , n.
2n ` 1

P pyq ,
P pyq C

y ` sin2

k1

k
,
2n ` 1

2l
C2n`1

l0

2n`12l
C2n`1

l0

2n`1
1 k
C
22n ,
2 k0 2n`1

2n ` 1 22n

sin2

k1

k
.
2n ` 1

,
sinhp2n ` 1qx 22n sinh x

`
k1

sinh2 x ` sin2

k
,
2n ` 1

sinh x p2n ` 1q sinh

2
x
n

x sinh 2n`1
`
1
,
k
2n ` 1 k1 sin2 2n`1

n 8,
sinh x x

x2
` 1 , @ x P R.
2
2
n
n1

(8.3)

cosh x

k1

8.4.4

x2
2
p 2k1
2 q

` 1 , @ x P R.

(8.4)

. ,
an , ,
n1

308

, . ,
8

an , , .
n1

an
8

n1
8

a`
n,

n1

an ` |an | |an | an

a`
n an
2
2

a
n .

an , , .

n1

8.4.7. ln 2 .

ln 2 1

1 1 1 1 1
` ` `
2 3 4 5 6

1
1
1 1 `1 1 1 `1

`

`

` ,
2 4
3 6 8
5 10 12

`1
2

1 `1 1 ` 1
1
1
`

` ln 2.
4
6 8
10 12
2

, , .
8.4.9 (Riemann).

an ,

n1

, .
8

. P R,
,
,

an ,

n1
8

n1

Sn . n

an , .

n1
8

a`
n

n1
8

|an | , |an | a`
n ` an , an an an

`
a
n `8, Sn

n1
Sn`

, m1 ,
`
Sm
,
1

`
Sm
a`
m1 .
1
`
n , Sm
Sn , n1 ,
1
`
Sm
Sn1 ,
1

`
Sm
Sn1 ` a
n1 .
1

8.4

309

m2 ,
`
`
Sm
Sn1 Sm
Sn1 a`
m2 ,
2
2

n2 ,
`
`
Sm
Sn2 Sm
Sn2 ` a
n2 .
2
2

, m1 m2 n1 n2 ,
`
`
Sm
Snk1 Sm
Snk1 a`
mk
k
k

`
`
Sm
Snk Sm
Snk ` a`
nk
k
k

k . an 0 ,

`
`

`
a`
1 ` ` am1 a1 an1 ` am1 `1 ` ` am2
`

`
a
n1 `1 an2 ` am2 `1 ` ` am3 an2 `1

. a`
n an ,
8

an .

n1

an , `8 8 ,

n1

8.4
1. lim npiq `8, i , |aij | Aj , j 1, 2, , npiq.
i8

j1

, lim aij ,
i8

lim

i8

2.

j1

|aij | Ai ,

npiq

aij

j1

j1

lim aij .

i8

Ai , :

i1
8
8

i1 j1

aij

8
8

j1 i1

aij .

Aj

310
3. Riemann-Zeta
8

rpnq 1s 1,

n2

4.

rp2nq 1s

n1
8

2n |an | , f pxq

n2

n2

3
.
4

an xn , x P r 12 , 12 s.

1
fp q
an rpnq 1s.
n
n2
n2

5.
n
8
8

`
1
1
1
p1qn
ln n
ln 1 `

pnq.
n8
k
n
n
n
n1
n2
k1

lim

6.
n
8
8

`
1
1
1
ppnq 1q
ln n 1 `
` ln 1
1
.
n8
k
n
n
n
n2
n2
k1

lim

7. Cauchy .
8. , |x| 1 ,
8

pn ` 1qxn .
p1 xq2
n0

9.
` 2
4

1
1
p1qn `
1 ` ` `
.
n
`
1
3
2n
`1
n0

10.
p1q

n1

p2q

1
2
;
4n2

p1 ` x2

n1

n1

p3q

cos

n1

x
sin x

;
2n
x

1
p|x| 1q.
1x

11. , 0 ,
lim

n8

p ` 1q p ` n 1q
0.
p ` 1q p ` n 1q

12. 2 p1 p2 pn ,

8 1

.
n1 pn

Taylor , ,
,
. ,
, .

9.1

I , tgn pxqu I . I gpxq


lim gn px0 q gpx0 q, @ x0 P I,

n8

tgn u g, lim gn g gn g (n 8).


n8

9.1.1. gn pxq xn , x P p0, 1q. x0 P p0, 1q,


lim xn0 0,

n8

lim gn 0.
n8

9.1.1 (). 0, x P I N
N pq, n N
|gn pxq gpxq| , @ x P I,

pq

tgn u I g, gn g.
y
g(x) +

gn (x)

g(x)

x
0

9.1
, . pq n
x . 9.1.1 tgn u (?).
9.1.2. gn pxq

x
, x P r1, 1s. tgn u .
1 ` n 2 x2
311

312

. 0 |x| 1
|gn pxq 0|

|x|
|x|
1

,
|1 ` n2 x2 |
2n|x|
2n

x 0 . tgn u r1, 1s 0.

9.1.1. tgn u I g. gn , g
.
. x0 P I, g x0 . 0, ,
N N pq, n N
|gn pxq gpxq|

, @ x P I.
3

n0 N ` 1, gn0 I , pq 0
|gn0 pxq gn0 px0 q|

, @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I.
3

|gpxq gpx0 q| |gpxq gn0 pxq| ` |gn0 pxq gn0 px0 q|


` |gn0 px0 q gpx0 q|

` ` , @ x P px0 , x0 ` q X I.
3 3 3


g x0 .

. , tgn u g, gn x0
, g x0 ,
lim lim gn pxq lim lim gn pxq,

xx0 n8

n8 xx0

. ,
9.1.2. pq tgn u x0 P I g.
lim gn pxq an , @ n 1,

xx0

lim an lim gpxq , ,


n8

xx0

lim lim gn pxq lim lim gn pxq.

xx0 n8

n8 xx0

. tgn u g , 0, N0 , n N0
|gn pxq gpxq| , @ x x0 .

9.1

313

m, n N0
|gm pxq gn pxq| |gm pxq gpxq| ` |gpxq gn pxq| 2,

x x0 ,
|am an | 2, @ m, n N0 .

Cauchy lim an A .
n8

lim gpxq A. 0, , N ,
xx0

|aN A|

, |gpxq gN pxq| , @ x x0 .
3
3

lim gN pxq aN , 0, 0 |x x0 |
xx0

|gN pxq aN |

.
3

, 0 |x x0 |
|gpxq A| |gpxq gN pxq| ` |gN pxq aN | ` |aN A|


` ` ,
3 3 3

. - ,
3
.

lim gpxq A.
xx0

, g :
(Cauchy ) I tgn u 0,

N N pq, m, n N
|gm pxq gn pxq| , @ x P I.

, tgn u , x0 P I, tgn px0 qu Cauchy ,


, gpx0 q. g, tgn u g
(?).

, tfn pxqu ,
. Sn pxq

fn pxq,

n1

fk pxq , ; Sn pxq

k1

, . , :
8

p1q fn ,
fn pxq Spxq, Spxq ;
n1

p2q

fn pxq 0, N N pq, n N

n1

|fn`1 pxq ` ` fn`p pxq| , @ x P I, @ p 1.

314
8

9.1.3.

r0, 2s .

sin nx
n

n1

. Dirichlet x P r0, 2s,

. . , xn
,
4n

sinpn ` 1q 4n
sin 2

` `
|S2n pxn q Sn pxn q|
n`1
2n

sin 4
1
n
? .
2n
2 2

n1

sin nx
n

Cauchy .


, .

9.1.3. tfmn pxqu m, n , n 1,


8

lim fmn pxq fn pxq, m 1, |fmn pxq| Fn pxq,


Fn pxq
m8

n1
8

fn pxq ,

n1
8

fn pxq

n1

9.1.4.

n1

lim fmn pxq lim

m8

m8

|fmn pxq| Fn pxq pn 1q,

m1

fmn pxq.

n1

Fn pxq ,

n1
8
8

fmn pxq

m1 n1

8
8

fmn pxq.

n1 m1

. :
8
8

p1q (Weierstrass) |fn pxq| Mn ,


Mn ,
fn pxq
n1

n1

.
|fn`1 pxq ` ` fn`p pxq| Mn`1 ` ` Mn`p ,

Cauchy .
p2q (Dirichlet)

bn pxq Bn pxq

n1

bk pxq ,

k1

M 0,
|Bn pxq| M, @ x P I, @ n 1.

x P I, tan pxqu n , an pxq 0,

n1

. .

an pxqbn pxq I

9.1

315
8

p3q (Abel)

bn pxq I , x P I, tan pxqu n

n1
8

, I ,

an pxqbn pxq I .

n1

Abel , Cauchy :
|an`1 pxqbn`1 pxq ` ` an`p pxqbn`p pxq| 3 sup |an | sup |bn`1 pxq ` ` bn`k pxq|.
1kp
8

9.1.4.

p1qn1

n1

xn
x P r0, 1s .
n

8
8

1
1
. an pxq xn , bn pxq p1qn1 .
bn pxq
p1qn1 x
n n1
n
n1
. |an pxq| 1, @ x P r0, 1s. x, an pxq xn n .

Abel .

9.1.5.

fn pxq

n1
8

gn pxq , , P R.

n1

pfn pxq ` gn pxqq ,

n1
8

pfn pxq ` gn pxqq

n1

fn pxq `

n1

gn pxq.

n1

. .

9.1.6 (Dini). gn pxq ra, bs , x P ra, bs,


gn pxq n 0, gn 0.

. 0, N , n N
0 gn pxq , @ x P ra, bs.

n An tx P ra, bs | gn pxq u . gn n
,
A1 A2 An An`1 ,

(9.1)

An .
() An , xn P An , txn u ra, bs ,

txni u, x0 P ra, bs. (9.1) Ak Ank


txnk , xnk`1 , u. gk x0 ,
gk px0 q lim gk pxni q .
ki8

k 1 , gn px0 q 0 (n 8) .

316

9.1.7. fn pxq ,

fn pxq

n1

f , f .
. Sn pxq f pxq Sn pxq, Dini . 
. , f . , r0, 1s
f1 pxq 1 x, fn pxq xn1 xn pn 2q .
9.1.5. Riemann-Zeta .
s 1 ,

8 1

, psq p1, `8q .


s
n1 n

8 1

p1, `8q , I p1, `8q


s
n1 n
, psq I , p1, `8q

9.1
1. r0, 1s tfn u :
f1 pxq 1,

fn`1 pxq

a
xfn pxq, n 1.

tfn u r0, 1s .
2. f1 pxq r0, as , tfn u :
x
fn`1 pxq
fn ptqdt, n 1.
0

tfn u 0.
3. |fn pxq| gn pxq,

gn pxq ,

n1

fn pxq .

n1

4. :
p1q

n1
8

nenx , x P p0, `8q;

1
p3q
, x P p8, `8q;
2
x ` n2
n1
8

1
p5q
, x P p0, `8q;
p1 ` nxq2
n1

p2q

n1
8

2n sin

` 1
, x P p0, `8q;
3n x

sin x sin nx
?
, x P r0, `8q;
n`x
n1
8

nx
p6q
, x P p8, `8q.
1 ` n3 x2
n1
p4q

9.1
5.

317

an . ,

n1
8

an
, x P r0, `8q,
x
n
n1

.
6. f pxq ra, bs . n 1,
fn pxq

rnf pxqs
, x P ra, bs.
n

fn pxq f pxq.
7. fn pxq I f pxq. fn pxq I , f pxq

I .
8. fn pxq I f pxq. gpxq I , fn pxqgpxq

I f pxqgpxq.
9. f pxq

x2
, x P p8, `8q. lim f pxq.
x8
1 ` n 2 x2
n1

10. fn pxq ra, bs . fn pxq f pxq,


1
1
N , n N fn pxq ,

.
fn pxq
f pxq
ra, bs pa, bq, ?
11. fn pxq, gn pxq hn pxq I ,
fn pxq gn pxq hn pxq, x P I.

fn pxq hn pxq f pxq, gn pxq f pxq.


12. fn pxq, gn pxq I f pxq, gpxq. fn pxq, gn pxq

, f pxq, gpxq , fn pxqgn pxq I


f pxqgpxq.
13. tPn pxqu , , Pn pxq p8, `8q
f pxq, f pxq . (: .)
14. pq

an pxq ra, bs , Sn pxq.

n1

M ,
|Sn1 pxq| M,

n1

an pxq ra, bs .

@ x P ra, bs, n 1,

318

9.2

fn pxq f pxq,

n1

, .
9.2.1. p1q tgn u ra, bs g. gn Riemann
, g Riemann ,
b
b
b
lim
gn pxqdx
lim gn pxqdx
gpxqdx.
n8 a

p2q

a n8

fn pxq ra, bs f . fn Riemann ,

n1

f Riemann ,
b
b
8 b
8

fn pxqdx
fn pxqdx
f pxqdx.
n1 a

a n1

. p1q . g . 0, N N pq,
n N
|gn pxq gpxq|

, @ x P ra, bs.
4pb aq

gN , ra, bs ,

i pgN qxi .
2

rxi1 , xi s,
i pgq i pgN q `

,
2pb aq

i pgqxi

i pgN qxi `

pb aq ` ,
2pb aq
2 2

g ra, bs .
, n N ,
b
b
b `


gpxqdx
gn pxq gpxq dx
gn pxqdx
a
a
a
b

|gn pxq gpxq|dx


a

b
lim

n8 a

b
gn pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

9.2

319


. (i) . ,
. ,
: gn pxq, gpxq ra, bs , lim gn pxq gpxq. M ,
n8

|gn pxq| M, @ x P ra, bs, n 1,

b
lim

n8 a

b
gn pxqdx

gpxqdx.
a

(ii) , p2q
x
8 x

fn ptqdt
f ptqdt.
n1 a

9.2.2. tfn pxqu ra, bs ,


8

p1q
fn paq ;
p2q

n1
8

n1

fn1 pxq gpxq;

fn pxq ra, bs , ,

n1
8

8
1

fn pxq
fn1 pxq gpxq.

n1

n1

. ,
x
fn pxq fn paq `

fn1 ptqdt.

p2q (ii),
8 x

fn1 ptqdt

n1 a

x
gptqdt.
a

p1q
8

n1

fn pxq

n1

x
fn paq `

gptqdt.
a

fn pxq ra, bs , , gpxq.

n1

. p1q a ,
, .
9.2.3. pq tfn pxqu ra, bs , c P ra, bs. tfn pcqu
, fn1 pxq gpxq, fn pxq f pxq, f 1 pxq g.

320

. , ,
|rfn pxq fn pcqs rfm pxq fm pcqs| |rfn pxq fm pxqs rfn pcq fm pcqs|
1
|rfn1 pq fm
pqs||x c| 0,

tfn pxq fn pcqu , fn pxq f pxq.


, x0 P ra, bs,
$

& fn pxq fn px0 q , x x0 ,


x x0
gn pxq

%f 1 px0 q,
x x0 .
n

gn pxq ra, bs , , ,
1
|gn pxq gm pxq| |fn1 pq fm
pq| 0,

gn pxq
$

& f pxq f px0 q , x x0 ,


x x0
gpxq

%gpx0 q,
x x0 .


, f pxq x0 , gpx0 q.
.
cos2 x2 ` sin2 x2
1
1 1

4 sin2
sin2 x
4 sin2 x2 cos2 x2

x
2

1
sin2

`x
2

1
1 1
1

`
2
2
2
x
`x
4 sin 2
sin x
sin 2

1
1
1
1
1
2
`
`
`
2
2
2
2
x
2`x
`x
3`x
4 sin 4
sin
sin 4
sin
4
4

n

2 1
1
1
2n
.
2 k0 sin2 k`x
2n

2n1 k 2n 1
sin2

n
k ` x
pk 2n q ` x
2 k ` x 2

sin
`

sin2
n
n
2
2
2n

1
1
2n
2
sin2 x

2n1
1
k2n1

En `

1
sin2

2n1
1
k2n1

x`k
2n

1
,
px ` kq2

9.2

321

1
En 2n
2

2n1
1
k2n1

sin2

x`k
2n

.
2
p x`k
2n q

1
1
1
cos2 x

2 1, @ x P r , s

1
`
2
2
2
x
2 2
sin x x
sin x

0 En

1 n
1

2 n , @ x P r0, s,
2n
2
2
2

n 8

1
1

, @ x k.
2
sin x kPZ px ` kq2

(9.2)

tku ,
8

1
1
1
1
`
`
, x k.

x2 n1 px ` nq2
px nq2
sin2 x

(9.3)

,
8
1

1
1
1
lim

2
,
2
2
3 x0 sin x x
pnq2
n1

p2q

2
1

.
n2
6
n1

x P p, q , (9.3) ,
x
1 cos t x
1
1
1 cos x

dt


2
2
t
t
sin
t
x
sin x
0
sin t
0

` 1
1
cos x 1

`
, @ x P p, q.
sin x
x n1 x ` n x n

(9.4)

` x 2
sin x

1
, @ x P r, s.
x
n
n1

sin x . , x
8

2
1

1 2 ,
n1
4n

(9.5)

322

Wallis .
(9.4) ,
tan x cot

`
2

x ,

1
x
cot cot x
sin x
2

1
1
sin x

cos x n1 p2n 1q 2 x p2n 1q 2 ` x

(9.6)

` 1
1
1
1
`
p1qn
`
.
sin x
x n1
x ` n x n

(9.7)

8
0

8
0

sin x
dx :
x

8 pn`1q

sin x
sin x
dx
dx
x
x
n0 n
8 n`
8 pn`1q

2 sin x
sin x

dx `
dx
1
x
x
n0 n
n0 n` 2
8
8

2
2
sin t
sin t
p1qn
p1qn
dt `
dt

n
`
t
pn
`
1q t
n0 0
n0 0
2
8

2
` 1
sin t
1
p1qn

dt `
`
sin t dt
t
t ` n t n
0
n1 0
2
2
8
` 1
sin t
1

dt `
p1qn
`
sin t dt
t
t
`
n
t

n
0
0 n1
2
2
` 1
sin t
1
dt `

sin t dt

t
sin
t
t
0
0
2

dt .
2
0

, .

9.2
1.
f pxq

p8, `8q .

sin nx
n3
n1

9.2
2.

323

nan , f pxq

n1

an cos nx p8, `8q ,

n1

f 1 pxq

nan sin nx, x P p8, `8q.

n1

3.
pxq

1
x
n
n1

p1, `8q .
4. tfn pxqu ra, bs f pxq, ra, bs

txn u,
lim fn pxn q f p lim xn q.

n8

n8

5.
p1q

ln 5
8

nx

ne

dx,

ln 2 n1

6. f pxq

n1

n2

2
8
cos2 nx
p2q
dx.
0 n1 npn ` 1q

|x|
.
` x2

7. tfn pxqu ra, bs ,


8

p1q c P ra, bs,


fn pcq ;
n1

p2q

n1

fn1 pxq gpxq;

fn pxq ra, bs ,

n1
8

8
1

fn pxq
fn1 pxq gpxq.

n1

n1

8. fn pxq ra, bs f pxq. fn pxq , f pxq

.
9. pq (9.2) x

, p2q .
2

10. pq (9.5) x ,
8

x2
cos x
1 2n1 2 .
p 2 q
n1
11. pq , nan 0 ,

n1

p8, 8q .

an sin nx

324

9.3

an px x0 qn pan P Rq , Taylor

n0

. , x0 0 ,
t x x0 .
9.3.1

9.3.1 (Abel).

an xn x x1 px1 0q ,

n0

|x| |x1 | ; , x x2 |x| |x2 |


.
.

n0

an xn1 , M 0
|an xn1 | M, @ n 1,

|an xn |

n0

|x| |x1 | ,

x n

x n

|an xn1 | M
,
x1
x1
n0
n0
8

an xn .

n0

. ,

an xn x x1 px1 0q ,

n0

I p|x1 |, |x1 |q,

an xn I .

n0
8

9.3.2 (Cauchy-Hadamard).

an xn ,

n0

lim

n8

a
n
|an |,

p1q 0 , p8, 8q ;
p2q `8 , x 0 ;
` 1 1
1 1
p3q 0 `8 , ,
, ,
.


1
, .

.
lim

n8

a
n
|an xn | |x|,

Cauchy . p3q (
8
1 1
an xn1 , M 0
): x1 R , ,
n1
|an xn1 | M, @ n 1.

9.3

325

lim

n8

a
a
n
|an | lim n M |x1 |n |x1 |1 .
n8

!
. p1q x

p2q 0 `8 , I p1 , 1 q, I .

9.3.1.

xn .

n0

an 1, 1. x 1 .
n

9.3.2.

8 x

.
n1 n

an n1 , lim

n8

1
n

1. x 1 ; x 1


().
9.3.3.

nan xn1

n1

an xn .

n0

,
lim

n8

a
n
|an | ,

lim

n8

a
a
n
pn ` 1q|an`1 | lim n |an`1 | ,
n8

.
9.3.3.

an xn R, Spxq

n0

an xn pR, Rq

n0

,
S pkq pxq

npn 1q pn k ` 1qan xnk .

nk

. k 1 . ,

pan xn q1

n0

nan xn1

n1

R, I pR, Rq . 9.2.2,

an xn I ,

n0
8

an xn

n0

pan xn q1

n0

Spxq .

, S

pnq

nan xn1 .

n1

p0q n!an , Spxq Taylor .

9.3.4.

8 xn

.
n1 n

326

. p1, 1q ,
8
8

xn 1
1

xn1
,
n
1x
n1
n1

Newton-Leibniz ,
x
8

xn
1

dt lnp1 xq, @ x P p1, 1q.


n
0 1t
n1
x 1 , ,
, ,
.
8

9.3.4 (Abel ).

an xn R p0 R

n0

`8q.

an Rn ,

n0

lim

xR

an xn

n0

an Rn ;

n0

an pRqn ,

n0

lim

xR`
8

an xn

n0

an pRqn .

n0

an Rn ,

n0
8

an xn

n0

an Rn

n0

` x n
R

8
x
` x n

r0, Rs , p qn 1,
n . Abel
an xn r0, Rs
R
R
n0
, Spxq r0, Rs ,
8

an Rn SpRq lim Spxq lim


xR

n0

xR

an xn .

n0

R ( an p1q an q.
8 n

9.3.5.
.
n
n1 2
n

nxn , 1, p1, 1q

n1
8

n1

nxn x

n1

nxn1 x

1
`
pxn q1 x
xn x

n1

n0

x
1 1

,
1x
p1 xq2

9.3

327

n
x

2.

n
2
2
p1 xq x 12
n1

9.3.6.

8 p1qn

.
n0 3n ` 1
8

. Spxq

p1qn

n0

x3n`1
, 1, x 1
3n ` 1

,
8

p1qn
lim Spxq.
3n ` 1 x1
n0

p1, 1q ,
8

S 1 pxq

p1qn

` x3n`1 1

n0

3n ` 1

p1qn x3n

n0

1
.
1 ` x3

,
x
1
8

p1qn
dt
dt
1`

lim Spxq lim

ln 2 ` ? .
3
3
3n ` 1 x1
3
x1 0 1 ` t
3
0 1`t
n0

9.3.5 ().

an xn R 0,

n0

x
8
0

8 x
8

an tn dt
an tn dt

an n`1
x
, @ x P pR, Rq.
n`1
n0

n0 0

n0

. x 0, ,

an tn t P r0, xs ,

n0

.

8

n
.
an R , x R . R .
n0

, .
9.3.6. lim amn an , |amn | An .
m8

m8

9.3.7.

amn xn

n0

|aij | sj ,

i0
8
8

i0 j0

An xn pR, Rq

n0

,
lim

an xn , x P pR, Rq.

n0
8

sj xj pR, Rq ,

j0

aij xj

8
8

`
j0

i0

aij xj , x P pR, Rq.

328

`
, tan x . (9.6) , x P ,
2 2
,
8

2x
tan x
rp2n 1q 2 s2 x2
n1
8
8

2m

1
x
2x
rp2n 1q 2 s2 p2n 1q 2
n1 m0
8
8
2m

1
x
2x
.
rp2n 1q 2 s2 p2n 1q 2
m0 n1

p2kq

8
8

1
1
1
`

` 22k p2kq
2k
2k
2k
p2n

1q
p2nq
p2n

1q
n1
n1
n1

tan x
9.3.2

p2kq

2p22k 1qx2k1 , @ x P p , q.
2k

2 2
k1

(9.8)

Taylor

Taylor . f x0 , f Taylor

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn ,
n!
n0

, x0 , ,
f pxq. .

9.3.8 (Bernstein). pq f ra, bs , .


x, x0 P pa, bq, |x x0 | b x0
f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn .
n!
n0

. M f pbqf paq, f 1 , f 2 0 f, f 1 . x P pa, bq,


,
M f pbq f paq f pbq f pxq pb xqf 1 pq pb xqf 1 pxq.

,
1
1
M f pbq f pxq f 1 pxqpb xq ` f 2 pqpb xq2 f 2 pxqpb xq2 .
2
2

9.3

329

,
0 f pnq pxq

n!M
, @ x P pa, bq.
pb xqn

f x0 Taylor Rn pxq.
p1q x x0 .
x

f pn`1q ptq
px tqn dt
n!
x0
x
px tqn
dt

pn ` 1qM
pb tqn`1
x0

pn ` 1qM x ` x t n
dt

bx
x0 b t

pn ` 1qM ` x x0 n

q px x0 0 pn 8q.
bx
b x0

0 Rn pxq

p2q x x0 . , x0 x b x0 ,
x f pn`1q ptq

|Rn pxq|
px tqn dt
n!
x0
x0 pn`1q
f
ptq
pt xqn dt

n!
x
x0
1
f pn`1q px0 q
pt xqn dt
n!
x
1 pn ` 1q!M px0 xqn`1

n! pb x0 qn`1
n`1
` x0 x n`1
M
0 pn 8q,
b x0

1
px0 xqn`1 f pn`1q pq
pn ` 1q!
1

px0 xqn`1 f pn`1q px0 q


pn ` 1q!
` x0 x n`1
0 pn 8q.
M
b x0

|Rn pxq|

, .

, f pxq e p8, 8q , Bernstein


x

,
x2
xn
` `
` , @ x P p8, `8q.
2!
n!
(9.3) . x P p, q , ,
1
1
2 , ()

2
x
sin x
8

1
a2m 2m
1

x , @ x P p, q,
p2mq!
sin2 x x2
m0
ex 1 ` x `

330

a2m

1
1 p2mq
p2m ` 1q!
p2m ` 2q

p0q

2
2p2m ` 1q!
,
2
2
2m`2
pnq
2m`2
sin x x
n1

1
1
p2m ` 2q

p4m ` 2qx2m , @ x P p, q.
2m`2

sin2 x x2
m0

(9.9)

9.3.9. R 0, f px0 R, x0 ` Rq . M 0

|f pnq pxq| M n , @ x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq, @ n 1.

f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn , @ x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq.
n!
n0

. x P px0 R, x0 ` Rq , Taylor Lagrange ,


n

f pkq px0 q

px x0 qk |Rn pxq|
f pxq
k!
k0

f pn`1q pq

px x0 qn`1

pn ` 1q!
M n`1 Rn`1
0 pn 8q.

pn ` 1q!

f pxq

f pnq px0 q
px x0 qn .
n!
n0

f x0 Taylor f .
8 `

9.3.7.

n0

xn , P RzZ,

p 1q p n ` 1q
an

. ()
n
n!

a
n`1 n

1, n |an | 1 pn 8q,
an
n`1

1.

9.3

331

f pxq

8 `

n
n x , x P p1, 1q. p1, 1q ,

n0

nxn1
n
n1


8
8

n1
n

n
x
`
n
x
n
n
n1
n1

`
pn ` 1q
`n
xn
1
n
`
1
n
n1

8

n
`

x f pxq,
n
n1

p1 ` xqf 1 pxq p1 ` xq

rp1 ` xq f pxqs1 p1 ` xq1 f pxq ` p1 ` xq f 1 pxq 0,

p1 ` xq f pxq c.

f p0q 1 f pxq p1 ` xq , x P p1, 1q.


8

p1 ` xq
x , @ x P p1, 1q.
n
n0
1
, , x2 x
2
8

1
p2n 1q!! 2n
?

1
`
x , @ x P p1, 1q.
2
p2nq!!
1x
n1

, ( p1q!! 1, 0!! 1)
8

p2n 1q!! x2n`1


arcsin x
, @ x P p1, 1q.
p2nq!! 2n ` 1
n0
x 1 ( 8.2 ), r1, 1s ,
r1, 1s . x sin t,
t

p2n 1q!! sin2n`1 t



, @ t P r , s,
p2nq!!
2n ` 1
2 2
n0

(?). ,
2
2
8

p2n 1q!! 1
2

t dt
sin2n`1 tdt
8
p2nq!!
2n
`
1
0
0
n0

p2n 1q!! 1
p2nq!!
p2nq!! 2n ` 1 p2n ` 1q!!
n0
8

1
p2n
`
1q2
n0

332

2
1

p2q.
2
6
n
n1

9.3.8. I

1
0

lnp1 ` xq
dx.
x

. lnp1 ` xq Taylor
8

lnp1 ` xq
p1qn1 xn1

, x P p1, 1s.
x
n
n1

r0, 1s , :

1
8
8

p1qn1 1 n1
p1qn1
2
lnp1 ` xq
I
dx
x
dx

.
2
x
n
n
12
0
0
n1
n1
9.3.3


.
9.3.10.

an xn

n0
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

bn xn pR, Rq ,

n0

8
8

bn xn
cn xn
ai bj xn , @ x P pR, Rq.

n0

n0

n0

i`jn

. I pR, Rq . I ,
8
8

an xn
bn xn , , Cauchy
n0

n0

,
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

8
8

`
bn xn
pai xi qpbj xj q
ai bj xn .

n0

n0 i`jn

n0

i`jn

.
9.3.9.

1
.
p1 xq2

, x P p1, 1q ,
8

xn 1 ` x ` x2 ` ` xn ` ,
1 x n0

(9.10)

,
8
8
8
8

`
`

`
n
1
n
n

x
x

1
x

pn ` 1qxn .
p1 xq2
n0
n0
n0 i`jn
n0

(9.10) .

9.3

333

9.3.10. r P p1, 1q, x P R, :


1`

rn cos nx.

n1

. :
`

1 2r cos x ` r2 1 `
rn cos nx
n1

1 2r cos x ` r2 `
1 2r cos x ` r2 `

rn cos nx 2r

n1
8

rn cos nx r

n1

rn cos x cos nx `

n1
8

rn`2 cos nx

n1

rn cospn 1qx ` cospn ` 1qx

n1

rn`2 cos nx

n1

1 r cos x.

1 r cos x

1
`
rn cos nx, r P p1, 1q.
1 2r cos x ` r2
n1

(9.11)

1 , r, r ,
lnp1 2r cos x ` r2 q 2

rn
cos nx, r P p1, 1q.
n
n1

x , Poisson

lnp1 2r cos x ` r2 qdx 0, |r| 1.

(9.12)

(9.13)

, .
9.3.11.

an xn pR, Rq pR 0q , a0 0.

n0

r 0,

bn xn pr, rq ,

n0
8
`
n0

an xn

8
`

bn xn 1, @ x P pr, rq,

n0

1
b0 ` b1 x ` ` bn xn ` .
a0 ` a1 x ` ` an xn `

334

. a0 1. , bn : b0 1, b0 , , bn1
,
bn

n1

ani bi , n 1.

i0
8

bn xn . ,

an xn pR, Rq

n0

n0

, M 0,
`R
n

an
M, @ n 0.
2

n1
` R n1

` R i
` R ni ` R i
n

M
bn

ani
bi

bi
,
2
2
2
2
i0
i0

`R
n

bn
p1 ` M qn , @ n 0.
2
8

bn xn r

n0

R
. tbn u ,
2p1 ` M q

( a0 1)
8
`

an xn

8
`

n0

`
bn xn
ai bj xn 1.

n0

n0

i`jn

.
9.3.11. Bernoulli .

ex

x
:
1
8

x
Bn n

x ,
ex 1 n0 n!

Bn n Bernoulli .
8
ex 1 1
x
xn 1

ex 1
x
pn ` 1q!
n0

x x2
x4
x6
x8
`

`
2
12 720 30240 1209600

n 1 B2n`1 0,
ex

x
x
x ex ` 1
x
x
`
coth ,
1 2
2 ex 1
2
2

(9.14)

9.3

335

x
x
` .
ex 1 2
, Bn :
B0 1, Bn

n1
1 k
C
Bk .
n ` 1 k0 n`1

, Bernoulli
1
1
1
1
1
B0 1, B1 , B2 , B3 B5 B7 0, B4 , B6
, B8 .
2
6
30
42
30
Bernoulli () .
Riemann-Zeta . , (9.14)
8

22n B2n 2n
x .
p2nq!
n0

x coth x

(9.15)

, (8.3) ,
ln

` sinh x
x

` x2
`1 ,
2
2
n

ln

n1

,
x coth x 1 ` 2x2
1 ` 2x2
1 ` 2x2
1`

x2

1
` n2 2

n1
8
8

p1qm ` x 2m
pnq2 n
n1 m0
8
8

p1qm x2m
pnq2m`2
m0 n1

2p1qm p2m ` 2q 2m`2


x
.
2m`2
m0

(9.15) ,
p2nq p1qn1

22n B2n 2n
, @ n 1.
2p2nq!

,
8

1
24 B4 4
4

p4q

,
n4
2 4!
90
n1

1
26 B6 6
6
p6q

,
6
n
2 6!
945
n1

; (9.16) (9.14) 2.

(9.16)

336

9.3.12. Euler .

2ex

`1

e2x

2ex
En n

x ,
2x
e ` 1 n0 n!

En Euler .

2ex
1

,
2x
e `1
cosh x

1
E2n 2n

x .
cosh x n0 p2nq!

cosh x

(9.17)

8 x2n

,
n0 p2nq!

E0 1, E2n1 0, E2n

n1

2l
E2l , n 1.
C2n

l0

9.3.4


. tan u ,
8

n0

an xn

`
an n

x
n!
n0

`
tan u . , t n u p1 ` xq ,
x
Bernoulli x
.
e 1
,

, tan u , . .
9.3.13. , P R,

, @ n 1.
k
nk
n
k0
.
p1 ` xq p1 ` xq p1 ` xq` , |x| 1.

8
8
8

n n
` n
x
x
x ,
n
n
n
n0
n0
n0
, xn .

9.3

337

9.3.14. P R,

p1qk
p1qn
, @ n 1.
k
2n

k
n
k0
.
p1 ` xq p1 xq p1 x2 q , |x| 1.

,


8
8
8

n
n
2n
x
p1qn
x
p1qn
x ,
n
n
n
n0
n0
n0
, x2n .
9.3.15. Fibonacci .
tan u :
a0 a1 1, an an1 ` an2 , n 2.
an n Fibonacci . an .
f pxq

an xn ,

n0

p1 x x2 qf pxq 1 `

pan an1 an2 qxn 1,

n2

f pxq

1
.
1 x x2

x1 , x2 1 x x2 0 :
?
?
1 ` 5
1 5
x1
, x2
,
2
2

f pxq

8
1
1

1
1
1
1 n

x ,
x2 x1 x x1
x x2
x x1 xn`1
xn`1
2
1
n0 2

1
1
1
1
xn`1
xn`1
1
2

n`1
n`1
x2 x1 xn`1
px
x
q
x

x
x
1
2
2
1
2
1
?
?

1 1 ` 5 n`1 1 5 n`1

, @ n 0.
?
2
2
5

an

338

9.3.16. Bernoulli .
t ,

xetx
x
ex 1
8

Bn ptq n
xetx

x ,
ex 1 n0 n!

Bn ptq n Bernoulli . Bn ptq t


, .
8
8
8

x
Bn n tn n
Bn ptq n
x x
etx
x
x
n!
e 1
n!
n!
n0
n0
n0

xn ,
Bn ptq

Cnk Bnk tk , n 0.

(9.18)

k0

Bn ptq t n , Bn p0q Bn . ,
8
8

xetx
Bn ptq n xept`1qx
Bn pt ` 1q n

x
,

x
ex 1 n0 n!
ex 1
n!
n0

,
8
8

Bn pt ` 1q Bn ptq n
tn n`1
x xetx
x
,
n!
n!
n0
n0

xk`1 ,
Bk`1 pt ` 1q Bk`1 ptq pk ` 1qtk , @ k 1.

(9.19)

t 1, 2, , n, ,
1k ` 2k ` ` nk

Bk`1 pn ` 1q Bk`1 p1q


.
k`1

(9.19) t 0 Bk`1 p1q Bk`1 p0q Bk`1 , (9.18),


1k ` 2k ` ` nk

k`1
1 l
C
Bk`1l pn ` 1ql .
k ` 1 l1 k`1

(9.20)

, k 2
12 ` 22 ` ` n2

1
3
11
pn ` 1q pn ` 1q2 ` pn ` 1q3 npn ` 1qp2n ` 1q;
3 2
2
6

k 3
13 ` 23 ` ` n3

1
1
rpn ` 1q2 2pn ` 1q3 ` pn ` 1q4 s n2 pn ` 1q2 .
4
4

9.3

339

9.3
1.

an xn x R 0 ,

n1

2.

an xn r0, Rs .

n1
8

p1qn1 an 2n ,

n1

an .

n1

3. , :
8

xn
;
npn ` 1q
n1
8

pn!q2 n
p3q
x ;
p2nq!
n1
8

xn
p5q
, P R;
n
n1
p1q

p2q
p4q
p6q

n1
8

n1
8

p1 `

1 n2 n
q x ;
n

p1 `

1
1
` ` qxn ;
2
n

pln

n1

n2 ` 2 n
qx , P R.
n2

4.
8

sin n n
x
n
n1

, .
5.

p1qn x2n

n0

1
, x P p1, 1q
1 ` x2

arctan x

p1qn

n0

6.

x2n`1
, x P r1, 1s.
2n ` 1

8
8

p1qn 4n`1
p1qn
x

.
4n ` 1
4n ` 1
n0
n0

7. :
p1q

n2 ` 1 n
x ,
n
n1

p2q

n1

n3 xn ,

p3q

1
pn ` 1qpn ` 2qpn ` 3qxn .
3!
n0

8. pq (x P p, q):
8
8

2p2kq 2k1
1
1 p2kq
1
cot x
x
,

p2 222k qx2k1 .
2k
2k
x

sin
x
x

k1
k1

340
9.
lnpx `

8
a

p2n 1q!! x2n`1


1 ` x2 q
p1qn
, x P r1, 1s.
p2nq!! 2n ` 1
n0

10.
1`
8

11. Spxq

1
p2n 1q!!
ln 2.
2
p2nq!!
p2n
`
1q
2
n1

an xn R 0,

n0

p1q

an Rn`1
,
n`1
n0

R
Spxqdx
0

p2q

an Rn`1
;
n`1
n0

nan Rn1 ,

n1

S 1 pRq

nan Rn1 .

n1

12.

an xn pR, Rq , rR, Rs

n0

.
13. an 0,

an xn R.

n1

lim

xR

an xn

n1

an Rn .

n1

, `8.
14. pq
x cot x

n0

p1qn

22n B2n 2n
x , x P p, q.
p2nq!

15. pq
8

1
E2n 2n

p1qn
x , x P p , q.
cos x n0
p2nq!
2 2

9.4

9.4


341

9.4.1

(1)

9.4.1. .
arctan x
arctan x x

x5
x7
x3
`

`
3
5
7

.
tanpu ` vq

tan u ` tan v
,
1 tan u tan v

u arctanp1{5q ,
tanp2uq

2{5
10{12
5{12, tanp4uq
120{119.
2
1 p1{5q
1 p5{12q2

`
120{119 1
tan 4u

1{239,
4
1 ` 120{119

1
1
4 arctan arctan
,
4
5
239

(9.21)

Machin
16

p1qn
p1qn

4
,
2n`1
p2n ` 1q5
p2n ` 1q2392n`1
n0
n0

(9.22)

(1706 , Machin
100 ). ,
2 arctan

1
1
1
arctan ` arctan
,
10
5
515

1
1
1
4 arctan
16 arctan
10
239
515
`1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
32

` 1
10 3 103
5 105
7 107
9 109
11 1011

` 1
1 1
1
1 1

2 16

3 ,
4
239 3 2393
515 3 5153

32 arctan

342

32
32
32
1013
1015 1
1013 ,
13
15
13

0.24 1012 1 0.25 1012 ,

,
1.02 1012 2 1.03 1012 , 0.08 1012 3 0.09 1012 ,

0.88 1012 1 2 3 0.85 1012 .

,
`1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
32

3
5
7
9
10 3 10
5 10
7 10
9 10
11 1011
` 1
` 1
1 1
1 1
4

16

239 3 2393
515 3 5153
3.14159265359066...

3.14159265358978 3.14159265358982,

12 .
. 1914 ,
Ramanujan ,
? 8
1
2 2 p4kq! p1103 ` 26390kq

9801 k0 pk!q4 44k


994k

(9.23)

8 . 1988 , Chudnovsky

1
p6kq! p13591409 ` 545140134kq
12
p1qk
,
3

p3k!qpk!q
6403203k`3{2
k0

(9.24)

15 . ,
. , 1996 , Baily, Borwein Ploue

`
k0

2
1
1 1
4

,
8k ` 1 8k ` 4 8k ` 5 8k ` 6 16k

(9.25)

, 2 n
n 1 . ,
, .

9.4

343

9.4.2. ln 2 .
,
arctanh x

1 1`x
x2k`1
ln

, |x| 1
2 1 x k0 2k ` 1

ln 2. x 1{3,
ln 2

8
2
1
,
3 k0 p2k ` 1q9k

(9.26)

. Machin ,
` 27 9 ` 4800 ` 8750 4
25

4802

8748

1
1
1
2arctanh
` 8arctanh
26
4801
8749
`1
1
1
1
1
18
`
`
`
`
3
5
7
26 3 26
5 26
7 26
9 269
` 1

1
1
1
2
`
`8
`
` ,
3
3
4801 3 4801
8749 3 8749

ln 2 18arctanh

`
18

1
1
1
1
`
`

2
`

`
8
`

,
11 2611
13 2613
3 48015
5 87495

18
18 `
1
1
18

1 ` 2 ` 4 `
,
11 2611
11 2611
26
26
11 25 27 269

0.44 1015 0.45 1015 .

,
`1
1
1
1
1
ln 2 18
`
`
`
`
3
5
7
26 3 26
5 26
7 26
9 269
` 1

1
1
1
2
`
` 8p
`
3
3
4801 3 4801
8749 3 8749
0.6931471805599485...

0.6931471805599529 ln 2 0.6931471805599531,

ln 2 14 .
9.4.3.

2 .

344

p1 xq 2 1 `

p2n 1q!! n
x , |x| 1
p2nq!!
n1

2. p0 q0 1 , pk , qk :
p0 q0 1, pk 3pk1 ` 4qk1 , qk 2pk1 ` 3qk1 , k 1.

, pk , qk
2qk2 p2k 1, @ k 0.

1 12
pk 2qk2 12
pk
1

,
qk p2k
qk
p2k ` 1

, k 1, p1 7, q1 5,
?

1 12
7`
1 1
3 1
35 1
7`
1
1`
`
`
` ,
3
4
5
50
5
2 50 8 50
128 50

. k 3, p3 239, qk 169,
?

239 `
1 1
3 1
5
1
1`
`
`
` ,
2
169
2 57122 8 57122
16 571223

239 ` 35
1
63
1
`
` ,
169 128 571224
256 571225

1
239 35
1 `
1
1
1
239 35

1`
`
`
`
4
4
2
3
169 128 57122
169 128 57122
57122 57122
57122
239 35
1

,
169 128 57121 571223

0.36 1019 0.37 1019 .

239 `
1 1
3 1
5
1
1`
`
`
169
2 57122 8 571222
16 571223
1.414213562373095048765...

1.414213562373095048801

2 1.414213562373095048803,

2 20 .

9.4

345

(2) Euler-Maclaurin

, Bernoulli Bn ptq:
8

xetx
xn

B
ptq
,
n
ex 1 n0
n!

(9.27)

Bernoulli :
1
B0 1, B1 ptq t , Bn p0q Bn p1q Bn , @ n 2.
2

.
(i) Bn1 ptq nBn1 ptq, @ n 1.

, (9.27) t ,
8

xn
x2 etx

Bn1 ptq ,
x
e 1 n0
n!

Bn ptq

n0

xn`1
xn

Bn1 ptq ,
n!
n!
n1

x Bn1 ptq nBn1 ptq.


n

1
Bn ptqdt

1
ptq
Bn`1
Bn`1 p1q Bn`1 p0q
dt
0, @ n 1.
n`1
n`1

Bn ptq ,
.
3
1
1
B2 ptq t2 t ` , B3 ptq t3 t2 ` t.
6
2
2
(ii) Bn p1 tq p1qn Bn ptq, @ n 0.

,
8

n0

Bn p1 tq

xn
xep1tqx
xetx
pxqn
x
x

Bn ptq
,
n!
e 1
e 1 n0
n!

xn .
(iii) B2n ptq B2n t P r0, 1s , @ n 0.

. : (ii) B2n1 p 21 q 0,
1
B2n1 ptq r0, 1s 0, 1 . B2n1
2
. () B2n1 ptq r0, 1s ,
B1
ptq
, B2n2 ptq 2n1
p0, 1q .
2n 1

346

1
B2n2
ptq
p0, 1q , r0, 1s
2n 2
. , : B1 ptq p0, 1q
1
, . , n , Bn ptq r0, s
2
1
1
1
r , 1s , n , Bn ptq r0, s r , 1s .
2
2
2
Bn p0q Bn p1q Bn ptq Bn p0q r0, 1s .

, B2n3 ptq

Bernoulli . f ptq r0, 1s


2m ` 2 . ,
1
1
f ptq dt
f ptqdB1 ptq
0
0
1 1

f ptqB1 ptq
B1 ptqf 1 ptqdt
0
0

1
1 1 1
rf p0q ` f p1qs
f ptqdB2 ptq
2
2 0
1 1 1
1
1 1

rf p0q ` f p1qs f ptqB2 ptq `


B2 ptqf 2 ptqdt,
2
2
2 0
0
B31 ptq 3B2 ptq, B3 p0q B3 p1q 0 B41 ptq 4B3 ptq, :
1

1
1
1 1 2
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs `
f ptqdB3 ptq
2
2!
3! 0
0
1
1
1
1

rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs ` f 2 ptqB3 ptq


2
2!
3!
0
1
1
B3 ptqf 3 ptqdt

3! 0

1
1
1 1 3
rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs
f ptqdB4 ptq
2
2!
4! 0
1
1
1
rf p0q ` f p1qs B2 rf 1 p1q f 1 p0qs B4 rf 3 p1q f 3 p0qs
2
2!
4!

1 1
`
B4 ptqf p4q ptqdt,
4! 0
,
1
m`1
B2k
1
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs
rf p2k1q p1q f p2k1q p0qs
2
p2kq!
0
k1
1
1
`
B2m`2 ptqf p2m`2q ptqdt,
p2m ` 2q! 0

(9.28)

Euler-Maclaurin . B2m`2 ptq B2m`2 r0, 1s ,

1
1
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf p2m`2q ptqdt f p2m`2q pq pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qdt
0

p2m`2q

pqB2m`2 , P r0, 1s.

9.4

347

(9.28)
1
m

B2k p2k1q
1
f ptq dt rf p0q ` f p1qs
rf
p1q f p2k1q p0qs
2
p2kq!
0
k1

B2m`2 p2m`2q
f
pq, P r0, 1s.
p2m ` 2q!

(9.29)

r0, 1s f . ra, bs,


x pb aqt ` a
b
m

1
B2k
f pxq dx pb aqrf paq ` f pbqs
pb aq2k rf p2k1q pbq f p2k1q paqs
2
p2kq!
a
k1

B2m`2
pb aq2m`2 f p2m`2q pqpb aq, P ra, bs.
p2m ` 2q!

(9.30)

ra, bs n , ,

b
n
m

ba
B2k ` b a 2k p2k1q
f pxqdx
rf pxi1 q ` f pxi qs
rf
pbq f p2k1q paqs
2n
p2kq!
n
a
i1
k1

n
B2m`2 ` b a 2m`2 p2m`2q
ba
f
pi q
, i P r0, 1s.
p2m ` 2q! n
n
i1

(9.31)

xi a ` ni pb aq, i P rxi1 , xi s. , P ra, bs,

n
1 p2m`2q
f
pi q f p2m`2q pq,
n i1

(9.31)
b
n
m

ba
B2k ` b a 2k p2k1q
f pxqdx
rf
pbq f p2k1q paqs
rf pxi1 q ` f pxi qs
2n i1
p2kq!
n
a
k1
B2m`2 ` b a 2m`2 p2m`2q

f
pqpb aq, P r0, 1s.
(9.32)
p2m ` 2q! n
Euler-Maclaurin .
(3) Stirling

Euler-Maclaurin ln x r1, ns
. Bernoulli .
(iv) Bn p 12 q r1 21n sBn , @ n 0.

,
8

n0

Bn

x{2
1 xepx{2q ` x
px{2qn
px{2q

n!
2 ex 1
e
1

8
8
1
1
1 xn
xn
`
Bn p q
Bn .
2 n0
2 n!
2 n0
n!

348

xn .
(v) r0, 1s , B2n ptqB2n B2n , B2n ptqB2n B2n`2 ptq
B2n`2 .

(iii) B2n ptq B2n , B2n p 21 q B2n


. (iv) Bernoulli B2n B2n`2 .
r1, `8q f ptq.
pq f p2kq , f p2k`1q 0 pt 8q.

f ptq r1, ns . r1, ns n 1 , 1


(9.28) ,
n
f ptqdt
1

1
B2k p2k1q
f piq f pnq
f
pnq ` Rn ,
2
p2kq!
i1
k1

1
B2k p2k1q
Rn f p1q
f
p1q
2
p2kq!
k1
n1
1
1
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf p2m`2q pi ` tqdt,
`
p2m ` 2q! i1 0

pq lim Rn , R.
n8

Rn R

8 1

1
pB2m`2 ptq B2m`2 qf p2m`2q pi ` tqdt.
p2m ` 2q! in 0

8 1

1
pB2m`4 ptq B2m`4 qf p2m`4q pi ` tqdt
p2m ` 4q! in 0

pRn Rq `

B2m`2 2m`1
f
pnq,
p2m ` 2q!

(v), , , n P p0, 1q,

Rn R n

B2m`2 p2m`1q
f
pnq,
p2m ` 2q!

n
f ptqdt
1

1
B2k p2k1q
f piq f pnq
f
pnq
2
p2kq!
i1
k1

`R n

B2m`2 p2m`1q
f
pnq, n P p0, 1q.
p2m ` 2q!

(9.33)

9.4

349

f ptq ln t ,
n ln n n C ` lnpn!q
n

1
B2k
1
ln n
2k1
2
2kp2k

1q
n
k1

B2m`2
1
, n P p0, 1q.
2k`1
p2m ` 2qp2m ` 1q n

5.8 7.1.5 Stirling


n!

2n

` n n
e

en

(9.34)

1
n 8 C lnp2q, n
2
n

B2k
1
B2m`2
1
` n
, n P p0, 1q.
2k1
2m`1
2kp2k

1q
n
p2m
`
2qp2m
`
1q
n
k1

, m 1
n

B2 1
B4 1
1
n
` n

, n P p0, 1q;
2 n
12 n3
12n 360n3

m 2
n

1
1
n

`
, n P p0, 1q;
12n 360n3
1260n5

. (9.34)
?
`

1
1
139
571
n! nn en 2n 1 `
`

` .
2
3
4
12n 288n
51480n
2488320n

7.1.5 .
9.4.2

(1)

, :
. 1872 , Weierstrass :
f pxq

an sinpbn xq, p0 a 1, ab 1q

n0

! 1930 , Van Der Waerden ,


.
pxq x , 1 ,
$
1

&x,
0x ,
2
pxq
1

%1 x,
x 1.
2

350
y
(x)
x
2

9.2

f pxq

p4n xq
, x P R.
4n
n0

1
, p8, 8q , f
2
p8, 8q .

f . f , f pxq f px ` 1q,
@ x P R. f r0, 1q . x0 0 .
hm 4m , n m 1 , p4n hm q 4n hm ; n m , p4n hm q 0.
m1
p4n hm q m1

f phm q f p0q

1 m, @ m 1.
n
hm
4 hm
n0
n0

hm 0 pm 8q, f 0 .
x0 P p0, 1q, . x0 4 (,
0): x0 0 x1 x2 x3 xm , xm 0, 1, 2, 3.
hm :
hm

$
&4m ,
xm 0 2;

%4m , x 1 3.
m

4 , 4n x0 x1 xn xn`1 xm ,
4n px0 ` hm q x1 xn xn`1 pxm 1q .

n m 1 , hm , 4n x0 4n px0 ` hm q
. p4n px0 ` hm qq p4n x0 q 4n hm ,
m1
m1
p4n px0 ` hm q p4n x0 qq

f px0 ` hm q f px0 q

`
0

1.
n
hm
4 hm
n0
n0

, m , , , hm 0 pm
f px0 ` hm q f px0 q
. f x0 .
8q, lim
m8
hm
. Weierstrass ab 1 ` 32 , Hardy 1916 .
: !

9.4

351

(2) (Peano )
1890 , Peano : I I 2 , I r0, 1s, pIq I 2 .

. , 1938 Schoenberg
.

0,
t P r0, 31 s,

&
ptq 3t 1, t P r 13 , 23 s,

%1,
t P r 23 , 1s.

R 2 :
ptq pt ` 2q, ptq ptq, t P R.
y
(t)
1
x
2

9.3

$
8 p32n tq

,
&xptq
n`1
n0 2
8 p32n`1 tq

,
%yptq
2n`1
n0

t P r0, 1s.

0 1, , xptq, yptq ,
ptq pxptq, yptqq : I I I

. :
p1q pIq I I; p2q xptq, yptq .

. (i) I 3 .
(ii) () C 1 , I 2 ?
(3) Taylor
n

an P R pn 0q, n n `
|ai |,
i0

f pxq

an
pn xqxn ,
n!
n0

352

: R R , 0 1,
1 1
pxq 1, @ x P r , s; pxq 0, @ |x| 1.
2 2

n 1, |x| n1 , ,
|a |
a
|an | 1
1

n
n
|x|n
,
pn xqxn
n
n!
n!
n! pn q
n!
|x| n1 , f , f , f p0q a0 .
, f ,
f pnq p0q an , @ n 1.
pq , :
$
&e x1 , x 0,
gpxq
%0,
x 0.

g .
y
1

g(x)
x

9.4

hpxq

gpxq
, x P R,
gpxq ` gp1 xq

h . ,
pxq

$
&hp2x ` 2q,

x 0,

%hp2x ` 2q,

x 0.

y
h(x)

(x)
x

x
1

9.5

Fourier

, , .
. ,
, ,
? , Fourier ,
.

10.1

Fourier

1, cos x, sin x, cos 2x, sin 2x, , cos nx, sin nx,

, ti pxqu,

i pxqj pxqdx 0, @ i j,

.
a0 `

pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq

k1

,
a0 `

pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq

k1

, a0 , ak , bk .
2 . , f 2
, ? , f
Riemann ().

10.1.1 (Fourier ). f .

1
1
a0
f pxqdx, ak
f pxq cos kxdx,

1
bk
f pxq sin kxdx, k 1, 2, .

a0 , ak , bk f Fourier ,
8

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq
2
k1

353

Fourier

354

f Fourier Fourier ,
f pxq

. p1q f pxq

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq.
2
k1

a0
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq ,
`
2
k1

f pxqdx a0 `

ak

cos kxdx ` bk

k1

sin kxdx a0 .

a0
cos kxdx `
am
cos kx cos mxdx
2

m1

` bm
cos kx sin mxdx

0 ` ak
cos2 kxdx ` 0 ak ,

f pxq cos kxdx

bk , Fourier .
p2q 2 , Fourier 2

. , f , ak 0, Fourier
; f , bk 0, Fourier .
10.1.1. f 2 ,
$

0 x ,

& 1{2,
f pxq
0,
x 0, ,

% 1{2, x 0.
f Fourier .
y
1
2
2

1
2

10.1

10.1 Fourier

355

. f , ak 0.

0
11
1
f pxq sin kxdx
bk
sin kxdx
sin kxdx

2 0

1
k
r1 p1q s.

k
f Fourier :
f pxq

8
2 sinp2k ` 1qx
.
k0
2k ` 1

10.1.2. f 2 , f pxq x2 , x . f Fourier


.
y

x
2

10.2
. f , bk 0,

2 2
2 2
ak
x cos kxdx
x sin kxdx
0
0 k
4
p1qk 2 , pk 0q
k
2
1 2
x dx 2 ,
a0

3
f Fourier :
x2

p1qk
2
`4
cos kx.
3
k2
k1

Fourier , ak , bk .
, .
10.1.1 (Riemann-Lebesgue). f ra, bs Riemann
,
b

b
lim

8 a

f pxq cos xdx lim

`8 a

f pxq sin xdx 0.

Fourier

356

. 0, Riemann f ,
g,
b
|f pxq gpxq|dx .
a

,
b
b
b

gpxq cos xdx


|f pxq gpxq|dx .
f pxq cos xdx
a

, , rc, ds ra, bs
: f ,
d
1

cos xdx psin d sin cq

c
2||

0 p `8q.

sin x .

10.1.2. f r, s Riemann , Fourier


ak 0, bk 0 pk `8q.
f , . , f P C 1 r, s,
f pq f pq,

1
f pxq sin nxdx

1
1
1 1

f pxq
cos nx `
f pxq cos nxdx

n
n

`1
11 1

, pRiemann Lebesgueq
f pxq cos nxdx o
n
n

bn

`1
an o
. , f P C k pr, sq, f piq pq f piq pq p0 i k 1q,
n

` 1
` 1
an o k , bn o k .
n
n

10.1
1. , Fourier .
2. p, q Fourier :
p1q |x|;

p2q cos4 x;

p3q sin4 x;

p4q x sin x.

10.1 Fourier

357

3. f 2 ,
$
& x , x P r0, 2q;
2
f pxq
%,
x 2.
2

f Fourier .
4. f Fourier an , bn . f pxq sin x, f px ` hq ph P Rq Fourier

.
5. f 2 , an , bn Fourier .
p1q n 1 ,

an
rf pxq f px ` qs cos nxdx, bn
rf pxq f px ` qs sin nxdx.
2
n
2
n
p2q f Holder , p1q
an O

` 1
` 1
, bn O pn 8q.

n
n

6. f pxq r, s , f pq f pq, f 1 pq f 1 pq,


Fourier
`1
`1
an o 2 , bn o 2 pn 8q.
n
n
7. :
`8
p1q

lim

`8 0

cos2 x
dx;
1 ` x2

p2q

lim

`8

sin2 xdx.

8. f 2 . f p0, 2q , Fourier

bn 0, n 1, 2, . (: .)
9. f p, q ,
an O

`1
`1
, bn O
pn 8q.
n
n

`8
10. f r0, `8q
f pxqdx ,
0

`8
f pxq sin xdx 0.
lim

`8 0

Fourier

358

10.2

Fourier

, f P C 2 r, s, f pq f pq, f 1 pq f 1 pq,
Fourier an opn2 q, bn opn2 q, Fourier .
Fourier .

n pxq

1
` cos x ` cos 2x ` ` cos nx,
2

Dirichlet .
1
1
1
1
sin x cos kx
sinpk ` qx sinpk qx
2
2
2
2

Dirichlet
n pxq

sinpn ` 21 qx
, @ x 2k.
2 sin 12 x

(10.1)

1
x 2k , n pxq n ` , n ,
2

sinpn ` 12 qx
1

dx

p ` cos x ` cos 2x ` ` cos nxqdx .


1
2
2
2 sin 2 x
0
0
`8

sin x

dx .
x
2
0
, :

`8
0

sin x
dx lim
A`8
x

A
0

sin x
dx
x

pn` 12 q

sin x
dx
x
sinpn ` 12 qt
1
lim
dt
px pn ` qtq
n`8 0
t
2

1
1
1

sinpn ` qt dt
` lim
2 n`8 0 t
2
2 sin 2t

. pRiemann Lebesgueq
2
lim

n`8 0

,
lim

t0

`1
t

2 sin 2t t
1

lim
0,
t0 2t sin t
2 sin 2t
2

1
1

r0, s , Riemann-Lebesgue . 
t 2 sin 2t

10.2 Fourier

359

f Fourier Sn pxq,
Sn pxq

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq
2
k1

1
1
f ptqdt `
f ptq cos kt cos kxdt `
f ptq sin kt sin kxdt
2
k1

1
1
pcos kt cos kx ` sin kt sin kxq dt
f ptq `

2 k1

1
f ptq `
cos kpt xq dt

2 k1

1
f px ` uqn puqdu,

u t x, ,
r x, xs r, s . (10.1), n

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 12 qu
Sn pxq
du.
0
2
sin u2
0, Riemann-Lebesgue ,

1
f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu
lim Sn pxq
lim
du
n8
n8 0
2
sin u2

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq
1
` lim
sinpn ` qudu
n8
2 sin u2
2

1
f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu

lim
du,
n8 0
2
sin u2
, Sn pxq f x , Riemann ,
Riemann .
10.2.1 (Dini ). f . 0,
p1q f x f px ` 0q f px 0q ;
p2q

f px ` uq f px ` 0q
du,
u

f px uq f px 0q
du,
u

f px ` 0q ` f px 0q
.
2
1
1
Riemann-Lebesgue ,

u
2 sin u2
r0, s . ,

, f Fourier x

Fourier

360

10.2.1. f ra, bs , ra, bs


a t0 t1 tm b,

rti1 , ti s pi 1, 2, , mq
$

f pt
` 0q, x ti1 ,

& i1
fi pxq f pxq,
x P pti1 , ti q,

%f pt 0q,
xt,
i

rti1 , ti s , f .
10.2.2 (Dirichlet). f 2 ,
1
x P r, s, f Fourier x rf px ` 0q ` f px 0qs.
2
. Riemann-Lebesgue ,

1 f px ` uq ` f px uq sinpn ` 21 qu
lim Sn pxq lim
du
n8
n8 0
2
sin u2

1 f px ` uq f px ` 0q
1
1
lim
sinpn ` qu du ` f px ` 0q
n8 0
2 sin u2
2
2

1
1
1 f px uq f px 0q
` lim
sinpn ` qu du ` f px 0q
n8 0
2 sin u2
2
2
1
rf px ` 0q ` f px 0qs.
2
, f ,
f px ` uq f px ` 0q
f px uq f px 0q

2 sin u2
2 sin u2

u () , Riemann-Lebesgue .

. Riemann-Lebesgue .
, f x p0 1q Holder ,
.
10.1.1 10.1.2 , , 10.1.1 x 1

sinp2k ` 1q

,
4
2k ` 1
k0

10.1.2 x
p2q

1
2

.
2
k
6
k1

10.2 Fourier

361

10.2.1. f pxq cos x, x P r, s Fourier ( ).


. f R 2 , , bk 0.

2
ak
cos x cos kxdx
0

rcosp kqx ` cosp ` kqxsdx


0

1 sinp kq sinp ` kq
2p1qk sin

k
`k

2 k 2
Dirichlet
cos x

2 sin 1
p1qn
`
cos
nx
, @ x P r, s.

22 n1 2 n2

x
cos

2 sin 1
1
`
,

22 n1 2 n2

cot

8
1
1
2

.
2

n1 n2

0 x 1 , , :
x
8
`
1
1 `
x2
cot
d
ln 1 2 ,

n1
n
0
sin x :
`
x2 `
x2 `
x2
sin x x 1 2 1 2 1 2 .
1
2
n

(10.2)

, (9.5) .
10.2.2. ,
sin x

8
2 sin p1qn n
sin nx, @ x P p, q.

2 n2
n1

p0, q , 2
, Fourier . ,
.
10.2.3.
f pxq x, x P p0, q

, Fourier .

Fourier

362

. : f pxq x, x P p, 0q, 0 f 0.
y

10.3
Fourier

2
ak 0, bk
x sin kxdx
0

2 1
2 1

cos kx `
cos kxdx
x
k
0 k
0
2
p1qk1 .
k

x2

p1qn1

n1

sin nx
, 0 x .
n

: f pxq x, x P p, 0q, 0 f p0q 0, f .


y

x
2

10.4
Fourier

2
xdx
0

2
2
ak
x cos kxdx 2 rp1qk 1s.
0
k

bk 0, a0

4 cosp2k ` 1qx

, 0 x .
2
k0 p2k ` 1q2

10.2 Fourier

363

, 2l, 2 ,
1
an
l

1
bn
l

f pxq cos

n
xdx, n 0, 1, 2, ,
l

f pxq sin

n
xdx, n 1, 2, .
l

f Fourier
8

a0
n
n
`
an cos
x ` bn sin
x .
2
l
l
n1

x
2l 2 , ,
l
Dirichlet 2l .

10.2.4. f pxq 2 ,
f pxq x2 , x P r1, 1s

Fourier .
y
1
x
2

10.5
. f , bk 0.
1
2
a0
x2 dx ,
3
1
1
an 2
x2 cos nxdx
0

4
p1qn ,
n2 2

()

x2

8
1
4 p1qn
` 2
cos nx, x P r1, 1s.
3 n1 n2

t x, 10.1.2 . x 1 px
q, :
pq

8
x2

2 cos nx

, 0 x 2.
2
3
n1 n2

Fourier

364

f pxq x
.

x2
(0 x 2) Fourier ,
2

10.2
1.
x
x
n
n

sinpn ` 12 qt
x
sin kx

cos ktdt `
dt
k
2
2 sin 2t
0 k1
0
k1

8 sin nx

.
n
n1

2.
n1

sin2 nx
1
2
sinpk ` qx
x , @ n 1,
2
sin
2
k0

sin2 nx
2
dx n, @ n 1.
sin2 x2

3. | sin x| | cos x| Fourier , Fourier p8, `8q

.
4. ( R Z):
8

1
1
2p1qn

`
.
sin
n1 pq2 pnq2

5. Fourier :
p1q f pxq eax , x P p, q; p2q f pxq x2 sin2 x, x P p, q;
p3q f pxq sin ax, x P p, q, a .
6. Fourier :
p1q f pxq x, x P r0, 1s; f pxq 2 x, x P r1, 2s.
p2q f pxq 1, x P r0, as; f pxq 0, x P ra, s.
7. Fourier :
p1q f pxq cos 2x, x P r0, s;

p2q f pxq x

x2
, x P r0, 1s.
2

10.3 Parseval

365

8. pl, lq Fourier :
p1q x,

p2q x ` |x|.

9.
$

x,
0 x 1,

&
f pxq 1,
1 x 2,

%3 x, 2 x 3.

3 Fourier .
10. f ra, bs Riemann , g R , T r0, T s

.
b
lim

8 a

f pxqgpxqdx

1
T

T
f pxqdx

gpxqdx.
0

11. pq f pxq r0, as (0 a ) ,


1
`8

lim

10.3

f pxq
0

sin2 x

dx f p0q.
2
2
sin x

Parseval

Fourier .
, .
ra, bs , R2 ra, bs : R2 ra, bs f
Riemann , f f 2 . , R2 ra, bs , f ,
g P R2 ra, bs, Cauchy-Schwarz
b
|f pxqgpxq|dx
a

f 2 pxqdx

12
21 b

g 2 pxqdx .
a

10.3.1 (Parseval ). f P R2 r, s, f Fourier


f

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

f 2 pxqdx

a20
`
pa2n ` b2n q.
2
n1

(10.3)

Fourier

366

, f Riemann ,
.
p1q
Sn pf q

a0
`
pak cos kx ` bk sin kxq,
2
k1

1 2
1 2
1 ` a0 2
Sn pf qdx
dx `
ak cos2 kxdx `
b2k sin2 kxdx

2
k1

a20
`
pa2k ` b2k q.
2
k1

(10.4)

1
1 2
2
1 2
rf Sn pf qs2 dx
f dx
f Sn pf qdx `
S pf qdx



n

`
1 2
2 a0

f dx
f dx `
ak
f pxq cos kxdx

2

k1

1 2
` bk
f pxq sin kxdx `
S pf qdx
n

n
1
a2

1 2
0
2
2

`
pak ` bk q `
f dx 2
Sn2 pf qdx

2

k1

1 2
1 2

f dx
S pf qdx,
(10.5)

n

Sn2 pf qdx

f 2 dx.

(10.6)

, (10.3)

2
2

Sn pf qdx
f dx
rf Sn pf qs2 dx 0.

(10.7)

p2q (10.3) f , g P R2 ra, bs , , P R ,

rf ` g Sn pf ` gqs2 dx
rpf Sn pf qq ` pg Sn pgqqs2 dx

rg Sn pgqs2 dx.
rf Sn pf qs2 dx ` 22
22

(10.7) , (10.3) f ` g .
p3q , (10.3) .
$

& 0, x a,
pxq
1, a x b,

% 0, b x .

10.3 Parseval

367

R 2 , Fourier

1
1
a0
pxqdx pb aq,

1
1 b
11
ak
pxq cos kxdx
cos kxdx
psin kb sin kaq,

a
k

1
1 b
11
bk
pxq sin kxdx
sin kxdx
pcos ka cos kbq.

a
k

a20
`
pa2k ` b2k q
2
n1

1
1 1
2
pb

aq
`
psin kb sin kaq2 ` pcos kb cos kaq2
2
2
2
2
k1 k

8
1
2 1
2
pb

aq
`
r1 cos kpb aqs
2 2
2 n1 k 2

8
1
2 cos kpb aq
1
2
pb

aq
`

2 2
3 2 k1
k2

ba
ppqq

1 2
pxqdx.

p4q p2q, p3q (10.3) .


p5q f , 0, g

pf gq2 dx .

(10.3) g , n

rg Sn pgqs2 dx ,

*
"

rSn pg f qs2 dx
rg Sn pgqs2 dx `
pf gq2 dx `
rf Sn pf qs2 dx 3

"
*

2
3 ``
pg f q dx
p (10.3)q

9.

rf Sn pf qs2 dx 0 pn 8q.

(10.3) f .

Fourier

368

10.3.2 ( Parseval ). f , g P R2 r, s,

1
a0 0
f pxqgpxqdx
`
pan n ` bn n q,

2
n1
an , bn f Fourier , n , n g Fourier .
. f ` g f g Parseval , .

10.3.3 (). f , g r, s , f g
Fourier , f g.

. f g, Fourier 0, Parseval ,

pf gq2 dx 0.

f g f g.

10.3.4. f r, s , Fourier ,
f .
. Fourier
8

a0
Spxq
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1
, , Spxq Fourier
f Fourier . Spxq f pxq.

10.3.1. 10.1.2 Parseval

8
1 4
1 ` 2 2 ` 4 2
x dx
`

2 3
n2
n1

p4q

4
1

.
4
n
90
n1

10.3
n

A0
`
pAk cos kx ` Bk sin kxq ,
2
k1
, Riemann f ,

|f pxq Tn pxq|2 dx
|f pxq Sn pxq|2 dx,

1. Tn pxq

Sn pxq f pxq Fourier , A0 a0 ,


Ak ak , Bk bk pk 1q.

10.3 Parseval

369

2. Riemann Fourier :
p1q

sin nx
? ;
n
n1

p2q

sin nx
pp 1q.
np
n1

3. :
p1q

p1qn1

2
x2
cos nx

, x P r, s,
2
n
12
4

p1qn1

sin nx
2
x3

, x P r, s.
n3
12
12

n1

p2q

n1

4. f pxq x3 Fourier Parseval

1
.
n6
n1

5.
$
& 1 x, 0 x 1,
2
f pxq
% x ,
1 x .
2

Fourier
8

sin n
,
n
n1

sin2 n
,
n2
n1

sin2 n
.
n4
n1

6. f r, s ,

f pq f pq,

f pxqdx 0.

f 1 ,

` 1 2
`
2
f pxq dx
f pxq dx,

.
7.

1
p1q
0

2
ln x
dx ,
1x
6

1
p2q
0

2
ln x
dx .
1`x
12

8. pq :
p1q

n1

p2q

p1qn1

`
x
cos nx
ln 2 cos , x P p, q,
n
2

`
cos nx
x
ln 2 sin , x P p0, 2q.
n
2
n1

Fourier

370

10.4

Fourier

, , Fourier .
10.4.1 (Reymond). f r, s Riemann , Fourier

f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq.
2
n1

ra, bs r, s,
b
b
8 b

a0
f pxqdx
dx `
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxqdx.
a
a 2
n1 a
. 10.3
#
1, x P ra, bs,
pxq
0, x P r, aq Y pb, s,
Fourier n , n , Parseval ,

a0
1
f pxqpxqdx 0 `
pan n ` bn n q,

2
n1

1
0

1
pb aq,

1 b
pxq cos nxdx
cos nxdx,
a

1 b
pxq sin nxdx
sin nxdx,
a

pxqdx

.
Fourier , .

10.4.2. f r, s , f pq f pq. f r, s
, f 1 Riemann , f pxq Fourier r, s
f pxq:
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq, @ x P r, s.
2
n1

. 10.3.4, . ,
f 1 Fourier a1n , b1n , ( f pq f pq)

1
1 1
1
f pxq cos nxdx
f pxqn sin nxdx nbn ,
an

1
1
b1n
f 1 pxq sin nxdx
f pxqn cos nxdx nan .

10.4 Fourier

371

f 1 Parseval

8
1 1 2 1 2
1 1 2
pa0 q `
rpan q ` pb1n q2 s
pf q dx.
2

n1

,
|an cos nx ` bn sin nx| |an | ` |bn |
1
1 1
|a | ` |b1n |
n n
n
1` 1

1` 1

` |a1n |2 `
` |b1n |2 ,
2
2
2 n
2 n

Weierstrass f Fourier .

, , f Fourier
1

f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq,

n1

, .
10.4.3. f 2 . f 1 r, s
, f Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq
2
n1

r, s :
f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq,

n1

f 2 Riemann , .
. Dirichlet 10.4.2 .

10.4.2 .
10.4.4 (Weierstrass). f r, s , f pq f pq.
0, T pxq,
|f pxq T pxq| , @ x P r, s.

. , f . 2
g,
|f pxq gpxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

Fourier

372
y
f (x)
g(x)

10.6

, g 10.4.2 , Fourier g. n

|gpxq Sn pgqpxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

|f pxq Sn pgqpxq| |f pxq gpxq| ` |gpxq Sn pgqpxq| .




10.4.5. f r, s , f pq f pq. 0,
P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r, s.

. Weierstrass , T pxq
|f pxq T pxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

Taylor , P pxq
|T pxq P pxq|

, @ x P r, s.
2

|f pxq P pxq| |f pxq T pxq| ` |T pxq P pxq|


` .
2 2

10.4.6. f ra, bs , 0, P pxq,

|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P ra, bs.

10.4 Fourier

373

px aq ra, bs r0, s .
ba
2 , ,

. t

10.4
1.
8

cosp2n 1qx

p 2xqp ` 2x 2x2 q, x P r0, s.

4
p2n

1q
96
n1

(: .)
8

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq Riemann
2
n1
8

bn
Fourier
.
n
n1

2. ,

3. f pxq r0, s . , 0,

P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r0, s.
4. f pxq r0, s , f p0q f pq 0. , 0,

P pxq,
|f pxq P pxq| , @ x P r0, s.
5. f pxq ra, bs ,
b
xn f pxqdx 0, n 0, 1, 2, ,
a

f pxq 0. (: f .)
6. f pxq ra, bs , n 1,
b
xn f pxqdx 0,
a

f pxq 0.
7. f pxq r0, s ,

f pxq cos nxdx 0, n 0, 1, 2, ,


0

f pxq 0.

Fourier

374
8. f pxq r0, s ,

f pxq cos nxdx 0, n 1, 2, ,


0

f pxq . (: f pxq c.)

9. f pxq r, s Riemann ,
f pxqdx 0. ,

x
F pxq
f ptqdt Fourier r, s .
0

10. pq Bernoulli n pxq :


0 pxq 1, 1n pxq nn1 pxq,

1
n pxqdx 1,
0

, r0, 1s , k 0 ,
k pxq p1q1`k{2

8
2pk!q 1
cos 2nx,
p2qk n1 nk

k 1 ,
k pxq p1qpk`1q{2

10.5


8
2pk!q 1
sin 2nx.
p2qk n1 nk

Fourier

10.5.1

Fourier . f pxq 2 ,
Fourier Sn pxq, Sn pxq
1
Sn pxq

f px ` uq

sinpn ` 12 qu
du.
2 sin u2

n pf qpxq

n1
1
Sk pxq,
n k0

n1

sin2 nu
1
2
sinpk ` qu
u
2
sin
2
k0

10.5 Fourier

375

n pf qpxq

n1
f px ` uq 1
1
sinpk ` qudu
u
2 sin 2 n k0
2

1
2

f px ` uq

1 sin2 nu
2
du.
n sin2 u2

f pxq 1

1 1 sin2 nu
2
du 1,
2 n sin2 u2

n pf qpxq f pxq

1
2

rf px ` uq f pxqs

1 sin2 nu
2
du.
n sin2 u2

10.5.1 (Fejer). f pxq 2 , n pf q


f.
. 0, f , 0, |u|
|f px ` uq f pxq| , @ x P R.

M max |f pxq|, n M 1 sin2 2 ,

1
1 sin2 nu
2
|n pf qpxq f pxq|
|f px ` uq f pxq|
du
2
n sin2 u2

1
1 sin2 nu
2
`
|f px ` uq f pxq|
du
2 |u|
n sin2 u2

1 1 sin2 nu
1 1
2

du ` 2M
3,
2
u
2 n sin 2
n sin2 2
n pf q p8, `8q f pxq.

. (1)
Fn puq

1 sin2 nu
2
,
2n sin2 u2

Fejer , :

Fn puqdu 1, lim
Fn puqdu 0, 0.

n8 |u|

(2) .
(3) , Fourier ,

. , g, g, g f
. Ces`aro .
, 1873 , du Bois-Reymond , Fourier
. Fourier .

Fourier

376
10.5.2

Fourier .
10.5.2 (Dirichlet). g r0, hs ,
h
sin u

gpuq
lim
du gp0 ` 0q.
`8 0
u
2
. g ,
h
h
h
sin u
sin u
sin u
gpuq
du
rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du ` gp0 ` 0q
du,
u
u
u
0
0
0

`8 , gp0 ` 0q,
2
.
0, 0, 0 u 0 gpuq gp0 ` 0q .
h

sin u
sin u
du rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du
rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
u
u
0
0
h
sin u
` rgpuq gp0 ` 0qs
du
u

I1 ` I2 ,

I1 rgpq gp0 ` 0qs

sin u
du rgpq gp0 ` 0qs
u

sin u
du,
u

|I1 | 2L,

sin u

du L, @ x 0.

u
0

Riemann-Lebesgue , `8 I2 0, .

:
10.5.3 (Dirichlet-Jordan). f pxq , f pxq x0
1
rx0 h, x0 `hs , Fourier x0 rf px0 `0q`f px0 0qs.
2
, Fourier
. .
10.5.4. f pxq p, q , Fourier an , bn

|nan |

1
|f p 0q f p ` 0q|,

|nbn |

2
|f p 0q f p ` 0q|, @ n 1.

10.5 Fourier

377

. f . an , ,

1
1
an
f pxq cos nxdx
rf pxq f p ` 0qs cos nxdx

1
rf p 0q f p ` 0qs
cos nxdx

1
1
rf p 0q f p ` 0qs
sin n,

n


10.5.5. f pxq r, s Lipschitz , M


Fourier an , bn |nan | M , |nbn | M , @ n 1.

. |f pxq f pyq| L|x y|,


f pxq Lx pLx f pxqq,

gpxq Lx f pxq . , y x,
gpyq gpxq Lpy xq rf pyq f pxqs Lpy xq |f pyq f pxq| 0.


f pxq , .
Tauber .
10.5.6 (Hardy).

fn pxq Sn pxq,

n1

n pxq

n
1
Sk pxq,
n k1

n pxq f pxq, tnfn pxqu ,

fn pxq f .

n1

. , M , |nfn pxq| M x n .
0 1, N0 , n N0
|n pxq f pxq| 2 , @ x.

m n N0 ,
mm pxq nn pxq pm nqSm pxq

pk 1 nqfk pxq

kn`2

mpm pxq f pxqq npn pxq f pxqq pm nqpSm pxq f pxqq

kn`2

pk 1 nqfk pxq,

Fourier

378

|Sm pxq f pxq|

n
m
|m pxq f pxq| `
|n pxq f pxq|
mn
mn
m

1
`
pk 1 nq|fk pxq|
m n kn`2
m

m`n 2
1
M
`
pk 1 nq
mn
m n kn`2
k
mn1

m`n 2
1 M
`
k
mn
m n n k1
`m

m`n 2

`M
1 .
mn
n

N maxt6{, p1 ` 2qN0 u, m N ,
m
m
m

1,
1 ` 1 ` 2
p1 ` qp1 ` 2q

n,
m
m
n
N0 ,
1`
1 ` 2

1``1 2
` M p1 ` 2 1q p3 ` 2M q,
1`1
Sm pxq f pxq.
|Sm pxq f pxq|

Fourier ,
Fourier , :
10.5.7. f pxq 2 , f pxq
, Fourier f pxq . , Lipschitz
Fourier .
. ,
.
10.5.3

Parseval , :
L , ? ,
.
10.5.8 (). L
, A
A

L2
,
4

10.5 Fourier

379

L
.
2

. ,
ptq pxptq, yptqq, t P r0, Ls.

a
px1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 1. ,
L

L
xptqdt

yptqdt 0,
0

,
.
y
(t) = (x(t), y(t))

x
0

10.7
, xp0q xpLq, yp0q ypLq. Wirtinger
L

L
` L 2 L 1
` L 2 L 1
2
2
2
x ptqdt
rx ptqs dt,
ry ptqs2 dt.
y ptqdt
2
2
0
0
0
0

L
0

rxptqy 1 ptq x1 ptqyptqsdt

Cauchy-Schwarz ,

2
1 L
pxptqy 1 ptq x1 ptqyptqqdt
A2
4 0

L
1 L 2
2

rx ptq ` y ptqsdt
rpx1 ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 sdt
4 0
0

2
1 ` L 2 L 1

rpx ptqq2 ` py 1 ptqq2 sdt


4 2
0
1 ` L 2 2

L ,
4 2
A L2 {4, Cauchy-Schwarz Wirtinger
.

Fourier

380

10.5.9 (Wirtinger ). f pxq r, s ,


f pq f pq.

f pxqdx 0,

f pxqdx

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

f pxq a cos x ` b sin x.


. f p8, `8q , 2. f Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

a0

f pxqdx 0.

f 1 pxq Fourier
8

f 1 pxq

pnbn cos nx nan sin nxq.

n1

Parseval ,

f 2 pxqdx

n1
8

pa2n ` b2n q
pn2 a2n ` n2 b2n q

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

n1

an bn 0, @ n 2.
10.5.10. f pxq ra, bs , f paq f pbq,
b
f pxqdx 0,
a

f 2 pxqdx

f pxq c cos

2
ba x

` b a 2
2
` d sin

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

a
2
ba x.

ba
pt ` q ` a ra, bs r, s
2
, Wirtinger .


. x

10.5 Fourier

381

10.5.11 (Poincare ). f pxq r0, s ,


f p0q f pq 0,

f 2 pxqdx

rf 1 pxqs2 dx,

f pxq c sin x.
. f pxq p8, `8q 2 , Wirtinger


.
10.5.4

Fourier

1,
ei cos ` i sin , P R.

, pei qn ein cos n ` i sin n.


cos nx

1 inx
1
pe
` einx q, sin nx peinx einx q.
2
2i

, :
n

eik

k0

pei qk

k0

ei

n`1
2

ei

1 eipn`1q
1 ei

n`1
2

ei

n`1
2

ei 2
ei 2 ei 2
n`1
n p2iq sin
2
ei 2
p2iq sin 2

sin pn`1q
2
sin

ei 2 ,

cos k

k0

sin n`1
2
sin

cos

n
1

rsinpn ` q ` sin s

2
2
2
2 sin 2

k1

sin k

sin n`1
2
sin 2

sin

n
1

rcos cospn ` qs.


2
2
2
2 sin 2

f pxq Fourier
f pxq

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq,
2
n1

Fourier

382

a0
`
pan cos nx ` bn sin nxq
2
n1

` an ibn inx an ` ibn inx


a0
`
e
`
e
2
2
2
n1
8

cn einx ,

n8

cn :
1
cn
2

f pxqeinx dx, n P Z.

. , k 1, 2, , k
tku, p0, 1q
x1 tu, x2 t2u, , xk tku, .

p0, 1q . ,
a b P r0, 1s, n ra, bq n pa, bq,
ra,bq ra, bq ,
n pa, bq

ra,bq pxk q.

k1

:
n pa, bq
b a.
n8
n
p1q , e2intku e2ink . , m ,
lim

n
n

e2imxk
e2imk

k0

k0

1
,
| sin m|

n
1 2imxk
e
0,
n8 n
k1

lim

P a0 {2 `

pak cos 2kx ` bk sin 2kxq, :

k1

1
n
1
lim
P pxk q
P pxqdx.
n8 n
0
k1
p2q , 0, r0, 1s P1 , P2 ,
1
P1 ra,bq P2 ,
pP2 P1 qdx .
0

10.5 Fourier

383

p1q, N , n N
1
n
1

Pi pxk q
Pi pxqdx , i 1, 2.

n k1
0

n
n
1
1
P2 pxk q
P1 pxk q 3.
n k1
n k1

n
n
n
1

1
1
ra,bq pxk q P
P1 pxk q,
P2 pxk q
n k1
n k1
n k1

1
ra,bq pxqdx P

1
P1 pxqdx,

P2 pxqdx ,

, n N (),
1
n
1

ra,bq pxk q
ra,bq pxqdx

n k1
0
1
n
n

1 1

1
1 1
P2 pxk q
P1 pxk q `
P2 pxqdx

P1 pxqdx
2 n k1
n k1
2 0
0

1
n
n

1 1
1 1

P1 pxk q
P2 pxk q
P1 pxqdx `
P2 pxqdx
`
2 n k1
2
n
0
0
k1

1
1
1
3
` ` ` 3,
2
2
2
2
1
n
1
lim
ra,bq pxk q
ra,bq pxqdx b a.
n8 n
0
k1


, txk u p0, 1q .

10.5.12. f r0, 1s Riemann , 0,


P1 , P2 , P1 f P2 ,
1
rP2 pxq P1 pxqsdx .
0

. , f1 , f2 ,
1
f1 f f2 ,
rf2 pxq f1 pxqsdx {2,
0

Weierstrass P1 , P2 ,
0 f1 P1 {4, 0 P2 f2 {4,

P1 , P2 .

Fourier

384
10.5.5

Fourier

: p8, `8q
?
f , rl, ls , f Fourier :
8

`
n
a0
n
an cos
`
x ` bn sin
x ,
2
l
l
n1

f pxq

1
l

1
bn
l

an

f pxq cos

n
xdx pn 0, 1, 2, q,
l

f pxq sin

n
xdx pn 1, 2, q.
l

1
f pxq
2l

n
1 l
f ptqdt `
f ptq cos
px tqdt.
l l
l
l
n1

f p8, `8q , l `8,


1
f pxq

`8 `8

f ptq cos px tqdt d,

, ,
1
f pxq

`8 8

f ptq cos px tqdt d,

(10.8)

`8
f pxq

rapq cos x ` bpq sin xs d,

(10.9)

1
apq

`8
f ptq cos tdt,
8

1
bpq

`8
f ptq sin tdt.
8

(10.8) (10.9) f Fourier , Fourier , apq, bpq

Fourier .
, (10.8) (10.9) . Fourier , (10.8)
, . ,
().
10.5.13. f p8, `8q , apq, bpq
P R , 8 , apq 0, bpq 0.

10.5 Fourier

385

. f , 0, A 0,
A
`8
|f ptq|dt `
|f ptq|dt .
A

|f ptq|dt ` 1, cos x x P p8, `8q , 0,

A
2

|x1 x |
| cos x1 cos x2 |

|1 2 |

.
M

,
A
1

`8

|ap1 q ap2 q|

|f ptq|| cos 1 t cos 2 t|dt

1
2|f ptq|dt `

8
A

`8
2|f ptq|dt
A

|f ptq|| cos 1 t cos 2 t|dt

2
1
`

A
|f ptq|dt
A

3
.

gpq . ,
1
lim sup |apq| ` lim
8
8

A
A

f ptq cos t dt ,


apq 0 p 8q. , bpq 0 p 8q.


10.5.14.
SpA, xq

`8
d

f ptq cos px tqdt,


8

f ,
1
SpA, xq

`8
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
0

sin At
dt.
t

. , ,

1
SpA, xq

8
d

0
8

f ptq cos px tqdt


8
A

1
dt
f ptq cos px tqd
8
0

sin Apx tq
1 8
f ptq
dt

8
xt

1 `8
sin At

rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
dt.
0
t

Fourier

386

10.5.15. 0,
`8
sin At
lim
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
dt 0.
A`8
t
. 10.5.13 apq 0 , .

, lim SpA, xq f x . , Fourier


A`8

, Dini , :
10.5.16. f p8, `8q , f ,

`8
f px ` 0q ` f px 0q
1 `8

d
f ptq cos px tqdt
2
0
8
`8

rapq cos x ` bpq cos xsd,


0

apq

`8
f ptq cos t dt, bpq
8

`8
f ptq sin t dt.
8

Fourier .

. ,
. , ,
. ,
, .

11.1

11.1.1 (). X R ,
g x, y : X X R
px, yq gpx, yq xx, yy

p1q xx, xy 0, xx, xy 0 x 0 p q;


p2q xx, yy xy, xy, @ x, y P X p q;
p3q xx ` y, zy xx, zy ` xy, zy, @ , P R, x, y, z P X p q.

g x, y X , pX, x, yq , xx, yy x y
a
, }x} xx, xy x .
11.1.1. R .
x, y P R, xx, yy xy, x, y R . , x
|x|.
11.1.2. Rn .
Rn tpx1 , , xn q|xi P Ru n , , Rn
R , n . Rn x, y:
xx, yy

xi yi , @ x px1 , , xn q, y py1 , , yn q P Rn .

i1

x px1 , , xn q P Rn ,
}x} px21 ` x22 ` ` x2n q1{2 .

11.1.3. .
387

388

C 0 ra, bs ra, bs . x, y
:
b
xf, gy

f pxqgpxqdx.
a

, : ,


.
11.1.1 (Schwarz ). pX, x, yq ,
|xx, yy| }x} }y},

x y .
. x 0( y 0q ,
x0, yy x0 0, yy 0x0, yy 0,

Schwarz . x 0, y 0, t P R,
xx, xy 2txx, yy ` t2 xy, yy xx ty, x tyy 0,

t , :
4xx, yy2 4xx, xyxy, yy 0,


. , x, y , Schwarz
.
Schwarz , x, y , px, yq P r0, s,
cos px, yq

xx, yy
,
}x} }y}

px, yq x, y , px, yq.

11.1.2. pX, x, yq , x, y P X,
}x ` y} }x} ` }y}.

. Schwarz ,
}x ` y}2 xx ` y, x ` yy xx, xy ` 2xx, yy ` xy, yy
}x}2 ` 2}x} }y} ` }y}2
p}x} ` }y}q2 ,

11.1

389

11.1.2 (). X , : X X R

p1q px, yq 0 px, yq 0 x y;


p2q px, yq py, xq;
p3q px, zq px, yq ` py, zq.

p q

X p q, pX, q p q, px, yq
x, y .
11.1.4. R .
x, y P R, px, yq |x y|, R .
11.1.5 (). pX, x, yq ,
px, yq }x y}, @ x, y P X.

p1q, p2q, :
px, zq }x z} }px yq ` py zq}
}x y} ` }y z}
px, yq ` py, zq.


X , .
11.1.6. .

, . , X
, d : X X R :
$
&1, x y,
dpx, yq
%0, x y.


d X , .

11.1
1.

(
l2 x px1 , x2 , , xn , q xn P R,
x2n 8 .
n1

l ,
2

x, y l2 :
xx, yy

n1

xn yn .

390

2. Rra, bs ra, bs Riemann . f, g P Rra, bs,


b
f pxqgpxq dx,

xf, gy
a

: x, y ? (: .)
3. x, y X , x, y P X, y 0.
xx ty, x tyy 0

xx, yy
Schwarz .
xy, yy

4. 11.1.2 .
5. X :
}x ` y}2 ` }x y}2 2p}x}2 ` }y}2 q, @ x, y P X.
6. C 0 ra, bs
dpf, gq max |f pxq gpxq|, @ f, g P C 0 ra, bs.
xPra,bs

d C 0 ra, bs , .
7. x px1 , , xn q, y py1 , , yn q P Rn ,
d1 px, yq max |xi , yi |, d2 px, yq
1in

|xi yi |,

i1

d1 d2 Rn .
8. A pX, q , A A A :
A pa1 , a2 q pa1 , a2 q,

A A , , pA, A q X .
9. , X ,

X .
1`

10. pq f p0q 0, f : Rn Rn ,
}f pxq f pyq} }x y}, @ x, y P Rn ,

f .

11.2

391

11.2

pX, q . x P X, r 0,
r

Br pxq ty P X | py, xq ru,

x , r .
11.2.1. .

x
X

11.1

R , x0 , r px0 r, x0 ` rq. R2 ,
px0 , y0 q , r
tpx, yq P R2 | px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 r2 u.

Rn , px10 , , xn0 q , r
tpx1 , , xn q P Rn | px1 x10 q2 ` ` pxn xn0 q2 r2 u.
y

r
(x0 , y0 )
x
0

11.2
11.2.2. .
X . X 0 1,
Br pxq txu, @ r 1; Br pxq X, @ r 1.

392

11.2.1 (). U X ,
x P U , 0, B pxq U , U ;

. p q ,
.

U
X

, X , . x

11.3

x .

11.2.3. .
pa, bq, pa, `8q p8, bq R ; ra, bs
ra, `8q p8, bs R .

tpx, yq P R2 | y 0u R2 , tx2 ` y 2 r2 u R2
.
, , , R
ra, bq. , .

11.2.4. .
x , 1{2 txu,
, .
11.2.5. .
x P Br px0 q, px, x0 q r. r px, x0 q, y P B pxq ,
,
py, x0 q py, xq ` px, x0 q ` px, x0 q r,

y P Br px0 q, B pxq Br px0 q, Br px0 q .




ty P X | py, x0 q ru , , .
.

11.2.1. p1q ; ;
p2q ; .

. p1q U1 , , Uk , x P

Ui , , i 0,

i1

Bi pxq Ui , i 1, , k. minti |i 1, , ku, B pxq

i1

, .

Ui ,

i1

Ui

11.2

393

p2q
pA1 Y Y Ak qc Ac1 X X Ack

p A qc Ac

p1q .
, , .

11.2.2 (). txn u8


n1 X , x0 P X,
0, N N pq, n N , xn P B px0 q, txn u x0 ,

lim xn x0 xn x0 pn 8q.

n8

. p1q xn P B px0 q pxn , x0 q ,


lim xn x0 lim pxn , x0 q 0.

n8

n8

p2q p1q , , .

, ,
.
11.2.2. txn u pX, q , txn u x0
x0 U , N , n N xn P U .
. () lim xn x0 , U x0 . 0,
n8

B px0 q U . , N N pq, n N
xn P B px0 q U.


() U .

11.2.3. A A A .
. A , txn u A, lim xn x0 . x0 R A, 0 0,
n8

B0 px0 q Ac , lim xn x0 , N N p0 q n N
n8

xn P B0 px0 q, xn P A ! x0 P A.

, A A , x0 R A,
n0 0 B1{n0 px0 q Ac , Ac . () , n 1,

B1{n px0 q X A H. xn P B1{n px0 q X A, lim xn x0 , . 


n8

. : .

394

11.2.3 (, , ). A

X , x0 P X. x0 U ,

intA

U A, x0 A , intA
, A ; x0 U ,
A
U Ac , x0 A ; x0

A , A , x0
A , BA, A .

11.4

A , A Ac
, A

, X
X intA Y BA Y intpAc q,

. :
BA , BA pintA Y intpAc qqc .
A . A pintpAc qqc .
intAYBA , A,
, A A Y BA . , A A Y BA. ,

a P A Y BA, a P A a P BA, a A , a P A,
A Y BA A .
,
A BA A, A A.

. , A , Ac , Ac A ,

A pintpAc qqc pAc qc A.


, Ac B c , intpAc q intpB c q, A B

A B , A B.

.
, .
11.2.6. R , Q , . Q
R.
11.2.7. Rn .
x0 P Rn , r 0. t}x x0 } ru t}x x0 } ru ,
BBr px0 q t|x x0 | ru,

11.2

395

n 1 ( x0 , r ).

11.2
1. a pa1 , a2 , , an q P Rn , r 0.

Irn paq tx px1 , x2 , , xn q P Rn |xi ai | r, 1 i nu,

n . .
, .
r pxq ty P X | py, xq ru .
2. B
3. R , ,

.
4. X Y . , A X X

Y U , A X X U ; , B X Y
V , B X X V .
5. Q R . , p, q X Q Q , Q

.
6. , txn u8
n1 , .
7. , :
p1q

(
1
n 1, 2, R; p2q tpx, yq P R2 |x| ` |y| 1u R2 .
n

8. , Rn , r r .

, ?
B.

9. A B, A
10. A txn | n 1, 2, u. , x0 P A A , A x0 .
11. R2 Q Q tpx, yq P R | x, y P Qu (A X
A X).
12. pq f : ra, bs R , graphpf q
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq P R2 | x P ra, bsu.

, f graphpf q R2 .

396

11.3

pX, q . txn u8
n1 X . 0,
N N pq, m, n N
pxm , xn q ,

txn u Cauchy ().


11.3.1 (). X Cauchy , pX, q
.
. p1q Cauchy ;
p2q Cauchy , ().

11.3.1. R .
R . , Q

,
an 1 `

1
1
1
` ` `
1! 2!
n!

Q , Q . Q R Q
, .
Rn .

11.3.1. pRn , } }) .
n
. txm u8
m1 R ,

xm px1m , x2m , , xnm q,

i 1, 2, , n,
|xik xil |

pxjk xjl q2

12

}xk xl },

j1

, txm u Cauchy , txim u8


m1 i 1, 2, , n Cauchy ,
. lim xim xi0 , x0 px10 , x20 , , xn0 q,
m8

}xm x0 }

}xim xi0 }

i1

lim xm x0 .

m8

11.3

397


A X , suptpx, yq | x, y P Au A , diamA dpAq.


.
11.3.2. .
R ra, bs b a, ; , Rn r

() 2r. , ,
r (), 2r. Rn , . ,

, 1{2 , 0.
R .
11.3.2. pX, q , :
p1q pX, q ;
p2q pCantorq : F1 F2 Fn ,

lim diamFn 0, a P 8
n1 Fn .
n`8

p3q : p2q Fn 0 .

. p1qp2q: an P Fn , Fn Fn`1 tan , an`1 , u Fn .


, m n
pam , an q diamFn 0 pn 8q,

tan u Cauchy , a, Fn
a lim am P Fn , @ n 1,
m8

aP

Fn . b P

n1

Fn ,

n1

pa, bq diamFn 0 pn 8q,

a b.
p2qp3q: .
p3qp1q: pq tan u X Cauchy , ,

. Cauchy , n1 n2 ,
m, n nk
pam , an q

1
2k`1

X Fk B2k pank q, k 1, 2, . x P Fk`1 ,


px, ank q px, ank`1 q ` pank`1 , ank q

1
1
1
` k`1 k
2k`1
2
2

398

x P Fk . F1 F2 Fk Fk`1 . ,
diam Fk 2 2k 0 pk `8q,

, a P

Fk .

k1

0 pa, ank q 2k 0 pk `8q,




tank u a.

Rn , Rn .
, .
11.3.2 (). A X , f : A A
:
pq 0 q 1, pf pa1 q, f pa2 qq q pa1 , a2 q, @ a1 , a2 P A.

.
11.3.3 (). A X , f : A A
, a P A, f paq a p q.
. a0 P A, A tan u :
an f pan1 q, n 1, 2, .

pan`1 , an q pf pan q, f pan1 qq q pan , an1 q, @ n 1.

pan`1 , an q q pan , an1 q q 2 pan1 , an2 q q n pa1 , a0 q,


pam , an q pam , am1 q ` pam1 , am2 q ` ` pan`1 , an q
pq m1 ` q m2 ` ` q n q pa1 , a0 q

qn
pa1 , a0 q 0, pm n, n 8q.
1q

tan u Cauchy . a, a P A.
pf paq, aq pf paq, f pan qq ` pf pan q, f pan1 qq ` pan , aq
q pa, an q ` q n1 pa1 , a0 q ` pan , aq 0

f paq a.

pn 8q,

11.3

399

: f pbq b,
pa, bq pf paq, f pbqq q pa, bq,


pa, bq 0, a b.
11.3.3. pq .
C 0 r0, 1s, :
pf, gq max |f pxq gpxq|,
r0,1s

pC 0 r0, 1s, q .
A tf P C 0 r0, 1s | f p0q 0, f p1q 1u,

A pC 0 r0, 1s, q .
:A
f

A,
pf q,

pf q :
$
3

f p3xq,
x P r0, 13 s,

&4
pf qpxq 41 ` 12 f p2 3xq, x P r 13 , 23 s,

% 1 ` 3 f p3x 2q, x P r 2 , 1s.


4
4
3
, h, h ,
hp0q 0, hp1q 1, phq h. h , ,

Baire R Baire ,
, , .
11.3.4 (Baire). An pn 1q X .

An , 8
n1 An .

11.3
1. Cauchy , .
2. pq l2 .

400

3. C 0 ra, bs . (:

.)
4. pq , C 0 ra, bs .
5. Dra, bs ra, bs . f, g P
Dra, bs,
dpf, gq max |f pxq gpxq| ` sup |f 1 pxq g 1 pxq|,
ra,bs

ra,bs

pDra, bs, dq .
6. , A X A .
7. Baire .
8. A X . A X, A X , A

X . , ,
. (: , Baire .)
9. pq l2 , ten u l2 ,
l2 ten u . (:

, Baire .)
10. pq , Rn .

11.4

S pX, q , S

G , tG u S .

G , tG u ; G ,
tG u .

11.4.1. x0 P X. y x0 , py, x0 q 0, n 1,
py, x0 q

1
n.

y P tx P X | px, x0 q n1 u.
X tx0 u

1(
,
x P X px, x0 q
n
n1

X tx0 u .
11.4.1 (). S , S
.

11.4

401

, ra, bs R .
, .
11.4.1. .
. A . A . a P A,
AX

Bn paq,

n1

A , n1 , , nk ,
A

Bni paq BN paq,

i1

N maxtn1 , , nk u. A .
A . b P Ac ,
A X tbu

1(
,
x P X px, bq
n
n1

A , N ,

1(
A x P X | px, bq
,
N

B1{N pbq Ac , Ac , A .

11.4.2. A Rn , :
p1q A ;
p2q A , A ,

A ;
p3q A .

. p1q p2q. (). tbn u A , A


. 11.2.3 , a P A, Brpaq paq, Brpaq paq

tbn u . , A
Brpaq paq, , a1 , , ak
aPA

Brpai q pai q, , tbn u A , !

i1

p2q p3q. A , (). an P A, pa0 , an q 8


pn 8q, tan u , . A ,

. 11.2.3, an P A, lim an a R A. tan u


n8

a R A, A !

402

I1

11.5
p3q p1q (). A , A tU u,

U A. I1 A, I1 2n , I2 I1 ,
I2 X A U . , I1 I2 ,
diam Im 0 pm 8q. , a P Im X A, @ m 1.
tU u A , 0 a P U0 . m Im U0 .


Im X A U !

. R , ,
n

; , , , ,
.
11.4.3. Rn .
. , ,
, , , .

Lebesgue R Lebesgue .
11.4.4 (Lebesgue). A X , tU u A
. 0, A B diampBq , B
U .
. () , n 1, A Bn ,
Bn 1{n, Bn U . bn P Bn , A
tbn u. tbn u , A tbn u
, tbn u b0 P A. tU u A , 0 ,
b0 P U0 . U0 , 0,
B pb0 q U0 ,

lim bn b0 , n 2{, pbn , b0 q {2,


n8

pb, b0 q pb, bn q ` pbn , b0 q diampBn q `

` , @ b P Bn .
2
n 2

11.5

403

Bn B pb0 q U0 , Bn .

. tU u Lebesgue . Lebesgue

11.4
1. , .
2. A , B A , B .
3. X , X .
4. (: ).
5. ra, bs X Q Q ? .
6. C 0 ra, bs , A

(
A f P C 0 ra, bs |f pxq| 1, @ x P ra, bs .
7. Lebesgue .
8. X , tA u X . tA u

, A . (: .)

9. pq A X , 0,
A.
10. pq Lebesgue ,

11.5
11.5.1

: f : R R x0 , 0,
0, |x x0 | |f pxq f px0 q| . :

11.5.1 (). f : X Y pX, 1 q, pY, 2 q


, x0 P X. 0, 0 f pBX px0 qq BY pf px0 qq, f
x0 . f , f . Y R ,
.

404

x0

f (x0 )

11.6
, BX px0 q X x0 , , BY pf px0 qq
Y f px0 q , .
11.5.1. .
a pX, q , f pxq px, aq :
x0 P X, 0, , x P B px0 q
|f pxq f px0 q| |px, aq px0 , aq| px, x0 q ,

f x0 .
11.5.1 (). f : X Y , x0
X .
p1q f x0 x0 txn u,
lim f pxn q f px0 q;

n8

p2q f V Y , f 1 pV q X ;
p3q f B Y , f 1 pBq X .

. p1q f x0 , 0, 0
f pBX px0 qq BY pf px0 qq.

lim xn x0 , n xn P BX px0 q, f pxn q P BY pf px0 qq,


n8

f pxn q f px0 q pn 8q.


() f x0 , 0 0, 1{n,
X
xn P B1{n
px0 q, f pxn q R BY0 pf px0 qq. xn x0 , f pxn q f px0 q, !

p2q f , V Y . x0 P f 1 pV q, y0 f px0 q P
V , V , 0, BY py0 q V . , 0,
f pBX px0 qq BY py0 q V , BX px0 q f 1 pV q, f 1 pV q .

11.5

405

, x0 P X 0, y0 f px0 q.

pBY py0 qq X x0 , 0,
BX px0 q f 1 pBY py0 qq,

f pBX px0 qq BY py0 q, f x0 .




p3q: .

. p1q A X , f : A Y , X A,
A (), f , .
p2q f : A Y , 0, 0, 1 pa1 , a2 q
2 pf pa1 q, f pa2 qq , f .

11.5.2. Lipschitz .
f : X Y , L,
2 pf px1 q, f px2 qq L1 px1 , x2 q, @ x1 , x2 P X,

f Lipschitz , L Lipschitz . Lipschitz .


, Lipschitz , .
11.5.2 (). f : X Y ,
p1q f X Y ;
p2q f .

. p1q A X , f pAq tV u, tf 1 pV qu A
k
k

, 1 , , k A
f 1 pVi q. f pAq
Vi .
i1

i1

p2q A . f A , 0 0,
1{n, an , bn P A,
1 pan , bn q

1
, 2 pf pan q, f pbn qq 0 .
n

tan u tbn u , , a0 , b0 ,
1 pa0 , b0 q 1 pa0 , an q ` 1 pan , bn q ` 1 pbn , b0 q

1
` 1 pa0 , an q ` 1 pbn , b0 q 0,
n

a0 b0 .
0 2 pf pan q, f pbn qq 2 pf pan q, f pa0 qq ` 2 pf pb0 q, f pbn qq 0.

406

11.5.3 (). f : X R
.
. A X , f pAq R , R
. f pAq , f A


.
11.5.2 (). G X ,
x2

x1 , x2 P G, p q : I r0, 1s X
G

p0q x1 , p1q x2 , pIq G, G .


, Rn ,
.

x1
X

11.7

11.5.4. R (
).
. G R , a b P G. ra, bs G. , ,
f : r0, 1s R, f p0q a, f p1q b, f pr0, 1sq G. f
, , ra, bs f pr0, 1sq G.

11.5.5 ().
.
. G X , f : X Y . y1 , y2 P f pGq,
x1 , x2 P G f px1 q y1 , f px2 q y2 . , : r0, 1s X

p0q x1 , p1q x2 , pr0, 1sq G. f : r0, 1s Y ,


f p0q f px1 q y1 , f p1q f px2 q y2 , f pr0, 1sq f pGq. f f pGq


y1 , y2 .
11.5.6 (). f : X R , G X .

p1q x1 , x2 P G, f px1 qf px2 q 0, x0 P G f px0 q 0;


p2q f px1 q y f px2 q y, x P G y f pxq.

. p2q . f , G , f pGq R ,
f pGq . f px1 q, f px2 q P f pGq rf px1 q, f px2 qs f pGq, , y P f pGq,


x P G y f pxq.
11.5.3. f : S 1 R , x0 P S 1 ,
f px0 q f px0 q.

11.5

407

. g : S 1 R,
gpxq f pxq f pxq, @ x P S 1 .

g ,
gpxqgpxq rf pxq f pxqsrf pxq f pxqs rf pxq f pxqs2 0,

, x0 P S 1 , gpx0 q 0, f px0 q f px0 q.


11.5.2

, . ,
. R R ; n 1 ,
Rn R ; , Rn Rm .

, .
11.5.7. f, g : Rn R ,
p1q , P R , f ` g ;
p2q f g ;
p3q g 0 , f {g .

f : Rn Rm ,
f pxq pf1 pxq, , fm pxqq, x px1 , , xn q P Rm .

11.5.8. f : Rn Rm fi ,
i 1, , m.

. , f x0 lim f pxq f px0 q,


xx0

lim f pxq f px0 q lim fi pxq fi px0 q, i 1, , m.

xx0

xx0

f x0 fi p1 i nq x0 .
11.5.4. .
f : Rn Rm . x, y P Rn ,
f px ` yq f pxq ` f pyq, @ , P R,

408

f . m 1 .
ei Rn i 1, , te1 , , en u Rn
. Rn x
x px1 , , xn q x1 e1 ` ` xn en ,

, f pxq
f pxq f px1 e1 ` ` xn en q x1 f pe1 q ` ` xn f pen q,

. f pei q pa1i , , ami q, ,

x1

a11

a12

a1n

a21

f pxq .
..

am1

a22
..
.

..
.

am2



a2n
x2
,

..
..

.
.
xn
amn

, f A paij qmn .
f : Rn Rm , g : Rm Rs , g f Rn
Rs . f, g , A, B, g f

, BA. ,
, .
11.5.3

f : R2 R . R2 px, yq . px0 , y0 q P R2 ,
A P R, 0, 0
a
0 }px, yq px0 , y0 q} px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2
, |f px, yq A| , f px0 , y0 q (),
lim
px,yqpx0 ,y0 q

f px, yq A

lim f px, yq A.

xx0
yy0

y, lim f px, yq pyq ,


xx0

lim lim f px, yq lim pyq.

yy0 xx0

yy0

lim lim f px, yq, .


xx0 yy0

11.5.5. p1q

x2 y 2
0,
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y 2
lim

x2 y 2
1
1
|xy| px2 ` y 2 q.
2
2
x `y
2
4

11.5

409

xy
p0, 0q p y x y x2 .q
x2 ` y 2
1
lim
f px, yq 0, lim f px, yq
p3q f px, yq x sin . |f px, yq| x
y0
y
px,yqp0,0q
.
xy
xy
p4q lim lim 2
lim lim 2
0, p2q .
y0 x0 x ` y 2
x0 y0 x ` y 2
p2q

11.5.9.

lim
px,yqpa,bq

f px, yq A, y b, lim f px, yq pyq


xa

,
lim lim f px, yq lim pyq A;

yb xa

yb

x a, lim f px, yq ,
yb

lim lim f px, yq A lim lim f px, yq.

xa yb

yb xa

. A . , 0, 0,
0

a
px aq2 ` py bq2

|f px, yq A| . y, x a,
2

lim f px, yq A , @ 0 |y b| .
xa
2
2

lim lim f px, yq A.

yb xa

11.5
1. .
2. f : X Y . , f

.
3. , R2 R (:

f pxq

1
x

, x ).

4. A pX, dq ,
dA : X R, dA pxq inf dpa, xq.
aPA

dA , dA px0 q 0 x0 P A.

410

5. v, w P R2 , f : R2 R
f px ` vq f pxq, f px ` wq f pxq, @ x P R2 ,

f . , .
6. , Rn . (: .)
7. f : R2 R , p, q P R2 , f ppq f pqq.
8. , :
p1q
p3q

sin xy
a
;
px,yqp0,0q
x2 ` y 2
lim

lim
px,yqp0,0q

x2 lnpx2 ` y 2 q;

p2q

x2 y 2
;
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y 2

p4q

x3 ` y 3
.
px,yqp0,0q x2 ` y

lim
lim

9. , :
x2 ` y 2
x2 ` y 2
xy
;
p2q
lim
lim
;
p3q
lim
lim
;
x8 y8 x2 ` y 4
y8 x8 x2 ` y 4
x`8 y0 1 ` xy
xy
x
x
p4q lim lim
; p5q lim lim sin
; p6q lim lim sin
.
y
x8 y8
y8 x8
y0 x`8 1 ` x
2x ` y
2x ` y

p1q lim lim

10. pq Rn`1

n`1

(
S n px1 , x2 , , xn`1 q P Rn`1
x2i 1
i1

.
11. pq f : Rn R . f

graphpf q ,
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq P Rn`1 | x P Rn u.
12. pq Rn m , Rn ,

; 3 , .

, .
, .
, .
, ,
.

12.1

12.1.1 (). D Rn , f : D R D
. p P D, Rn u,
lim

t0

f pp ` tuq f ppq
t

, f p u ,
.

Bf
ppq, f u
Bu

. p1q ptq f pp ` tuq t 0 . ,


Bf
ppq
u ei p0, , 0, 1, 0, , 0q ( i 1 ) ,
Bu
Bf
ppq, f i . ,
Bxi
Bf
f pp1 , , pi1 , pi ` t, pi`1 , , pn q f pp1 , , pn q
ppq lim
.
t0
Bxi
t
Bf
Bf
p2q
fx1 i fxi . fx1 i
,
Bxi
Bxi

B Bf
B Bf
fy2i xi
, fx2i yi
, 2 .
Byi Bxi
Bxi Byi
. f k , f C k .

B Bf
B2 f
B Bf
B2 f

, .
Bx2i
Bxi Bxi
Bxi Byi
Bxi Byi

12.1.1. f px, yq xy 1 , 2 .
B
Bf
2
2
2
2

pxyq y, fy1 x, fyx


1, fxy
1, fxx
fyy
0.
Bx
Bx
a
12.1.2. f px, yq x2 ` y 2 ` xy px0 , y0 q p1, 2q .

. fx1 px, yq

.
Bf
x
y
Bf
px, yq a
px, yq a
` y,
` x.
2
2
2
Bx
By
x `y
x ` y2
411

412

?
Bf
5
Bf
2?
5 ` 1.
p1, 2q
` 2,
p1, 2q
Bx
5
By
5

12.1.3. px0 , y0 , z0 q P R3 ,
1

f px, y, zq px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 2

.
.

1
r px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 2

Bf
1 Br
1 x x0
x x0
2
2

.
Bx
r Bx
r
r
r3

,
Bf
y y0 Bf
z z0
3 ,
3 .
By
r
Bz
r

, ,
, .
12.1.4.
$
2

& x y , px, yq p0, 0q,


f px, yq x4 ` y 2

%0,
px, yq p0, 0q.
f , f p0, 0q .
u pu1 , u2 q, u2 0 ,
u2
Bf
1 t3 u2 u2
p0, 0q lim 4 4 1 2 2 1 ,
t0 t t u1 ` t u2
Bu
u2

f p0, 0q . f p0, 0q ().

12.1.1 (). f , x0 P D. fx1 i p1 i nq x0


,
p1q f x0 ;
p2q xi xi ptq t0 , x0 px1 pt0 q, , xn pt0 qq, f pxptqq t t0

,
n

dxi
Bf
df pxptqq
pxpt0 qq
pt0 q.

dt
Bxi
dt
tt0
i1

12.1

413

. p1q ,
f pxq f px0 q

f px01 , , x0i1 , xi , , xn q f px01 , , x0i1 , x0i , xi`1 , , xn q


i1
n

fx1 i px01 , , x0i1 , i , xi`1 , , xn q pxi x0i q,

i1

x x , i x0i , fx1 i x0 lim0 pf pxq f px0 qq 0.


0

xx

p2q p1q ,
df
f pxptqq f pxpt0 qq
lim

tt
dt tt0
t t0
0
n

xptq xi pt0 q
lim
fx1 i px01 , , x0i1 , i , xi`1 , , xn q
tt0
t t0
i1

fx1 i px0 q x1i pt0 q.

i1

.
12.1.2. , u

ui ei pu1 , u2 , , un q,

i1
n

Bf
d
Bf
ppq f pp ` tuq
ppq ui .
Bu
dt t0
Bx
i
i1

12.1.3 (). f : D R , px0 , y0 q P D.


2
2
px0 , y0 q ,
fyx
fxy
2
2
fxy
px0 , y0 q fyx
px0 , y0 q.

. k 0, h 0 (x0 , y0 + k)

(x0 + h, y0 + k)

pyq f px0 ` h, yq f px0 , yq,


pxq f px, y0 ` kq f px, y0 q.

(x0 , y0 )

(x0 + h, y0 )

12.1

,
py0 ` kq py0 q 1y py0 ` 1 kqk
p0 1 1q
1

fy px0 ` h, y0 ` 1 kq fy1 px0 , y0 ` 1 kq k


2
fxy
px0 ` 2 h, y0 ` 1 kqkh.

p0 2 1q

,
2
px0 ` hq px0 q fyx
px0 ` 3 h, y0 ` 4 kqhk, p0 3 , 4 1q.

414

,
py0 ` kq py0 q px0 ` hq px0 q,

2
2
fxy
px0 ` 2 h, y0 ` 1 kq fyx
px0 ` 3 h, y0 ` 4 kq.

2
2
k, h 0, fxy
, fyx
px0 , y0 q .

12.1.4. , .
12.1.5.
$
2
2
& xy x y , px, yq p0, 0q,
2
x ` y2
f px, yq
%
0,
px, yq p0, 0q.
2
2
p0, 0q 1,
p0, 0q 1, fyx
fxy

p , q.

12.1
1. f , : u, v , u v,

Bf
Bu

Bf
Bv .

2. :
p1q f px, yq x ` y `

a
x2 ` y 2 , fx1 p3, 4q, fy1 p0, 1q,

p2q f px, y, zq pcos x{ sin yqez , p, 2 , ln 3q ,


p3q f px, yq sinpx2 yq, p1, 1q .
3. :
p1q xy ` xy ;
p4q lnpx `
p7q arctan

y
x2 q;
y
x;

p2q tan xy ;

p3q cospx2 ` y 2 q;

p5q x2 y 3{2 ;

p6q exy`yz`zx ;

p8q xy ;

p9q lnpx1 ` x2 ` ` xn q.

4. :
p1q x2 y 3 ;
y

p4q ex ;

p2q ln xy;

p3q arcsinpx21 ` ` x2n q;

p5q tanparctan x ` arctan yq;

p6q ex

Bz
Bz
y By
.
5. z f pxyq, x Bx

6. u ex cos y, v ex sin y, u1x vy1 ,

u1y vx1 .

`xyz

12.2

415

B2
B2
2
Bx2 ` By 2 , R Laplace
2
2
u2xx ` u2yy 0, v vxx
` vyy
0.

7.

, u, v

8. r rpx x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 s 2 , r1 0, , R3

Laplace , u u2xx ` u2yy ` u2zz .


9. pq f px, yq x, y , , f

(), f .
2
2
px0 , y0 q
fyx
10. pq , 12.1.3 , fxy

, .

12.2

: r, s Rn , Rn .
ptq px1 ptq, , xn ptqq, t P r, s.

xi ptq p1 i nq t t0 , t0 ,
1 pt0 q

d
d
pt0 q
px11 pt0 q, , x1n pt0 qq,

dt
dt tt0

1 pt0 q t0 .
z

(t)

0
(t0 )

(t)

12.2

(t0 )

416

1 pt0 q 0 , tpt0 q ` 1 pt0 qu u P Ru t0 ,

p pt0 q u 1 pt0 q,
x1 x1 pt0 q
x2 x2 pt0 q
xn xn pt0 q


.
x11 pt0 q
x12 pt0 q
x1n pt0 q

pt0 q ,
pq pt0 qq 1 pt0 q 0.

12.2.1. f ,
(t, f (t))

ptq pt, f ptqq,

1 pt0 q p1, f 1 pt0 qq, t0

t
0

x t0
y f pt0 q

,
1
f 1 pt0 q

t0

12.3

y f pt0 q ` f 1 pt0 qpx t0 q.




.
12.2.2.
ptq pa cos t, a sin t, tq, t P R

.
. t t0 , 1 pt0 q pa sin t0 , a cos t0 , 1q,
x a cos t0
y a sin t0
z t0

,
a sin t0
a cos t0
1


xa sin t0 ` ya cos t0 ` z t0 0.
DR

. u
0

, r : D R pn mq R

pu01 ,

, u0m q P D,
u rpu01 , , u0i1 , u, u0i`1 , , u0m q

Rn , ui . ui u0i ,
Br 0
pu q rui pu0 q ru1 i pu0 q,
Bui

u0 . tru1 i pu0 q | 1 i mu ( u0
), rpu0 q ,
, .

12.2

417

R3 ,

rpu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vq, zpu, vqq,

rv

ru

ru1 pu0 , v0 q px1u pu0 , v0 q, yu1 pu0 , v0 q, zu1 pu0 , v0 qq,


rv1 pu0 , v0 q px1v pu0 , v0 q, yv1 pu0 , v0 q, zv1 pu0 , v0 qq.

12.4

ru1 pu0 , v0 q, rv1 pu0 , v0 q ,


n ru1 pu0 , v0 q rv1 pu0 , v0 q

pyu1 zv1 zu1 yv1 , zu1 x1v x1u zv1 , x1u yv1 yu1 x1v q 0,
n ,
pp rpu0 , v0 qq n 0,

x xpu0 , v0 q y ypu0 , v0 q

x1 pu0 , v0 q
yu1 pu0 , v0 q
u

x1v pu0 , v0 q
yv1 pu0 , v0 q

z zpu0 , v0 q

zu1 pu0 , v0 q 0.

zv1 pu0 , v0 q
n

12.2.3. S 2 tpx, y, zq P R3 | x2 `y 2 `z 2 1u
.
.
x sin cos , y sin sin , z cos ,

0 , 0 2.

12.5

n pcos cos , cos sin , sin q p sin sin , sin cos , 0q


sin px, y, zq,

px0 , y0 , z0 q
px x0 q x0 ` py y0 q y0 ` pz z0 q z0 0.

, m n 1 , r : D Rn . r

rpuq rpu1 , , un1 q px1 pu1 , , un1 q, , xn pu1 , , un1 q ,

418

u0 , n 1
ru1 i pu0 q

` Bx1
Bui

pu0 q, ,

Bxn 0
pu qq, i 1, , n 1.
Bui

pN1 , , Nn q,
N
Ni p1qi1

Bpx1 , , xi1 , xi`1 , xn q 0


pu q,
Bpu1 , , un1 q

Bx1
0
Bu1 pu q

..
.

..

.
Bx
i1

0
Bpx1 , , xi1 , xi`1 , xn q 0
1 pu q
pu q det BxBui`1
0

Bpu1 , , un1 q
Bu1 pu q

..
..

.
.

Bxn
0

Bu1 pu q

Bx1
0
Bun1 pu q

..
.

Bxi1
0
Bun1 pu q
.
Bxi`1
0
Bun1 pu q

..

Bxn
0
Bun1 pu q

r1 pu0 q p1 i n 1q , N

, N
ui

12.2
1. :
p1q ptq pa cos t sin t, b sin2 t, c cos tq, t

4,

p2q ptq pt, t2 , t3 q, t t0 ,


p3q ptq pa cos t, a sin tq, t t0 .
2. :
p1q rpu, vq pu, a cos v, a sin vq, pu, vq pu0 , v0 q,
p2q z x2 ` y 2 , px, y, zq p1, 2, 5q,
p3q rpu, vq pa sin u cos v, b sin u sin v, c cos uq, pu, vq pu0 , v0 q.
3. D Rn , f : D R . f graphpf q Rn`1

,
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq | x P Du Rn`1 ,

.
4. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` w2 1 .

12.3

419

12.3

, , .
.
D Rn , f : D Rm
f px1 , , xn q pf1 px1 , , xn q, , fm px1 , , xn qq,

, .
12.3.1 (). f , x0 px01 , , x0n q P D. m n
A paij qmn , x0 x,
}f pxq rf px0 q ` A px x0 qs} op}x x0 }q, px x0 q

f x0 ,
df px0 q : Rn Rm
v A v

f x0 .
12.3.1 ( ). f : D Rm x0 , fi
p1 i mq x0 ,

Bfi 0
A
px q
.
Bxj
mn

. , f x0 , f x0 .
m 1 .
, u, ,
f px0 ` tuq f px0 q A px0 ` tu x0 q ` op}x0 ` tu x0 }q
tA u ` op|t|q,

Bf 0
px q A u, . ,
Bu
Bf
Bf 0
Bf 0
px q A ei , A
px0 q, ,
px q .
Bxi
Bx1
Bxn


.
12.3.1.
x2 y
, px, yq p0, 0q,
x2 ` y 2
f px, yq
%
0,
px, yq p0, 0q.
$
&

p0, 0q .

420

1
. |f px, yq| |x|, f p0, 0q , fx1 p0, 0q fy1 p0, 0q 0.
2
u pu1 , u2 q ,
f ptu1 , tu2 q
t 3 u2 u 2
Bf
p0, 0q lim
lim 2 1 2 3 u21 u2 .
t0
t0 pu1 ` u2 qt
Bu
t

f p0, 0q , f p0, 0q (?).




Bfi
fi p1 i mq , Jf Bxj
, f Jacobian
mn

. m 1 , Jf f , f . Jf
Jf : D Rmn , m n Rmn .
12.3.2 (). Jf D , x0
, f x0 .
. m 1 . , fx1 i x0 , i 1, 2, , n.
,
f pxq f px0 q

f px01 , , x0i1 , xi , xi`1 , , xn q f px01 , , x0i , xi`1 , , xn q


i1
n

i1
n

fx1 i px01 , , x0i1 , x0i ` i pxi x0i q, xi`1 , , xn q pxi x0i q


fx1 i px0 q pxi x0i q `

i1

i pxi x0i q,

i1

, xi x0i
i fx1 i px01 , , x0i1 , x0i ` i pxi x0i q, xi`1 , , xn q fx1 i px01 , , x0n q 0,

n
n

0
1
0
0
2 2
pxq

f
px
q
`
f
px
q

px

x
q

}x x0 }
f
i
xi
i
i
i1

i1

op}x x0 }q,


f x0 .
m n R

mn

, . ,

A paij qmn ,
}A}

n
m

a2ij

12

j1 i1

Schwarz
}A v} }A} }v}, @ v P Rn .

12.3

421

12.3.3 (). Rl , D Rm , g : D
f : D Rn . g u0 P , f x0 gpu0 q ,

h f g : Rn u0 ,
Jhpu0 q Jf px0 q Jgpu0 q.

. g u0 ,
gpuq gpu0 q Jgpu0 q pu u0 q ` Rg pu, u0 q,

(12.1)

Rg pu, u0 q op}u u0 }q. , f x0 gpu0 q ,


f pxq f px0 q Jf px0 q px x0 q ` Rf px, x0 q,

(12.2)

Rf px, x0 q op}x x0 }q.


(12.1) , u u0 , gpuq gpu0 q x0 . x gpuq (12.2),
f gpuq f gpu0 q Jf px0 qpgpuq gpu0 qq ` Rf pgpuq, gpu0 qq
Jf px0 q Jgpu0 q pu u0 q ` Rf g pu, u0 q,

(12.3)

Rf g pu, u0 q Jf px0 q Rg pu, u0 q ` Rf pgpuq, gpu0 qq.

}Rf g pu, u0 q} }Jf px0 q Rg pu, u0 q} ` }Rf pgpuq, gpu0 q}


}Jf px0 q} }Rg pu, u0 q} ` op}gpuq gpu0 q}q
op}u u0 }q ` opOp}u u0 }qq op}u u0 }q.

(12.3) f g u0 , Jpf gqpu0 q Jf px0 q Jgpu0 q. 


f , g
yi fi px1 , , xm q,

i 1, , n,

xj gj pu1 , , ul q,

j 1, , m.

Jpf gqpu0 q Jf px0 q Jgpu0 q


By
By1 0
1
pu0 q
pu q

Bu1
Bul

..
..
..

.
.
.

By
By
n
n
pu0 q
pu0 q
Bu1
Bul
nl
By

Bx
By
1
1
1
px0 q
px0 q
pu0 q
Bx1

Bu1
Bxm

..
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.
.

By

By
Bx
n
n
m
px0 q
px0 q
pu0 q
Bx1
Bxm
Bu1
nm

Bx1 0
pu q

Bul

..

,
.

Bxm 0
pu q
Bul
ml

422

Byi
Byi 0
Bxs 0
pu q
pgpu0 qq
pu q.
Buj
Bxs
Buj
s1

.
12.3.2. f px, yq , pxq , u f px, pxqq x .
. ,
u1x fx1 px, pxqq x1x ` fy1 px, pxqq 1 pxq
fx1 px, pxqq ` fy1 px, pxqq 1 pxq.

12.3.3. u f px, yq , x r cos , y r sin ,


Bu 2
Bx

Bu 2
By

Bu 2
Br

1 Bu 2
.
r2 B

. ,
Bu
Bu Bx Bu

`
Br
Bx Br
By
Bu
Bu Bx Bu

`
B
Bx B
By

Bu 2
Br

By
Bu
Bu

cos `
sin
Br
Bx
By
By
Bu
Bu

r
sin ` r
cos
B
Bx
By

2 Bu
2
1 Bu 2 Bu
Bu
Bu

cos

`
sin

sin

`
cos

r2 B
Bx
By
Bx
By
Bu 2 Bu 2

`
.
Bx
By

12.3.4. z f pu, v, wq, v pu, sq, s pu, wq,

Bz Bz
,
.
Bu Bw

. ,
z f pu, v, wq f pu, pu, sq, wq f pu, pu, pu, wqq, wq.

,
Bz
Bf
Bf Bv
Bf
Bf B B Bs

Bu
Bu
Bv Bu
Bu
Bv
Bu
Bs Bu
Bf
Bf B Bf B B

Bu
Bv Bu
Bv Bs Bu
Bz
Bf
Bf Bv
Bf
Bf B Bs

Bw
Bw
Bv Bw
Bw
Bv Bs Bw
Bf B B
Bf
`

Bw
Bv Bs Bw

12.3

423

, () . f : D R m
, , f x df pxq
df pxq : Rm R
v

Bf
vi .
Bxi
i1

x df pxq f , df .
dpf ` gqpxq df pxq ` dgpxq, @ , P R,

, , ,
df

Bf
dxi
Bxi
i1

pq

dpf ` gq df ` dg,
dpf gq f dg ` gdf,
` f gdf f dg
d

g
g2

pg 0q.

pq :
df Jf pdx1 , , dxm qT ,

dpf gq Jpf gq pdu1 , , dul qT


Jf pxq Jgpuqpdu1 , , dul qT

px gpuqq

Jf pgpuqq pdg1 , , dgm qT .

.
12.3.5. u ln

z2
, du u .
x2 ` y 2

. ,
du d ln

x2

z2
d ln z 2 lnpx2 ` y 2 q
2
`y
1
2
dpx2 ` y 2 q
dz 2
z
x ` y2
2x
2y
2
2
dx 2
dy ` dz.
x ` y2
x ` y2
z

Bu
2x
2
,
Bx
x ` y2

Bu
2y
2
,
By
x ` y2

Bu
2
.
Bz
z

424

12.3
1. :
a
?
p1q f px, yq |xy|;
p2q f px, yq |xy|; p3q f px, yq x cos y;
$

& ? xy , px, yq p0, 0q,


x2 `y 2
p4q f px, yq

%0,
px, yq p0, 0q.
$
&px2 ` y 2 q sin 2 1 2 , px, yq p0, 0q,
x `y
p5q f px, yq
%0,
px, yq p0, 0q.
2. :
p1q f px, yq pxy 2 3x2 , 3x 5y 2 q, px, yq p1, 1q;
p2q f px, y, zq pxyz 2 4y 2 , 3xy 2 y 2 zq, px, yq p1, 2, 3q;
p3q f pr, q pr cos , r sin q, pr, q pr0 , 0 q;
p4q f px, yq psin x ` cos y, cospx ` yqq, px, yq p0, 0q.
3. f g Jacobian :
p1q f px, yq pxy, x2 yq, gps, tq ps ` t, s2 t2 q, ps, tq p2, 1q;
p2q f px, yq pex`2y , sinpy ` 2xqq, gpu, v, wq pu ` 2v 2 ` 3w3 , 2v u2 q,
pu, v, wq p1, 1, 1q;
p3q f px, y, zq px ` y ` z, xy, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 q, gpu, v, wq pev

`w2

, sin uw,

uvq,

pu, v, wq p2, 1, 3q.


4. :
p1q z hpu, x, yq, y gpu, v, xq, x f pu, vq, zu1 , zv1 ;
1
p2q z f pu, x, yq, x gpv, wq, y hpu, vq, zu1 , zv1 , zw
.

5. :
p1q z xy ;

p2q z

xy
;
x2 ` 2y 2

p3q z x2 y 2 ` 3xy 3 2y 4 ;

x y
` ; p5q z cospx ` ln yq; p6q z arctanpx ` yq;
y
x
xy
p7q z
; p8q z lnpx4 y 3 q;
p9q z ex`2y ` sinpy ` 2xq.
x`y
p4q z

6. , f px, yq x , fy1 , f .
B2 u B2 u
`
0, vpx, yq upx2 y 2 , 2xyq
Bx2 By 2
y
x
wpx, yq wp x2 `y
2 , x2 `y 2 q .

7. , upx, yq u

12.4 Taylor

425

8. ,
upx, tq

pxbq2
1
? e 4a2 t
2a t

Bu
B2 u
a2 2 .
Bt
Bx

9. f , ,

.
10. pq f fx1 px0 , y0 q , fy1 px, yq px0 , y0 q , f
px0 , y0 q .
2
2
11. pq fx1 fy1 px0 , y0 q , fxy
px0 , y0 q fyx
px0 , y0 q.

12.4

Taylor

p, q P Rn ,
q
(t)

ptq p1 tq p ` t q, @ t P r0, 1s.

: r0, 1s Rn Rn p, q . A

Rn , a1 , a2 P A, a1 , a2

A, A . , .

12.6

.
12.4.1. Rn Br pxq .
, Lagrange Cauchy
. , . , ,

12.4.1 (). D Rn , f : D R ,
a, b P D, P D,
f pbq f paq Jf pq pb aq,

a ` pb aq, P p0, 1q, a, b .


. : r0, 1s D a, b , ptq f ptq
. , P p0, 1q
p1q p0q 1 pq p1 0q.

f pbq f paq Jf pq pb aq, pq a ` pb aq.

426

12.4.2. D Rn p q, f : D R .
Jf 0, f .

. D , 12.4.1 . , D
p, q, : r0, 1s D p, q .
T ts P r0, 1s | f psq f ppqu.

0 P T , T . T t. f t P T .
t 1 (). t 1. , D , 0
B ppq D. , ptq p , 0,
prt, t ` sq B ppq. B ppq , f B ppq . ,
rt, t ` s T . t .

t 1 f pqq f ppq. p, q , f .

12.4.2. f : R R2 , f ptq pt2 , t3 q,

2t
Jf ptq
.
3t2
P p0, 1q
f p1q f p0q Jf pq p1 0q,

1
1

2
32

. 12.4.1 .

, .
.
12.4.3 (). D Rn , f : D Rm ,
a, b P D, P D
}f pbq f paq} }Jf pq} }b a},

a ` pb aq, P p0, 1q.


. : r0, 1s D a, b .
: r0, 1s R, ptq xf pbq f paq, f ptqy,

12.4 Taylor

427

, 1 ptq xf pbq f paq, Jf pptqq pb aqy.


, P p0, 1q
|p1q p0q| |1 pq| }f pbq f paq} }Jf ppqq pb aq}
}f pbq f paq} }Jf pq} }b a}.

|p1q p0q| |xf pbq f paq, f pbqy xf pbq f paq, f paqy|


}f pbq f paq}2 ,


12.4.4. D Rn , f : D Rm . Jf 0, f
.


. 12.4.2 , .

, , ,
.
12.4.3. ?

1.032
?
.
0.98 3 1.06

x2
. f px, y, zq ? ?
, x0 p1, 1, 1q, h p0.03, 0.02, 0.06q,
y3z
?

1.032
?
f p1.03, 0.98, 1.06q
0.98 3 1.06
f px0 ` hq f px0 q ` Jf px0 q h

0.03

1 1
1.05.
1 ` p2, , q
0.02

2 3
0.06

, ,
. , .
. i P Z` p1 i nq, p1 , , n q, .
||

i , ! 1 ! 2 ! n !.

i1

x px1 , , xn q P Rn ,
2
n
1
x x
1 x2 xn .

f , || :
D f px0 q

B || f
px0 q.
Bxnn

Bx11

428

12.4.5 (Taylor ). D Rn , f P C m`1 pDq p f


m ` 1 q, a pa1 , , an q P D. x P D, P p0, 1q
f pxq

D f paq
px aq `
!
k0
||k

||m`1

D f pa ` px aqq
px aq .
!

. ptq f pa ` t px aqq, t P r0, 1s. m ` 1


, Taylor , P p0, 1q,
pq p1q p0q ` 1 p0q `

1 2
1 pmq
1
p0q ` `
p0q `
pm`1q pq,
2!
m!
pm ` 1q!

k!
D f pa ` tpx aqq px aq .
!

pkq ptq

||k

, t 0 ,
pkq p0q

k!
D f paq px aq ,
!

||k

pq .

Rm f pxq

D f paq
px aq .
!
k0
||k

Taylor , f P C m`1 pDq


Rm

||m`1

D f pa ` px aqq
px aq .
!

pLagrange q

12.4.6. , }x a} , Rm Op}x a}m`1 q.


. 0, B paq D. f P C m`1 pDq, B paq ,
M 0
paq, || m ` 1.
|D f pxq| M, @ x P B

|Rm | M

||m`1

||m`1

1
|px aq |
!
1
}x a}|| C }x a}m`1 .
!


12.4 Taylor

429

. p1q f P C m pDq, Taylor


f pxq

m1

D f paq
D f pa ` px aqq
px aq `
px aq
!
!

k0 ||k

||m

D f paq

px aq ` Rm ,
!
k0
||k

Rm

||m

1
D f pa ` px aqq D f paq px aq .
!

:
Rm op}x a}m q px aq. pPeano q
p2q Taylor
f pxq f paq ` Jf paq px aq `

n
1 B2 f
paq pxi ai q pxj aj q `
2 i,j1 Bxi Bxj

B2 f
Hesspf q
paq
Bxi Bxj

,
nn

f a Hessian.
p3q Taylor f .

12.4.1 (). D Rn , f : D R .
x y P D,
f ptx ` p1 tqyq tf pxq ` p1 tqf pyq, @ t P p0, 1q,

f D . , .
12.4.7. p1q f D , f
f pyq f pxq ` Jf pxq py xq, @ x, y P D.
p2q f , f Hesspf q 0 p q.

. p1q x, y P D, t P p0, 1q,


tpf pyq f pxqq f px ` tpy xqq f pxq
Jf pxq tpy xq ` opt}y x}q,

430

t, t 0`
f pyq f pxq ` Jf pxq py xq.
x, y P D, t P r0, 1s, z tx ` p1 tq y,
f pxq f pzq ` Jf pzq px zq,
f pyq f pzq ` Jf pzq py zq,

tf pxq ` p1 tqf pyq f pzq ` Jf pzq tpx zq ` p1 tqpy zq f pzq.


p2q f , Hesspf q , Taylor ,

x, y P D, x ` py xq, P p0, 1q
1
f pyq f pxq ` Jf pxq py xq ` py xqT Hesspf qpq py xq
2
f pxq ` Jf pxq py xq.

p1q f .
(). Hesspf q , x P D, Rn

h,
hT Hesspf qpxq h 0.

Taylor , 0 ,
1
f px ` hq f pxq ` Jf pxq h ` 2 hT Hesspf q h ` op}h}2 q
2
1

f pxq ` Jf pxq h ` 2 hT Hesspf qpxq h ` op1q .


2

0 , 0.
f px ` hq f pxq ` Jf pxq h.

f ( p1q).
12.4.4. f : Rn R ,
Hesspf qpxq In , @ x P Rn ,

In n , f .

12.4 Taylor

431

. Taylor , f pxq
1
f pxq f p0q ` Jf p0q x ` xT Hesspf qpq x.
2

1
f pxq f p0q ` Jf p0q x ` }x}2 , @ x P Rn .
2

, x 8 , f pxq `8, f . f
, ().

12.4
1. f , , f Lipschitz ,

L,
|f pyq f pxq| L}x y}.
2. f D , ,

f .
3. : p1q 1.0022 2.0032 3.0043 , p2q 0.971.05 .
4. k , a pa1 , a2 , , an q P Rn ,
pa1 ` a2 ` ` an qk

k!
a .
!

||k

, a1 a2 an 1 ?
5. ptq f pa ` tpx aqq,
pkq ptq

k!
D f pa ` tpx aqq px aq .
!

||k

6. f a m , a ,
f pxq

c px aq ` op}x a}m q,

k0 ||k

1
D f paq, @ || m.
!

432
7. Taylor :

p1q f px, yq 2x2 xy y 2 6x 3y ` 5, px, yq p1, 2q;


p2q f px, y, zq x3 ` y 3 ` z 3 3xyz, px, y, zq p1, 1, 1q;
p3q f px, yq p1 ` xqm p1 ` yqn , m, n , px, yq p0, 0q;
p4q f px, yq ex`y , px, yq p0, 0q.
8. Taylor :
p1q f px, yq xy , p1, 1q ;
p2q f px, yq

cos x
cos y ,

p0, 0q ;

p3q f px, yq sinpx2 ` y 2 q, p0, 0q ;


y
p4q f px, yq arctan 1`x
2 , p0, 0q .

12.5

: , ,
. , ,
() . .
12.5.1. .
, A : Rn Rn det A 0, A .
: B : Rn Rn , }B} 1, In B .
, pIn Bqv 0,
}v} }In v} }Bv} }B} }v},

v 0.
,
. , .
, ,
. , .
12.5.1 (). W Rn , f : W Rn C k pk 1q
, x0 P W . det Jf px0 q 0, x0 U W y 0 f px0 q
V Rn , f |U : U V , C k .
. , x0 0, y 0 f px0 q 0. A f x0 0
, A , f A1 0 . f A1
, f . , Jf px0 q In .

12.5

433

x0 , f ,
g : W Rn
x f pxq x,

g C k , Jgp0q 0. , 0 0
}Jgpxq}

1
p0q W.
, @xPB
0
2

,
}gpx1 q gpx2 q} }Jgpq} }x1 x2 }

1
p0q.
}x1 x2 }, @ x1 , x2 P B
0
2

y P B 20 p0q,
f pxq y, x P B0 p0q.

(12.4)

B0 p0q gy pxq x ` y f pxq y gpxq .


. ,
}gy pxq} }y gpxq} }y} ` }gpxq}
0
1
0
0
p0q.

` }x}
`
0 , @ x P B
0
2
2
2
2

(12.5)

, gy : B0 p0q B0 p0q B0 p0q :


}gy px1 q gy px2 q} }gpx2 q gpx1 q}

1
p0q.
}x1 x2 }, @x1 , x2 P B
0
2

(12.4) B0 p0q , xy . (12.5), xy P B0 p0q.


U f 1 pB 20 p0qq X B0 p0q, V B 20 p0q,

f |U : U V , hpyq xy
y gphpyqq hpyq.
p1q h : V U : y1 , y2 P V
}hpy1 q hpy2 q} }y1 y2 } ` }gphpy1 qq gphpy2 qq}
1
}y1 y2 } ` }hpy1 q hpy2 q},
2

}hpy1 q hpy2 q} 2}y1 y2 }, @ y1 , y2 P V .

(12.6)

434

p2q h : V U : y0 P V , y P V ,
hpyq hpy0 q py y0 q rgphpyqq gphpy0 qqs
py y0 q Jgphpy0 qq phpyq hpy0 qq ` op}hpyq hpy0 q}q,

rIn ` Jgphpy0 qqs phpyq hpy0 qq py y0 q ` op}y y0 q}q.

hpyq hpy0 q rIn ` Jgphpy0 qqs1 py y0 q ` op}y y0 }q.

h y0 .
p3q h : V U C k .

p2q
Jhpyq rIn ` Jgphpyqqs1 rJf phpyqqs1 , @ y P V.

(12.7)

f P C k Jf P C k1 . p2q (12.7) Jh P C 0 , h P C 1 .
Jf P C k1 , h P C 1 (12.7) Jh P C 1 h P C 2 . ,


h P Ck.

. , f : W R Jacobian , f pW q .
n

12.5.2. f : R2 R2 , f px, yq pex cos y, ex sin yq. , f ,

detJf px, yq det

ex cos y

ex sin y

ex sin y

ex cos y

e2x 0.

12.5.1 , !
12.5.3. f : R2 R2 , f px, yq px3 , y 3 q, f , ,
Jf p0, 0q 0, f . Jacobian .
12.5.4. f : R2 R C k pk 1q , f px0 , y 0 q 0,

Bf 0 0
px , y q 0,
By

px0 , y 0 q
f px, yq 0.

. F : R2 R2 , F px, yq px, f px, yqq, F px0 , y 0 q px0 , 0q,

1
0
Bf 0 0
detJF px0 , y 0 q det Bf 0 0
px , y q 0.
Bf 0 0
By
px , y q
px , y q
Bx
By

12.5

435

, px0 , y 0 q , F . x x0 , y 0
gpxq, F px, gpxqq px, 0q, f px, gpxqq 0. x
Bf
Bf
px, gpxqq `
px, gpxqq g 1 pxq 0
Bx
By

Bf
Bx
g 1 pxq Bf

px, gpxqq

By px, gpxqq

.


y gpxq f px, yq 0 .

, () .
12.5.2 (). W Rn`m , W px, yq ,
x px1 , , xn q, y py1 , , ym q. f : W Rm C k ,
f px, yq pf1 px, yq, f2 px, yq, , fm px, yqq.

px0 , y 0 q P W , f px0 , y 0 q 0 det Jfy px0 , y 0 q 0,

Bfi
Jfy px, yq
px, yq
.
Byj
mm
x0 V Rn C k g : V Rm ,
p1q y 0 gpx0 q, f px, gpxqq 0, @ x P V .
p2q Jgpxq rJfy px, gpxqqs1 Jfx px, gpxqq,

Jfx px, yq

Bfi
px, yq
.
Bxj
1im
1jn

. F : W Rn`m
F px, yq px, f px, yqq,

px0 , y 0 q , 12.5.4 , .

. gpxq f px, yq 0 .
12.5.5. x2 ` 2y 2 ` 3z 2 ` xy z 9 0, x 1, y 2, z 1
Bz B 2 z
,
.
By BxBy

. F px, y, zq x2 ` 2y 2 ` 3z 2 ` xy z 9,
F p1, 2, 1q 0, Fz p1, 2, 1q p6z 1q|z1 5 0,

Bz
,
Bx

436

z x, y , z zpx, yq. 12.5.2, p1, 2, 1q ,

pzx , zy q Fz1 pFx , Fy q


7
1
p2x ` y, 4y ` xq|px,y,zqp1,2,1q p0, q.
5
5

zy Fz1 Fy

1
p4y ` xq,
6z 1

B2 z
6
1

,
zx p4y ` xq
BxBy
p6z 1q2
6z 1

B2 z
1
p1, 2, 1q .
BxBy
5

12.5.6. px, yq pr, q

(x, y)

r
x r cos , y r sin .

r x, y .

12.7

.
Br Br
Bx By
B B
Bx By

cos

sin

Bx Bx 1
Br B
By By
Br B

1
r cos
r sin
1

r
r cos
sin

r sin
cos

Br
cos ,
Bx

Br
sin ,
By

B
sin

,
Bx
r

B
cos

.
By
r

12.5.7 (). F : R3 R C k pk 1q .
S tpx, y, zq P R3 | F px, y, zq 0u.

px, y, zq P S, Fx1 , Fy1 , Fz1 0, S F


.

12.5

437

m0 px0 , y0 , z0 q P S, Fz1 px0 , y0 , z0 q 0. 12.5.2,


px0 , y0 , z0 q , S z zpx, yq :
F px, y, zpx, yqq 0.

px0 , y 0 , z 0 q
n p1, 0, zx px0 , y 0 q p0, 1, zy px0 , y 0 qq
pzx px0 , y 0 q, zy px0 , y 0 q, 1q

1
pF 1 px0 , y 0 , z 0 q, Fy1 px0 , y 0 , z 0 q, Fz1 px0 , y 0 , z 0 qq.
Fz1 x

S px0 , y 0 , z 0 q
Fx1 px x0 q ` Fy1 py y0 q ` Fz1 pz z0 q 0.

px0 , y 0 , z 0 q
y y0
z z0
x x0
1
1
.
Fx1 px0 , y0 , z0 q
Fy px0 , y0 , z0 q
Fz px0 , y0 , z0 q

12.5.8 (). F : R3 R, G : R3 R C k pk 1q ,
l tpx, y, zq P R3 | F px, y, zq Gpx, y, zq 0u,

px, y, zq P l,
BpF, Gq
px, y, zq det
Bpy, zq

Fy1

Fz1

G1y

G1z

l F , G .

12.8

0,

438

m0 px0 , y0 , z0 q P l, , m0 l
y ypxq, z zpxq

,
F px, ypxq, zpxqq Gpx, ypxq, zpxqq 0,

y 1 pxq

z 1 pxq

Fy1

Fz1

G1y

G1z

Fx1
G1x

Fx1 ` Fy1 y 1 ` Fz1 z 1 0,


G1x ` G1y y 1 ` G1z z 1 0.

p1, y 1 , z 1 q pFx1 , Fy1 , Fz1 q pG1x , G1y , G1z q . m0


x x0

F1 F1
y
z
1
Gy G1z

y y0

F1 F1

z
x

Gz G1x

z z0

F1 F1

x
y

Gx G1y

x x0

F1
x

G1x

y y0
Fy1
G1y

z z0

Fz1 0.

G1z

12.5
1. A n , , pAq 0, }B} pAq , A ` B

.
2. f : Rn Rn , }Jf pxq} q 1, @ x P Rn . f

.
3. 1 ,

.
4. y x :
p1q f px, yq x2 y 2 , px, yq p0, 0q;
p2q f px, yq sinrpx ` yqs 1, px, yq p 41 , 14 q;
p3q f px, yq xy ` ln xy 1, px, yq p1, 1q;
p4q f px, yq x5 ` y 5 ` xy 3, px, yq p1, 1q.

12.6

439

5. :
p1q z y xz 3 1 0,

Bz
By p1, 2, 1q;

p2q x2 ` 2y 2 ` 3z 2 ` xy z 9,
6. xv 4y ` 2eu ` 3 0,

B2 z
Bx2 p1, 2, 1q.

2x z 6u ` v cos u 0 x 1, y

1, z 1, u 0, v 1 u upx, y, zq, v vpx, y, zq. u, v

Jacobian .
7. :
p1q x3 ` 2xy 2 7z 3 ` 3y ` 1 0, px, y, zq p1, 1, 1q;
p2q px2 ` y 2 q2 ` x2 y 2 ` 7xy ` 3x ` z 4 z 14, px, y, zq p1, 1, 1q;
p3q sin2 x ` cospy ` zq 43 , px, y, zq p 6 , 3 , 0q;
p4q x2 ` y 2 z 2 ` sin z, px, y, zq p0, 0, 0q.
8. :
p1q x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 3x, 2x 3y ` 5z 4, px, y, zq p1, 1, 1q;
p2q x2 ` z 2 10, y 2 ` z 2 10, px, y, zq p1, 1, 3q;

?
p3q 3x2 ` 3y 2 z 2 32, x2 ` y 2 z 2 , px, y, zq p 7, 3, 4q;
p4q x3 y ` y 3 x 3 x2 y 2 , px, yq p1, 1q.
9. U , V Rn , f : U V , det Jf pxq 0, @ x P U .

f , .
10. pq f : Rn Rn ,
}f pxq f pyq} }x y}, @ x, y P Rn .

f , .

12.6

12.6.1 (). f : A R , A Rn ,
x0 px01 , , x0n q P A. 0,
f px0 q f pxq

pf px0 q f pxqq, @ x P A X B px0 q tx0 u,

x0 f p q , f px0 q f p q . pq
pq , x0 , f px0 q .
12.6.1 (). x0 f , x0 A
, f x0 , fx1 1 px0 q fx1 2 px0 q fx1 n px0 q 0.

440

. fx1 1 , pxq f px, x02 , , x0n q, , x01




, Fermat 1 px01 q 0, fx1 1 px0 q 0.


. fx1 1 px0 q fx1 n px0 q 0 x0 f .

12.6.2. U Rn , f : U R , x0 f
.
p1q x0 f p q , Hesspf qpx0 q p q ;
p2q Hesspf qpx0 q p q , x0 f p q ;
p3q Hesspf qpx0 q , x0 f .

. x0 f Taylor :
1
f px0 ` hq f px0 q Jf px0 q h ` hT Hesspf qpx0 q h ` op}h}2 q
2
1 T
h Hesspf qpx0 q h ` op}h}2 q.
2

(12.8)

p1q x0 f , v , (12.8) h t v,
t P R, |t| ,
0 f px0 ` hq f px0 q t2

1
2

v T Hesspf qpx0 q v ` op1q ,

t2 , t 0
0 v T Hesspf qpx0 q v, @ v P Rn , }v} 1.

Hesspf qpx0 q . x0 .
p2q Hesspf qpx0 q ,
0 min v T Hesspf qpx0 q v 0.
}v}1

}h}
1
}h}2 0 ` op}h}2 q
2
`1
1
}h}2 0 ` op1q 0 }h}2 ,
2
4

f px0 ` hq f px0 q

x0 . Hesspf qpx0 q .
p3q p1q, p2q , .

12.6.1. f px, yq x4 ` y 4 px ` yq2 .


. :
0

Bf
Bf
4x3 2x 2y, 0
4y 3 2x 2y,
Bx
By

12.6

441

m0 p0, 0q,

m1 p1, 1q,

m2 p1, 1q.

, , Hessian:
2

B f
B2 f
2
12x

2
2
2
BxBy
Hesspf qpx, yq BBx2 f

.
B2 f
2
12y 2 2
ByBx
By 2
m1 , m2 , Hessian , m1 , m2 ,
f pm1 q f pm2 q 2.

m0 Hesspf q , Hesspf q m0 . 0 x 1,
y x,
f px, yq 2x4 4x2 0;

y x, f px, yq 2x4 0, m0 .

12.6.2 (). px1 , y1 q, , pxn , yn q R2 n ,


n

y ax ` b, F pa, bq paxi ` b yi q2 .
i1

. F pa, bq pa, bq

. :
0

BF
pa, bq 2 paxi ` b yi qxi ,
Ba
i1

BF
pa, bq 2 paxi ` b yi q,
Bb
i1

12.9

x
0

i1

x2i

i1

xi

1
pxi xj q2 0
2 ij

, (), , F Hessian
n

n
2
x
x
i
i

i1
i1
,
2
n

xi
n
i1

, . pa, bq 8 F pa, bq `8,


().

442

, , px, yq ,

x
y
1

xi
yi
n

a, 1, b T 0,
i1

i1
n
n
n

x2i
xi yi
xi
i1

i1


x


n

xi

i1
n


x2i

i1

i1

y
n

i1
n

yi

xi y i

i1


1


n
0,
n


xi

i1

.
12.6.3. f px, yq x2 ` y 3 3y .
. :
0

Bf
Bf
2x, 0
3y 2 3.
Bx
By

p0, 1q, p0, 1q. Hessian:

2 0
2 0
Hesspf qp0, 1q
, Hesspf qp0, 1q
.
0 6
0 6
p0, 1q , f p0, 1q 2; p0, 1q .

. p0, 1q f , !
, , , ,
!
12.6.4. f px, yq x2 ` y 2 p1 ` xq3 .
. p0, 0q f , , f p2, 3q 5 f p0, 0q 0,


p0, 0q .
12.6.3. f : Rn R ,
p1q lim f pxq 8, f Rn ;
}x}8

p2q lim f pxq `8, f Rn .


}x}8

. p1q , x0 P Rn , , R 0 }x} R ,
f pxq f px0 q.

f BR p0q f Rn .

12.6

443
y

12.6.5. f px, yq x2 ` y 2 2x y
4

D : x 0, y 0, 2x ` y 4 , .
. f D . D
:

2x + y = 4

Bf
1
1
5
Bf

px, yq p1, q, f p1, q ;


Bx
By
2
2
4

:
p1q y 0, 0 x 2: f px, 0q x2 2x,
p1, 0q, f p1, 0q 1.
p2q x 0, 0 y 4: f p0, yq y 2 y, p0, 1{2q,

x
0

12.10

f p0, 1{2q 1{4;


p3q x 0, y 0, 2x ` y 4: f px, yq 5x2 16x ` 12, p8{5, 4{5q,
f p8{5, 4{5q 4{5.

, : f p0, 0q 0,

f p2, 0q 0,

f p0, 4q 12,


f 12, 5{4.

12.6
1. , , :
p1q f px, yq y 2 psin x x2 q;

p2q f px, yq cospx ` yq ` sinpx yq;

p3q f px, yq y ;

p4q f px, yq x{y xy;


2

x2 y 2

p5q f px, yq pax ` by qe


2.
b :
p1q f px, yq xy 1

x2
a2

y2
b2 ,

p6q f px, yq yex .

a, b 0;

p2q f px, yq sin x ` cos y ` cospx yq, 0 x

2,

0y

2;

p3q f px, yq xy lnpx2 ` y 2 q, x, y 0.


3. :
p1q f px, yq 4px yq x2 y 2 ;

p2q f px, yq x2 ` py 1q2 ;

p3q f px, yq x2 ` xy ` y 2 ` x y ` 1;

p4q f px, yq x3 ` y 3 3xy.

4. y x2 x y 2 0 .
5. Rn m , .

444

6. 0 a b, n 1. pa, bq n x1 , x2 , , xn ,
u

x1 x2 xn
pa ` x1 qpx1 ` x2 q pxn1 ` xn qpxn ` bq

.
7. pq f px, yq, p0, 0q f ,

y kx , p0, 0q , p0, 0q f .

12.7

Lagrange

U Rn , f : U R U , : U Rm pm nq C 1
.
A tx P U | pxq 0u,
f A , pxq 0 .

A Rn C 1 (), x0 P A f
, A x0 ptq pp0q x0 q, t 0 f pptqq ,

d
f pptqq Jf px0 q 1 p0q,
dt t0

f x0 Jf px0 q A x0 1 p0q . Jf px0 q


A x0 .
() , .
12.7.1 (Lagrange ). f P C 1 pU q, x0 P A f .
Jpx0 q m, P Rm ,
Jf px0 q Jpx0 q 0.

(12.9)

. p1 , , m q,
B

Bx1

.
.
det
.

Bm
Bx1

..
.

B1
Bxm

Bm
Bxm

..
0
. px q 0.

, z 0 px0m`1 , , x0n q V C 1 g : V Rm

y 0 gpz 0 q, pgpzq, zq 0, @ z P V.

12.7 Lagrange

445

y 0 px01 , , x0n q, y px1 , , xm q, z pxm`1 , , xn q, x py, zq P U .


x0 py 0 , z 0 q ,
Jgpz 0 q pJy q1 px0 q Jz px0 q.

(12.10)

x0 f , z 0 f pgpzq, zq (), z0 ,
Jy f px0 q Jgpz 0 q ` Jz f px0 q 0.

(12.11)

(12.10) (12.11),
Jz f px0 q Jy f px0 q pJy q1 px0 q Jz px0 q.

(12.12)

Jy f px0 q pJy q1 px0 q,


Jy f px0 q Jy px0 q.

(12.13)

Jz f px0 q Jz px0 q.

(12.14)

(12.12)

(12.13) (12.14)
Jf px0 q Jpx0 q 0.


. p1q , A x0 n m , x0
J1 px0 q, , Jm px0 q , (12.9) Jf px0 q .
p2q , (12.9) : x0 , px0 , q

F px, q f pxq

i i pxq

i1

.
y

12.7.1. px 1q2 ` y 2 1
p0, 1q , .

. px 1q2 ` y 2 1 0
a
d x2 ` py 1q2 .

F px, y, q x2 ` py 1q2 rpx 1q2 ` y 2 1s,

x
1

12.11

446

:
$
$

px

1q

&
&
1
1
Fx1 Fy1 F1 0

y 1 y 0
y

1 ?

% px 1q2 ` y 2 1 0
%
1 2

d2 2 , d ||,

d , ,

2 ` 1,

2 1. 

12.7.2. V
?
. , , x, y, z,

z
y

A 2pxy ` yz ` zxq,

12.12
V xyz. xyz V 0 A
.

F px, y, q 2pxy ` yz ` zxq pxyz V q,

:
$

2py ` zq yz 0

& 2pz ` xq zx 0
1
Fx1 Fy1 Fz1 F1 0
x y z V 3 .

2px
`
yq

xy

%
xyz V 0
2

x, y z 0 , A `8, A , 6V 3 .
12.7.3. i 0, xi 0, i 1, , n.
``n

1 x1 ` ` n xn 1
n
1
,
x

n
1
1 ` ` n
x1 x2 xn .
.
n
1
f px1 , , xn q lnpx
1 xn q

i1

i ln xi

12.7 Lagrange

447

i xi c pc 0q .

i1
n

F px, q

i ln xi

i1

i xi c ,

i1

:
n

i
i ,
i xi c 0,
xi
i1
c
xi n
, i 1, , n.

Fx1 i F1 0

i1

D : xi 0,

i xi c

i1

, f 8, f D ,
,
n
1
lnpx
1 xn q

i ln n

i1

i1

1
x
1

n
x
n

1 x1 ` ` n xn
1 ` ` n

1 ``n

12.7
1. :
p1q f px, yq xy, x ` y 1;
p2q f px, yq

y
x
a ` b,
2
2

p3q f px, yq x ` y ,

x2 ` y 2 1;
x
a

y
b

1;

p4q f px, yq cos px ` yq, x2 ` y 2 1;


p5q f px, y, zq x 2y ` 2z, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 1;
p6q f px, y, zq 3x2 ` 3y 2 ` z 2 , x ` y ` z 1;
p7q f px, y, zq xa y b z c , x ` y ` z 1, a, b, c 0.
2. 2l .
3.

x2
y2
`
1 .
a2
b2

4.

y2
z2
x2
`
`
1 .
a2
b2
c2

448

5. 2x ` 2y ` z ` 9 0, 2x y 2z 18 0 .
6. x2 ` 4y 2 4 x ` y 4 .
7. .
8. a1 , a2 , , an 0, u

ai xi

i1

x2i r2

i1

.
9. p 1,

1 1
` 1, Holder
p q
n

ui vi

i1

upi

n
p1

i1

viq

q1

, @ ui , vi 0, i 1, n.

i1

10. pq A paij qnn n , b pb1 , b2 , , bn q P Rn ,


n

f pxq xTAx ` bx

aij xi xj `

i,j1

bi xi , x P Rn

i1

p1q f Rn ;
n

p2q f
x2i 1 .
i1

12.8


12.8.1

Hesspf q , .
.
A n , A A : Rn Rn . , A
Q : Rn R,
Qpxq xx, Axy

aij xi xj , A paij qnn .

i,j1

n 1

(
S n1 x P Rn
x2i 1
i1

, Q S

n1

12.8.1. Qpxq S n1 A .

12.8

449

. 0 min
tQpxqu, x0 P S n1 ,
n1
S

0 Qpx0 q.

Qpxq 0 }x}2 , @ x P Rn .

, y P Rn , t P R,
ptq Qpx0 ` tyq 0 }x0 ` ty}2 0.
ptq t , t 0 0, 1 p0q 0.
xy, Ax0 y ` xx0 , Ayy 0 pxx0 , yy ` xy, x0 yq 0.

A
xy, Ax0 0 x0 y 0.

y Ax0 0 x0 , ,
Ax0 0 x0 0.


0 .

: V R , AV V ,
n

V A .
inftQpxq | x P V, }x} 1u,

A .
V ,
V K ty P Rn | xy, xy 0, @ x P V u

A ; ,
V pq tx P Rn | Ax xu

. , , A
0 1 r ,

r n.

i mintQpxq x K V p0 q V p1 q V pi1 q, }x} 1u,

i 1.

450

12.8.2. A n ,
p1q A ;
p2q A .

. p1q p2q .
p2q : A 0 , , r , Rn
Rn V p0 q V p1 q V pr q.

x P Rn , x 0, x
x x0 ` x1 ` ` xr ,

xi P V pi q,

Qpxq

i }xi }2 0.

i0

A . : , ,


12.8.1 A .

12.8.3. A n , p q k,
V Rn , x P V px 0q, Qpxq 0, dim V k.
. () dim V k, A
V0 , dim V0 k.
P : V V0 ,

dim V dim V0 , ker P t0u. x P V px 0q xKV0 .




12.8.2 , Qpxq 0, .

:
12.8.4. A paij qnn detpaij q 1ik 0, @ 1 k n.
1jk

. A , paij q 1ik , ,
1jk

().
n . n 1 . n 1 , n ,

, paij q 1in1 , A Rn1 tx P Rn | xn 0u


1jn1

. 12.8.3, A n 1 . det A 0,
, 12.8.2 A .
. , .

12.8
12.8.2

451

, .
. fi : U R p1 i mq U Rn
.
F : U Rm , F px1 , x2 , , xn q pf1 px1 , x2 , , xn q, , fm px1 , x2 , , xn qq

. V F pU q : V R,
pF q pf1 , f2 , , fm q 0, pyq 0, @ y P V,

tfi u U .
. tfi u , , ,
tfi u , fj ,
fj pf1 , f2 , , fj1 , fj`1 , , fm q,

.
12.8.1.
f1 pxq

xk , f2 pxq

k1

x2k , f3 pxq

k1

xi xj

1ijn

.
.
f1 pxq2 f2 pxq ` 2f3 pxq,

tf1 , f2 , f3 u ( pyq y12 y2 2y3 ).

x P U , tfi u , tfi u
0

. ? ,
. tfi u , pF q 0 ,
Jacobian
J JF pxq 0, @ x P U.

J 0, RankJF pxq m, @ x P U , Rank .


, .
12.8.5. m n, tfi u . RankJF pxq m, @ x P U , tfi u
; , m n det JF pxq 0 @ x P U , tfi u .

452

. RankJF pxq m tfi pxqum


i1 .
12.8.2. fi pxq

aij xj p1 i nq Rn ,

j1

det A 0 tfi u ; det A 0 tfi u , A paij qnn .

: x puq, tfi pxqu


tfi ppuqqu . ,
, Jacobian JF
RankJF pxq l m, @ x P U.

, tfi u x0 P U . ,
JF px0 q l,

det

Bfi
Bxj

px0 q 0.
1il
1jl

G : U Rn , Gpx1 , x2 , , xn q pf1 pxq, f2 pxq, , fl pxq, xl`1 , , xn q,

det JGpx0 q 0, , , G x0 , G1
, x puq . , F
F puq pu1 , u2 , , ul , F l`1 puq, , F n puqq.

RankJpF q RankJF l,
BF i
0, @ l ` 1 i, j n.
Buj

, u0 Gpx0 q , F i pl ` 1 i nq u1 , , ul . ,
F u0 Gpx0 q , F x0
.

RankJF max RankJF pxq,


xPU

RankJF F U . JF x0 P U , x0 JF
RankJF . ,
12.8.6. tfi u F . JF x0 P U l,
l x0 , l .

. ,
, , .
, R2
. :
,
.

13.1

Riemann

ra, bs, rc, ds R , I ra, bs rc, ds R2 ,


dpIq vpIq
a
dpIq pb aq2 ` pd cq2 , vpIq pb aqpd cq.

1 : a x0 x1 xm b, 2 : c y0 y1 yn d,

x xi p0 i mq y yj p0 j nq I mn
Iij rxi1 , xi s ryj1 , yj s p1 i m, 1 j nq,

I , 1 2 .
}} maxi,j dpIij q.
y
d

c
0

1
a

x
b

13.1
453

454

13.1.1 ( Riemann ).
f : I R I ,
A, 0, 0, }} ,

f pij qvpIij q A , @ ij P Iij ,


i,j

f I Riemann , A f
I ,

A f
f px, yqdxdy.
I

. p1q

13.2

f pij qvpIij q f Riemann ,

i,j

Spf, , q. f ,

f lim Spf, , q.
}}0

p2q , f I Riemann f .

f I .
f . Mij sup f ppq, mij inf f ppq,
pPIij

pPIij

Spq Sp, f q

Mij vpIij q,

spq sp, f q

i,j

mij vpIij q,

i,j

Spq spq f Darboux Darboux .

,
ij Mij mij sup f ppq inf f ppq
pPIij

pPIij

f Iij . f
Spq spq

ij vpIij q.

i,j

ra, bs 11 1 , rc, ds 21 2
, ra, bs rc, ds 1 11 21 1 2
. , .
13.1.1. 1 ,
spq sp 1 q Sp 1 q Spq,

, .

13.1 Riemann

455

13.1.2. I 1 , 2 ,
sp 1 q Sp 2 q.

. 1 1 2 , 2 11 21 ,
1 Y 2 p1 Y 11 q p2 Y 21 q,

1 , 2 ,
sp 1 q spq Spq Sp 2 q,


.
, .
Spf q inf Spq, spf q sup spq.

Spf q, spf q f I .
13.1.1. f pxq k , I Riemann
k vpIq, . ,
.
k , f ` k f ,
Spf ` kq Spf q ` k vpIq, spf ` kq spf q ` k vpIq.

13.1.3 (Darboux). f I ,
lim Spq inf Spq,

}}0

lim spq inf spq.

}}0

. . f , , 0 f M .
0, 1 ,

Sp 1 q inf Spq ` .

456

0 , Iij rxi1 , xi s
ryj1 , yj s 1 ,

, ()

Iij
pxi1 ` , xi q pyj1 ` , yj q,

J I

Iij
,

i,j

J () , vpJ q ,

13.3

, . ,
vpJ q

.
2M ` 1

}} , , ,
J , 1 () , ().

, :
inf Spq Spq M vpJ q ` Sp 1 q

` inf Spq `

2M ` 1
2

inf Spq ` .

lim Spq inf Spq.


}}0

. , ?
Darboux ,
.
13.1.4 (). f I , :
p1q f I Riemann .
p2q f I .

p3q lim
ij vpIij q 0.
}}0 i,j

p4q 0, I ,

Spq spq
ij vpIij q .
i,j

13.1.5. f I , f Riemann ;
. f I f I . (
p3q), .

, .

13.1 Riemann

457

13.1.6 (Riemann). f I , f
, 0, I ,

vpIij q .
ij

, .
13.1.2 (). A R2 . 0,

Ii , i 1, 2, ,

i1

Ii ,

vpIi q ,

i1

A .
,
13.1.7. p1q ; p2q ; p3q
; p4q ; p5q f ra, bs
, graphpf q tpx, f pxqq | x P ra, bsu R2 .
. , .
p4q 0 , ,

, ,
. , , .
p5q 0, f , ra, bs
: a x0 x1 xn b

i xi , i Mi mi f rxi1 , xi s , Mi

i1

mi f .
tpx, f pxqq | x P rxi1 , xi su rxi1 , xi s rmi , Mi s Ii , 1 i n.

graphpf q

Ii ,

i1

i1

vpIi q

i1

graphpf q .

pxi xi1 qpMi mi q

i xi ,

i1

458
y

x
0

13.4
. , ,
.

, . f : A R , x P A. f x

pf, xq lim supt|f px1 q f px2 q| : x1 , x2 P Br pxq X Au.


r0`

, f x pf, xq 0. 0,
D tx P A | pf, xq u,
8

f () Df
D n1 .
n1

13.1.8 (Lebesgue). I f Riemann


f Df .
. Lebesgue ,
Darboux , .

.
13.1.9. p1q f I , J I, f
J ; p2q I tJi u , f Ji

, f I .
() ,
.
13.1.3 (). A R2 . 0,

Ii , i 1, 2, , n

i1

A .

Ii ,

i1

vpIi q ,

13.1 Riemann

459

, .
13.1.10. p1q ; p2q ;
p3q ; p4q A A A Y BA
; p5q A A .
. .
p4q A , p2q , A A . , A
, 0, tIi u,
A

Ii ,

i1

vpIi q ,

i1

Ii ,

i1

vpIi q ,

i1

A .
p5q . ,

, ,
, .

13.1.7 ,
, . .
13.1.11. f : I R I . A tx P I | f pxq
0u , f .

. f I BI A , f BI Y A .
A A . BI Y A . Lebesgue
, f . I , ,
f , f Riemann , f .

. A P R2 , A : R2 R
:
$
&1, x P A,
A pxq
%0, x R A.

A A .
13.1.4 (). A , I A .
A A I Riemann , A ,
A I .

460

. p1q A I . A
,
.
p2q A , , A ,

.
13.1.2. A, B , A X B, A Y B
.
.
AXB A B , AYB maxtA , B u,


.
.
13.1.12. A BA .

. A I BI. A BA. A
BA . BA , .

, . ,
. A , f : A R
A , f R2 fA :
$
&f pxq, x P A,
fA pxq
%0,
x P R2 A.
13.1.5. A f , I A . fA I
, f A , fA I ,

f fA .
A

. p1q I . A ,
.
p2q , 1

.
.
13.1.13. f : A R A . f
f A .

13.1 Riemann

461

. I A I BI. , f A fA I
. Lebesgue , fA . I A
fA , fA A . BA , fA

fA A BA . A BA fA f , fA
f A BA , f A


13.1
1. , f , g I , f g I .
2. , f , g ra, bs rc, ds , f pxqgpyq
ra, bs rc, ds .
3. Riemann .
4. f px, yq ra, bsrc, ds , x P ra, bs, f px, yq

y ; y P rc, ds, f px, yq x


. f .
5. f I ,

f I .

6. f ra, bs , : I ra, bs I ,

f I .
7. f I , p1 , 2 q : J I J

, f J .
8. , . (: .)
9. r0, 1s r0, 1s .
10. A R . A R R2 .
11. : r, s R2 , ptq pxptq, yptqq. xptq yptq ,

pr, sq R2 .
12. r0, 1s Dirichlet Dpxq ,

?
13. A , A , A

462

13.2

n . n
R ,
n

I ra1 , b1 s ra2 , b2 s ran , bn s

n , dpIq vpIq
a
dpIq pb1 a1 q2 ` ` pbn an q2 , vpIq pb1 a1 q pb2 a2 q pbn an q.
rai , bi s pi 1, 2, , nq
i : ai xi0 xi1 ximi bi ,

xi xij pi 1, 2, , n; j 0, 1, , mi q I m1 m2 mn
n
Ii1 in rx1i1 1 , x1i1 s rxnin 1 , xnin s, 1 i1 m1 , , 1 in mn .

1 n ,
}} max dpIi1 in q,
i1 in

.
13.2.1 (n Riemann ). f : I R n I
, A, 0, 0, }} ,

f pi1 in qvpIi1 in q A , @ i1 in P Ii1 in ,

i1 in

f I Riemann , A f I ,


A f f pxqdx f px1 , , xn qdx1 dxn .
I

n Riemann Riemann ,

, Rn , R2
, , .
. .
13.2.1. f, g : A R A ,
, , f ` g A ,

pf ` gq f `
g.
A

13.2

463

. f ` g


, .
.

13.2.2. A1 , A2 , A1 X A2 . f
A1 A2 , f A1 Y A2 ,

f
f`
f.
A1 YA2

A1

A2

. I A1 Y A2 , fA1 YA2 pfA1 ` fA2 q A1 X A2


, , 13.1.11 fA1 YA2 pfA1 ` fA2 q I
, fA1 YA2 I ,

f fA1 YA2
A1 YA2
I
pfA1 ` fA2 q
I

fA1 ` fA2
I
I

f`
f.
A1

A2

.
13.2.3. A, f, g A .
p1q f 0,
f 0;
A

p2q f g,
f
g;
A

. p1q I A, f fA , Riemann
, fA I , f A .
p2q f g, f g , p1q f g A ,

f A g A .

13.2.4. A , f A , |f |
A ,

|f |.
f
A

. I A, |fA | |f |A . fA I |fA | I ,
|f |A I , |f | A .
|f |A fA |f |A ,

464

fA

|f |A
I

|f |A ,

|f |
A

|f |,
A

13.2.5 (). A , f, g A
. g A , ,

f g g,
A

inf f sup f .
A

. g 0. , f g A .
pinf f qgpxq f pxqgpxq psup f qgpxq, @ x P A
A

pinf f q
A

g
A

f g psup f q
A

g,
A

g 0, f g A , .
A

g 0,
A

fg
inf f A
sup f,
A
A
g
A

fg
A

,
g

13.2.6. A , f A . g
A , P A,

f g f pq g,
A

13.2

465

. .

13.2
1. R2 , Rn .
2. , n Rn ; Rn .
3. f n I , J I . f J .
4. f, g A , maxtf, gu mintf, gu A

.
5. f I, J , I J , f I Y J

f`

IYJ

f.
J

6. A1 , , Ak , Ai X Aj p1 i j kq .

f Ai p1 i kq , f A1 Y Y Ak ,

f
f ` `
f.
A1 YYAk

A1

7. f I ,

Ak

f 0, f 0.

8. f 0 I ,

f 0.
I

9. A Rn , f A , P A,

f f pqvpAq.
A

10. ,

dxdy
2.
100 ` cos2 x ` cos2 y

1.96
|x|`|y|10

11. tfn u I , fn 0 pn 8q,

lim
fn 0.
n8 I

12. f ,
1
lim
r0` r 2

f px, yqdxdy.
x2 `y 2 r 2

466

13.3

.
. .
f px, yq I ra, bs rc, ds . x P ra, bs,
f px, yq rc, ds y , rc, ds

pxq pxq, ra, bs .


13.3.1. f px, yq I , pxq pxq ra, bs ,
b
b

f
pxqdx
pxqdx.
I

. 1 , 2 ra, bs rc, ds :
1 : a x0 x1 xm b, 2 : c y0 y1 yn d,
I 1 2 . f I , 0, 0,
}}

f
I

f pij qvpIij q

f ` , @ ij pi , j q P Iij .
I

ij

?
?
, }1 } { 2, }2 } { 2 , .

inf
f pi , j qxi yj
f
I

ij

j Pryj1 , yj s

sup

f pi , j qxi yj

f ` ,

ij j Pryj1 , yj s

inf

j1 j Pryj1 , yj s

f pi , j qyj f pi , yq rc, ds Darboux ,

j1

inf
j Pryj1 , yj s

sup

f pi , j qyj pi q.

f pi , j qyj pi q.

j1 j Pryj1 , yj s

f
I

i1

pi qxi

i1

f ` .

pi qxi
I

pxq pxq ra, bs , f I .

13.3

467

13.3.2. f px, yq I . x P ra, bs, y


f px, yq rc, ds ,
d

b
dx
f px, yqdy.
f
a

, y P rc, ds, x f px, yq ra, bs ,

d
b
f
dy
f px, yqdx.
I

13.3.3. f px, yq I ,

b
d
d
b
f
dx
f px, yqdy
dy
f px, yqdx,
I

, .
, . ,
.
13.3.1. I r0, 1s r0, 1s,

ydxdy
3 .
p1 ` x2 ` y 2 q 2
I

. ,

1
1
ydxdy
ydy
dx
3
2
2
2
2 3
p1 ` x ` y q 2
0
0 p1 ` x ` y q 2
I
?
1

1
1
2` 2
?
? .

? 2
dx ln
1` 3
1 ` x2
x `2
0

13.3.2. I r0, 1s r0, 1s, f ,


I

f px, yq

$
&1 x y,

x ` y 1,

%0,

x ` y 1.

. f ,

1
1
f
dx
f px, yqdy
I
0
0
1
1x

dx
p1 x yqdy
0
0
1
1
1

p1 xq2 dx .
2
6
0

468

13.3.3. I r0, 1s3 r0, 1s r0, 1s r0, 1s,

dxdydz
.
3
I p1 ` x ` y ` zq
. ,

1
1
1
dxdydz
dz

dx
dy
3
p1
`
x
`
y
`
zq
p1
`
x
`
y ` zq3
I
0
0
0
1
1

1
1
1
dy

dx

2
2
p2 ` x ` yq
0
0 2 p1 ` x ` yq
1
1 ` 1
1 ` 1
1

dx
1`x 2`x
2`x 3`x
0 2
1
p5 ln 2 3 ln 3q.
2
,
.
13.3.4. A R2 , f : A R .
A x
I tx P R | y px, yq P Au.

x P I, Ax ty P R | px, yq P Au p q,

f dx
f px, yqdy.
A

Ax

, A y
J ty P R | x px, yq P Au.

y P J, Ay tx P R | px, yq P Au p q,

f
dy
f px, yqdx.
A

Ay

. A , f , f . A ra, bs rc, ds,


fA ra, bs rc, ds . x P I , fA px, yq y rc, ds
f px, yq y Ax . x P ra, bs X I c fA px, yq 0.
, x P ra, bs, fA px, yq y rc, ds ,

b
d
f
fA
dx
fA px, yqdy
A

ra,bsrc,ds

dx

y .

fA px, yqdy

dx

f px, yqdy.
Ax

13.3

469
y

Ax

y2 (x)

A
y1 (x)

13.5
. f A , f px, yq y Ax ,
, .
.
y1 pxq y2 pxq ra, bs ,
A tpx, yq P R2 | y1 pxq y y2 pxq, a x bu

, A . A x ,
,
13.3.5. y1 , y2 A . f : A R ,
x P ra, bs, y
y2 pxq
f px, yqdy
y1 pxq

,
b

f
A

y2 pxq
dx

f px, yqdy.
y1 pxq

. , .
, A

d
A

tpx, yq P R2 | x1 pyq x x2 pyq, c y du,


x1 (y)

d
x2 pyq
f
dy
f px, yqdx.
A

x1 pyq

x2 (y)

y
c
x
0

n , ( 13.6 y
), .

470

13.3.4.

I
x2 y 2 dxdy,

y=x

A y 0, x 1 y x

. x ,
1
x
1
1 5
1
I
dx
x2 y 2 dy
x dx
.
18
0
0
0 3

x=1
13.7

13.3.5.

y 2 dxdy,

I
A

A 2x y 1 0 x y 2 .
`1 1
. 2x y 1 0 x y 2 , p1, 1q.
4 2
y ,
y`1
1
1
2
1 2

63
dy
I
y 2 dx
y py ` 1q y 4 dy
.
640
y2
21
12 2
y

x = 12 (y + 1)

x = y2

y = x2

y=x

A
x
0

A
x

12

13.8
13.3.6.
?y

1
I

dy
0

sin x
dx.
x

. .

sin x
y x
x

y x2 ,
1
x
1
sin x
sin x
I
dx
dy
px x2 qdx 1 sin 1.
x
x
2
0
x
0

13.3

471
y

13.3.7. .
. px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 r2
px0 , y0 q, r . x
I rx0 r, x0 ` rs, x P I,
a
2 r2 px x0 q2 ,
x0 `r a
v
2 r2 px x0 q2 dx
x0 r

r
(x0 , y0 )

13.9

r2 cos2 d r2 .

x
x0 + r

0 x0 r

13.3.8. A tpx, yq P R2 | x, y 0, x ` y au pa 0q

xy dxdy.
A

. ,

a
ax
a
1
a4
xy dxdy
dx
xydy
xpa xq2 dx
.
24
A
0
0
0 2
y

13.3.9. pa 0q

a
A tpx, y, zq P R3 | x, y, z 0, x ` y ` z au

xyz dxdydz.

. ,

a
xyz dxdydz
dx
A

xyzdydz

y,z0, y`zax

1
1 6
xpa xq4 dx
a .
24
720

13.10

13.3.10. n n paq pa 0q ,
n paq tpx1 , , xn q P Rn | x1 0, , xn 0, x1 ` ` xn au.

. n paq
tx P Rn | 0 x1 a, 0 x2 a x1 , , 0 xn a x1 xn1 u,

a
vpn paqq

ax1
dx1

ax1 xn1
dx2

dxn .
0

472

yn x1 ` ` xn , , y2 x1 ` x2 , y1 x1 ,

a
vpn paqq

a
dy1

0
a

y1
a

dy1

a
dy2

dyn
yn1
a

dy2
y1

1
pn 1q!

pa yn1 qdyn1
yn2

pa y1 qn1 dy1

an
.
n!

13.3
1. :

x2
dxdy, I r0, 1s r0, 1s;
p1q
1 y2
I

p2q sinpx ` yq dxdy, I 0,
0, ;
2
2
I
a
p3q
sin2 x dxdy, A y 0, x {2, y x ;
A

x2
p4q
dxdy, A x 2, y x xy 1 ;
2
A y

p5q
xy 2 dxdy, A y 2 2px, x p{2 pp 0q .
A

2. x 0, x 1, y 0, y 2, z 0 z xy 2 .
3. x 1, x 1, y 1, y 2, z 0 z x2 ` y 2 .
4. |x| ` |y| ` |z| a pa 0q .
5. z xy, z x ` y, x ` y 1, x 0, y 0 .
6. A tpx, y, z, wq | x, y, z, w 0, x ` y ` z ` w au,

xyzw dxdydzdw.
A

7. f , g ra, bs rc, ds ,

b
d

f pxqgpyqdxdy
f pxqdx
gpyqdy .
a
ra,bsrc,ds

13.3

473

8. f px, yq ra, bs ra, bs ,


b

x
dx

b
f px, yqdy

b
dy

f px, yqdx.

9. f ra, bs ,
b

x
dx

b
f pyqdy

f pyqpb yqdy.
a

10. f ra, bs ,
b

x
f pxqdx

1
f pyqdy
2

2
f pxqdx .

11. f ra, bs ,
b

x1
f px1 qdx1

xn1
f px2 qdx2

f pxn qdxn
a

12. n :
1
x1
xn1

p1q
x1 dx1
x2 dx2
xn dxn ; p2q
0

1
n!

b
f pxqdx

px1 ` ` xn q2 dx1 dxn .

r0,1sn

13. r0, 1s r0, 1s f px, yq :


$
&1,
x ,
f px, yq
%3y 2 , x .

f Riemann ,

1
dx

f px, yqdy .

14. r0, 1s r0, 1s f px, yq :


$

0, x, y ,

&
f px, yq p1 , x , x pr , y ,

% 1 , x , y , y s .
q

f Riemann , .
15. f ra, bs ,
Af tpx, yq P R2 | a x b, 0 y f pxqu.

, Af f , Af f ra, bs .

474

v3
v2
v1

v2
0

v1

13.11

13.4

, , .
, : .
? , :
P pv1 , v2 , , vn q

(
xi vi P Rn | 0 xi 1, i 1, 2, , n.

(13.1)

i1

vi p1 i nq Rn . n 2 v1 , v2 , P pv1 , v2 q
. ,
. ? .
13.4.1

p1q . v0 P Rn , : Rn Rn ,
pxq x ` v0 . , A Rn ,
pAq , , .
p2q . i P R p1 i nq : Rn Rn ,
px1 , x2 , , xn q p1 x1 , 2 x2 , , n xn q, px1 , x2 , , xn q P Rn .

I ra1 , b1 s ran , bn s (),


vppIqq |1 | |n |vpIq | detpq|vpIq.

I , ,
.
13.4.1 (). Rn ,
0, tIi u tJj u,

Ii ,
vpIi q vpq ;
Jj ,
vpJj q vpq ` ,
i

13.4

475

tIi u .
. I, ,

vpq.
I

, 0, I tIij u,

pij qvpIij q vpq , @ ij P Iij .


ij

ij

inf pij qvpIij q

ij PIij

13.12
vpIij q,

Iij

,
vpq

vpIij q vpq.

Iij

sup pij qvpIij q

ij ij PIij

vpIij q,

Iij XH

vpq

vpIij q vpq ` .

Iij XH

. , B 2,
B ,
. ,
.
13.4.1. n
n paq tpx1 , , xn q P Rn | x1 0, , xn 0,
x1 ` ` xn au pa 0q

.
. , .
pxq ax
vpn paqq vpn p1qqan .

476

, vpn p1qq vn , vn . ,
1
1
1
vn`1
vpn p1 x1 qqdx1 vn p1 x1 qn dx1
vn ,
n
`
1
0
0
v1 1
1
, @ n 1.
n!

vn

vpn paqq

1 n
a , .
n!

13.4.2. x0 P Rn , r n
r px0 q tx P Rn | px x0 q px x0 q r2 u
B

.
. , x0 . r n
n prq. n prq n p1qrn , , n n p1q.
,
1
n`1

`b
1 x21 dx1

p1 x21 qn{2 dx1

n
1

2n

cosn`1 tdt 2n Jn`1 .

, Jn`1 :
J2k

p2k 1q!!
p2kq!!
, J2k`1
, @ k 0.
p2kq!! 2
p2k ` 1q!!

1 2
1 2, 2 , n`2 n

2
, n 1.
n`2

2k

k
2k k1
p2qk

, 2k1
, k 1.
p2kq!!
k!
p2k 1q!!

13.4.3. ai p1 i nq ,
!

x2
)
x2

px1 , , xn q P Rn 21 ` ` 2n 1
a1
an

(13.2)

13.4

477

. xi ai ti p1 i nq pa1 a2 an qn ,


n n .

p3q . : Rn Rn , Rn tei u
pe1 , e2 , , en q pe1 , e2 , , en qA,

A ,
AAT AT A In pIn q.

.
13.4.2 (). Rn ,
0, n tBi u tB j u,

Bi ,

vpBi q vpq ;

B j ,

vpB j q vpq ` ,

tBi u .
. vpq 0. 13.4.1 , I ra, bsn
I. I mn , m , tIi1 u

vpIi1 q

1
vpq.
2

Ii1 Bi1 ,
,

vpBi1 q

n
n
vpIi1 q n`1 vpq.
2n i
2

q 1

n
,
2n`1

13.13

0 q 1,
0 vp

Bi1 q q vpq.

1
i Bi

,
0 vp

Bi1

i1

Bi1 tBi21 u,

Bi21 q q vp

Bi1 q q 2 vpq.

478

, q k 0 pk 8q, 0,
n tBi u, (k )
0 vp

Bi q q k vpq min

, 1

(
1
, 1 .
n n
n
2

Bi , I mn , m ,

1 tI j u,

vpI j q vp1 q `

1
,
n
n 2 n

I j B2j ,

vpB2j q

n
n

n n 2
n 2 n `
1
j
vp1 q ` n .
vpI
q

n
n
2
2
n 2 n
j

tBi , B2j u n , .
vpq 0 , .

13.4.3. .
. n n , (
). , , .
, ,
.


.
13.4.4. A n ,
EA tx px1 , x2 , , xn q P Rn | xAxT 1u

.
. , , O,
A O diagp1 , 2 , , n q OT , i 0 p1 i nq.

y xO, EA
ty P Rn | 1 y12 ` ` n yn2 y diagp1 , 2 , , n q y T 1u

,
1

vpEA q n p1 q 2 pn q 2 n pdet Aq 2 .

13.4

479

, P , ,
P pq,
vpP pqq pdet P qvpq,

, .
p4q . : Rn Rn , Rn

n A. A. Rn
, Apq. , (det A 0), Apq
Rn , . det A 0, AAT
, , , AAT
AAT P 2 ,

P , det P | det A|. O P 1 A, O


, , Apq P pOpqq ,
vpApqq vpP pOpqqq pdet P qvpOpqq pdet P qvpq,

vpApqq | det A|vpq.

(13.3)

.
13.4.5. tvi uni1 Rn ,
P pv1 , , vn q

(
xi vi P Rn 0 xi 1, i 1, 2, , n.

i1

.
. Rn tei uni1 , A : Rn Rn , Apei q vi .

P pv1 , , vn q

(
xi vi P Rn 0 xi 1, i 1, 2, , n.

i1
n

(
A
xi ei P Rn 0 xi 1, i 1, 2, , n.
i1

ApP pe1 , , en qq.

P pe1 , , en q r0, 1sn , , (13.3)


vpP pv1 , , vn qq | det A|vpr0, 1sn q | det A|.

480

, n 2, v1 pa1 , b1 q, v2 pa2 , b2 q ,
vpP pv1 , v2 qq |a1 b2 a2 b1 |,


.
13.4.6. tvi uni1 Rn ,
Spv1 , , vn q

(
xi vi P Rn xi 0 p1 i nq, x1 ` ` xn 1

i1

.
. , A : Rn Rn , Apei q vi ,
Spv1 , , vn q Apn p1qq,

n p1q . (13.3)
vpSpv1 , , vn qq | det A|vpn p1qq

1
| det A|.
n!

13.4.7. r 0,
Er tpx, y, zq P R3 | x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` xy ` yz ` zx r2 u

.
. Er
Er tpx, y, zq P R3 | px ` yq2 ` py ` zq2 ` pz ` xq2 2r2 u,

A : R3 R3 :
Apx, y, zq px ` y, y ` z, z ` xq,

ApEr q

2r ,

4 ?
4?
vpEr q | det A|1 p 2rq3
2r3 .
3
3
13.4.2

,
. : Rn Rn Lipschitz , L,
|pxq pyq| L}x y}, @ x, y P Rn .

13.4

481

13.4.4. Lipschitz , A Rn .
pAq ,
vppAqq Ln vpAq.

, .
. 13.4.2, 0, A n tB j u,

vpB j q vpAq ` .
j

B j xj , rj ,
|pxq pxj q| L}x xj } Lrj , @ x P B j

, pB j q pxj q , Lrj n . pAq

j
j pB q,

vppAqq
n pLrj qn Ln vpB j q Ln vpAq ` Ln ,
j

vppAqq Ln vpAq. , , A


, pAq .
. , Lipschitz .

() Lipschitz . , : Rn Rn
, . x0 ,
, x0 , . , x0
, x0 .
. Lpxq px0 q ` Jpx0 qpx x0 q
, pxq

pxq Lpxq, Jpqpx


0 q 0. ,
0, 0,
}Jpqpxq}

, @ x P B px0 q.

,
}pxq

pyq}

}Jpqpq}

}x y} }x y}, @ x, y P B px0 q.

B px0 q , 1 . ,
} L1 pxq L1 pyq} p1 ` }L1 }q}x y}, @ x, y P LpB px0 qq,

L1 L , .
`
}L 1 pxq L 1 pyq} 1 `


}x y}, @ x, y P pB px0 qq.
}L}

482

A B px0 q , 13.4.4
vppAqq vp L1 pLpAqqq p1 ` }L1 }qn vpLpAqq
p1 ` }L1 }qn | det Jpx0 q|vpAq,

,
`
| det Jpx0 q|vpAq vpLpAqq vpL 1 ppAqqq 1 `

n
vppAqq,
}L}

( ):

vppAqq | det Jpx0 q| vpAq vpAq.

(13.4)

(13.3)
13.4.5. : Rn C 1 , , J ,
A pA q, pAq ,

vppAqq
| det J|.
A

. (13.4) , .

13.4.6 (). : Rn C 1 , J .
A , A , f : pAq R ,

f
f | det J|.
(13.5)
pAq

. : pq ,
. BpAq pBAq, BA , pBAq
, pAq .
, , A . A tAij u,
13.4.5 ,

f | det J|
A

ij

f | det J|

Aij

f pij q

| det J|
Aij

ij

f pij qvppAij qq

ij

f`

pAq

ij

pAij q

rf ppij qq f s.

13.4

483

f pAq () , }} 0 , (13.5)


. f pAq Riemann ,
.
13.4.8. A x 0, y 0 x ` y 1 ,

xy
I
e x`y dxdy.
A

. , A tp0, 0qu , A .
, x y u, x ` y v,
x

1
1
pu ` vq, y pv uq,
2
2

px, yq pu, vq Jacobi



Bpx, yq 12

Bpu, vq 1
2

1
2

1
2

1
.
2

,
D tpu, vq P R2 | u ` v 0, v u 0, v 1u.

v
1
u
1 1

I
e
dudv
dv
e v du
2
2
D
0
v

1 1
1

vpe e1 qdv pe e1 q.
2 0
4

u
v

v
y

v+u=0
v=1

D
x+y =1
u

x
0

vu=0

13.14

484
y
xy = b
y 2 = qx
xy = a

y 2 = px
x

13.15
13.4.9. 0 p q, 0 a b. y 2 px, y 2 qx
xy a, xy b A.

I
xy dxdy.
A

. , , y 2 {x u, xy v,
pu, vq px, yq Jacobi

Bpu, vq y 2 {x2

Bpx, yq y


2y{x
3y 2 {x 3u,
x

px, yq pu, vq Jacobi p3uq1 . ,


rp, qs ra, bs,
q
b

q
1
I
du v p3uq1 dv pb2 a2 q ln .
6
p
p
a
13.4.3

, R2 px, yq pr, q,
x r cos , y r sin , r 0, 0 2.

, Jacobi


Bpx, yq cos r sin

r.
sin r cos
Bpr, q
pr, q r0, Rs r0, 2s px, yq x2 ` y 2
R2 . , , r 0 . ,

13.4

485

p0, `8q p0, 2q , 13.4.6 ,

.
13.4.10. D tpx, yq P R2 | x2 ` y 2 R2 u

2
2
I
epx `y q dxdy.
D

. . ,
R 2
R
2
2
r 2
I
dr
e rd 2
er rdr p1 eR q.
0

13.4.11. x ` y ` z a x2 ` y 2 ax ,
2

.
. , (0, 0, a)
a
, z a2 x2 y 2

D tpx, yq P R2 | y 0, x2 ` y 2 axu

(a, 0, 0)

, V x r cos ,
y r sin
a
V 4
a2 x2 y 2

13.16

a cos a
d
a2 r2 rdr

4
a3
3

p1 sin3 qd

4` 2 3
a .
3 2
3

, .
13.4.12.

x2
y2
`
1 pa, b 0q .
a2
b2

.
x ar cos , y br sin , r P r0, 1s, P r0, 2s,

Jacobi


Bpx, yq a cos

b sin
Bpr, q


ar sin
abr,
br cos

2
dr

abrd ab.
0

486

R3 . :
x r cos , y r sin , z z,

Jacobi r.
13.4.13. D x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 4

x2 ` y 2 3z .

z dxdydz.
I

. , D

13.17

A tpr, , zq | r2 ` z 2 4, r2 3zu,
?
A pr, q t0 r 3, 0 2u. pr, q, z
?

1
r2 , 4 r2 ,
3

2 ?3
?4r2
13
I
rzdrddz
d
rdr
zdz
.
1 2
4
A
0
0
3r

, R3 :
x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos , r 0, P r0, s, P r0, 2s.

Jacobi




sin cos r cos cos r sin cos

Bpx, y, zq
sin sin r cos sin r sin cos r2 sin .
Bpr, , q

cos

r sin
0
.

13.4.14. D x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 R2
a
x2 ` y 2 z ,

I
px2 ` y 2 ` z 2 qdxdydz.

. , D

13.18

1 (
A pr, , q 0 r R, 0 2, 0 ,
4

r |r sin |drdd
A

r dr
0

2
sin d

d
0

p2 2qR5 .
5

13.4

487
x2
y2
z2
` 2 ` 2 1 pa, b, c 0q .
2
a
b
c

13.4.15.

. :
x ar sin cos , y br sin sin , z cr cos ,

Jacobi abcr2 sin ,


tpr, , q | r P r0, 1s, P r0, s, P r0, 2su,

1
V

dr

abcr sin d
0

d
0

4
abc.
3

.
, Rn pn 3q
$

x1 r cos 1 ,

x2 r sin 1 cos 2 ,

& x3 r sin 1 sin 2 cos 3 ,

x
r sin 1 sin 2 sin n2 cos n1 ,

n1

% x r sin sin sin


n
1
2
n2 sin n1 ,

0 r R, 0 1 , , n2 , 0 n1 2,

R n () . Jacobi
Bpx1 , x2 , , xn q
rn1 sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2 .
Bpr, 1 , , n1 q

n ,
1

n1
r
dr
sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2 d1 d2 dn1 ,
n
0

An

An tp1 , , n1 q | 0 1 , , n2 , 0 n1 2u,

sinn2 1 sinn3 2 sin n2 d1 d2 dn1 nn ,

(13.6)

An

. nn n 1
.

488

13.4.16. B : x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` w2 1 x2 .
. ,

1
x2 dxdydzdw
px2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` w2 qdxdydzdw,
4 B
B
(13.6) ,

1 1 5
1
1 2
x2 dxdydzdw
r 44 dr 4
.
4
6
12
B
0

13.4
1. .
2. , Rn , n .
3. A . vpAq 0, n

tBi u,
vpAq

vpBi q.

i1

4. I , 0, D I , D ,

D , . ( D
, .)
5.
pa1 x ` b1 y ` c1 q2 ` pa2 x ` b2 y ` c2 q2 1

, a1 b2 a2 b1 0.
6. 0 p q, 0 a b, x ` y p, x ` y q y ax, y bx

.
7.

x1 x2 xn dx1 dx2 dxn , n paq n .

n paq

8. (a 0):
p1q t|x| ` |y| au; p2q t|x| ` |y| ` |z| au, p3q t|x1 | ` ` |xn | au.
9. 0 p q, 0 a b, y 2 px, y 2 qx x2 ay, x2 by

13.4

489

10. :

p1q px yqdxdy, A y 2 2x, x ` y 4, x ` y 12 ;


A

px2 ` y 2 qdxdy, A x2 y 2 1, x2 y 2 2, xy 1, xy 2 ;

p2q
A

p3q

px y 2 qdxdy, A y 2, y 2 y x 0, y 2 ` 2y x 0 .

p4q

x`

a, x 0, y 0 ;

11.

p1q px2 ` y 2 qdxdy, A tpx aq2 ` y 2 a2 u;


A

p2q

px2 ` y 2 qdxdydz, A x2 ` y 2 2z z 2 ;

c
p3q
A

p4q

x2
(
x2
y2
y2
`
dxdy,
A

`
1 ;
2
2
2
2
a
b
a
b

px ` yqdxdy, A tx2 ` y 2 x ` yu;

p5q

` x2
a2

y 2 2
xy
2 .
b2
c

12. ;
` x2
y2
z 2 2
x2
y2
p1q 2 ` 2 ` 2 2 ` 2 ;
a
b
c
a
b
p2q px2 ` y 2 ` z 2 q2 az, a 0;
p3q x2 ` z 2 a2 , |x| ` |y| a;
p4q

x2
y2
z
`
` 1, z 0.
a2
b2
c

13. :
a
p1q
x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 dxdydz, A tx2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 u;
A

p2q

px2 ` y 2 q dxdydz, A tr2 x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 R2 , z 0u;

c
` x2
x2
(
y2
z2
y2
z2
1 2 ` 2 ` 2 dxdydz, A 2 ` 2 ` 2 1 .
p3q
a
b
c
a
b
c
A
14. f puq ,
1

f px ` yqdxdy

f puqdu.
1

|x|`|y|1

490
15. f puq ,

1 a
f pax ` byqdxdy 2
1 u2 f pkuqdu,

x2 `y 2 1

a2 ` b2 .

16. f puq , a, b, c ,
1

f pax ` by ` czqdxdydz
x2 `y 2 `z 2 1

p1 u2 qf pkuqdu,

a2 ` b2 ` c2 .

17. pq : Rn Rn C 1 ,

13.5

: (
) , .
.
. A Rn () ,
rk, ksn pk 1q, A X rk, ksn , lim vpA X rk, ksn q
k`8

(), A ,
vpAq lim vpA X rk, ksn q.
k`8

A , ,
.

13.5.1. A px, yq |y|

1 (
.
1 ` x2

. , A X rk, ks2 , ,
vpA X rk, ks2 q 2

k
k

k
1

dx

2
arctan
x
4 arctan k,
1 ` x2
k

vpAq lim vpA X rk, ks2 q lim 4 arctan k 2.


k`8

A .

k`8

13.5

491
y
1
A

0
1

13.19
vpA X rk, ksn q k ,
13.5.1. A A X rk, ksn
.
, rk, ksn k Bk p0q,
. ,
A X Bk p0q pA X rk, ksn q X Bk p0q

, A X rk, ksn ,
A X Bk p0q ,
k
k n
AX ? , ?
A X Bk p0q A X rk, ksn
n
n

lim vpA X Bk p0qq lim vpA X rk, ksn q.

k`8

k`8

, A X Bk p0q , A X rk, ksn ,


.
.
13.5.1 (). ti u Rn ,

i i`1 , @ i 1; p2q
p1q
i Rn ,
i1

ti u Rn .
tpk, kqn u tBk p0qu Rn . ,
, .
i i`1 .
,
.

492

13.5.2. ti u Rn , A tAXi u
,
vpAq lim vpA X i q.
i8

, . f : A R
A Rn . rk, ksn , A X rk, ksn

, f A X rk, ksn ,

lim

k`8 AXrk,ksn

(), f A , ()

f lim
f.
k`8 AXrk,ksn

, A ().
`8, f A . .
13.5.3. f : A R
,
p1q f A

f k ;

AXrk,ksn

p2q ti u Rn , f A f A X i

, ,

f lim

i8 AX
i

f.

f : A R,
f ` maxtf, 0u, f maxtf, 0u,

f f ` f . f ` , f , f ` , f A , f
A ,

f`

f .

|f | f ` ` f , f A , |f | A ,
!
().
, , ,
, .
.

13.5

493

13.5.2. epx

`y 2 q

R2 .

. BR tx2 ` y 2 R2 u , ,

epx

`y 2 q

dxdy p1 eR q,

BR

epx

R2

`y 2 q

dxdy lim

R`8 B
R

epx

2
2

epx `y q dxdy lim


R2

R`8 rR,Rs2

`y 2 q

dxdy lim p1 eR q .
R`8

epx

`y 2 q

dxdy lim

R`8

2
2
ex dx ,

:
?
`8
`8
?
2
2

.
ex dx ,
ex dx
2
8
0
2

13.5.3. epx1 ``xn q Rn .


. ,

2
2
px21 ``x2n q
e
dx1 dxn lim
epx1 ``xn q dx1 dxn
R`8 rR,Rsn

Rn

lim

R`8

ex dx

2.

BR p0q , (13.6)
R

2 lim

R`8 0

er rn1 pnn qdr,

t,
8
pxq
tx1 et dt px 0q,
0

n n
n

2
2 2
.
n
n
np 2 q
p 2 ` 1q

pxq Gamma .
, .

(13.7)

494

13.5.4. P n , exP x Rn .
. P , O,
P O diagp1 , , n q OT , i 0, i 1, , n.

y xO,

T
exP x
Rn

ep1 y1 ``n yn q ,

Rn

ti i yi ,

n
2
pt21 ``t2n q
12
xP xT
?
e
p1 n q
e

.
det P
Rn
Rn
, ? 13.5.3,
.
13.5.4. gpxq A , f A X rk, ksn
, }x} , |f pxq| gpxq, f pxq A .
, rk, ksn Bk p0q. r }x}, rp
tr0 r Ru pr0 0q , (13.6)

R
1
p
r
rn1p pnn qdr
pRnp r0np qpnn q,
n

p
r0 rR
r0
p n , rp tr r0 u . ,
13.5.5. f A X Bk p0q . p n , }x}
,
|f pxq| }x}p ,

f A .
, .
.
. A Rn , p P A. f : A p R,
0, f A B ppq ,

f
lim
`
0

AB ppq

(), f A ,

f,
f lim
`
A

AB ppq

13.5

495

. f A , f A
.
f , f ` f , f ` f A
, f A ,

f
f`
f .
A

, B ppq p
, . .
13.5.6. f : A p R , f A B ppq ,

f
AB ppq

, f A ; .
1
B1 p0q .
13.5.5. a
x2 ` y 2

. , 0 1 , ,

1
2
dxdy
r
a
? dr

d
r2
x2 ` y 2
B1 p0qB p0q

0
2p1 q,

2.
, }x}p n B1 p0q ,
, p n , , p n .
, .
, f p , p f .
, f .
, A , S A, f A S ,
S i , vpi q 0,

f
lim
i8 A
i

(), f A ,

f.
f lim
A

i8 A
i

, , .

496

y
13.5.6. ? r0, 1s r0, 1s .
x
y
. t0u r0, 1s ? ,
x
D r, 1s r0, 1s,

y
? dxdy
x

dx
?
x

1
ydy 1

y
? r0, 1s r0, 1s 1.

x
, ,

, . , Riemann
, Lebesgue .
.
p1q . A , px, y, zq, m

m
px, y, zqdxdydz.
A

, px, yq ,
.
p2q . A , px, y, zq,

p
x, y, zq

1
1
1
x

xpx, y, zq, y
ypx, y, zq z
zpx, y, zq.
m A
m A
m A
p3q . A x , y , z

2
2
2
2
Ix py ` z qpx, y, zq, Iy px ` z qpx, y, zq, Iz px2 ` y 2 qpx, y, zq.
A

, l , px, y, zq l rpx, y, zq, l

Il

r2 px, y, zqpx, y, zqdxdydz.

p4q . A , B px0 , y0 , z0 q m0

, Newton , A B F

px, y, zq
rdxdydz,
F Gm0
r3
A
, G ,
r px x0 , y y0 , z z0 q, r }r}

a
pz z0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 .

13.5

497

13.5.7. R , , .
. p . p
l. , p z , p0, 0, lq. p

F ppq G

px, y, z lq

BR

rx2

` y 2 ` pz lq2 s 2

, F ppq x, y . z F ppqz :
R
F ppqz G

dr

r2 pr cos lq sin
d
pr2 ` l2 2rl cos q3{2

R
d 2G

r2 prqdr,

pr cos lq sin
d,
pr2 ` l2 2rl cos q3{2

prq
0

t pr ` l 2rl cos q1{2 ,


2

1
prq 2
2l r

r`l 2

r l2
1 rl

1
dt

1
,
t2
l2 |r l|
|rl|

r l prq 0; r l prq 2l2 . , l R


R
F ppqz 2G
0

4
r2 p2l2 qdr GR3 l2 ;
3

lR
l
F ppqz 2G
0

4
r2 p2l2 qdr Gl.
3

4
r r3 , , ,
3
;

, .

13.5
1. A , BA .
2. A , f : A R . 0, f

A B ppq , f A ,

f lim
A

0 AB ppq

f.

498

3. A () t , r r0 u, f px, yq

A f px, yq crp , c , p 2, f px, yq A


.
4. Rn f pxq t}x} r0 u
f pxq c}x}p ,

p n f pxq Rn .
5. Rn f pxq t}x} r0 u
f pxq }x}p ,

p n f pxq Rn .
6. :

dxdy
p1q
;
p qp1 ` |y|q q
p1
`
|x|
2
R
dxdy
p2q
, A t|x| ` |y| 1u;
p ` |y|q
|x|
A

lnpx2 ` y 2 ` z 2 q
p3q
, A tx2 ` y 2 ` z 2 1u;
2
2
2 p
A px ` y ` z q

dxdy
a
, A tx2 ` y 2 1u;
p4q
2 y2
1

x
A

dxdy
p5q
, A txy 1, x 1u.
p q
A x y
7.

p1q
lnpx2 ` y 2 qdxdy; p2q
x2 `y 2 1

dxdy
; p3q
p1 ` x ` yq3

x0, y0

epx`yq dxdy.

xy0

8. A n , b P Rn ,

T
T
exAx `bx .
Rn

9. R , p0, 0, Rq, pxq k}x}2 ,

.
10. z x2 ` y 2 z 1 , .
11. tx2 ` y 2 ` z 2 1u .
12. , R, 2,

Rn , ,
, , .

14.1

. , ptq pxptq, yptqq,


xptq, yptq t , ,

a
Lpq
rx1 ptqs2 ` ry 1 ptqs2 dt.

. : r, s Rn ,
. , r, s

: t0 t1 t2 tm ,

pti1 q pti q p1 t mq,

Lp; q

}pti q pti1 q}.

14.1

i1

,
m

sup
}pti q pti1 q} `8,
i1

,
Lpq sup

}pti q pti1 q}.

i1

r, s , .
ptq ,
,

Lpq

} 1 ptq}dt.

. ,
. , : t 0 pxp0q, yp0qq p0, 0q; 0 t 1 ,
pxptq, yptqq pt, 1q. , 2 !

:
499

500

, r, s r, s, r,s ;
, P r, s,
Lpq Lp|r,s q ` Lp|r,s q.

, .
, .
14.1.1 (). f r, s .
: t0 t1 t2 tm ,

vpf ; q

|f pti q f pti1 q|,

i1

sup vpf ; q , f r, s , r, s

pf q sup vpf ; q.

:
. f r, s , , ,

vpf ; q

|f pti q f pti1 q|

i1

pf pti q f pti1 qq f pq f pq,

i1

pf q |f pq f pq|.

Lipschitz . |f pxq f pyq| L|x y|,


vpf ; q

|f pti q f pti1 q|

i1

Lpti ti1 q Lp q,

i1

f .
. ,
Lipschitz , .

14.1

501

gpxq r, s Riemann ,
x
f pxq
gptqdt, x P r, s

Lipschitz , .
, .
().
14.1.1 (Jordan). ptq
.
. ptq px1 ptq, , xn ptqq , r, s ,
vpxi ; q

|xi ptj q xi ptj1 q|

j1

}ptj q ptj1 q} Lpq,

j1

xi ptq .
, xi ptq ,
Lp; q

j1
m

}ptj q ptj1 q}
`

|x1 ptj q x1 ptj1 q| ` ` |xn ptj q xn ptj1 q|

j1

i1

vpxi ; q

pxi q.

i1

ptq .
. t P r, s,
sptq Lp|r,ts q,

sptq , ptq ,
spt2 q spt1 q Lp|rt1 ,t2 s q, t1 t2 .

, t2 t1 , spt2 q spt1 q, ptq rt1 , t2 s . ptq


, sptq .
ptq , sptq (). ptq
, sptq t , ,
t tpsq:
tpsq : r0, Lpqs r, s.

502

, ptq ptpsqq s , s .
ptq , } 1 ptq} (, )
, ptq ,
s1 ptq } 1 ptq} ds } 1 ptq}dt.

. f
, ptq, f pptqq . r, s , i P rti1 , ti s
p1 i mq,
m

f ppi qqsi ,

i1

si spti q spti1 q.
m

lim
}}0

f ppi qqsi

i1

ti u , f ,
m

f ds lim

}}0

f ppi qqsi .

i1

f 1 , .
: ,
.
, Riemann
:
Lpq

f ds

f ppsqqds;

ptq () , f
( f ):

f ds

f pptqq} 1 ptq}dt.

, Riemann-Stieltjes ,
.

14.1

503
y

x2
y2
14.1.1. 2 ` 2 1
b
a
b

, I xyds.

14.2


ptq pa cos t, b sin tq, t P 0, .
2

} 1 ptq}

a
a2 sin2 t ` b2 cos2 t ,

a
a cos t b sin t a2 sin2 t ` b2 cos2 t dt
0
c

ab 2
a2 ` b2
b2 a2

sin 2t
`
cos 2t dt
2 0
2
2
c

a2 ` b2
ab 1
b2 a2

`
u du
4 1
2
2

ab a2 ` ab ` b2
.
3
a`b
z

14.1.2. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2

x ` z a ,

xzds.

. : z a x

a
2

a
2

x ` y ` pa xq a ,

a
2

14.3

a 2 1 2 ` 1 2
` y a ,
2
2
2

xptq

a a
a
a a
` cos t, yptq ? sin t, zptq cos t, t P r0, 2s.
2 2
2 2
2

} ptq}

c
`

a
? ,
2

2 ` a
2 ` a
2
a
sin t ` ? cos t `
sin t
2
2
2

504

xzds

` a 2

` a
sin2 t ? dt
2

a3
? .
4 2

14.1
1. , lim Lp; q , .
}}0

2. ,
Lpq lim Lp; q.
}}0

3. .
4. , , .
5. :
p1q xptq t, yptq t2 , zptq t3 , t P r0, 1s;
?
p2q x ` y ` z a p|a| 3q, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 1.
6. :

p1q
yds, y 2 2px p0, 0q p2p, 2pq ;

p2q

yds,

p3q

x2
y2
` 2 1 x ;
2
a
b

x2 ds, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , x ` y ` z 0;

p4q

px ` yqds, p0, 0q, p1, 0q, p0, 1q .

7.

y2
x2
`
1 px, yq px, yq |y|, .
a2
b2

8. pq pxq px, yq
$
&x cos 1 , 0 x
x
y
%0,
x 0.

2,

14.2

505

14.2

: F ,
F . .
, : r, s Rn , f Rn
, fi p1 i nq. r, s
: t0 t1 t2 tm ,

fi ppj qqpxi ptj q xi ptj1 qq, pj P rtj1 , tj sq

(14.1)

j1

lim
}}0

fi ppj qqpxi ptj q xi ptj1 qq

j1

tj u , fi dxi ,

fi ppj qqpxi ptj q xi ptj1 qq.


fi dxi lim

}}0

j1

fi dxi ,

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn ,

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn ,
f .
.
, . ,
. : r, s r, s ,
: r, s Rn , ,

. , ;
, ().
(14.1) , , ;
, !
, .
, , ,
. . ,
,

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn .

506

, Riemann-Stieltjes
. () , Riemann :

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn

fi pptqqx1i ptqdt.

i1

, , s ,
} 1 psq} } 1 ptq} ps1 ptqq1 1.

1 psq pcos 1 , , cos n q,


Lpq

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn

f ppsqq 1 psqds

n Lpq

fi ppsqq cos i ds,

i1 0

.
14.2.1. Riemann .
b
f ra, bs ,
f pxqdx f pxqdx ra, bs
a

, , x , x
.
a

b
f pxqdx

f pxqdx
a

f pxqdx ra, bs .

14.2.2. .
(), pq pq, ,
, ,

f1 dx1 ` ` fn dxn .

S ,
1

ptq pcos t, sin tq, t P r0, 2s

, S 1 .

14.2

507
y

14.2.3.

y
x
I
dx 2
dy,
x2 ` y 2
x ` y2

C x2 ` y 2 a2 ,

.
. C
xptq a cos t, yptq a sin t, t P r0, 2s.

14.4

1
I
a sin tpa cos tq1 a cos tpa sin tq1 dt 2.
2
a
0
y

14.2.4.

I py zqdx ` pz xqdy ` px yqdz,

C x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , y x tan

p0 q, x , C
2
.

. C
14.5
xpq a cos cos , ypq a cos sin , zpq a sin ,

P r0, 2s.
2
I

pa cos sin a sin qpa sin cos qd ` pa sin a cos cos q


0

pa sin sin qd ` pa cos cos a cos sin qa cos d


2

a2 pcos sin qd 2a2 pcos sin q.


0

508

14.2.5. q

()

A pq B pq
W .
x

. .

, px, y, zq

r
q px, y, zq
F q 3 2
,
r
px ` y 2 ` z 2 q3{2

()

14.6

qx
qy
qz
W
dx ` 2
dy ` 2
dz
2 ` y 2 ` z 2 q3{2
2 ` z 2 q3{2
2 ` z 2 q3{2
px
px
`
y
px
`
y

xx1 ` yy 1 ` zz 1
q
dt
2
2
2 3{2
px ` y ` z q

rpq
q rpq dr2
dr

q
3
2
2 rpq r
rpq r
1

1
q

.
rpq rpq
, ,


14.2
1. :

p1q
xdx ` ydy ` zdz, C p1, 1, 1q p2, 3, 4q ;
C

p2q
px2 ` y 2 qdx ` px2 y 2 qdy, C p1, 0q, p2, 0q, p2, 1q, p1, 1q
C

, ;

px ` yqdx px yqdy
, C x2 ` y 2 a2 , ;
p3q
x2 ` y 2
C

p4q
px2 2xyqdx ` py 2 2xyqdy, C y x2 p1, 1q p1, 1q
C

x2
y2
p5q px ` yqdx ` px yqdy, C 2 ` 2 1, .
a
b
C

14.3

509

2.

py zqdx ` pz xqdy ` px yqdz,


C
2

C x2 ` y 1, x ` z 1, x , C .
3. P px, yq, Qpx, yq ,

P px, yqdx ` Qpx, yqdy LpqM,

a
M sup P 2 ` Q2 .
4. C x2 ` y 2 R2 , .

ydx xdy
IR
,
2
px ` xy ` y 2 q2
C

lim IR 0.
R`8

5. m A pq B
pq W .
6. , , .

14.3

. m n, Rm Rm . C 1
: Rn Rn . ,

. : Rm Rn , I Rm . (
m), pRm q m , pIq
m ; , pRm q m, pIq m

, m . , m
, .
Rm

Rn

(I)
I
0
0

14.7

510

m
I r0, 1sm . vj pej q pa1j , , anj q, tej um

j1 R

.
pIq

(
xj vj 0 xj 1, j 1, , m .

j1

n m A paij q. i m aij 0,
pRm q Rm t0u tpx1 , , xm , 0, , 0q P Rn u,

, (13.3) , pIq
b
ppIqq | detpaij qmm | pIq detrpaij qTnm paij qnm s pIq.
, Rn O, OppRm qq Rm t0u,
,
b
ppIqq pOppIqqq detrOpaij qnm sT rOpaij qnm s pIq
b
detrpaij qTnm paij qnm s pIq.
, Rm () , pq Rn m
,
ppqq

b
detpAT Aq pq,

(14.2)

A paij qnm . (13.3) .


y

14.3.1. v1 px1 , y1 , z1 q, v2 px2 , y2 , z2 q R3

v2

, v1 , v2
.

v1
x

. pv1 , v2 q. (14.2) ,
b
pv1 , v2 q detpAT Aq,

14.8

x
1

A y1
z1

x2

y2
,
z2

A A

v1 v1

v1 v2

v1 v2

v2 v2

pv1 , v2 q
pv1 , v2 q

a
pv1 v1 qpv2 v2 q pv1 v2 q2 .

(14.3)

14.3

511

R3 ,
pv1 , v2 q }v1 v2 }.


: R , C . x0 P ,
n

Jpx0 q ( m), L : Rm Rn
Lpxq px0 q ` Jpx0 qpx x0 q, x P Rm .

: Rn LpRm q ,
L : LpRm q,

Jp Lqpx0 q 0. , 0,
0, A x0 ,
|pppAqqq pLpAqq| pAq,

( (14.2) )
b

pppAqqq detrpJqT px0 q Jpx0 qs pAq pAq,

(14.4)

(13.4) . pAq x0
LpRm q ppAqq ,
:
14.3.1 (). : Rn C 1 , Rm
, pq
b
ppqq
detrpJqT Js.

(14.5)

L(Rm )

L(Rm )

(A)

()

((A))

14.9

512

. p1q pRm q Rm t0u, (14.5) 13.4.5 ;


m 1, (14.5) .
p2q , . : 1 C 1

, : 1 Rm , (14.5)
().
p3q Binet-Cauchy ,

puq p1 pu1 , , um q, , n pu1 , , um qq,

detrpJqT Js

det

B
ki

2
,

(14.6)

2 21

n
Bp1 , , i1 , i`1 , , n q
ppqq
.
Bpu1 , u2 , , un1 q
i1

(14.7)

1k1 k2 km n

Buj

mm

, m n 1 ,

14.3.2. R3 .
rpu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vq, zpu, vqq ppu, vq P Dq , (14.5)
,

}ru rv }dudv
EG F 2 dudv,
D

(14.8)

E ru ru x2u ` yu2 ` zu2 , G rv rv x2v ` yv2 ` zv2 ,


F ru rv xu xv ` yu yv ` zu zv .

,
z f px, yq, px, yq P D

, rx p1, 0, fx q, ry p0, 1, fy q,
EG F 2 p1 ` fx2 qp1 ` fy2 q pfx fy q2 1 ` fx2 ` fy2 ,

1 ` fx2 ` fy2 dxdy.


D

14.3.3. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 .

(14.9)

14.3

513

.
x a sin cos , y a sin sin , z a cos , P r0, s, P r0, 2s.

r pa cos cos , a cos sin , a sin q, r pa sin sin , a sin cos , 0q,

EG F 2 a4 sin2 ,

a2 sin d 4a2 .

14.3.4. f : D R , D Rn1 . graphpf q Rn


,

a
1 ` }f }2 ,

(14.10)

f pfx1 , , fxn1 q f .
(14.9) . graphpf q
px1 , , xn1 q px1 , , xn1 , f px1 , , xn1 qq,

1 0

fx1

0 1
pJq J

0 0

fx2

fxn1


1

0

fx1

..
.

In1 ` pf qT f.

fx2

fxn1

,
detrpJqT Js detrIn1 ` pf qT f s
1 ` f pf qT 1 ` }f }2 ,

(14.5)

a
1 ` }f }2 .
D

(14.7) .
14.3.5. tx1 ` ` xn a, xi 0, i 1, , nu , a 0.
. ,
n1 paq tx P Rn1 | x1 ` ` xn1 a, xi 0, 1 i n 1u,

514

: n1 paq Rn , pxq px, f pxqq,

f pxq a x1 xn1 . (14.10)

a
?

1 ` }f }2
n,
n1 paq

n1 paq

a
0

?
?
n
an1 .
n pn1 paqq
pn 1q!
14.3.6. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` w2 a2 .

a x

14.10

. , .
a
w a2 x2 y 2 z 2 , x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 ,
,
1 ` }w}2 1 ` px{wq2 ` py{wq2 ` pz{wq2 pa{wq2 ,

(14.10)

2
x2 `y 2 `z 2 a2

a
a
dxdydz,
2
2
a x y2 z2

R3 ,
a

2
a
ar2
ar2
?
?
2
dr
sin
d
d

8
dr,
a2 r2
a2 r2
0
0
0
0
r a sin t,
2
8
a3 sin2 tdt 2 2 a3 .
0

R4 , w 0 .

, C 1 ,
.
, .
. . , ,
, ()
? Schwarz () .
, Hausdor ,
, .
, , ,
.

14.3

515

14.3.2 (). : Rn C 1 , f
, f

b
f d
f detrpJqT Js.

: , ,
.

1
d,
14.3.7.
z

x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 z h
, 0 h a.

.
z

a
a2 x2 y 2 , x2 ` y 2 a2 h2 .

14.11

1
d
z

1b
1 ` zx2 ` zy2 dxdy
x2 `y 2 a2 h2 z

a
dxdy

2
2
2
x2 `y 2 a2 h2 a x y
?a2 h2
2
ar

dr
d
a2 r2
0
0
`a
2a ln
.
h

14.3.8. z 2 px2 ` y 2 q, z 0
px, yq x2 ` y 2 ,

z
2

. m px, yq x2 ` y 2
,

b
m
px2 ` y 2 q 1 ` zx2 ` zy2 dxdy
x2 `y 2 2

px2 ` y 2 q 1 ` 4px2 ` y 2 qdxdy


x2 `y 2 2

?2

r2

149
.

30

2
a
1 ` 4r2 rdr
d
0

14.12

516

14.3
1. , .
2. z axy x2 ` y 2 a2 .
3. z 2 x2 ` y 2 x2 ` y 2 2ax 0 z 0 .
4. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 x2 ` y 2 ax .
5. |x1 | ` |x2 | ` ` |xn | a .
6. n x21 ` x22 ` ` x2n a2 .
7. , ?
8. :

p1q px ` y ` zqd, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , z 0;

d
p2q
, x ` y ` z 1, x, y, z 0;
p1
`
x ` yq2

a
x2
y2
z2
x2 {a4 ` y 2 {b4 ` z 2 {c4 d, 2 ` 2 ` 2 1;
p3q
a
b
c

p4q
xyzd, z x2 ` y 2 , z 1.

9. x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , .
10. S 2 x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 1. f ,
1

f pax ` by ` czqd 2
S2

` a

f u a2 ` b2 ` c2 du.

14.4

, ,
. , . : Rn
, : 1 C 1 , ,
. det J , ; det J
, .

14.4

517
z

14.4.1. Rn .
Rn ().

f px1 , , xn q px1 , x2 , , xn q

14.13

Jacobi 1, .

R , : R R C ,
n

, . , C 1 , det J
Rn , det J ,
. .
n

14.4.2. .
R3 r : R3 ,

rv
rpu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vq, zpu, vqq, pu, vq P .

ru

, rpu, vq ru pxu , yu , zu q rv pxv , yv , zv q 14.14


,

Bpy, zq Bpz, xq Bpx, yq


ru rv pyu zv zu yv , zu xv xu zv , xu yv yu xv q
,
,
Bpu, vq Bpu, vq Bpu, vq
. pu, vq ps, tq ,
rs rt pru rv q

Bpu, vq
pru rv q det J,
Bps, tq

, pu, vq ps, tq () , (). ,


R3 n ,
n

ru rv
.
}ru rv }

, .

n pcos , cos , cos q,

, , n . cos 0, n z
{2 , ; ,
. ,
,
.

518

n
n

14.15
Rn .
rpu1 , , un1 q px1 pu1 , , un1 q, , xn pu1 , , un1 qq,
puq pN1 , , Nn q,
N
Ni puq p1qi1

Bpx1 , , xi1 , xi`1 , , xn q


.
Bpu1 , , un1 q

u pvq ,
pvq N
puq det J,
N

, .
, . ,
R3 .
14.4.1 (). R3 ,
rpu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vq, zpu, vqq, pu, vq P .

pP, Q, Rq,

Bpz, xq
Bpx, yq
Bpy, zq
Q
R
P
dudv `
dudv `
dudv,
I
Bpu,
vq
Bpu,
vq
Bpu, vq

P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy.

. p1q ,

P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy pP, Q, Rq pru rv qdudv,

14.4

519

P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy pP, Q, Rq nd,

.
p2q , pP, Q, Rq ,

. ,

P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy.

p3q , Rn

puqdu1 dun1 .
P1 dx2 ^ dxn ` ` Pn dx1 ^ dn1 pP1 , , Pn q N

m ,
.
: v pP, Q, Rq ,
. :
, , v , n,
v n.

v nd,

.
.
14.4.3.

xyz dx ^ dy,

x ` y ` z 1, x 0, y 0,
2

.
. ,

14.16
a
1 : z 1 x2 y 2 , px, yq P tx2 `y 2 1, x 0, y 0u

a
2 : z 1 x2 y 2 , px, yq P tx2 ` y 2 1, x 0, y 0u.

520

, px, yq pzx , zy , 1q, , 1


, 2 . ,

xyz dx ^ dy
xyzdx ^ dy `
xyzdx ^ dy

1
2

a
` a

xy 1 x2 y 2 dxdy
xy 1 x2 y 2 dxdy

2
1
a
2
d
r3 sin cos 1 r2 dr
0

2
.

15

14.4.4.

x2 dy ^ dz ` y 2 dz ^ dx ` z 2 dx ^ dy,
I

px aq2 ` py bq2 ` pz cq2 R2 , .


.
x a ` R sin cos , y b ` R sin sin , z c ` R cos , P r0, s, P r0, 2s.

Bpy, zq
Bpz, xq
Bpx, yq
R2 sin2 cos ,
R2 sin2 sin ,
R2 cos sin ,
Bp, q
Bp, q
Bp, q

p, q , ,
2
2
I
pa ` R sin cos q2 R2 sin2 cos dd `
pc ` R cos q2 R2 cos
0 0
0 0
2
sin dd `
pb ` R sin sin q2 R2 sin2 sin dd
0

pa ` b ` cqR3 .
3

. , R1 px a, y b, z cq,
, .
14.4.5.

xyzw dx ^ dy ^ dz,


x ` y ` z ` w 1, x 0, y 0, z 0, w 0

, .

14.4

521

. R4 , ,
, .
1 : w 1 x y z, px, y, zq P tx ` y ` z 1, x 0, y 0, z 0u,

pwx , wy , wz , 1q p1, 1, 1, 1q, ,

xyzw dx ^ dy ^ dz
I
1

xyzp1 x y zqdxdydz

1yz

1yz

yz
xdxdydz 3
yz
x2 dxdydz
ty`z1, y, z0u
0
ty`z1, y, z0u
0

yzp1 y zq2 dydz


yzp1 y zq3 dydz
2 ty`z1, y, z0u
ty`z1, y, z0u
1
.
7!
x, y, z .

14.4
1. ,

, .
2.

xdy ^ dz ` ydz ^ dx ` zdx ^ dy,

px aq2 ` py bq2 ` pz cq2 R2 .


3.

yzdy ^ dz ` zxdz ^ dx ` xydx ^ dy,

x2 ` y 2 a2 .
4.

x3 dy ^ dz,

y2
z
x2
` 2 ` 2 1, z 0 .
2
a
b
c

5.

yzdy ^ dz ` zxdz ^ dx ` xydx ^ dy,

x ` y ` z a, x 0, y 0, z 0 .

522
6.

x3 dy ^ dz ` y 3 dz ^ dx ` z 3 dx ^ dy,

x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 .
7.

xdy ^ dz ^ dw,

x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ` w2 a2 .
8.

xdy ^ dz ^ dw,

|x| ` |y| ` |z| ` |w| a .

14.5

, Newton-Leibniz . ,
Newton-Leibniz :
f pxq ra, bs , F pxq

f ptqdt ra, bs ,

d
F pxq f pxq,
dx
1

x
f ptqdt f pxq;
a

f ra, bs ,
b

f 1 pxqdx f pbq f paq,

b
a

df f .
a

.
, .
14.5.1


.
f : Rn R C 1 , }f } 0. ra, bs f pRn q, t P ra, bs

, f 1 ptq Rn . , x0 P f 1 ptq, }f px0 q} 0,


Bf 0

px q 0. ,
Bxn
f px1 , , xn q t 0

(14.11)

14.5

523

C 1 ()
xn t px1 , , xn1 q, px1 , , xn1 q P D Rn1 .

(14.12)

x0 f 1 ptq . , t t C 1 .
(14.11) t ,
Bf Bxn
1 0,
Bxn Bt

` Bf 1
Bxn

.
Bt
Bxn

: D ra, bs Rn ,
px1 , , xn1 , tq px1 , , xn1 , t px1 , , xn1 qq,

Jacobi
det J

` Bf 1
Bt

.
Bt
Bxn

pD ra, bsq,
b
` Bf

` Bf 1

dx
dt

dt

dx1

dx1 dxn1 .
n1
Bxn
Bxn
Dra,bs
a
D
(14.13)

vpq

, f 1 ptq . , (14.12)

Bt
Bf ` Bf 1

, i 1, , n 1.
Bxi
Bxi Bxn

1 ` }t }2 }f }2

` Bf 2
.
Bxn

(14.10)

d
1 a
` Bf 1

1 ` }t }2 dx1 dxn1

dx1 dxn1 ,
Bxn
f 1 ptqX }f }
D }f }
D
(14.13)
b
vpq

dt

f 1 ptqX

1
d.
}f }

(14.14)

(co-area formula).
, .

524

14.5.1 (). f . g f 1 pra, bsq


,
b

gpxqdx1 dxn
f 1 pra,bsq

dt
f 1 ptq

g
d.
}f }

. .
14.5.1. f f pxq xn .
f pxq xn , }f } 1. D Rn1 ,
b

gpxqdx1 dxn
Dra,bs

dxn

gpxqdx1 dxn1 ,
D

.
14.5.2. .
f pxq r }x}, x 0 }r} 1,
vpBR q vpf

r0, Rsq lim vpf


0

R
r, Rsq

pSt qdt,

(14.15)

, BR R t}x} Ru, St t t}x} tu. ,


(14.15) R ,
pSR q

d
vpBR q,
dR

vpBR q n Rn ,

pSR q nn Rn1 .

, n 2 R R2 , R
pR2 q1 2R; n 3 , R p4{3qR3 , R

pp4{3qR3 q1 4R2 .
, f (), ,
. m n , f : Rn Rm ,
.
14.5.2

Green

R2 , C 1 . R2
. B .
: pxptq, yptqq B , px1 ptq, y 1 ptqq ,

14.5

525

(x (t), y (t))
(y (t), x (t))

14.17
py 1 ptq, x1 ptqq . py 1 ptq, x1 ptqq , t

. , ,
.
14.5.3. .
b a 0, ta2 x2 ` y 2 b2 u b
a . tx2 ` y 2 b2 u tx2 ` y 2 a2 u
. , tx2 ` y 2 b2 u , ;
tx2 ` y 2 a2 u , .

,
Green .

14.5.2 (Green). , C 1 ,
. P , Q ,

` BQ BP

dxdy
P dx ` Qdy.
By
Bx
B
,
. .
: D C 2 ,
pu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vqq, pu, vq P D.

R2 . , pBDq B.
.
ptq puptq, vptqq ptq B, t P r, s. ,

P dx ` Qdy

rP pptqqx1 ptq ` Qpptqqy 1 ptqsdt.

526

,
P pptqqx1 ptq ` Qpptqqy 1 ptq P pxu u1 ptq ` xv v 1 ptqq ` Q pyu u1 ptq ` yv v 1 ptqq
pP xu ` Q yu qu1 ptq ` pP xv ` Q yv qv 1 ptq.

P xv ` Q yv ,
P P xu ` Q yu , Q


P du ` Qdv

P dx ` Qdy,


P du ` Qdv

BD

P dx ` Qdy,

(14.16)

.
, ,
BP
BP
BP
BP
BP
BP

xu `
yu ,

xv `
yv ,
Bu
Bx
By
Bv
Bx
By

BP
BP
BP
pxu yv yu xv q
xu
xv ,
By
Bv
Bu

BQ
BQ
BQ
pxu yv yu xv q
yv
yu ,
Bx
Bu
Bv

` BQ
Bx

BP Bpx, yq ` BP
BQ ` BP
BQ

xv `
yv
xu `
yu
By
Bpu, vq
Bu
Bu
Bv
Bv
BpP xv ` Qyv q BpP xu ` Qyu q

Bu
Bv

BQ
B P

.
Bu
Bv

, xu yv yu xv 0,

` BQ
` BQ BP
B P

dudv

dxdy.
Bv
By
D Bu
Bx

(14.17)

(14.16) (14.17) , Green ,


D , .
, Green ,
. ptq pxptq, yptqq B C 2
, t P r, s. t0 P p, q, x1 pt0 q 0.

14.5

527

14.18
, pxpt0 q, ypt0 qq p0, 0q, px1 pt0 q, y 1 pt0 qq p1, 0q. x1 pt0 q 0,
, t t0 t x , ptq x ,
pxq px, pxqq, x P ra, as. ,
pxq . p0q 0, 0 a{2,
|pxq| a{2, @ x P r, s.

: P , Q B p0q . ,
X B p0q Green . p1, 0q ,
, p0, 1q , pxq .
,
px, yq px, y pxqq, px, yq P ra, as ra, as.

, px, pxqq px, 0q, x ,


p X B p0qq ra, as ra, as.

p0, 1q , pB p0q X q
.

14.19

528

P , Q B p0q , ra, as r0, as


Green . I ra, asr0, as , px, 0q px P ra, asq

, P , Q .

a
P dx ` Qdy
P px, 0qdx,
BI

` BQ
Bx

BP
dxdy
By

BQ
dx
Bx

BP
dy
0
a
a
0 By
a
a

rQpa, yq Qpa, yqsdy


rP px, aq P px, 0qsdx
0
a
a

P px, 0qdx,
dy

dx

Green I .

. , C , C .
2

, , , Green
. , C 1 , Green .
14.5.4. .
ptq pxptq, yptqq pt P r, sq R2 ,
. Green P px, yq y, Qpx, yq x,

` BQ BP
1
1
pq

dxdy
P dx ` Qdy
2 Bx
By
2

(14.18)
rxptqy 1 ptq x1 ptqyptqsdt,
2
, t .
x2
y2
, 2 ` 2 1 .
a
b
xptq a cos t, ypxq b sin t, t P r0, 2s,

1
2

2
pa cos t b cos t ` a sin t b sin tqdt ab.
0

14.5

529
y

14.5.5.

I
x2 ydx xy 2 dy,

C x2 ` y 2 a2 , y 0,

14.20

. , C px, 0q
px P ra, asq , Green

px2 y 2 qdxdy

I
tx2 `y 2 a2 ,

a
d

y0u

r3 dr a4 .
4
y

14.5.6. ,
C 1 , .

ydx
xdy
I
` 2
.
2 ` y2
x
x
` y2
B

. x2 ` y 2 2 ,

B p0q .
(), B p0q

Green ,

14.21

ydx
xdy
`
2
2
x2 ` y 2
x2 `y 2 2 x ` y

B ` x

B ` y
`
`
dxdy
2
2
By x2 ` y 2
B p0q Bx x ` y
2

d 2.

14.5.7. .
Green , v C 1 ,

Bv
BpQvq BpP vq BQ BP
Bv

v` Q
P
Bx
By
Bx
By
Bx
By

BQ
Bx

BP
v dxdy
By

vpP dx ` Qdyq

Bv
Bv
Q
P
dxdy,
Bx
By

(14.19)

530

. C 2 u,
u uxx ` uyy

` Bu Bu
B2 u B2 u
` 2 , u pux , uy q
,
,
2
Bx
By
Bx By

P uy , Q ux (14.19)

vu dxdy
vpuy dx ` ux dyq
u v dxdy,

(14.20)

n, s
nds py 1 ptq, x1 ptqqdt

(14.20)

vudxdy

vpu nqds

vudxdy

u v dxdy,

(14.21)

Bu
ds
Bn

u v dxdy,

(14.22)

v C 2 , u, v ,

` Bu
Bv
pvu uvqdxdy
v
u
ds.
Bn
Bn

(14.23)

.
14.5.3

Gauss

R3 , B C 1 . ,
. Green , Gauss
.
14.5.3 (Gauss). R3 , C 1
, . P , Q, R ,

` BP
BQ BR
`
`
dxdydz
P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy.
By
Bz
Bx
B
Green , :
P , Q R . , Gauss

, Gauss .
C 2 ,
, :

pu, v, wq pxpu, v, wq, ypu, v, wq, zpu, v, wqq, pu, v, wq P .

14.5

531

Bpy, zq
Bpz, xq
Bpx, yq
P P
`Q
`R
,
Bpv, wq
Bpv, wq
Bpv, wq
P Bpy, zq ` Q Bpz, xq ` R Bpx, yq ,
Q
Bpw, uq
Bpw, uq
Bpw, uq
Bpy,
zq
Bpz,
xq
Bpx,
yq
P
R
`Q
`R
.
Bpu, vq
Bpu, vq
Bpu, vq

P dv ^ dw ` Qdw ^ du ` Rdu ^ dv
P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy. (14.24)

. ,

xu xv xw

pPu , Pv , Pw q pPx , Py , Pz q
yu yv yw ,
zu zv zw

BP Bpx, y, zq
Bpy, zq
Bpy, zq
Bpy, zq
Pu
` Pv
` Pw
,
Bx Bpu, v, wq
Bpv, wq
Bpw, uq
Bpu, vq

BQ Bpx, y, zq
Bpz, xq
Bpz, xq
Bpz, xq
Qu
` Qv
` Qw
,
By Bpu, v, wq
Bpv, wq
Bpw, uq
Bpu, vq
BR Bpx, y, zq
Bpx, yq
Bpx, yq
Bpx, yq
Ru
` Rv
` Rw
,
Bz Bpu, v, wq
Bpv, wq
Bpw, uq
Bpu, vq

B
Bu

Bpy, zq
Bpv, wq

B
`
Bv

Bpy, zq
Bpw, uq

B
`
Bw

Bpy, zq
Bpu, vq

0,

py, zq pz, xq px, yq .

B P
BQ
BR
BQ BR Bpx, y, zq
BP
`
`

`
`
,
Bu
Bv
Bw
Bx
By
Bz Bpu, v, wq
,

` B P
` BP
BQ
BR
BQ BR
`
`
dudvdw
`
`
dxdydz.
(14.25)
Bv
Bw
By
Bz
Bu

Bx

(14.24) , Gauss ,

, .
, px0 , y0 , z0 q p0, 0, 0q,
P , Q, R B p0q , BXB p0q C 1 px, yq , p0, 0q

532

0, p0, 0q p0, 0q. , p0, 0, 0q p0, 0, 1q,


X B p0q .

Green , ,
I ra, as2 ra, 0s , B X B p0q
ra, as2 t0u , P , Q, R ra, as2 ra, 0s

. Gauss .

P dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dy

Rpx, y, 0qdxdy,
ra,as2

BI

BQ BR
`
dxdydz
By
Bz
I Bx
a
0
a
a
0
a
a
a
0
BP
BQ
BR

dy
dz
dx `
dx
dz
dy `
dx
dy
dz
Bx
By
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a Bz
a
0
a
0

dy
rP pa, y, zq P pa, y, zqsdz `
dx
rQpx, a, zq Qpx, a, zqsdz
a
a
a
a
a
a
`
dx
rRpx, y, 0q Rpx, y, aqsdy
a
a
a
a

dx
Rpx, y, 0qdy,
` BP

Gauss .

. C Gauss ,
1

Rn .
14.5.8. .
C 1 , Gauss P x, Q y, R z

vpq

1
3

xdy ^ dz ` ydz ^ dx ` zdx ^ dy.


B

, Epa, b, cq

x2
a2

(
y2 z2
` 2 1 .
2
b
c

x a sin cos , y b sin sin , z c cos , P r0, s, P r0, 2s.

14.5

533

1
vpEpa, b, cqq
xdy ^ dz ` ydz ^ dx ` zdx ^ dy
3 B

2
1
Bpy, zq
Bpz, xq
Bpx, yq

d
x
`y
`z
d
3 0
Bp, q
Bp, q
Bp, q
0

2
1

d
rabc sin3 cos2 ` abc sin3 sin2 ` abc cos2 sin sd
3 0
0

2
1
4

d
abc sin d abc.
3 0
3
0
a
14.5.9. r x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 ,

x
y
z
I
dy ^ dz ` 3 dz ^ dx ` 3 dx ^ dy,
3
r
r
B r
, .
. P x{r3 , Q y{r3 , R z{r3 ,
BQ BR
BP
`
`
0.
Bx
By
Bz

tx2 ` y 2 ` z 2 2 u,
, Gauss

y
z
4
x
dy ^ dz ` 3 dz ^ dx ` 3 dx ^ dy 3 3 3 4.
I
3
r
r
3
x2 `y 2 `z 2 2 r
, px0 , y0 , z0 q q,

a
q px x0 , y y0 , z z0 q, r px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 ,
E
3
r
B
E

qpx x0 q
qpy y0 q
qpz z0 q

E nd
dy ^ dz `
dz ^ dx `
dx ^ dy
3
3
r
r
r3
B
B
4q.

14.5.10. Gauss .
pP, Q, Rq. divX

P , Q, R X


divX

BP
BQ BR
`
`
,
Bx
By
Bz

534

Gauss

dxdydz
divX

n d,
X

(14.26)

n .

, E,
()
px, y, zq, E

nd
4px, y, zqdxdydz,
E

Gauss (14.26) ,

4qdxdydz 0,
pdivE

Gauss :
4.
divE

14.5.11. R3 .
v C 1 , Green , Gauss vP , vQ, vR
P , Q, R

` BP
BQ BR
v
`
`
dxdydz
vpP dy ^ dz ` Qdz ^ dx ` Rdx ^ dyq
Bx
By
Bz

` Bv
Bv
Bv
(14.27)

P
`Q
`R
dxdydz,
Bx
By
Bz

dxdydz
v divX

n d
vX

v dxdydz,
X

(14.28)

n , v pvx , vy , vz q v .
u C 2 ,
u divu
u ,
(14.28) X

vu dxdydz

B2 u B2 u B2 u
` 2 ` 2,
Bx2
By
Bz

Bu
v d
B Bn

u v dxdydz.

(14.29)

v C 2 , u, v

` Bu
Bv
pvu uvqdxdydz
v
u
d.
Bn
Bn

(14.30)

, (
u 0 u ).

14.5
14.5.4

535

Stokes

R3 C 2 ,
, C 1 . B
:

,
.
Stokes

14.22

.
14.5.4 (Stokes). , ,
. P , Q, R ,

` BR BQ
` BP BR
` BQ BP

dy^dz`

dz^dx`

dx^dy
P dx`Qdy`Rdz.
Bz
Bz Bx
Bx By
By
B
, : : D R3 C 2
,
D R2 . , B

, pq
.
Stokes .
pu, vq pxpu, vq, ypu, vq, zpu, vqq, pu, vq P D.

S P xu ` Qyu ` Rzu , T P xv ` Qyv ` Rzv ,

Sdu ` T dv

P dx ` Qdy ` Rdz.

(14.31)

S, T
Tu Sv pPu xv Pv xu q ` pQu yv Qv yu q ` pRu zv Rv zu q.

,
Pu Px xu ` Py yu ` Pz zu , Pv Px xv ` Py yv ` Pz zv ,

Q, R , (14.32)
Tu Sv Py pyu xv xu yv q ` Pz pzu xv xu zv q ` Qx pxu yv yu xv q
` Qz pzu yv yu zv q ` Rx pxu zv zu xv q ` Ry pyu zv zu yv q,

(14.32)

536

Tu S v

` BR
By

BQ Bpy, zq ` BP
BR Bpz, xq ` BQ BP Bpx, yq
`

,
Bz Bpu, vq
Bz
Bx Bpu, vq
Bx
By Bpu, vq

BR BQ
BP
BR
pTu Sv qdudv p

qdy ^ dz ` p

qdz ^ dx
Bz
Bz
Bx

By

BQ BP

qdx ^ dy,
` p
By
Bx
, Green

pTu Sv qdudv

Sdu ` T dv,

(14.31) Stokes .

. C Stokes .
1

14.5.12. Stokes .
pP, Q, Rq ,
X
`

BR BQ , BP BR , BQ BP .
rotX
By
Bz Bz
Bx Bx
By
. , Stokes
curlX

n d
T ds,
rotX
X

(14.33)

n , T , s .
14.5.13. .
pP, Q, Rq ,
v C 1 , X
`

v rotX
` R Bv Q Bv , P Bv R Bv , Q Bv P Bv ,
rotpv Xq
By
Bz
Bz
Bx
Bx
By

,
v rotX
` v X,

rotpv Xq

(14.33)

nqd
vprotX

T qds
vpX

n d.
pv Xq

u ()
u C 1 , X

Bu
v ds,
pv uq nd
B Bs

Bu
u T
Bs

u .

(14.34)

(14.35)

14.5

537
z

14.5.14.

I
py zqdx ` pz xqdy ` px yqdz,
B

tx2 `y 2 `z 2 1, x, y, z 0u,

. Stokes

I 2 dy ^ dz ` dz ^ dx ` dx ^ dy.

px, y, zq,

14.23

I 2 p1, 1, 1q px, y, zqd 2 px ` y ` zqd,

x, y, z

I 6 zd 6

tx2 `y 2 1, x,y0u

b
3
1 ` zx2 ` zy2 dxdy .
2

dy ^ dz ` dz ^ dx ` dx ^ dy

, .

14.5
1. pq

` x2
y2
z 2 1{2
I
` 4 ` 4
d,
4
b
c
a

x2
y2
z2
`
`
1.
a2
b2
c2

2. pq f px1 , , xn q x1 ` ` xn n 1
tx1 ` ` xn a, x1 , , xn 0u

.
3. Green :

p1q
xy 2 dx x2 ydy, C x2 ` y 2 a2 , ;
C

p2q
C

px ` yqdx px yqdy, C

x2
y2
`
1, ;
a2
b2

538

px ` yq2 dx px2 ` y 2 qdy, C p1, 1q p3, 2q p2, 5q p1, 1q

p3q
C

p4q
ex sin ydx ` ex cos ydy, C x2 ` y 2 ax py 0q, .
C

4. Green :
p1q px ` yq2 ax pa 0q x ;
p2q px2 ` y 2 q2 a2 px2 y 2 q pa 0q;
p3q x3 ` y 3 3axy pa 0q.
5. C , v ,

v n ds 0,
C

n C .
6. pq pxq ra, as , p0q 1 p0q 0. ,
0 a, pxq r, s tx2 ` y 2 2 u

. (: ).
7. Gauss :

p1q
x3 dy ^ dz ` y 3 dz ^ dx ` z 3 dx ^ dy, x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 ,

p2q
x2 dy ^ dz ` y 2 dz ^ dx ` z 2 dx ^ dy, r0, as3 ,

p3q px yqdy ^ dz ` py zqdz ^ dx ` pz xqdx ^ dy, z x2 ` y 2

pz 1q, ;
8. R3 , C 1 . v ,

v nd 0,
B

n .
9. R3 , C 1 , px0 , y0 , z0 q R B.
a
` x x0 y y0 z z0
r
,
,
, r px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 ,
r
r
r

dxdydz
1

r
2

r n d.
B

14.5

539

10. Stokes :

p1q
ydx ` zdy ` xdz, C x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , x ` y ` z 0, x
C

p2q
y 2 dx ` z 2 dy ` x2 dz, C x2 ` y 2 ` z 2 a2 , x ` y ` z a, x
C

p3q pz yqdx ` px zqdy ` py xqdz, C pa, 0, 0q p0, a, 0q p0, 0, aq


C

pa, 0, 0q ;
11. , ; .
,
12. v C 1 , X
v divX
` v X,
rotpv Xq
v rotX
` v X.

divpv Xq
13. u, v C 2 ,
divpuvq u v ` uv, puvq vu ` uv ` 2u v.
Y
, divpX
Y
qY
rotX
X
rotY
.
14. X,
15. R3 , C 1 , . v C 1
C 2 ,
, X

nqd.
v rotXdxdydz
vprotX

16. pq , C 1 . u C 2 ,

u 0, px0 , y0 q,

r n

Bu
1
u
ln r ds,
upx0 , y0 q
2 B r
Bn
a
1
r px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 , r px x0 , y y0 q, n B
r
.
17. pq R3 , C 1 . u C 2 ,

u 0, px0 , y0 , z0 q,

r n
1 Bu
1
u`
d,
upx0 , y0 , z0 q
2
4 B r
r Bn

a
1
px x0 q2 ` py y0 q2 ` pz z0 q2 , r px x0 , y y0 , z z0 q,
r

n B .

540

14.6


: Riemann-Stieltjes

, ,
.

14.6.1

: f ra, bs , ra, bs

: a x0 x1 xn b,

vpf ; q

|f pxi q f pxi1 q|,

i1

sup vpf ; q , f ra, bs ,


b

pf q sup vpf ; q.

, Lipschitz . ,
:
. ,
|f pxq| |f paq| ` |f pxq f paq| ` |f pbq f pxq| |f paq| `

pf q.

.
f , g , |gpxq| 0, f {g .
c P pa, bq. f ra, bs f ra, cs rc, bs

,
b

pf q

pf q `

(14.36)

pf q.

: f ra, bs , ra, cs rc, bs 1


2 ,
b

pf q,
vpf ra,cs ; 1 q ` vpf rc,bs ; 2 q vpf ; 1 Y 2 q
a

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

541

f ra, cs rc, bs ,
c

pf q `

pf q

pf q.

(14.37)

, f ra, cs rc, bs , ra, bs ,


c , c , f ,
vpf ; q

pf q `

pf q,

f ra, bs ,
b

pf q

pf q `

pf q.

(14.38)

(14.37) (14.38) (14.36).

14.6.1. f ra, bs ,
gpxq

pf q, x P ra, bs

ra, bs .
. x y P ra, bs,
gpyq gpxq

pf q

pf q

pf q 0,

g .
.
14.6.2. f .
. . f ra, bs ,
gpxq

pf q, hpxq gpxq f pxq, x P ra, bs,

f g h, g , h .
x y P ra, bs,
hpyq hpxq rgpyq gpxqs rf pyq f pxqs

pf q rf pyq f pxqs |f pyq f pxq| rf pyq f pxqs 0,

h .
. f g h f .

542

14.6.3. f ra, bs , f ,
gpxq

pf q

.
. a , g , . g
, gpxq gp 0q , gp 0q gpq.
0, ra, s
: a x0 x1 xm

|f pxi q f pxi1 q|

pf q .

i1

f , 0 | xm1 |, |x |
|f pxq f pq| .

x P p , q ,
gpxq

m1

|f pxi q f pxi1 q| ` |f pxq f pxm1 q|

i1

m1

|f pxi q f pxi1 q| ` |f pxq f pxm1 q| ` |f pq f pxq|

i1
m

|f pxi q f pxi1 q|

i1

pf q 2.

gp 0q gpq.
, .

14.6.4. p1q ;
p2q f ra, bs ,
lim vpf ; q

}}0

pf q.

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes
14.6.2

543

Riemann-Stieltjes

ra, bs , f ra, bs . ra, bs

: a x0 x1 xn b,

Mi pf q

sup

f, mi pf q

rxi ,xi1 s

U pf, ; q

inf
rxi ,xi1 s

f, i pxi q pxi1 q,

Mi pf qi , Lpf, ; q

i1

mi pf qi ,

i1

U pf, ; q Lpf, ; q f Darboux Darboux

, .
b

b
f pxqdpxq inf U pf, ; q,

f pxqdpxq sup Lpf, ; q,

f , Ipf, q Ipf, q.
, f Riemann-Stieltjes ,
b
f pxqdpxq inf U pf, ; q sup Lpf, ; q,
a

, f (RS ), f P Rpq.
, pxq x , f f ra, bs Riemann ,
Riemann-Stieltjes Riemann , Riemann

(), .
RS , . , 1
ra, bs , 1 , 1 , 1
1 . Riemann ,
, Lpf, ; q U pf, ; q, ;
1 , , ,
U pf, ; 1 q U pf, ; q, Lpf, ; 1 q Lpf, ; q;
1 , 2 ,
Lpf, ; 1 q U pf, ; 2 q,

1 Y 2 ;

544
Ipf, q Ipf, q, .

Riemann , , i P rxi1 , xi s p1 i nq, f


ti u Riemann-Stieltjes
Spf, ; , q

f pi qi .

i1

14.6.5. ra, bs , f ,
:
p1q f P Rpq, f Riemann-Stieltjes ;
p2q 0, ,
U pf, ; q Lpf, ; q ;
p3q I, 0, ,
|Spf, ; , q I| , @ i P rxi1 , xi s.

. Riemann , .

. , Riemann , f ra, bs Riemann


b
lim Spf ; , q

f pxqdx,

}}0

p3q , Riemann-Stieltjes
. , :
$
$
&1, x P r0, 1{2s,
&3, x P r0, 1{2q,
f pxq
pxq
%2, x P p1{2, 1s,
%4, x P r1{2, 1s,
f P Rpq, lim Spf, ; , q .
}}0

.
14.6.6. ra, bs , f ra, bs ,
f P Rpq,
b
lim Spf ; , q

}}0

f pxqdpxq.
a

. 14.6.5 , .

14.6.7. ra, bs , f ra, bs


, f P Rpq.

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

545

. f . n, ra, bs ,
i

pbq paq
, 1 i n.
n

, . ,
n
pbq paq
rf pxi q f pxi1 qs
n
i1

U pf, ; q Lpf, ; q

pbq paq
rf pbq f paqs,
n

n, 14.6.5 p2q f .
Riemann-Stieltjes :
f1 , f2 P Rpq, c1 , c2 P R, c1 f1 ` c2 f2 P Rpq,
b

b
pc1 f1 ` c2 f2 qdpxq c1

b
f1 pxqdpxq ` c2

f2 pxqdpxq.

c P pa, bq, f ra, bs f ra, cs rc, bs

,
b

c
f pxqdpxq

b
f pxqdpxq `

f pxqdpxq.
c

a
f pxqdpxq 0,

b
f pxqdpxq

f pxqdpxq,
a

.
f1 , f2 P Rpq, f1 f2 ,
b

b
f1 pxqdpxq

f2 pxqdpxq.
a

f P Rpq, |f | P Rpq,
b
b

|f pxq|dpxq.
f pxqdpxq
a

f1 , f2 P Rpq, f1 f2 P Rpq.
f1 , f2 P Rpq, |f2 | 0, f1 {f2 P Rpq.
f P Rpq, f pra, bsq , pf q P Rpq.

546

1 , 2 , f P Rp1 q, f P Rp2 q, c1 c2 ,

f P Rpc1 1 ` c2 2 q,
b

b
f pxqdrc1 1 pxq ` c2 2 pxqs c1

b
f pxqd1 pxq ` c2

f pxqd2 pxq.
a

14.6.8 (). ra, bs , f ra, bs


, P ra, bs,
b
f pxqdpxq f pqrpbq paqs.
a

. pbq paq, , . pbq


paq 0. f , ra, bs m M .

,
b
mrpbq paqs Lpf, ; q

f pxqdpxq U pf, ; q M rpbq paqs,


a

b
f pxqdpxq
m

pbq paq

M,

, P ra, bs,
b
f pxqdpxq
f pq

pbq paq

,


, Riemann-Stieltjes ,
. ra, bs ,
. f , f RiemannStieltjes , f P Rpq, f
b

b
f pxqdpxq

b
f pxqdpxq

f pxqdpxq.
a

, :
f , , f P Rpq;
f , , f P Rpq.

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

547

14.6.9. , f ,
b
b

|f pxq|dpxq,
f pxqdpxq
a

pxq .
. f , f , |f |
.
1
1
p ` q, q p q,
2
2
p, q , f , |f | p, q ,

b
b
b

f pxqdpxq f pxqdppxq ` f pxqdqpxq


a
a
a
b
b

|f pxq|dppxq `
|f pxq|dqpxq
p

|f pxq|dpxq.
a

Riemann-Stieltjes .

14.6.10. ra, bs , f .
:
p1q f P Rpq;
p2q I, 0, ,
n

f pi qrpxi q pxi1 qs I , @ i P rxi1 , xi s.

i1

p3q f P Rpq,
pxq

pq, x P ra, bs.

. p1q p2q. , , f P Rpq f P Rpq


, 14.6.5 p2q ,
b
I
f pxqdpxq.
a

p2q p3q , , pxi q pxi1 q 0 , i , i1 P


rxi1 , xi s
f pi q f pi1 q Mi pf q mi pf q ;

i , i1 P rxi1 , xi s,
f pi1 q f pi q Mi pf q mi pf q .

548

rMi pf q mi pf qs|pxi q pxi1 q|

rf pi q f pi1 qsrpxi q pxi1 qs

i1

i1

|pxi q pxi1 q|

i1

2 ` pbq,

pbq

pq.


pbq

|pxi q pxi1 q| ,

i1

rMi pf q mi pf qsrpxi q pxi1 qs

i1

rMi pf q mi pf qstrpxi q pxi1 qs |pxi q pxi1 q|u

i1

` 2 ` pbq
2M

trpxi q pxi1 qs |pxi q pxi1 q|u ` 2 ` pbq

i1
n

2M pbq
|pxi q pxi1 q| ` 2 ` pbq
i1

2M ` 2 ` pbq,

M |f | . 14.6.5, f P Rpq.
p3q p1q. f P Rpq, 0, ra, bs ,
0 U pf, ; q Lpf, ; q .

,
|pxi q pxi1 q|

xi

pq pxi q pxi1 q

xi1

pxi q pxi1 q rpxi q pxi1 qs rpxi q pxi1 qs 2rpxi q pxi1 qs,

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

549

U pf, ; q Lpf, ; q

rMi pf q mi pf qsrpxi q pxi1 qs

i1
n

rMi pf q mi pf qsrpxi q pxi1 qs

i1

2rU pf, ; q Lpf, ; qs 2,




f P Rpq, f .

14.6.11. 1 1 , 1 , 1 .
f P Rp1 q, f P Rp1 q, f P Rpq,
b
b
b
f pxqdpxq
f pxqd1 pxq
f pxqd1 pxq.
a

. . x y P ra, bs,
|pyq pxq| r1 pyq 1 pxqs ` r1 pyq 1 pxqs,


|pxi q pxi1 q|

xi

pq r1 pxi q 1 pxi1 qs ` r1 pxi q 1 pxi1 qs,

xi1

14.6.5 f P Rp1 q, f P Rp1 q f P Rpq, .

, Riemann-Stieltjes
, .
14.6.12 (). f, g ra, bs , f P Rpgq
g P Rpf q,
b

b
f pxqdgpxq f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq

gpxqdf pxq.
a

. 14.6.10, 0, ,
b

f pxqdgpxq .
Spf, g; , q
a

f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq

gpi qrf pxi q f pxi1 qs

i1

i1
n

i1

rf pxi qgpxi q f pxi1 qgpxi1 qs

gpi qrf pxi q f pxi1 qs

i1

f pxi qrgpxi q gpi qs `

i1

f pxi1 qrgpi q gpxi1 qs,

550

f g 1 Y ti u Riemann-Stieltjes , ,
b
n

f pxqdgpxq ,
gpi qrf pxi q f pxi1 qs
f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq
a

i1

14.6.10, g P Rpf q,
b
b
gpxqdf pxq f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq
f pxqdgpxq,
a

.
14.6.13. f, g , f P Rpgq,
x

pf q P Rpgq.

. f P Rpgq , g P Rpf q,
gPR

x
`

pf q ,

,
x

pf q P Rpgq,

14.6.14 (). f ra, bs , g ra, bs


, P ra, bs,
b
f pxqdgpxq f paqrgpq gpaqs ` f pbqrgpbq gpqs.
a

. ,
b
b
f pxqdgpxq f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq
gpxqdf pxq,
a

, P ra, bs,
b
f pxqdgpxq f pbqgpbq f paqgpaq gpqrf pbq f paqs,
a

14.6.15 (). r, s , gpxq


pr, sq ra, bs , f P Rpgq, f pq P Rpgpqq,

pq
f pqdgpq
f pxqdgpxq.

pq

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

551

. g . f P Rpgq 14.6.5 , 0,
ra, bs ,
b
n

f pi qrgpxi q gpxi1 qs
f pxqdgpxq .

i1

txi u , r, s : t0 . i 1 , ti P r, s
ti pti q xi , , ,
1 : t0 t1 tn

r, s . 1 1 , 1 ra, bs (
), , ,
1 : t10 t11 t1n ,

b
n

1
1
1
f pxqdgpxq ,
f ppi qqrgppti qq gppti1 qqs

i1

14.6.5, f pq P Rpgpqq,

b
f pqdgpq

f pxqdgpxq.
a

.
. , .
Riemann Riemann-Stieltjes .
14.6.16. gpxq ra, bs Riemann , C .
x
Gpxq
gptqdt ` C, x P ra, bs.
a

f ra, bs , f P RpGq f g ra, bs Riemann ,

b
f pxqdGpxq

f pxqgpxqdx.
a

. f g ra, bs Riemann , , 0, }}
b
n
n

f pi qgpi qxi
f pxqgpxqdx ,
i pgqxi

i1

i1

,
M `1

552

|f | M .
b
n

f pi qrGpxi q Gpxi1 qs
f pxqgpxqdx

i1

xi
b
n

f pi q
gpxqdx
f pxqgpxqdx
xi1

i1

b
xi
n
n

gpxq gpi q dx

f pi qgpi qxi `
f pi q
f pxqgpxqdx
i1

i1

xi1

b
n
n

f pi qgpi qxi
f pxqgpxqdx ` M
i pgqxi
a

i1

i1

2,

14.6.10 f P RpGq,
b
b
f pxqdGpxq
f pxqgpxqdx.
a

.
14.6.1. Fourier .

f r, s , Fourier an , bn .
,
1
an

1
f pxq cos nxdx

1 sin nx

df pxq,
n

|an |

|bn |

f pxqd

sin nx
n

1
pf q, @ n 1.
n

1
1
|f p 0q f p ` 0q| `
pf q, @ n 1.
n
n

, f , g ra, bs Riemann , .
, Riemann :
14.6.17 (). f , g Riemann ,
x
x
F pxq
f ptqdt ` C, Gpxq
gptqdt ` D, x P ra, bs.
a

b
F pxqgpxqdx F pbqGpbq F paqGpaq

f pxqGpxqdx.
a

14.6 : Riemann-Stieltjes

553

Riemann-Stieltjes Riemann
, . Riemann : , 1 r, s , f

pr, sq Riemann , f pq1 r, s Riemann ,

pq

f pq ptqdt

f pxqdx.
pq

.
14.6.18 (). gptq r, s Riemann ,
t
Gptq

gpsqds ` C, t P r, s.

f pxq Gpr, sq Riemann , f pGq P RpGq,

f pGqdG

Gpq
f pGqgptqdt

f pxqdx.
Gpq

. 0, g Riemann , r, s
: t0 t1 tn ,

ti .

i pgq

i pgq rti1 , ti s :
p1q |gptq| , @ t P rti1 , ti s. I ,

|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

ti
I

|gptq|dt p q.

ti1

p2q P rti1 , ti s |gpq| . II . ,


i pgq , gptq rti1 , ti s , . Gptq rti1 , ti s

. , ,

II

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

554

|f |, |g| M . ,
n

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

i1

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q| `

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

i pgq

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

II

2M 2 ti `

2M |Gpti q Gpti1 q| `

i pgq

2M 2 ` 2M p q ` .

Gpq
n

f pGpi qqrGpti q Gpti1 qs


f pxqdx

Gpq

i1

n
n Gpti q

f pGpi qqrGpti q Gpti1 qs


f pxqdx
i1 Gpti1 q

i1
n Gpti q

rf pGpi qq f pxqsdx

i1 Gpti1 q
n

i pf pGqq|Gpti q Gpti1 q|

i1

2M 2 ` 2M p q ` .

, . , 14.6.10 f pGq P RpGq,

Gpq
f pGqdG

f pxqdx,
Gpq

. Riemann-Stieltjes Stieltjes ,
.

, ,
.
Green , Gauss Stokes

. , ,
, .

15.1

, f : R R , f pxq x0 , f pxq x0
x0 ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 q :
f pxq rx0 ` f 1 px0 qpx x0 qs opx x0 q px x0 q,

, ,
dfx0 df px0 q : R R, t f 1 px0 qt

f x0 . f pxq x , ,
, dxpx0 q , f , f x0

dfx0 f 1 px0 qdxpx0 q.

. f : Rn R x0 ,
f pxq rf px0 q ` Jf px0 qpx x0 qs op}x x0 }q px x0 q,

Jf px0 q f px0 q

` Bf

Bf
px0 q, ,
px0 q .
Bx1
Bxn

dfx0 : Rn R, t pt1 , , tn q Jf px0 qptq

Bf
px0 qtn
Bx
n
i1

f x0 . f pxq xi i , ,
f x0
dfx0

Bf
Bf
px0 qdx1 px0 q ` `
px0 qdxn px0 q.
Bx1
Bxn
555

556

. Rn ,
: Rn ,
pu1 , , um q px1 pu1 , , um q, , xn pu1 , , um qq.

u0 , pu0 q p. f ,
: p f ?
() . ,
. , p p Tp ,
p , m ,
ui pu0 q

` Bx1
Bui

pu0 q, ,

Bxn 0
pu q , i 1, , m.
Bui

f u0 , f p
dfp : Tp R
m
m

Bpf q 0
Xp
i ui pu0 q
i
pu q,
Bui
i1
i1

f p , : Xp P Tp p
, p ptq, 1 p0q Xp , Xp ,
d
dfp pXp q f pptqq,
dt t0
. dfp pXp q Xp pf q, dfp pXp q
f Xp .
, ,
, . , f p dfp Tp
Tp , Tp p ,

.
T

Tp , T

pP

Tp ,

pP

.
f ,
df : T , p dfp P Tp ,

f . , : T
ppq P Tp , @ p P ,

15.1

557

1 , 1 , 1 . f
1 . , 1
.
1 , 1 p p

ppq . , :
p p . , 1
() : p
, .
15.1.1. Rm 1 .
Rm Rn m (n m), .
, , T Rm Rm Rm .
, T Rm Rm pRm q . , Rm Rm ,
.
Rm 1 . p P Rm , ppq P Tp Rm , Tp Rm
tdx1 ppq, , dxm ppqu, ppq
ppq

ai ppqdxi ppq,

i1

p ai ppq p1 i mq p .

ai dxi .

i1

tai u C k , 1 C k . , f C k ,
df C k1 .
. Tp s
pTp qs Tp Tp .

: pTp qs R ,
(i) , , P R
p , Xi ` Yi , q p , Xi , q ` p , Yi , q, @ Xi , Yi P Tp .
(ii) ,

.
pXp1q , , Xpsq q p1q pX1 , , Xs q,

558

t1, 2, , su , p1q 1;
p1q 1.
p s , p s
s
1
Tp . s 1 ,
Tp Tp .
15.1.2.

Tp .

, p 2 Tp
. , P Tp , ^ : X,
Y,
^ pX, Y q pXqpY q pY qpXq,

^ , ^ P 2 Tp .
^ ^ , p1 ` 2 q ^ 1 ^ ` 2 ^ .

, ^ 0. Tp tei um
i1 , Tp

tei um
i1 ,
ei

m
`

j ej i , @ j P R p1 j mq,

j1

te ^ e u pi jq
i

Tp . ,

ij ei ^ ej 0,

ij

i j (

lk

1, k l; lk 0, k l)

0
kl ek ^ el pei , ej q
kl

kl rek pei qel pej q ek pej qel pei qs

kl

kl rik jl jk il s

kl

ij ,

tei ^ ej u pi jq .

, P 2 Tp , ij pei , ej q,

ij ei ^ ej .
ij

, tei ^ ej u pi jq

dim

Tp . ,

2
Tp Cm

1
mpm 1q.
2

15.1

559

,
2

Tp ,

pP

2 . :
ppq p P

Tp , @ p P ,

2 , 2 2 .
2 p 2 . ,

1 , ^ , 2 .
15.1.3. 2 .
px, yq , dx ^ dy R2 2 .
pu, vq ,
x xpu, vq, y ypu, vq,

dx xu du ` xv dv, dy yu du ` yv dv,

dx ^ dy pxu du ` xv dvq ^ pyu du ` yv dvq pxu yv yu xv qdu ^ dv,

dx ^ dy

Bpx, yq
du ^ dv.
Bpu, vq

, .
, dx ^ dy px, yq , 2
. x r cos , y r sin ,
dx ^ dy rdr ^ d.

s . , ,
3
, , Tp , ^ ^ P
Tp : X, Y, Z Tp
,
^ ^ pX, Y, Zq pXqpY qpZq pXqpZqpY q
` pY qpZqpXq pY qpXqpZq
` pZqpXqpY q pZqpY qpXq,

560

^ ^ 3 , 3 ,
.
2 , tei ^ ej ^ ek u pi j kq

Tp ,

3
, Cm
.

Tp ,

pP

3 . :
ppq p P

Tp , @ p P ,

3 , 3 3 .
3 p 3 . , ,
1 , ^ ^ , 3 .

15.1.4. 3 .
px, y, zq R3 , dx ^ dy ^ dz 3 .
pu, v, wq ,
x xpu, v, wq, y ypu, v, wq, z zpu, v, wq,

dx xu du ` xv dv ` xw dw, dy yu du ` yv dv ` yw dw,
dz zu du ` zv dv ` zw dw.

dx ^ du ^ dz
pxu du ` xv dv ` xw dwq ^ pyu du ` yv dv ` yw dwq ^ pzu du ` zv dv ` zw dwq
xu du^pyv dv ` yw dwq^pzv dv ` zw dwq ` xv dv^pyu du ` yw dwq^pzu du ` zw dwq
` xw dw ^ pyu du ` yv dvq ^ pzu du ` zv dvq
xu pyv zw yw zv qdu ^ dv ^ dw xv pyu zw yw zu qdu ^ dv ^ dw
` xw pyu zv yv zu qdu ^ dv ^ dw

Bpx, y, zq
du ^ dv ^ dw,
Bpu, v, wq

, dx ^ dy ^ dz
.
15.1.5. R3 2 .

15.1

561

px, y, zq R3 , dy ^ dz, dz ^ dx dx ^ dy 2
. 2 , R3 2

P px, y, zqdy ^ dz ` Qpx, y, zqdz ^ dx ` Rpx, y, zqdx ^ dy.

P , Q, R C k , C k 2 .
s, i p1 i sq s 1 , s
1 ^ ^ s : pTp qs R

:
1 ^ ^ s pX1 , , Xs q

p1q 1 pXp1q q s pXpsq q,

Xi p1 i sq , t1, , su .

, s Tp
tei1 ^ ^ eis u, 1 i1 is m.
s
. s m , s .
, Cm

Tp ,

pP

s . :
ppq p P

Tp , @ p P ,

s , s s .
s p s .

15.1.6. m .
px1 , , xm q Rm , dx1 ^ ^ dxm m
. u1 , , um ,
xi xi pu1 , , um q, i 1, , m,

dxi

Bxi
duj , i 1, , m.
Buj
j1

562

m
m
`

Bx1
Bxm
duj ^ ^
duj
Bu
Bu
j
j
j1
j1

Bx1
Bxm

duj1 ^ ^ dujm
Bu
Bu
j1
jm
1j1 , ,jm m
Bx1
Bxm

dup1q ^ ^ dupmq
Bu
Bu
p1q
pmq

Bx1
Bxm

du1 ^ ^ dum
p1q
Bu
Bu
p1q
pmq

dx1 ^ ^ dxm

Bpx1 , , xm q
du1 ^ ^ dum .
Bpu1 , , um q

, x Apuq,
xi

aij uj , i 1, , m,

j1

dx1 ^ ^ dxm pdet Aqdu1 ^ ^ dum ,

. u Bpwq ,
du1 ^ ^ dum pdet Bqdw1 ^ ^ dwm ,

dx1 ^ ^ dxm pdet Aqpdet Bqdw1 ^ ^ dwm ,

, x ApBpwqq
dx1 ^ ^ dxm pdet ABqdw1 ^ ^ dwm ,

det AB pdet Aqpdet Bq.


, Rm s ,

i1 is dxi1 ^ ^ dxis ,
1i1 is m

i1 is Rm , C k , C k s
.
s , t , s ` t
^ :
^

1i1 is m 1j1 jt m

i1 is j1 jt dxi1 ^ ^ dxis ^ dxj1 ^ ^ dxjt ,

15.1

563

, ;
^ ,
p1 1 ` 2 2 q ^ 1 1 ^ ` 2 2 ^ ;
^ ,
^ p1qst ^ ;
,
p ^ q ^ ^ p ^ q,

, .
. , p s
t , s ` t ^ :
^ pX1 , , Xs`t q

1
pXp1q , , Xpsq q pXps`1q , , Xps`tq q,
s!t!

t1, , s ` tu , Xi p1 i s ` tq .
, Rm .
. . f : 1 2
(), f ppq q. p Xp ,
1 p ptq, 1 p0q Xp ,
dfp pXp q pf q1 p0q P Tq 2 ,

dfp : Tp 1 Tp 2

f p , f p .
f , 2 s , 1 s
f :
f pX1 , , Xs q pdf pX1 q, , df pXs qq,

, Xi p1 i sq p , df pXi q dfp pXi q f ppq .


f f . f , f

. :
f p ^ q f ^ f ;

564

g, h 2 , f pgdhq g f dph f q.

15.1.7. 2 .
: R3 ,
x xpu, vq, y ypu, vq, z zpu, vq,

R3 2
P px, y, zqdy ^ dz ` Qpx, y, zqdz ^ dx ` Rpx, y, zqdx ^ dy,


pq P pqpyu du ` yv dvq ^ pzu du ` zv dvq ` Qpqpzu du ` zv dvq ^ pxu du ` xv dvq
` Rpqpxu du ` xv dvq ^ pyu du ` yv dvq
P pq

Bpy, zq
Bpz, xq
Bpx, yq
du ^ dv ` Qpq
du ^ dv ` Rpq
du ^ dv.
Bpu, vq
Bpu, vq
Bpu, vq

15.1.8. .
: Rm Rm , ,
pdx1 ^ ^ dxm q dx1 ^ ^ dxm
d1 ^ ^ dm

m
m
`

B1
Bm
dxi ^ ^
dxi
Bx
Bx
i
i
i1
i1

pdet Jqdx1 ^ ^ dxm .

15.1.9. R2n .
R2n 2

dxi ^ dxn`i ,

i1

2 R2n . A : R2n R2n ,

A ,

A . A paij q2n2n ,
A

i1

A dxi ^ A dxn`i

i1 1k,l2n

aik an`i l dxk ^ dxl ,

15.1

565

A
aik an`i n`k ai n`k an`i k 1 p1 k nq,
aik an`i l ail an`i k 0 p|k l| nq.

In

In

In

In

, pdet Aq2 1.

det A 1.

, dx1 ^ ^ dx2n R2n ,


n ^ ^ p1q

npn1q
2

n!,

(15.1)

, A A pqn pA qn n , A .
, A pdet Aq, det A 1.

15.1
1. u P Rn , f : Rn R . : r0, 1s Rn

, 1 p0q u,
Bf
d
p0q f pptqq.
Bu
dt t0
2. 2 , pei , ej q ij ,

ij ei ^ ej ,

ij

tei u , tej u .
3.
p1q pxdx ` ydyq ^ pzdz zdxq.
p2q pdx ` dy ` dzq ^ pxdx ^ dy ydy ^ dzq.
4. px, yq R2 , pr, q ,
dx ^ dy rdr ^ d.

566

5. px, y, zq R3 , pr, , q ,
x r sin cos , y r sin sin , z r cos ,

dx ^ dy ^ dz r2 sin dr ^ d ^ d.
6. , dpg f qp dgf ppq dfp .
7. f pdhq dph f q.
8. (15.1) .

15.2

, 0 . , f ,
df 1 . f df . ,
s , s ` 1 , ,
d.
Rm . C 1 s ,

i1 is dxi1 ^ ^ dxis ,

1i1 is m

di1 is ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis ,

1i1 is m

, d s ` 1 , .
15.2.1. 1 .
P px, yqdx ` Qpx, yqdy R2 1 ,
d dP ^ dx ` dQ ^ dy pPx dx ` Py dyq ^ dx ` pQx dx ` Qy dyq ^ dy
pQx Py qdx ^ dy.

15.2.2. R3 2 .
R3 2
P px, y, zqdy ^ dz ` Qpx, y, zqdz ^ dx ` Rpx, y, zqdx ^ dy,

15.2

567

d dP ^ dy ^ dz ` dQ ^ dz ^ dx ` dR ^ dx ^ dy
pPx dx ` Py dy ` Pz dzq ^ dy ^ dz ` pQx dx ` Qy dy ` Qz dzq ^ dz ^ dx
` pRx dx ` Ry dy ` Rz dzq ^ dx ^ dy
pPx ` Qy ` Rz qdx ^ dy ^ dz.

15.2.3. R3 1 .
P px, y, zqdx ` Qpx, y, zqdy ` Rpx, y, zqdz 1 ,
d dP ^ dx ` dQ ^ dy ` dR ^ dz
pPx dx ` Py dy ` Pz dzq ^ dx ` pQx dx ` Qy dy ` Qz dzq ^ dy
` pRx dx ` Ry dy ` Rz dzq ^ dz
pRy Qz qdy ^ dz ` pPz Rx qdz ^ dx ` pQx Py qdx ^ dy.

:
, s , , P R,
dp ` q d ` d;
s , t ,
dp ^ q d ^ ` p1qs ^ d;
d2 0, dpdq 0. apxqdxi1 ^ ^ dxis :
dpdq dpda ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis q
m
`

Ba
d
dxi ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis
Bxi
i1
m

` Ba
d
^ dxi ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis
Bxi
i1

B2 a
dxj ^ dxi ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis

Bxj Bxi
1i,jm

B2 a
B2 a

dxi ^ dxj ^ dxi1 ^ ^ dxis


Bxi Bxj
Bxj Bxi
ij

0.
df f d. .

568

. :
: Rn , , dp : Tp Tppq , @ p P Rm .

s , s , d
s ` 1 . d s ` 1 , d,

d d ,

d . , .
. d 0, ;
d, . d2 0 , .

15.2.4. R2 t0u .
R2 t0u 1

x
y
dy 2
dx,
x2 ` y 2
x ` y2

d 0, 1 . pr, q ,
dx cos dr r sin d, dy sin dr ` r cos d

d. , ,
R2 t0u . , R2 t0u f , df . () f

, dpf q 0, f R2 tpx, 0q | x 0u ,
R2 t0u , .

m

Rm 1
ai pxqdxi , df ,
i1

Newton-Leibniz ,
1

d
f ptxqdt
0 dt
1
m
Bf
f p0q `
ptxqxi dt
0 i1 Bxi
1
m
f p0q `
ai ptxqxi dt.

f pxq f p0q `

0 i1

15.2

569

, , f pxq,
m
m 1
m 1

Bai
t
ai ptxqdt dxi `
df
dt xi dxj
0 Bxj
0
i1 j1
i1
m 1
m
m 1

Baj

aj ptxqdt dxj `
t
dt xi dxj
0
0 Bxi
j1
j1 i1
m 1
m 1

daj

ptxqdt dxj
aj ptxqdt dxj `
t
dt
0
0
j1
j1

1 dptaj q

ptxqdt dxj
dt
0
j1

aj pxqdxj .

j1

Bai
Baj

d 0. R2 1 ,
Bxj
Bxi
.

15.2
1. :
p1q xydx ` dz.
p2q x2 ydx yzex dy.
p3q xydy ^ dz ` yzdz ^ dx ` zxdx ^ dy.
2. f Rn C 1 . df 0 f .
3. , s , t ,
dp ^ q d ^ ` p1qs ^ d.
4. u : R2 R C 2 ,
u

B2 u B2 u
` 2 0.
Bx2
By

,
Bu
Bu
dy
dx ;
Bx
By
p2q v : R2 R,
p1q

Bv Bu
Bv
Bu

,
.
Bx
By By
Bx

570

15.3

, ,
. .
M Rn Rn . q P M , Rm U Rn
C k pk 1q : U Rn
p1q ;

p2q rankJ m;

p3q pU q Vq X M,

Vq q Rn , M Rn m C k
. m 1 , m 2 2 .
, m m () , m n 1
. q , Vq X M
q , q M .
15.3.1. .
f : U R C k , U Rn1 , f
graphpf q tpx, f pxqq P Rn | x P U u,

Rn C k , graphpf q :
: U Rn , pxq px, f pxqq.

graph(f )

15.1
. , U Rm , f1 , , fnm : U R U
n m C k ,
graphpf1 , , fnm q tpx1 , , xm , f1 pxq, , fnm pxqq | x px1 , , xm q P U u

Rn m , f1 , , fnm () .

15.3

571

, m M m
. , q , ppq q.
rankJ m,
det

B
i

Buj

mm

ppq 0.

vi i puq, i 1, , m. , puq pv1 , , vm q p


1 C k , , 1 q ,
1 pv1 , , vm q pv1 , , vm , m`1 1 pvq, , n 1 pvqq,

q M .
, q
, 1 Rm C k .

.
15.3.2. S 1 .
, . ,
S 1 :
: p0, 2q R2 , : p, 3q R2

pq pcos , sin q, pq pcos , sin q,

, ,
p0, 2q S 1 tp1, 0qu, p, 3q S 1 tp1, 0qu.

S 1 R2 .

15.3.3. S 2 .
, . , 6
:
tpx, y, zq P S 2 | z 0u, tpx, y, zq P S 2 | z 0u, tpx, y, zq P S 2 | y 0u,
tpx, y, zq P S 2 | y 0u, tpx, y, zq P S 2 | x 0u, tpx, y, zq P S 2 | x 0u,

, tpx, y, zq P S 2 | z 0u :
: tpx, yq P R2 | x2 ` y 2 1u R3 , px, yq px, y,

a
1 x2 y 2 q.

572
(0, 0, 1)

(x, y, z)
(u, v)
0

15.2
S 2 :
1 : R2 R3 , 1 pu, vq

2v
u2 ` v 2 1
2u
,
,
.
1 ` u2 ` v 2 1 ` u2 ` v 2 1 ` u2 ` v 2

1 pR2 q S 2 tp0, 0, 1qu,


u

x
y
, v
, px, y, zq P S 2 tp0, 0, 1qu.
1z
1z

,
2 : R2 R3 , 2 pu, vq

2u
2v
1 u2 v 2
,
,
.
1 ` u2 ` v 2 1 ` u2 ` v 2 1 ` u2 ` v 2

2 pR2 q S 2 tp0, 0, 1qu,


u

x
y
, v
, px, y, zq P S 2 tp0, 0, 1qu.
1`z
1`z

, S 2 R3 .

. q
, 1 Vp X M C k , p1 q dui p1 i mq
M q 1 , dui . q
s

i1 is dui1 ^ ^ duis ,

1i1 is m

i1 is q .
d

di1 is ^ dui1 ^ ^ duis ,

1i1 is m

d d ,

15.3

573

d .
. M Rn m ().
: U Rn : U Rn M .
1
1
1
: pV X V X M q pV X V X M q

det Jp1
q 0,

. M
tV X M u, , M , tV X M u
M , .
, .
, , S 1 S 2 .
, .
15.3.1. Rn M M
.
. M , tV X M u,
.
pu1 , , un1 q px1 pu1 , , un1 q, , xn pu1 , , un1 qq.
pqq pN1 , , Nn q,
q ppq, q M N
Ni p1qi1

i`1
n
Bpx1 , , xi1
, x , , x q
ppq,
Bpu1 , , un1 q

, q N pqq
pqq det Jp1 q N
pqq,
N

,
{}N
}
n N

M .
, M
, M N

: p P M , p Vp X M ,
p np , Vp X M fp ,
fp np ,
N

574

fp , , fp .

, fp .


, .

M , ,
, M n 1
N
}du1 ^ ^ dun1 ,
}N

, M
n 1 , M .

}1
}N

p1qi1 Ni dx1 ^ ^ dxi1 ^ dxi`1 ^ ^ dxn .

i1

, , Rn M M
n 1 () .
.
15.3.2. M Rn m , M M
m .
. M , V X M ,
. m

b
detrpJqT Js du1 ^ ^ dum ,

, M , M
m , M .


.
.
pu1 , , um q px1 pu1 , , um q, , xn pu1 , , um qq,

M
`
1{2
detrpJqT Js

1i1 im

Bpxi1 , , xim q
dxi1 ^ ^ dxim .
Bpu1 , , um q
n

15.3.4. f : Rn R C k pk 1q , c P R. f 1 pcq H,
p P f 1 pcq, f ppq 0, M f 1 pcq Rn .

15.3

575

. x0 px01 , , x0n q P M , f px0 q 0,


, px01 , , x0n1 q f pxq c

Bf 0
px q 0.
Bxn

px1 , , xn1 , gpx1 , , xn1 q,

g C k . , x0 M f 1 pcq , .
M ptq, f pptqq c
f pptqq 1 ptq 0,

f M , f M , 15.3.1


M .
. p1q f f

pcq ,

}f }1

p1qi1

i1

Bf
dx1 ^ ^ dxi1 ^ dxi`1 ^ ^ dxn .
Bxi

p2q : f : Rn Rm C k pk 1q , c P Rm .
f 1 pcq H, p P f 1 pcq, rankJf ppq m, M f 1 pcq Rn

n m ,
`
1
detrJf pJf qT s 2

p1qi1 ``im `mpm`1q{2

1i1 im n

Bpf1 , , fm q
Bpxi1 , , xim q

y
z
dx1 ^ dx
i1 ^ ^ dxim ^ ^ dxm ,
xi dxi .
, fi f i , dx

, f pxq x21 ` ` x2n , R 0 , f 1 pR2 q Rn


, R n 1 ,

n
1
p1qi1 xi dx1 ^ ^ dxi1 ^ dxi`1 ^ ^ dxn .
R i1

.
Hm tpx1 , , xm q P Rm | xm 0u,

Hm m , BH m 1 Rm1 .
M Rn Rn . q P M , Hm U Rn
C k pk 1q : U Rn
p1q ;

p2q rankJ m;

p3q pU q Vq X M,

576

Vq q Rn , M Rn m C k
, . , .
, q P pU X BHm q, , q
. q , M
, BM . Vq X M q P BM ,
, U X BHm , BM
m 1 () .

: m 1 , , ,
; m 2 , , ,
2 ; m 3 , ,
3 . , Hm m ,
m 1 .
.
, , Mobius
() :
180
Mobius ,
15.3 Mobius

(). Mobius

.
15.3.3. M , BM .
. , M BM
. , M ,
y 1 pxq, yi yi px1 , , xm q, i 1, , m.

, ,
ym pxq 0, ym px1 , , xm1 , 0q 0.

Bym
px1 , , xm1 , 0q 0, i 1, , m 1,
Bxi

(15.2)

Bym
ym pxq 0
px1 , , xm1 , 0q lim
0.
`
Bxm
xm 0
xm 0

(15.3)

(15.2)
det Jp 1 qpx1 , , xm1 , 0q det

By
i

Bxi

pm1qpm1q

Bym
.
Bxm

15.3

577

(15.3)
By
i
det
px1 , , xm1 , 0q 0,
Bxi pm1qpm1q
BM .

, BM : m ,
M BM ,
; m , M BM
, .
, Hm tx1 , , xm u ,
BHm tp1qm x1 , x2 , , xm1 u .
, . , 1
, . , f suppf

suppf tx | f pxq 0u.

, R ,
:
pxq 1, x P r1{2, 1{2s; 0 pxq 1, 1{2 |x| 1; pxq 0, |x| 1.

15.3.4. M Rn , tV u M .
Rn M V , V t u,

1, supp V .

t u tV u .

. q P M , , q P V . q 0, B2q pqq V .
tBq {2 pqquqPM M , M , ,

tBi {2 pqi quki1 .


V

Bi pqi q,

i1

V M .
1 i k,
pxq

` }x qi }
, x P Rn ,

i
i1

, Rn ,
pxq 0, @ x P V.

578

i pxq

1 ` }x qi }

, x P V,
pxq
i

i V ,
k

i pxq 1, x P V.

i1

,
suppi Bi pqi q B2i pqi q, i 1, , k.

V i (), t u


15.3
1. R4 3 S 3 , .
2. S 1 .
3. S 2 .
4. .
5. S 2
xdy ^ dz ` ydz ^ dx ` zdx ^ dy.
6. R3 px, y, zq , R3

. , S 2
?
7. M , f : M R . , 0, M

g,
|gpxq f pxq| , @ x P M.

15.4 Stokes

579

15.4

Stokes

M m , BM . M m
, supp
supp tx P M | pxq 0u,

supp . M .
p1q supp V X M ,

: U Rn ,

,
a du1 ^ ^ dum ,

a V X M . M

a puqdu1 dum .
U

. , supp
V X M ,
: U Rn ,

a dv1 ^ ^ dvm ,

, 1

1
v 1
puq, u P pV X V X M q.

dv1 ^ ^ dvm det Jp1


qdu1 ^ ^ dum ,

a pvq det Jp1 qpuq a puq.

580

supp V X V X M , ,

a pvqdv1 dvm
U

a pvqdv1 dvm

1
pV XV XM q

a pvq| det Jp1


qpuq|du1 dum

1
pV XV XM q

a puqdu1 dum

1
pV XV XM q

a puqdu1 dum .
U

, , .
, M
k

. ,
i , supp i
i1

i .

i1 M

p2q m , supp

tV X M u, t u ,

,
M

. , tV X M u ,
t u,

supp V X M . ,

15.4 Stokes

581

M .
, :
. M ,

.
M

. , , , P R,

p ` q
M

`
M

.
M

supp V X M , V X M , ,

.
M

, Stokes .
15.4.1 (Stokes). M m , M
m 1 ,

,
BM

BM .
. , , ,
M .
, , M Hm ,
, Hm m 1 , BM BHm
.
m 1 Hm tu1 , , um u

xi ^ ^ dum ,
p1qi1 ai du1 ^ ^ du

i1

ai Hm .
d

m
`
Bai
du1 ^ ^ dum .
Bui
i1

582

Hm

Bai
du1 dum
m Bui
i1 H

m1
`8
Bai

dum
du1 dum1
Bu
m1
i
R
i1 0
`8

Bam
du1 dum1
`
dum
Bu
m1
m
R
0

m1
ui `8
`8

xi dum1

du1 du
dum
ai

ui 8

Rm2

i1

m1

um `8

am
du1 dum1
um 0

am pu1 , , um1 , 0qdu1 dum1 .

BHm

um |BHm 0,
|BHm p1qm1 am pu1 , , um1 , 0qdu1 ^ ^ dum1 ,

BHm tp1qm u1 , u2 , , um1 u ,

p1qm1 p1qm am pu1 , , um1 , 0qdu1 dum1


BHm
BHm

am pu1 , , um1 , 0qdu1 dum1 .


BHm

Hm

,
BHm

.
. p1q M , BM H , Stokes .
p2q Hm X
X pa1 puq, , am puqq,

divX
divX

Bai
,
Bu
i
i1

X , Stokes

divXdu1 dum
X p0, , 0, 1qdu1 dum1 ,
Hm

BHm

p0, , 0, 1q BHm . .

15.4 Stokes

583

15.4.2 (Gauss-Green). D Rm , m 1
. X D ,

d,
divXdu1 dum
X N
D

BD

BD .
N

. D Rm , BD
,
m

xi ^ ^ dum ,
p1qi1 Ni du1 ^ ^ du

i1

Ni i . D m
m

xi ^ ^ dum ,
p1qi1 Xi du1 ^ ^ du

i1

Xi X i ,
d divXdu1 ^ ^ dum ,

Stokes ,

divXdu1 dum

BD

, :
,
|BD X N

divXdu1 dum


X N

BD

d,
X N

BD

, .

. M , M ,
, .
15.4.1. m 1 .
, m 1

i1

xi ^ ^ dum ,
p1qi1 ui du1 ^ ^ du

584

Stokes ,
pS

m1

q
S m1

d
Bm

du1 ^ ^ dum mvpB m q,

m
Bm

B m m , vpB m q .
.

15.4
1. Stokes Green , Gauss Stokes

.
2. : ra, bs Rn , f ,

df f ppbqq f ppaqq.

3. F : S n r0, 1s S n ,
f0 pxq F px, 0q, f1 pxq F px, 1q, @ x P S n .

Sn

f0

Sn

f1 ,

S n .
4. , 0, f, g : S n S n
}gpxq f pxq} , @ x P S n

Sn

S n .

Sn

g ,

, ,
. ,
, Fourier .

16.1

f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds , y P rc, ds,


x f px, yq ra, bs Riemann ,
b
Ipyq

f px, yqdx, y P rc, ds,


a

, y , n.
16.1.1 (). y0 P rc, ds. pxq px P ra, bsq,
0, 0, 0 |y y0 |
|f px, yq pxq| , @ x P ra, bs,

lim f px, yq pxq ra, bs .


yy0

, f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds ,


, lim f px, yq f px, y0 q x P ra, bs .
yy0

():
lim f px, yq pxq ra, bs 0, 0,
yy0

0 |y1 y0 | , 0 |y2 y0 |
|f px, y1 q f px, y2 q| , @ x P ra, bs,

Cauchy .
y P rc, ds, f px, yq x P ra, bs ,
lim f px, yq pxq

yy0

ra, bs , pxq ra, bs .


585

586

16.1.1 (). y P rc, ds, f px, yq


x P ra, bs Riemann , lim f px, yq pxq ra, bs
yy0

, pxq ra, bs Riemann ,


b
b
pxqdx lim
f px, yqdx.
yy0

. 0, , 0, 0 |y y0 | ,
|f px, yq pxq|

, @ x P ra, bs.
4pb aq

y1 , 0 |y1 y0 | , f px, y1 q x , ra, bs ,

i pf p, y1 qqxi

i1

.
2

,
i pq i pf p, y1 qq `

i pqxi

i1

,
2pb aq

i pf p, y1 qqxi `

i1

xi ,
2pb aq i1

pxq ra, bs Rieamnn , 0 |y y0 | ,


b
b
b

f px, yqdx
|pxq f px, yq|dx ,
pxqdx
4
a
a
a

b
lim

yy0

b
f px, yqdx

pxqdx,
a

.
16.1.2. f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds ,
b
Ipyq
f px, yqdx, y P rc, ds
a

y .


. .
16.1.3. f px, yq y y0 ,
lim

yy0

f px, yq f px, y0 q
fy px, y0 q
y y0

x P ra, bs , Ipyq y0 ,
b
1
I py0 q
fy px, y0 qdx.
a

16.1

587

. . , fy px, yq ra, bs rc, ds




, .

16.1.1. pq f , g ,
h

`8
f px yqgpyqdy,

hpxq
8

h ,
h

pnq

`8
pxq

f pnq px yqgpyqdy.

. f pM, M q . a 0, x P ra, as , hpxq

M `a
hpxq

f px yqgpyqdy,
M a

hpxq pa, aq ,
M `a
`8
hpnq pxq
f pnq px yqgpyqdy
f pnq px yqgpyqdy,
M a

a 0 , h p8, `8q .

. f , h g .
16.1.2. 0 a b,
1 b
x xa
I
dx.
ln x
0
. a , b , Ipbq,
,
I 1 pbq

xb dx

1
,
b`1

Ipbq lnp1 ` bq ` C.

Ipaq 0, C lnp1 ` aq,


I ln

1`b
.
1`a

.
16.1.3. || 1,

I
lnp1 ` cos xqdx.
0

588

. 0 a 1, P ra, as , f px, q lnp1 ` cos xq


f px, q

cos x
1 ` cos x

r0, s ra, as , I Ipq ,

cos x

I 1 pq
dx ?
.
1 2
0 1 ` cos x

Ipq lnp1 `

a
1 2 q ` C,

Ip0q 0,
C ln 2,

I ln

1`

1 2
.
2


|| 1 .
.
bpyq
F pyq
f px, yqdx,
apyq

apyq, bpyq y .
16.1.4. f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds , apyq, bpyq y ,

a apyq b, a bpyq b, @ y P rc, ds,

F pyq rc, ds .
. y0 P rc, ds, y P rc, ds ,
bpyq
bpy0 q
F pyq F py0 q
f px, yqdx
f px, y0 qdx
apyq

apy0 q

apy0 q

bpyq
bpy0 q

apyq

bpy0 q
rf px, yq f px, y0 qsdx.

f px, yqdx `

f px, yqdx `

apy0 q

f , M 0, |f px, yq| M .
|F pyq F py0 q| M |apyq apy0 q| ` M |bpyq bpy0 q|
` sup |f px, yq f px, y0 q||b a|,
xPra,bs

apyq, bpyq f px, yq () F pyq y y0 .


F pyq ,

16.1

589

16.1.5. f px, yq fy px, yq ra, bs rc, ds , apyq,


bpyq y , F pyq y ,
bpyq
F 1 pyq
fy px, yqdx ` f pbpyq, yqb1 pyq f papyq, yqa1 pyq.
apyq

. .
16.1.4. a 0,
a
Ipaq
0

lnp1 ` axq
dx.
1 ` x2

. ,
a
lnp1 ` a2 q
x
`
dx
1 ` a2
p1
`
axqp1
` x2 q
0
a
lnp1 ` a2 q

arctan a `
.
2
1`a
2p1 ` a2 q

I 1 paq

a ,
lnp1 ` a2 q
arctan a ` C.
2
Ip0q 0, C 0.
Ipaq

Ipaq

lnp1 ` a2 q
arctan a.
2

16.1
1. f px, yq y , fy px, yq ra, bs rc, ds ,

lim

yy0

f px, yq f px, y0 q
fy px, y0 q
y y0

x P ra, bs . (: .)
2. f pxq ra, bs , x P pa, bq,

1 x
lim
rf pt ` hq f ptqsdt f pxq f paq.
h0 h a
3. n Bessel
Jn pxq

cospn x sin qd
0

Bessel
x2 Jn2 pxq ` xJn1 pxq ` px2 n2 qJn pxq 0.

590
4.

p1q
lnp1 2a cos x ` a2 qdx; p2q
0

arctanpa tan xq
dx pa 0q.
tan x

5.
2
1
` 1 xb xa
1 ` a cos x dx
p1q
p|a| 1q; p2q
dx pb a 0q.
ln
sin ln
1 a cos x cos x
x
ln x
0
0
6. 1,

lnp2 sin2 xqdx.

7.
$
&yp1 xq,
Kpx, yq
%xp1 yq,

y x,
y x.

f pxq r0, 1s ,
1
upxq
Kpx, yqf pyqdy
0

u2 pxq f pxq, up0q up1q 0.


8. f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds ,

Ip, , yq
f px, yqdx, , P ra, bs, y P rc, ds

, , y , , .
9. .
10. f pxq x 0 ,
upxq

1
pn 1q!

px tqn1 f ptqdt

upnq pxq f pxq, up0q u1 p0q upn1q p0q 0.


11. , 2 1 ,

1
1 x`at
upx, tq rpx atq ` px ` atqs `
psqds
2
2a xat

B2 u
B2 u
a2 2 .
2
Bt
Bx

16.2

591

16.2

Riemann , .
, . ,
, .
16.2.1

f px, yq ra, `8q rc, ds , y P rc, ds,


x f px, yq ra, `8q ,
`8
Ipyq
f px, yqdx, y P rc, ds,
a

, y .
16.2.1 (). 0, y A0 A0 pq a,
A, A1 A0 , y P rc, ds,
A1

`8

f
px,
yqdx

f px, yqdx ,

`8

f px, yqdx y P rc, ds .

rc, ds . ,
. , y P rc, ds, b
b
f px, yqdx , 0, 0 0 pq 0, 0 , 1 0 ,
a

rc, ds y,
b1

f px, yqdx

f px, yqdx ,

f px, yqdx y P rc, ds .

16.2.1.
`8
Ipyq
yexy dx
0

.
, y 0, .
`8
yexy dx eyA ,
A

592

Ipyq y P r, `8q , . Ipyq




y P r0, `8q .

,
.
p1q (Weierstrass) F pxq,
|f px, yq| F pxq, @ px, yq P ra, `8q rc, ds,

`8

F pxqdx ,

`8

f px, yqdx y P rc, ds .

:
A1
A1


F pxqdx.
f px, yqdx

p2q (Dirichlet) f px, yq, gpx, yq :


A
piq A `8 ,
f px, yqdx y P rc, ds ,
a

K,

f px, yqdx K, @ A P ra, `8q, y P rc, ds;

piiq gpx, yq x , x `8 gpx, yq y P rc, ds

, 0, A0 A0 pq, x A0
|gpx, yq| , @ y P rc, ds;

`8

f px, yqgpx, yqdx y P rc, ds .

: , A, A1 a ,
A1
A
A1

f px, yqdx
f px, yqdx `
f px, yqdx 2K.

, A, A1 A0 ,
A1

pyq

A1

1
f px, yqgpx, yqdx |gpA, yq|
f px, yqdx ` |gpA , yq|
f px, yqdx

2K ` 2K 4K,

.
p3q (Abel) f px, yq, gpx, yq :

pyq

16.2
piq

`8

593

f px, yqdx y P rc, ds ;

piiq gpx, yq x , y P rc, ds ;


`8

f px, yqgpx, yqdx y P rc, ds .


a

, .
, .
.
16.2.2.
`8
Ipq

ex sin x dx

P p0, `8q .
0 ,
|ex sin x| ex ,

`8

ex dx , Weierstrass Ipq P r, `8q

Ipq P p0, `8q , 0 ,


A1

ex sin x dx

A1

sin x dx cos A cos A1 ,

A 2n, A1 2n ` {2 .

16.2.3.
`8
Ipq
0

sin x
dx
`x

P p0, `8q .
0 ,
A
|1 cos A|
2

,
sin x dx

0
1
x , . , Dirichlet Ipq
`x
P r, `8q .


. Ipq P p0, `8q .

594

16.2.4.
`8
Ipq

ex

sin x
dx
x

P r0, `8q .
`8
sin x

dx , , .
x
0
ex x , , x 0 0 ex 1, Abel Ipq


P r0, `8q .
16.2.2

, ,
.
16.2.1 ().

`8

f px, yqdx y0 ,
`8
lim f px, yq pxq ra, bs ,
pxqdx
a

yy0

,
`8
lim

yy0

`8
f px, yqdx

pxqdx.
a

. 16.1.1 pxq ra, bs . , 0,


A0 , A, A1 A0 ,
A1

f px, yqdx .

A, A1 , 0, 0 |y y0 | ,
|f px, yq pxq|

,
|A A1 | ` 1

A1
A1
A1

pxqdx
f px, yqdx `
rf px, yq pxqsdx

2,
` |A A |
|A A1 | ` 1
1

pxq ra, `8q , A1 `8


`8

pxqdx 2.

lim f px, yq pxq ra, As , 0 0, 0


yy0

|y y0 | 0
|f px, yq pxq|

, @ x P ra, As.
Aa`1

16.2

595

, 0 |y y0 | 0 ,
`8
`8
`8
`8

f px, yqdx
pxqdx
f px, yq `
pxqdx

a
a
A
A
A
`
|f px, yq pxq|dx
a

` 2 ` pA aq

Aa`1

4,

lim

yy0

`8

`8
f px, yqdx

pxqdx.
a

16.2.2 (). f px, yq ra, `8q rc, ds ,


`8
Ipyq
f px, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds , Ipyq y P rc, ds .


. f px, yq ra, bs rc, ds ,


.
16.2.5.

`8
Ipq
0

sin x
dx
x

P r0, `8q .
, 0 , Ipq 0. 0 , t x
Ipq {2. Ipq P r0, `8q , Ipq 0

. , 0, Ipq P r, `8q


16.2.3 (Dini). f px, yq px, yq P ra, `8q rc, ds ,

`8
Ipyq

f px, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds , Ipyq y P rc, ds .


. Dini . Ipyq
8
8 a`n`1

f px, yqdx
an pyq,
Ipyq
n0 a`n

n0

a`n`1
an pyq

f px, yqdx pn 0, 1, 2, q.
a`n

596

f px, yq , an pyq y . , Ipyq y


8

, Dini ,
an pyq y P rc, ds . ,
n0

0, N ,
8

`8
an pyq

f px, yqdx .
a`N

nN

A0 a ` N , A A0 , f
`8
`8
0
f px, yqdx
f px, yqdx ,
A

A0

Ipyq y P rc, ds .

16.2.4 (). f px, yq fy px, yq ra, `8q rc, ds ,

`8
fy px, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds , y0 P rc, ds,


`8
Ipy0 q
f px, y0 qdx
a

,
`8
Ipyq

f px, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds ,
`8

I pyq

fy px, yqdx.
a

. .
8
8 a`n`1

an pyq
f px, yqdx,
n0 a`n

n0

,
8

a1n pyq

n0

y P rc, ds .

8 a`n`1

fy px, yqdx

n0 a`n
8

an py0 q , 9.2.2

an pyq

n0

n0

y P rc, ds ,
8

n0

`8
8
1

an pyq
a1n pyq
fy px, yqdx.
n0

(16.1)

16.2

597

Ipyq y P rc, ds . , , 0, A0 ,
A, A1 A0 ,

A1

f px, y0 qdx

A1

fy px, yqdx , @ y P rc, ds.

pyq

A1

f px, yqdx ,

A1

A1
f px, yqdx

f px, y0 qdx

A1

fy px, qdx py y0 q,

A1
A1
A1

fy px, qdxpd cq ` pd cq,


f px, yqdx
f px, y0 qdx `

Ipyq y P rc, ds , (16.1)


`8
I 1 pyq
fy px, yqdx.
a

.
16.2.6.
`8
Ipq

ex cos 2x dx.

0
2

. , f px, q ex cos 2x x, ,
2

|f px, q| |ex 2x sin 2x| 2xex ,

Weierstrass
`8

ex 2x sin 2x dx

. , Ipq .
`8
2
ex 2x sin 2x dx,
I 1 pq
0

I 1 pq 2Ipq,

Ipq Ce ,
?
1 ? 2
Ip0q {2, Ipq
e
.
2

598

16.2.7.
`8
Ipq
0

ex

sin x
dx p 0q.
x

. Ipq P r0, `8q . 0,

`8
0

` x sin x
e
dx
x

`8

ex sin xdx

P r, `8q , Ipq r, `8q ,


`8
1
I 1 pq
ex sin xdx
.
1 ` 2
0
, 0 .
Ipq C arctan .

`8
|Ipq|

ex dx

1
0 p `8q,

C {2, Ipq {2 arctan . 0 Ip0q {2.

.
.
16.2.5. b a, fn pxq ra, bs f pxq.
`8
`8

fn pxqdx n ,
f pxqdx ,
a

`8

`8
f pxqdx lim

n8 a

fn pxqdx.

. , 0, A0 0, A, A1 A0
A1

fn pxqdx , @ n 1.

fn pxq f pxq , n ,
A1
A1
A1

f pxqdx
|f pxq fn pxq|dx `
fn pxqdx 2.

`8

f pxqdx , A1 `8

`8

`8

fn pxqdx ,
f pxqdx 2.

16.2

599

n ,
`8
`8
A0

fn pxqdx
f pxqdx
|fn pxq f pxq|dx

a
a
a
`8
`8

`
fn pxqdx `
f pxqdx
A0

A0

4,

lim

`8

`8
fn pxqdx

n8 a

f pxqdx.
a

. .
16.2.6. fn pxq n , pa, `8q
f pxq.
`8

f pxqdx

`8

f1 pxqdx
a

,
`8
lim

`8
fn pxqdx

n8 a

f pxqdx.
a

. fn pxq n ,
0 f pxq fn pxq f pxq f1 pxq,

Weierstrass , f pxq fn pxq pa, `8q , fn pxq


pa, `8q .
0, , 0, A a ` ,
a`
`8
0
rf pxq f1 pxqsdx , 0
rf pxq f1 pxqsdx .
a

Dini , f pxq fn pxq ra ` , As .


N , n N

, @ x P ra ` , As,
Aa

|f pxq fn pxq|

a`

`8
0

rf pxq fn pxqsdx
a

A
rf pxq f1 pxqsdx `

8
rf pxq f1 pxqsdx

`
A

`
3,

rf pxq fn pxqsdx
a`

pA a q `
Aa

600

lim

`8

`8
fn pxqdx

n8 a

f pxqdx.
a

. a . () ,
.
16.2.8. J

`8

ex dx.

.
`

lim

n`8

1`

2
x2 n
ex ,
n

p1 ` x2 {nqn n ,
`8

ex dx lim

n`8 0

x
J lim

n`8

`8

`8
n
0

x2 n
q dx,
n

p1 `

nt

?
? p2n 3q!!
dt

lim
n

,
n`8
p1 ` t2 qn
p2n 2q!! 2
2


Wallis .
16.2.9. I

1
0

lnp1 xq
dx.
x

. x 1 , .
8

lnp1 xq
xn1

x
n
n1

, :
8 1 n1
8

x
1
2
I
dx

.
n
n2
6
n1 0
n1

, r0, 1s .
16.2.7 (). f px, yq ra, `8q rc, ds ,
`8
Ipyq

f px, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds ,
d

`8
dx
a

d
f px, yqdy

d
Ipyqdy

`8
dy

f px, yqdx.
a

16.2

601

. `8 An a,
An
f px, yqdx, y P rc, ds.
In pyq
a

In pyq y P rc, ds Ipyq.

d
Ipyqdy lim

n`8 c

In pyqdy,

An
Ipyqdy lim

n`8 a

tAn u ,
d

Ipyqdy.

d
dx

f px, yqdy.
c

f px, yqdx x P ra, `8q ,

. ra, bs rc, `8q ,


.
16.2.10. , 0,
`8
cos x cos x
I
dx.
x2
0
`8
sin yx
dx y P r, `8q p 0q ,
.
x
0

`8
`8

cos x cos x
dx
dx

sinpyxqdy
x2
x
0
0
`8
sinpyxq
dx

dy
x

p q.
2
`8

sin yx
dx .

, y 0 ,
x
2
0
, . ,
.
16.2.8 (). f px, yq px, yq P pa, `8q pc, `8q
,
piq
`8
pyq

`8
f px, yqdx, pxq

f px, yqdy
c

602

y P pc, `8q x P pa, `8q ;


piiq
`8

`8
pyqdy,

pxqdx

, , ,
`8 `8
`8 `8
dx
f px, yqdy
dy
f px, yqdx.
a

`8

pyqdy . Dini , pyq pxq

pc, `8q pa, `8q . c cn ,


`8
n pxq
f px, yqdy,
cn

f n pxq x , A a1 a ,

`8
dx

a1

`8
f px, yqdy

cn

dy

`8
f px, yqdx

a1

cn

pyqdy.
c

Dini , n pxq ra1 , As n pxq,


A
A
`8
pxqdx lim
n pxqdx
pyqdy,
n8 a1

a1

pxq , A a1 a pxq pa, `8q


,
`8

`8
pxqdx

pyqdy.
c

,
`8
`8
pyqdy
pxqdx,
c

.
16.2.11. J

`8

ex dx.

. x ut pu 0q,
`8
J u

eu

2 2

dt,

0
2

eu , u
`8
`8
`8
2
2
2 2
J2
Jeu du
eu u du
eu t dt.
0

16.2

603

,
J2

`8

`8

ep1`t

dt

qu2

1
2

u du

`8
0

dt

,
1 ` t2
4


{2.

16.2.9 (). f px, yq px, yq P ra, `8q rc, `8q .


f
:
`8
`8
piq
f px, yqdx
f px, yqdy y, x
;

`8

`8

`8

`8

piiq
dx
|f px, yq|dy
dy
|f px, yq|dx ;
a
c
`8
`8
`8c `8a

dx
f px, yqdy
dy
f px, yqdx , :
c

`8

`8

`8

dx
a

f px, yqdy
c

`8

`8
dx

A A0

`8
dy

f px, yqdx.
a

|f px, yq|dy . , 0, A0 ,

`8

`8
dx

|f px, yq|dy .

(16.2)

`8 Cn c,

`8

f px, yqdx y P rc, Cn s

,
Cn

`8
dy

Cn

`8
f px, yqdx

dx
a

f px, yqdy.
c

Cn
fn pxq

f px, yqdy,
c

fn pxq ra, bs

`8

f px, yqdy. A A0

`8
`8 `8

fn pxqdx
dx
|f px, yq|dy ,

fn pxq ra, `8q n , fn pxq 16.2.5


,
Cn `8
`8 Cn
`8 `8
lim
dy
f px, yqdx lim
dx
f px, yqdy
dx
f px, yqdy,
n`8 c

n`8 a

tCn u

`8
dy
c

`8

f px, yqdx ,
`8

f px, yqdy
c

`8
dx

`8

`8
dy

f px, yqdx.
a

604

.
. p8, 8q p8, 8q .
16.2.12. Fresnel :
`8
`8
I
sin x2 dx, J
cos x2 dx.
0

. x t
2

1
2

`8
0

sin t
1
? dt, J
2
t

`8
0

cos t
? dt.
t
2

. 0 , f pt, uq et sin tetu 16.2.9


.
sin t
2
? ?

`8

sin t etu du,

`8
0

`8
`8
2
sin t t
2
t
? e dt ?
e
sin t dt
etu du

t
0
0
`8 `8
2
2
?
du
ep`u qt sin t dt
0
0
`8
2
du
?
.
0 1 ` p ` u2 q2

`8
0

`8

sin t t
? e dt,
t

du
1 ` p ` u2 q2

r0, `8q , 0,
c
`8
`8
du

sin t
2
? dt ?

,
4

1
`
u
2
t
0
0

`8
0

1
sin x dx
2
2

.
2

J, 0,
`8
`8
`8
2
cos t t
2
? e dt ?
etu du
et cos t dt

t
0

`8 `8
2
p`u2 qt
?
du
e
cos t dt
0

`8
2
2
ep`u q
?
rp ` u2 q cos sin sdu.
0 1 ` p ` u2 q2
0
`8
0

cos t t
2
? e dt ?

`8
0

` u2
du,
1 ` p ` u2 q2

16.2

605

0
`8
0

cos t
2
? dt ?

`8
0

u2
du
1 ` u4

,
2

`8

cos x2 dx

1
2

.
2

. 0, 0 .

16.2
1. Abel .
`8
2.
f pxqdx , gpx, yq x , y P rc, ds

`8
f pxqgpx, yqdx
a

y P rc, ds .
3. f ,
`8
Ipyq

f px, yqdx
a

y P rc, dq ,
.

`8

f px, dq , Ipyq y P rc, dq

4. :
`8
cos xy
p1q
dx, y P p8, `8q;
1
` x2
0`8
cos xy
? dx, y P p0, `8q;
p2q
x
0`8
sin x
p3q
dx, P p0, `8q;
xp ` xq
0`8
sin x
p4q
dx, P p0, `8q;
2 ` x2
0
5.

Ipq
0

lnp2 sin2 qd

606
6. :
`8
cos xt
p1q F pxq
dt, x P p8, `8q;
1 ` t2
0
`8
2
p2q F pxq
xex t dt, x P p8, `8q;
0
sin t
p3q F pxq
dt, x P p0, 2q.
x p tqx
t
0

7. (a 0)
c
`8
`8
1
1
1
dx
1
ax2
?
e
dx
,

,
xa1 dx ,
2
2
a
a
`
x
2
a
a
0
0
0

:
`8
`8
2
p1q
eax x2n dx, p2q
0

dx
, p3q
pa ` x2 qn`1

xa1 lnn xdx.

8. (a, b 0):
`8
`8 ax
`8 ax
2
pe
ebx q2
e
ebx
p1q
dx, p3q
dx.
xeax sin bx dx, p2q
x
x2
0
0
0
9. (a, b 0):
`8 ax
`8
`8
2
2
e
ebx
lnpa2 ` x2 q
p1q
sin mxdx, p2q
dx, p3q
eay by dy.
2 ` x2
x
b
0
0
0
10.

`8

etp

`x2 q

dt p2 ` x2 q1 Laplace :

`8
I
0

cos x
dx, J
2 ` x2

`8
0

x sin x
dx.
2 ` x2

11. (a, b 0):


`8 ax2
`8
`8
2
e
ebx
sin2 x
sin3 x
p1q
dx,
p2q
dx,
p3q
dx.
x2
x2
x
0
0
0
12. :
`8
`8
`8
sinpx2 q
sin4 x
2
sinpx
q
cos
2xdx,
p3q
p1q
dx,
p2q
dx.
x2
x
0
0
8

16.3

,
1
`8
p1
q1
Bpp, qq
x p1 xq dx pp, q 0q, psq
xs1 ex dx ps 0q. (16.3)
0

Bpp, qq Beta , psq Gamma , Euler .

16.3
16.3.1

607

Beta

Bpp, qq , 0 1 , , p 0, q 0 ,

Bpp, qq .
p1q () , 0, p , q ,
0 xp1 p1 xqq1 x1 p1 xq1 ,

, Bpp, qq pp, qq P r, `8q r, `8q


, Bpp, qq . , Bpp, qq
.
p2q () x 1 t,
Bpp, qq Bpq, pq, @ p 0, q 0.
p3q () p 0, q 1 , ,
1
xp
Bpp, qq p1 xqq1 d
p
0

1
1
q1 1 p

xp p1 xqq1 `
x p1 xqq2 dx
p
p
0
0

q 1 1 p1
q 1 1 p1
q2
x p1 xq dx
x p1 xqq1 dx

p
p
0
0
q1
q1
Bpp, q 1q
Bpp, qq,

p
p

Bpp, qq

q1
Bpp, q 1q, @ p 0, q 1.
p`q1

(16.4)

Bpp, qq

p1
Bpp 1, qq, @ p 1, q 0.
p`q1

(16.5)

y
y
1x

1`y
1`y
`8
y p1
y q1
dy

dy,
p1 ` yqp`q
p1 ` yqp`q
0

p4q () x
`8
Bpp, qq
0

x sin2 x cos2 ,
2

2p1
2q1
Bpp, qq 2
sin
cos
d 2
0

cos2p1 sin2q1 d.

608
16.3.2

Gamma

Gamma
1
psq

s1 x

`8
dx `

xs1 ex dx,

s 0 , , s 0 , Gamma
s 0.
p1q () , 0, s P r, s ,
0 xs1 ex x1 ex , @ x P p0, 1s,

r0, 1s . ,
0 xs1 ex x1 ex , @ x P r1, `8q

, psq s P r, s , psq
. psq .
p2q () s 0 ,
`8
`8
ps ` 1q
xs ex dx
xs dpex q
0
0
`8
`8

xs ex
`s
xs1 ex dx
0

spsq,

ps ` 1q spsq, @ s 0.

(16.6)

Gamma . , p1q 1.
(16.6) Gamma
pnq pn 1q!, @ n 1.
p3q () x t p 0q
`8
s
ts1 et dt.
psq
0

x t ,
2

`8
psq 2

t2s1 et dt,

, s 1{2,
1
p q 2
2

`8
0

et dt

(16.7)

16.3

609

p4q () ln psq p0, `8q . ln psq

,
ln

` s1 ` s2
2

1
1
ln ps1 q ` ln ps2 q
2
2

s1 , s2 0 .
a
` s1 ` s2 a
ps1 q ps2 q.

2
, Cauchy-Schwarz ,
`8
` s1 ` s2
ts1 {2`s2 {21 et dt

2
0
`8
` ps 1q{2 t{2 ` ps 1q{2 t{2

t 1
e
t 2
e
dt
0
`8
1{2 `8
1{2

ts1 1 et dt
ts2 1 et dt
0
0
a
a
ps1 q ps2 q.
16.3.3

16.3.1. Beta Gamma :


Bpp, qq

ppqpqq
, @ p, q 0.
pp ` qq

(16.8)

. Gamma , y 0 ,
8
1
1

xp`q1 ep1`yqx dx.


p1 ` yqp`q
pp ` qq 0
Beta
8
8
8
y p1
1
p1
Bpp, qq
dy

y
dy
xp`q1 ep1`yqx dx
p`q
p1
`
yq
pp
`
qq
0
0
0
8
8
1
q1 x
p1 yx

x e dx
pxyq e
xdy
pp ` qq 0
0
8
ppq
ppqpqq

xq1 ex dx
,
pp ` qq 0
pp ` qq
.
, Gamma .
16.3.2 (Bohr-Mollerup). f psq p0, `8q ,
piq f ps ` 1q sf psq, @ s 0;
piiq f p1q 1;
piiiq ln f psq p0, `8q ;

f psq psq, @ s 0.

610

. Gamma ,
. piq piiq, s P
p0, 1q f psq . piiiq, n 1,
ln f pnq ln f pn 1q
ln f pn ` sq ln f pnq
ln f pn ` 1q ln f pnq

,
n pn 1q
pn ` sq n
pn ` 1q n

piq piiq f pnq pn 1q!,


lnpn 1q! lnpn 2q!

ln f pn ` sq lnpn 1q!
ln n! lnpn 1q!,
s

pn 1qs pn 1q! f pn ` sq ns pn 1q!.

f pn ` sq pn 1 ` sq p1 ` sqsf psq,

pn 1qs pn 1q!
ns pn 1q!
f psq
,
sps ` 1q ps ` n 1q
sps ` 1q ps ` n 1q

( n 1 n)
n
n!ns
f psq
f psq
n`s
sps ` 1q ps ` nq

n `8,
n!ns
f psq,
n8 sps ` 1q ps ` nq
lim

f psq .
Gamma :
16.3.3 (Euler-Gauss). s 0,
n!ns
.
n`8 sps ` 1q ps ` nq

psq lim

(16.9)

Euler , psq :
16.3.4 (Weierstrass). s 0,
psq es

8
1 es{n
,
s n1 1 ` s{n

Euler ,
n

1
ln n.
n8
k
k1

lim

(16.10)

16.3

611

.
1
1
` ` ln n,
2
n
cn Euler .
cn 1 `

ns es ln n esp1` 2 `` n cn q ,

(16.9)
escn
1es 2es{2 nes{n
n`8
s ps ` 1qps ` 2q ps ` nq

psq lim

1
es
es{n
lim

s n`8 p1 ` sq
1 ` s{n
8
s{n

1
e
es
.
s n1 1 ` s{n

es

Gamma .

Gamma .
16.3.5 (Legendre). s 0,
22s1
p2sq ? psqps ` 1{2q.

2s1 s
s`1
f psq ? p qp
q,

2
2

f psq 16.3.2 . ,
2s
s`1
s`2
f ps ` 1q ? p
qp
q

2
2
2s
s`1 s s
? p
q p q

2 2 2
2s1 s
s`1
s ? p qp
q sf psq,

2
2

f psq .
1
1 ?
1
f p1q ? p qp1q ?
1,
2

. Gamma .
f psq psq,
s`1
2s1 s
q,
psq ? p qp

2
2

s 2s .
Gamma .

612

16.3.6 (Euler). 0 s 1 ,
psqp1 sq

.
sin s

. (16.9)
ns n!
n1s n!
n`8 sps ` 1q ps ` nq p1 sqp2 sq pn ` 1 sq
1
npn!q2
1
lim
n`8 s p1 s2 qp22 s2 q pn2 s2 q pn ` 1 sq
8
1
s2

p1 2 q1 .
s n1
n

psqp1 sq lim

(10.2) (9.5) sin s


sin s s

n1

p1

s2
q
n2

.
sin s
?
. s 1{2 p1{2q .

psqp1 sq

16.3.1. .
Beta p q s ,
1
1
1
s1
1
Bps, sq
ts1 p1 tqs1 dt
p tq2
dt
2
0
0 4
1{2
1
s1
1
2
p tq2
dt.
4
2
0
1 1?

x,
2 2
1
1
1
Bps, sq 2s1
x1{2 p1 xqs1 dx 2s1 Bp1{2, sq.
2
2
0

16.3.1,
psqpsq
1 p1{2qpsq
2s1
,
p2sq
2
ps ` 1{2q

p1{2q

16.3.2. pa, b 0q:

I
0

sina1 t cosb1 tdt.

16.3

613

. x sin2 t,

1 1 a{21
I
x
p1 xqb{21 dx
2 0
1
1 p a2 qp 2b q
Bpa{2, b{2q
.
2
2 p a`b
2 q
, b 1 ,

?
sina1 tdt

p a2 q
.
2 p a`1
2 q

a, b , Gamma .

16.3.3. p|| 1q:

tan t dt.

. a ` 1, b 1 ,
I

1 ` ` 1 `1

,
2
2
2

.
`1
2 sin 2
2 cos
2

, 1{2

{2 ?

?
tan t dt { 2.

16.3.4

Stirling

, Stirling ( (5.14)):
n!

2n

` n n
e

en , n

n
, 0 n 1.
12n

psq , . s 0,
rpsq ln ?

?
psqes
2,

ln
psq
`
s

ps

1{2q
ln
s

ln
2ss1{2

gpsq rpsq rps ` 1q, ps ` 1q spsq


`
1
1 `
ln 1 `
1.
gpsq s `
2
s
gpsq p0, `8q :
g 2 psq

1
0.
` 1q2

2s2 ps

614

Taylor
ln

`t

1`t
t3
t5
2 ` ` ` p|t| 1q
1t
1
3
5

t p2s ` 1q1
gpsq

1
1
1
`
`
` ,
3p2s ` 1q2
5p2s ` 1q4
7p2s ` 1q6

1
1
1
1
1`
`
`
.
3p2s ` 1q2
p2s ` 1q2
p2s ` 1q4
12sps ` 1q

0 gpsq

psq

gps ` nq, psq p0, `8q ,

n0
8

1 ` 1
1
1

.
12 n0 s ` n s ` n ` 1
12s

0 psq

gpsq , psq . ,
p1q

gpnq

n1

?
rrpnq rpn ` 1qs rp1q 1 ln 2,

n1

lim rpnq lim n 0 Stirling .


n8
? n8
f psq 2ss1{2 es epsq , f 16.3.2 .
f ps ` 1q `
1 s`1{2 1 gpsq
1`
se e
s,
f psq
s

f . :
f p1q

2e1 ep1q 1.

?
ln f psq ln 2 ` ps 1{2q ln s s ` psq,

, ln f . 16.3.2,
psq

2ss1{2 es epsq

2ss1{2 es e 12s ,

(16.11)

0 1. Gamma Stirling .
. f psq psq rpsq psq. 16.3.2,
rpsq s , 16.3.2.
, Gamma ,
ln psq s ln s `

n1

rs{n lnp1 ` s{nqs,

16.3

615

,
pln psqq1

1
1
1
`

,
s n1 n s ` n

p0, `8q , . Euler


,
pln psqq1 lim

ln n

lim

ln n

n8

n8

ptq

n
n

1
1 1
1
` lim

k
s n8 k1 k s ` k
k1
n

1 1
.
s`k
s
k1

1
,
t`s
k`1

dt
1 1
1

`
, @ k 0.
t`s
2 s`k s`k`1
k

n k`1

1
1
1
1
dt
11
`
` `
`

lnps ` n ` 1q ln s,
2s s`1
s ` n 2 s ` n ` 1 k0 k
t`s

pln psqq1 lim

n8

ln n lnps ` n ` 1q ` ln s `

1
11 1
1
1
`
ln s ,
2s 2s`n`1
s
2s

`
11
0.
r1 psq pln psqq1 ` 1 ln s s
2 s

rpsq . C lim rpsq,


s`8

rpsq C

rrps ` nq rps ` n ` 1qs

n0

gps ` nq psq,

n0

rpsq
psq

2es ss1{2 eC`psq , s 0.

,
`
1 s
, s 0.
ep2sq eC`psq`ps`1{2q1{2 1 `
2s

0 psq p12sq1 , s `8
1 eC ,

616

C 0, (16.11).
Stirling , Euler-Maclaurin (16.11)
psq .

16.3
1. Beta .
2. :
pBpp, q ` 1q qBpp ` 1, qq, Bpp ` 1, q ` 1q

pq
Bpp, qq.
pp ` qqpp ` q ` 1q

3. , m, n :
Bpp, nq

1 2 3 pn 1q
pm 1q!pn 1q!
, Bpm, nq
.
p pp ` 1q pp ` 2q pp ` n 1q
pm ` n 1q!

4. Gamma .
5.
1
p2n 1q!! ?
pn ` q
.
2
2n
6. :
1a

2
p1q
x x dx, p2q
0

sin t cos tdt, p3q

7. :
8
p1q
0

dx
pp 1q, p2q
1 ` xp

8.

`8

ex dx pk 0q.

tp1 p1 tm qq1 dt pp, q, m 0q.

?
ln psqds ln 2.

9.
8

1
d2
ln
psq

ps 0q.
2
ds
ps ` nq2
n0

10. Gamma .
11. ln Bpp, qq p p0, `8q , 16.3.1.
12. Gauss :
psqps `

1
2
n1
qps ` q ps `
q p2qpn1q{2 n1{2ns pnsq, @ s 0.
n
n
n

16.4 Fourier

617

16.4

Fourier

, f pxq p8, `8q ,


, f Fourier
`8
rapq cos x ` bpq sin xsd,
f pxq
0

apq

`8
f ptq cos tdt, bpq
8

`8
f ptq sin tdt.
8

Fourier
f pxq

`8

`8
d

f ptq cos px tqdt,


8

.
16.4.1. f pxq p8, `8q , f pxq
,
f pxq

`8

`8
d

f ptq cos px tqdt.

(16.12)

. f pxq ,
`8
f ptq cos px tqdt
8

, , 16.2.7, A 0,

`8
1 A
SpA, xq
d
f ptq cos px tqdt
0
8

A
1 `8

dt
f ptq cos px tqd
8
0

1 `8
sin Apx tq

dt
f ptq
8
xt

1 `8
sin At

dt.
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
0
t
r1, `8q , f , Riemann-Lebesgue , A1 0,
A A1

`8
sin At

dt .
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs

t
1

f px ` tq ` f px tq 2f pxq
, Riemannt
Lebesgue , A2 0, A A2
1
sin At

dt .
rf px ` tq ` f px tq 2f pxqs
t
0

r0, 1s ,

618

f pxq

`8
2f pxq
0

sin t
1
dt
t

`8
2f pxq
0

sin At
dt,
t

A3 , A A3 ,

1 1
sin At 1 `8
sin At 1 `8
sin t

2f pxq
dt
2f pxq
dt
2f pxq
dt ,
f pxq
0
t
1
t
A
t
, A A0 maxtA1 , A2 , A3 u ,

sin At
1 `8
rf px ` tq ` f px tqs
dt
|SpA, xq f pxq|
1
t

1 1
sin At
` rf px ` tq ` f px tq 2f pxqs
dt
0
t

1 1
sin At

` f pxq
2f pxq
dt
0
t
1
1
` ` ,

lim SpA, xq f pxq,

A`8

(16.12) .

. f , , (16.12) rf px 0q `
f px ` 0qs{2.

f ,

`8
2 `8
f pxq
cos xd
f ptq cos tdt, pFourier q.
0
0
, f

`8
2 `8
f pxq
sin xd
f ptq sin tdt, pFourier q.
0
0
16.4.1. f pxq ex p 0, x 0q Fourier
.
. Fourier :
`8
`8
f ptq cos tdt
et cos tdt
0

,
` 2

ex

`8
0

cos xd
` 2

p 0, x 0q.

16.4 Fourier

619

,
`8

`8
f ptq sin tdt

et sin tdt

,
2 ` 2

ex

`8
0

sin xd
2 ` 2

,
`8
cos t

dt e ,
2
1
`
t
2
0

`8
0

p 0, x 0q.

sin tdt e , 0.
1 ` t2
2

16.4.2.
`8
gptq sin xt dt f pxq,
0

$
& sin x,
f pxq 2
%0,

x P r0, s,
x P p, `8q.

. f pxq p8, `8q , ,

`8
2 `8
gpq
sin xdx
gptq sin xtdt
0
0

sin

2
sin x sin xdx
.

0 2
1 2
, cos x , Fourier .


.
16.4.1 (Fourier ). f p8, `8q ,
`8
1

f pq ?
f ptqeit dt, P R,
2 8

f f Fourier .
Fourier :

`8

f ptq cos px tqdt

, Fourier
f pxq

`8

1
2

`8

`8

f ptq cos px tqdt,

d
8

f ptq sin px tqdt , ()

`8

`8
d

f ptq sin px tqdt 0.


8

620

1
f pxq
2

1
2

`8

`8
d

8
`8

eix d

8
`8

1
?
2

f ptqeipxtq dt

`8

f ptqeit dt

fpqeix d.

Fourier . , ,
, Fourier .
f pxq fpq

f f Fourier .
h P R, f px ` hq fpqeih , f pxqeixh fp ` hq.
0, f pxq 1 fp 1 q. .
fpq , 8 , fpq 0. f

, Riemann-Lebesgue .
f , f 1 , f 1 pxq i fpq.

x 8 f pxq 0. , 0, f 1 , A0 0,
B A A0
B
B

1
|f pBq f pAq|
f pxqdx
|f 1 pxq|dx ,
A

lim f pxq . f . x 8
x`8

. , .
xf pxq , f , ixf pxq f1 pq.

.
Fourier .
16.4.3. r1, 1s Fourier .
. ,
1
pq

?
2

it

e
1

2
dt ?
2
2

1
cos tdt
0

16.4.4. f pxq ex Fourier .

2 sin
.

16.4 Fourier

621

. 16.2.6 ,
`8
2
1
fpq ?
et eit dt
2 8
`8
2
2
1
1
?

et cos tdt ? e {4 .
2 8
2
, 0 , Fourier
2
2
1
e 2 x ? e 2 .

K ,
8

?
K pxqdx 2, lim
`
0

K pxqdx 0, @ 0.

(16.13)

|x|

f , g Fourier , f, g , f pxq
g pxq

gpxqf pxq (). A 0,


A

1
f pxq
g pxqdx ?
2
A
1
?
2

gptqeixt dt

f pxqdx
A
8

8
A

f pxqeixt dx.

gptqdt
8

, A `8
8
8
f pxq
g pxqdx
gptqfptqdt.
8

(16.14)

Fourier .
16.4.5. .
0, f pxq e|x| , gpxq r1,1s r1, 1s ,
,
c
fptq

2 2
, gptq
2 ` t2

2 sin t
.
t

8
0

0`

ex

sin x
dx
x
8
0

1
0

2
1
dt arctan .
` t2

sin x
dx .
x
2

622

. , Fourier . ,
2
f , f f . g ex {2 ,
8
8
2
f pxqK pxqdx
fptqe 2 t dt.
8

0` , (16.13) ( 10.5.1 )
8
?
2f p0q
fptqdt.
8

f px ` hq ,
1
f phq ?
2

fptqeiht dt.

(16.15)

Fourier .

f pxq fpxq, f pxq fpxq.

f , gpxq fpxq, gpxq f pxq,

|f pxq|2 dx

|fpxq|2 dx.

(16.16)

Plancherel , Fourier Parseval .


Plancherel , , f Fourier

, |f |2 (16.16) . . ,
m 1, () fm ,
8
8
1
1
2
|fm f | dx ,
|fm f |dx .
m
m
8
8

Fourier
1 1
|fm ptq fptq| ?
, @ t P R.
2 m

(16.17)

fm , , A 0,
A
8
2

|fm ptq fn ptq| dt


|fm ptq fn ptq|2 dt
A
8
8

|fm pxq fn pxq|2 dx


8
8
8

2
2
|fm pxq f pxq| dx `
|fn pxq f pxq|2 dx
8

`1
1
`
.
2
m n

16.4 Fourier

623

n 8, (16.17)
A

|fm ptq fptq|2 dt

2
.
m

|fptq|2 dt lim

|fm ptq|2 dt

m8 8
8

lim

|fm pxq| dx

m8 8

|f pxq|2 dx.

Plancherel f .
f g , x P R, f px tqgptq t (
),
1
f gpxq ?
2

f px tqgptqdt, x P R.

(16.18)

f g f g . f g g f . (), f g
, A 0,
A
A
8
1
dx
|f gpxq|dx ?
|f px tqgptq|dt
2 A
A
8
8
A
1
|gptq|dt
|f px tq|dx
?
2 8
A
8
8
1
?
|gptq|dt
|f pxq|dx.
2 8
8
f g , Fourier . ,
p8, 8q p8, 8q F px, yq f px yqgpyqeix , F px, yq
16.2.9 ,
8

8
dx

8
2

8
F px, yqdy

f gpxqeix dx

8
dy

F px, yqdx,
8

gpyqeiy dy

f ptqeit dt,

f gpxq fpq
g pq.

(16.19)

Fourier . , , f g
.
Fourier .
p1q Poisson .

624

f . , C 0,
|f pxq|

C
, @ x P R,
p1 ` |x|q1`

f . ,
F pxq 2

f px ` 2nq, x P R.

n8

, F 2 , f
. Fourier :


8
1
cm
F pxqeimx dx
f px ` 2nqeimx dx
2
n8
8

f px ` 2nqeimx dx

n8
8 p2n`1q

n8 p2n1q
8
imy

f pyqe

f pyqeimy dy
dy

2 fpmq.

f ,
?

fpnqeinx

n8

, , Fourier F . Fourier
( 10.3.3)
2

f px ` 2nq

n8

fpnqeinx , @ x P R.

(16.20)

n8

Poisson .
16.4.6. Poisson .

0, P pxq 1 x2 `
2 , P Poisson .
1
||

16.4.1 P pq ? e
. P Poisson ,
2

8
8

e|n| einx .

2 ` 2

px
`
2nq
n8
n8

(16.21)

r e , Pr pxq, Poisson .
Pr pxq

1 r2
.
1 2r cos x ` r2

16.4 Fourier

625

(16.21) , 2, 0` , x 2k
8

1
1

,
2
px
`
2nq
2p1

cos xq
n8

x 2x
8

1
1

2 , x k.
2
px
`
nq
sin
x
n8

16.4.7. Gauss .
t 0, Gt pxq

x
? 1 e 4t
4t

t pq
,G

2
?1 e t .
2

Poisson

n8

2
px`2nq2
4t
e

en t einx ,
t
n8

(16.22)

Ht pxq, , .
s 0
psq

en

n8

Theta . (16.22) x 0, t s
psq s1{2 p1{sq, @ s 0.

, Theta Riemann-Zeta .

(16.23)


p2q .

S 1 , t 0 f pxq,
x P S 1 . S 1 R 2 .
: t 0 , ? Fourier
.
upx, tq t 0 x P S 1 .
,
Bu
B2 u
2,
Bt
Bx

(16.24)

upx, tq x 2, upx, 0q f pxq.


.
upx, tq XpxqT ptq

. (16.24)
XpxqT 1 ptq X 2 pxqT ptq.

626

,
X 2 pxq Xpxq, T 1 ptq T ptq,

upx, tq XpxqT ptq (16.24) . Xpxq 2 ,


, n2 , n P Z. Xpxq sin nx cos nx
, einx einx , T ptq en

. , upx, tq

:
8

upx, tq

cn en t einx .

(16.25)

n8

upx, 0q f pxq, cn f Fourier .


f Riemann , tcn u . t 0 , (16.25)
, upx, tq x, t , upx, tq
(16.24) . upx, 0q f pxq , f

. , Fourier (Fourier
), (16.25) t 0.
f , lim` upx, tq f pxq, @ x P S 1 .
t0

(16.25)
8

2
1
f pyqeiny dy en t einx
2

n8

8
2
1

en t einpxyq f pyqdy
2 n8

Ht px yqf pyqdy,
2

upx, tq

(16.26)

Ht (16.22) , . Ht
, ( (16.13)):

1
Ht pxqdx 1, lim
Ht pxqdx 0, 0.
2
t0` |x|
, t 0 , (16.22)
c

px`2nq2
1
1
Ht pxqdx
e 4t dx
2
4t
n8
c
p2n`1q
8

x2
1
e 4t dx

4t p2n1q
n8
c
8
x2
1
e 4t dx 1.

4t 8

(16.27)

16.4 Fourier

627

, Ht
c
Ht pxq

x2
e 4t ` Et pxq,
t

Et pxq (0 t 1)
c

px`2nq2
4t
0 Et pxq
e
t
|n|1
c
c
8
8

2n2
n2 n2

e t
e t e t
2
2
t
t
n1
n1
c
8

n2 1

2
e
e t Ct1{2 e1{t .
t
n1

|x|

?
x2
e 4t 4
t

? |y| ?
4t
4t

ey dy 0 pt 0` q

(16.27) Ht pxq . (16.27), f

1
lim
Ht px yqf pyqdy f pxq, @ x P S 1 .
t0` 2
(16.26) upx, tq .
: u1 , u2 (16.24) , u
u1 u2 , u (16.24) upx, 0q 0.

1 2
Eptq
u px, tqdt,
2

( u )

Bu
B2 u
E ptq
upx, tq
dx
upx, tq 2 dx
Bt
Bx

Bu
Bu 2 dx
u

Bx x
Bx

Bu

| |2 dx 0.
Bx
1

Ep0q 0 Eptq 0, upx, tq 0,




.
p3q .

R . R f pxq,

B2 u
Bu
2 , x P R,
Bt
Bx

(16.28)

628

upx, 0q f pxq.
f , f R . , P R
2

, e t eix (16.28). , (16.25) n


:
1
upx, tq ?
2

e t eix cpqd, x P R, t 0.

upx, 0q f pxq, Fourier cpq fpq.


f , t 0 , upx, tq x, t ,
(16.28).
, upx, tq :
8

8
1
1 8 2 t ix
2 t ix
upx, tq ?
e
e
f pyqeiy dy
e f pqd
e d
2 8
2 8
8

8
2
1 8

f pyqdy
e t eipxyq d
2 8
8
8
1 pxyq2
4t
?

e
f pyqdy.
4t
8
: (16.28) x Fourier ,
B
u
p, tq 2 u
p, tq,
Bt
2
up, tq cpqe t . t 0 cpq fpq.
2
x2
1
? e 4t e t ,
2t

Fourier
8
1 pxyq2
4t
?
upx, tq
e
f pyqdy, t 0.
4t
8

(16.29)

upx, tq f pxq pt 0` q. , f 2 R ,
Plancherel
8
8
|upx, tq f pxq|2 dx
|
up, tq fpq|2 d
8
8
8
2

|fpq|2 |e t 1|2 d 0 pt 0` q.
8

: , upx, tq x
, (16.28) , xt Gt pxq
. u,
.

Bu
Bx

x ,


16.4 Fourier

629

p4q Dirichlet .

D . S 1 f ,
, upx, yq

B2 u B2 u
` 2 0,
Bx2
By

(16.30)

Laplace , u 0 . (16.30)
u|S 1 f () Dirichlet .
(16.30), , ,
x r cos , y r sin , p0 r 1, 0 2q

. (16.30)
u

B 2 u 1 Bu
1 B2 u
`
`
0.
Br2
r Br
r2 B2

upr, q RprqSpq
S 2 pq ` Spq 0, r2 R2 prq ` rR1 prq Rprq 0,

. S , 2, n2 , n P Z.

Spq C1 ein ` C2 ein , C1 , C2 P R.

Rprq , n 0
rprR1 q1 0,

Rprq C1 ` C2 ln r. n 0 , gprq rn Rprq,


rn`2 g 2 ` p2n ` 1qrn`1 g 1 0,

pr2n`1 g 1 q1 p2n ` 1qr2n g 1 ` r2n`1 g 2 0,

gprq C1 r2n ` C2 , Rprq rn gprq C1 rn ` C2 rn .

u , ln r, r1 . ,

upr, q

n8

cn r|n| ein .

(16.31)

630

up1, q f pq, cn f Fourier . f


, tcn u , (16.31) ,
upr, q , . (16.31)
(16.30) .
(16.31)
8

cn r

|n| in

n8

f ptqeint dt r|n| ein


2
n8

f ptq
r|n| einptq dt
2
n8

1
Pr p tqf ptqdt,

upr, q

1
2

Pr p tqf ptqdt,

(16.32)

Pr Poisson , (0 ):

1
Pr pqd 1, lim
Pr pqd 0.
2
r0` ||
(16.32)
lim upr, q f pq,

r1

, .
: u1 , u2 Dirichlet , u u1 u2 , u 0.
u , , u .
() p0 P D, upp0 q 0. upp0 q 0.
1
v u upp0 qp1 r2 q,
2

vpp0 q 0, v|S 1 0. v , , q0
.
vpq0 q 0.

,
1
v u upp0 qp1 r2 q 2upp0 q 0,
2

.
p5q Dirichlet .

16.4 Fourier

631

, R2` tpx, yq | x P R, y 0u Dirichlet :


u

B2 u B2 u
` 2 0, px, yq P R2` ,
Bx2
By

(16.33)

upx, 0q f pxq, f R , f .
(16.33) . (16.33) x Fourier ,

2 u
p, yq `

B2 u

p, yq 0.
By 2

, up, yq
u
p, yq cpqe||y .

, cpq fpq.
c
2
y
e||y ,
x2 ` y 2
Fourier
8
upx, yq
8

1
y
f ptqdt.
px tq2 ` y 2

(16.34)

y 0 , upx, yq x, y , (16.33),
,
lim upx, yq f pxq, @ x P R.

y0`

f , f pxq 0, |x| 8, x ,
upx, yq ,
lim
|x|`y8

upx, yq 0.

: ,
, , . () upx0 , y0 q 0,
upx0 , y0 q 0. u , a |x0 | ` |y0 |, u

tpx, yq P R | a x a, 0 y au

u|B

1
upx0 , y0 q.
2

1
vpx, yq upx, yq ` upx0 , y0 qexa , px, yq P .
2

632

1
v|B u|B ` upx0 , y0 q upx0 , y0 q vpx0 , y0 q,
2

v , q0 . vpq0 q 0. ,
,
v

1
upx0 , y0 qexa 0,
2

.
upx, yq , (16.33) ,
upx, yq y , , .

16.4
1. Fourier :
$
&1, |x| 1,
p1q f pxq
%0, |x| 1.
$
&sin x, |x| 1,
p3q f pxq
%0,
|x| 1.

$
&sgnx, |x| 1,
p2q f pxq
%0,
|x| 1.
p4q f pxq e|x| cos x, p 0q.

2. |x| 1 f pxq 1 |x|; |x| 1 f pxq 0. f Fourier

.
3. Fourier :
p1q f pxq e|x| cos x p 0q, p2q f pxq

1
p 0q.
` x2

4. :
`8
p1q
f ptq sin xtdt ex px 0q;
0

`8
f ptq cos xtdt

p2q
0

1
.
1 ` x2

5.
2

`8
0

$
&1 x, 0 x 1,
sin t
cos
2xtdt

%0,
t2
x 1.
2

6. 0,
ptq

1 sin2 t
, t P R.
t2

16.4 Fourier

633

ptqdt 1,

lim

8 |t|

ptqdt 0, 0.

Fejer .
7. f R ,
1
Sp, xq ?
2

fpqeix dx, 0.

1
8

Sp, xqd f pxq.

lim

8. Plancherel .
9. , f Fourier f .
10. tpx, yq P R2 | x2 ` y 2 1u p0 1q Dirichlet

.
11. tpx, yq P R2 | x P R, 0 y au pa 0q Dirichlet

634


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[5] , , . (). : , 1985.
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[10] . . 2 . : , 2008.
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[12] . (). : , 2002.
[13] , . (). : , 2003.
[14] . (). : , 1995.
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[16] . . : , 1998.
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636

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, 65

Dirichlet , 73

N , 26

Dirichlet , 358

n , 475

Euler , 276

s , 561

Euler-Maclaurin , 347

Abel , 293

Euler-Poisson , 274

Abel , 326
Fejer , 375

Abel , 294, 315

Fermat , 163

Abel , 293

Fibonacci , 337

Archimedes , 24

Fourier , 618
Baire , 61, 399

Fourier , 618

Bernoulli , 338

Fourier , 354

Bernoulli , 334

Fourier , 353

Beta , 606

Fourier , 619
Fourier , 384

Cauchy , 10

Fourier , 354

Cauchy , 396

Fresnel , 604

Cauchy , 194
Cauchy , 267, 284

Gamma , 606

Cauchy , 300

Gauss , 530

Cauchy , 49, 72, 279, 313

Gauss , 287

Cauchy , 47

Gauss , 625

Cauchy , 288

Green , 525

Cauchy-Hadamard , 324
Holder , 111
dAlembert , 284

Holder , 94

Darboux , 214, 454

Heine , 71

Darboux , 214, 454

Heine-Borel , 58

Darboux , 164

Hessian , 429

Dedekind , 19
Dini , 359

Jacobian , 420

Dini , 315

Jensen , 178

Dirichlet , 629

Kummer , 286

Dirichlet , 294, 314


Dirichlet , 360

LHopital , 188
637

638
Lagrange , 194

Tauber , 377

Lagrange , 444

Taylor , 193, 428

Lebesgue , 402

Theta , 625

Lebsegue , 222
Lebsegue , 223
Leibniz , 130
Leibniz , 291
Lipschitz , 94
Machin , 341
Maclaurin , 196
Newton , 207
Newton-Cotes, 246

Wallis , 239
Weierstrass , 314
Weierstrass , 371, 372
Wirtinger , 380
Young , 109, 178

, 12
, 311, 591
, 585
, 93

Newton-Leibniz , 135, 234

, 408
Parseval , 365

, 280

Peano , 351
Plancherel , 622

, 10, 389

Poincare , 381

, 353

Poisson , 624

, 353

Poisson , 624

, 353
, 43

Raabe , 287

, 8

Riemann , 212, 454

, 8

Riemann , 212, 454

, 148

Riemann , 84

, 43

Riemann , 212

, 8

Riemann-Lebesgue , 232, 355

, 8

Riemann-Stieltjes , 543

, 336

Riemann-Zeta , 286

, 1

Schwarz , 388

, 58, 400

Simpson , 244

, 57, 392

Stirling , 206, 259, 349, 614

, 391

Stokes , 535, 581

, 57, 392

Stolz , 51

, 58, 400

639

, 77

, 570

, 77

, 416

, 279

, 354

, 304

, 282

, 262

, 84

, 3

, 499

, 7

, 459

, 1

, 3

, 3

, 66

, 134

, 81

, 8

, 525

, 212

, 66

, 267, 283
, 284
, 556
, 415, 416
, 416
, 118, 416
, 563
, 61, 394
, 387
, 387
, 14
, 174

, 81
, 479
, 177, 429
, 425
, 177
, 394
, 566
, 454
, 394
, 394
, 556
, 336

, 264

, 398

, 620

, 398

, 91, 406

, 3

, 360

, 400

, 292

, 500

, 237

, 89

, 142

, 16

, 212, 453

, 8

, 411

, 25

, 122

, 148

640

, 82, 145

, 556

, 6

, 556

, 28, 67

, 354

, 3

, 523

, 128

, 3

, 500

, 585

, 124, 423, 556

, 268, 295

, 2

, 444

, 291

, 81

, 56

, 396

, 392

, 491

, 57, 392

, 16

, 2

, 359

, 115
, 219

, 563

, 324

, 186

, 279

, 397

, 279

, 387

, 307

, 17
, 387

, 426

, 17

, 163

, 141

, 163

, 623

, 163

, 577

, 163

, 12

, 484

, 17

, 163, 439

, 38

, 163

, 416

, 128

, 416

, 249

, 118

, 81

, 416

, 81

, 517, 573

, 403

, 212

, 611

, 65

, 556

, 7

641

, 250, 502

, 58, 400

, 12

, 158, 259

, 65

, 621

, 451

, 12

, 416

, 99

, 164

, 107, 464

, 12

, 195

, 407

, 285

, 58
, 576
, 486
, 511
, 164
, 11
, 243
, 408
, 482
, 14
, 33
, 389
, 389
, 14
, 432
, 15
, 577
, 268, 295

, 227
, 228
, 611
, 127
, 389
, 279
, 280
, 25, 279
, 486
, 47
, 244
, 420
, 160
, 408
, 12
, 502
, 515
, 84

, 96

, 505

, 236

, 518

, 140

, 84

, 626

, 17

, 1

, 411

, 284

, 26

, 134

, 536

, 11

, 186

642

, 437

, 8

, 436

, 12

, 435
, 171
, 570
, 533
, 8
, 163
, 8
, 441
, 163
, 8
, 163
, 90, 406
, 120, 422
, 378
, 1
, 58
, 406
, 324
, 624
, 263
, 458
, 221, 457
, 90
, 84
, 119, 419
, 169
, 169, 425
, 156
, 557
, 136, 234
, 25
, 25

, 170, 179
, 58, 400
, 474