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INDIAN RAILWAY

INTRODUCTION

Indian Railway is the state-owned railway company of India, which owns and operates most of the country's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government of India. Indian Railways has one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily.It is the world's largest commercial or utility employer, with more than 1.4 million employees. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country, covering 6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,327 kilometres (39,350 mi). As to rolling stock, IR owns over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives. By 1947, the year of India's independence, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities.

INDIAN RAILWAY HISTORY

First railway system in India was proposed in 1832 in Madras but it never materialized. In the 1840s, other proposals were forwarded to the British East India Company who governed India at that time. The Governor-General of India at that time, Lord Hardinge deliberated on the proposal from the commercial, military and political view points. He came to the conclusion that the East India Company should assist major companies from England and private capitalists who sought to setup a rail system in India, regardless of the commercial viability of their project. On September 22nd,1842,British civil engineer C.B. Vignoles, FRS, submitted a Report on a Proposed Railway in India to the East India Company. By 1845, two companies, the East Indian Railway Company (EIR) operating from Calcutta, and the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) operating from Bombay, were formed. The first train in India was not a passenger train and was operational on 1851-12-22, used for the hauling of construction material in Roorkee. A few years later, on 1853-04-16,the first passenger train between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana covering a distance of 34 km (21 miles) was inaugurated, formally heralding the birth of railways in India. Prior to this there was in 1832 a proposal to build a railroad between Madras and Bangalore and in 1836 a survey was conducted for this line. After the first passenger train run between thane and bori bander, almost six years later, on March 3, 1859, the first Railway Line in North India was laid between Allahabad and Kanpur. This was followed, in 1889, by the Delhi-Ambala Kalka line.

The North eastern Railway was developed rapidly after that. On October 19, 1875, the train between Hathras Road and Mathura Cantonment was started running. By the winter of 188081, the Kanpur-Farukhabad line became operational and further east, the Dibrugarh-Dinjan line became operational on August 15, 1882.

Developments were fast and effective in South India also. The Madras Railway Company opened the first railway line between Veyasarpaudy and the Walajah Road on July 1, 1856. This 63-mile line was the first section, which eventually joined Madras and the west coast. On March 3, 1859, a length of 119 miles was laid from Allahabad to Kanpur. Later In 1862, the railway line between Amritsar and Attari was constructed on the Amritsar-Lahore route. In 1900, the Great Indian peninsular Railways became a government owned company. The network spread to modern day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh and soon various independent kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In 1901, an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally invested under Lord Curzon. It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and had a government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.

In 1907 almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government. The following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. With the arrival of World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside India. With the end of the war, the state of the railways was in disrepair and collapse. Indian Railway provided an example of the British Empire pouring its money and expertise into a very well built system basically designed for military reasons (after the Mutiny of 1857), and with the hope that it would stimulate industry. The system was overbuilt and much too elaborate and expensive for the small amount of freight traffic it carried. However, it did capture the imagination of the Indians, who saw their railways as the symbol of an industrial modernitybut one that was not realized until a century or so later. The British built a superb system in India. However, Christensen (1996) looks at of colonial purpose, local needs, capital, service, and private-versus-public interests. He concludes that making the railways a creature of the state hindered success because railway expenses had to go through the same time-consuming and political budgeting process as did all other state expenses. Railway costs could therefore not be tailored to the timely needs of the railways or their passengers. By the 1940s, India had the fourth longest railway network in the world. Yet the country's

industrialization was delayed until after independence in 1947 by British colonial policy. Until the 1930s, both the Indian government and the private railway companies hired only European supervisors, civil engineers, and even operating personnel, such as locomotive drivers (engineers). The government's "Stores Policy" required that bids on railway materiel be presented to the India Office in London, making it almost impossible for enterprises based in India to compete for orders. Likewise, the railway companies purchased most of their material in Britain, rather than in India. Although the railway maintenance workshops in India could have manufactured and repaired locomotives, the railways imported a majority of them from Britain, and the others from Germany, Belgium, and the United States. The Tata Company built a steel mill in India before World War I but could not obtain orders for rails until the 1920s and 1930s.

Summary of Growth of Assets in Indian Railways over the years after Independence. The Indian Railways has three gauges: broad gauge (1.676 meter), meters gauge (1 meter) and narrow gauge (0.762 and 0.610 meter). In 1950-51, the combined route kilometers of these gauges were 53,597. In 1995-96 the route length rose to 62,915 km showing a total increase of 9,336 m which represents an increase of 17.42 per cent and an average annual increase of 0.38 percent which was the highest in the Sixth Plan (2.9 per cent), followed by the First Plan (1.3 percent). Electrification in the Indian Railways started in 1925, but remained confined mostly to suburban traffic. Till 1955-56, the electrified route kilometers was just 388 which increased to 748 by 1960-61, registering an increase of 92.7 percent at an average growth of 18.5 per cent per year. The average annual growth ate till 1995-96 was 388. The electrified route length was 0.72 per cent of the total route length in 1950-51 which went up to 19.5 per-cent in 1995-96.

New

Railway stations

In 1950-55, the number of railway stations in the country was 5,976 which gradually rose to 7,068 in 1995-96. In 1950-51, the freight traffic on railways was 93 million tones originating, of which the revenue-earning traffic was 73.2 million tones originating. Since then, both the total traffic and the revenue-earning traffic have been showing an upward trend though not consistently
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and have increased to 405.5 and 390.7 million tones originating respectively in 1995-96 with an annual average growth rate of 5.38 and 6.39 per cent respectively. The increase in revenue-earning traffic in recent years, particularly during the last five years, has been largely the result of reduction in the volume of non revenue-earning traffic.

What is diesel shed

It is a place where repair and maintenance work of diesel locomotives Is carried out so as to increases its life and efficiency and to reduce line failures to a minimum extent.

Diesel Shed TKD Tughlakabad is one such premier shed in Northern Railways homing 162 Diesel Locos. Because of its geographical location and being In the capital, it serves a large number of Mails /Express trains which across the length & breadth of the country casting to goods operation. Diesel Shed, Tughlakabad is spread over an area of 1,10,000 m 2 out of Which 10,858 m2 is covered. Diesel Shed ,Tughlakabad was established in the year 1970 with a planned Holding of 75 locomotives and initial holding of 26 WDM2 locomotives. Today, after 36 years of its existence, the shed has grown to a total holding Of 162 locomotives of five types, which include 59WDM2 (2600HP) 21 WDM4 (3100HP) 02 WDM2 (3300HP), 51 WDP1 (2300HP) and 29WDP3 (3100HP).

Shed is maintain a mail link of 122 locos, which is highest for any shed on Indian railways. Some of the important and prestigious trains being run by the shed are : Jammu Tawi and Gowahati Rajdhani express, Shatabdi express for Amritsar ,Dehradun and Ajmer, Puja Express, Uttar Sampark kranti, Lucknow Mail,Kashivishwanath, Sharamjivi Express and the tourist train palace-on-wheels.

SHED LAYOUT

The shed has a total berthing capacity for 17 locomotives under 4 covered bays. The main bays are:1. 2. 3. 4. The subassemblies section The heavy repair and bogie section(3 berths for heavy repairs & 2 lifting points) Mail running repair bay(6 berths). Goods and out of course running repair bay(6 berths)

There was one old steam shed. This shed had a capacity for berthing 4 locomotives. This shed was used for light repairs only.Now a days, a new construction is being on for new locos of make WDP4 locomotives.

WDS-4 SHUNTING

DIESEL TRAINING CENTRE

Diesel training centre at Tughlakabad was set in 1975 in premises of diesel shed, Tughlakabad northern railway with a view to train diesel running staff as well as diesel maintenance to improve overall efficiency of railway workers quality by upgrading the knowledge of railway workmen by starting few courses.

INFRASTUCTURE Diesel training centre There are five classrooms ,a big hall and a model room with cut models (with working and non-working types of various important components of locomotives such as expressor,cylinder head, turbo super charger, water pump, lube oil pump, governor, etc for better understanding. A well qualified team of trainers from maintenance and running is available for providing training.

Diesel fault simulator It comprises of actual electric panel, cut model of engine block(in working) and test benches. It helps n improving, analyzing and understanding trouble-shooting knowledge of running staff as well as maintenance staff Regular courses 1. Diesel Asstt. to diesel driver promotion course 2. Diesel Asstt. Refresher course 3. Diesel refresher course Other special courses 1. Knowledge up gradation shot duration course for Dsl. Tech. (Mech. & Elect)
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2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Electric traction to diesel traction conversion. Course for drivers, shutters & Asstt. Drivers. 3 years Apprentice tech. (Dsl) (Mech. & Elect.) 6 months Apprentice Tech. (Dsl) (Mech.- RRB Batch). Preselections couching of SC/ST candidates for group B LDCE cadre. Preselection coaching of SC/ST candidates of Technicians for the post of JE-2 Preselection coaching of SC/ST candidates of Dsl. Technicians for the post Asstt. Drivers.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND STAFF STRENGTH

Tughlakabad has a sanctioned strength of 1313 against which 1210 persons are on roll. There are 9 posts of officer in the shed. The shed is headed by the Sr. DME who is assisted by 2 Sr. scale & 6 Jr. scale officers. The laboratories is looked after by an ACMT and the attached stores depot by an AMM. The training school & simulator centre have been entrusted to a separate Assistant Officer. These officer also report to the Sr. DME.

Sr. DME

DME-I

DME-II
AME/HRB

AME/R/E

AME/R/M

ACMT
SPARE CELL

AMM

YLY. ELECT. HRB

AME/Trg

.
SIM.TRG SCHOOL

RUNNING ELECT

CONTROL ROOM

LAB+ETP

STORES AIR BRAKE

SSE/G
BOGIE

BILL SEC.
TSC SEC

TEST ROOM

RUNNING MAIL

CTA CELL
GOV SEC.
RUNNING GOODS

PASS SEC.
EXP.SEC TIME OFFICE

ADMN.
MILL WRIGHT

TRACTION M/C

SHED CLG.

FUEL CELL M/C SHOP PLANNING

WASHING PT.

CANTEEN

Note- ACMT will look after canteen for operational purpose

SUMMARY OF TECHNICAL STAFF OF DIESEL SHED TUGHLAKABAD

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Section Name Air point Air Brake Gauge Battery Bogie Canteen Carpenter Control room CTA Cylinder head Drawing

Strength 01 34 04 09 69 18 04 23 04 21 02
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S.No. 22. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Section Name Mail Mech. Mech. Goods Mech.yearly Shed horticulture Motor shop O.O.C. Mech. Painter Peon Power Power pack Reclamation

Strength 68 60 65 02 43 24 12 13 24 39 27

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Diesel assistant Diesel trng school Elect/goods Elect/Mail Elect/Yearly Expresser F.I.P. Fuel section Gasket room Half yearly/Mech. Diesel hostel Laboratory Loco cabin Loco turn out Machine shop

08 03 75 58 55 35 05 17 05 08 15 14 05 02 23

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

Room no.12 Room no. 18 Room no. 02 Room no. 28 Room no. 4,5,7 Spare cell Speedometer Special drive Time office Traction motor Tool room Turbo Washing point Tech appoint.

17 02 01 01 19 13 14 14 01 36 09 10 18 88 1135

CLASSIFICATION OF LOCOS Q. What do the designations such as WDM-2 means? Locos, except of older steam ones, have classification codes that identify them. This code is the form [gauge][power][load][series][subtype][suffix]. 1. In this the first item, [gauge], is a single letter identifying the gauge the locos runs on: W = Broad Gauge(1.67m) Y = Meter Gauge (1m) Z = Narrow Gauge (26 or 0.762m) N = Narrow Gauge (2 or 0.61m) 2. The second item, [power] is one or two letters identifying the power source: D = Diesel C = DC traction A = AC traction CA = Dual-power AC/DC traction 3. The third item,[load] is a single letter identifying the kind of load the loco is normally used for: M = Mixed Traffic P = Passenger G = Goods S = Shunting U = Multiple unit (EMU/DEMU)

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4. The fourth item, [series], is a digit identifying the horse power range of the loco, with 3 for locos with over 3000hp but less than 4000hp, 5 for locos over 5000hp but less than 6000hp,etc. This new scheme was applied to all passenger/goods/mixed-haul diesel locos in June2002, except for the WDM-2 and WDP-1 classes of locos. 5. The fifth item,[subtype], is an optional letter or number (or to of them) that further refines the horse power indication in 100hp increments: A for 100hp, B for 200hp, C for 300hp, etc. So in this scheme , a WDM-3A refers to a 3100hp loco, while a WDM-3A would be a to a 3100hp loco, while a WDM3F would be a 3600hp loco. The last item, [suffix], is an optional indication that indicates something special about the loco, such as a different gearing ratio or brake system usual

LOCOS AT TKD DIESEL SHED WDM2 WDP1 WDP3A WDM3A WDM3C 2600 HP 2300 HP 3100 HP 3100 HP 3300 HP

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SCHEDULES For the proper functioning of diesel shed and to reduce the number of failures of diesel locos, there is a fixed plan for every loco, at the end of which the loco is checked and repaired. This process is called scheduling. There are two types of schedules which are as follows:1. Major schedules 2. Minor schedules MINOR SCHEDULES Schedule is done by the technicians when the loco enters the shed. After 15 days there is a minor schedule. The following steps are done every minor schedule & known as SUPER CHECKING. The lube oil level & pressure in the sump is checked. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The coolant water level & pressure in the reservoir is checked. The joints of pipes & fittings are checked for leakage. The check super charger, compressor &its working. The engine is checked thoroughly for the abnormal sounds if there is any. F.I.P. is checked properly by adjusting different rack movements.

This process should be done nearly four hour only. After this the engine is sent in the mail/goods running repairs by for repairs. There are following types of minor schedules:1. T-1 SHEDULE AFTER 15 DAYS 2. T-2 SHEDULE AFTER 30 DAYS 3. T-1 SHEDULE AFTER 45 DAYS 4. M-2 SHEDULE AFTER 60 DAYS 5. T-1 SHEDULE AFTER 75 DAYS 6. T-2 SHEDULE AFTER 90 DAYS 7. T-1 SHEDULE AFTER 105 DAYS 8. M-4 SHEDULE AFTER 120 DAYS 9. M-8 SHEDULE AFTER 135 DAYS T-1 SCHEDULE 1. Initial checking of expressor & expressor rundown for any leakage of lube oil, fuel oil, water & air in the concerened system. 2. Turbo run down to check. 3. Lube oil check in the expressor. 4. Check any abnormal sound. 5. Oil & cardium compound in suspension bearing & gear cases. 6. Any breakage in spring. 7. Checking in fast coupling & flex coupling 8. Bubbling in fast coupling and flexible coupling etc.
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T-2 SCHEDULE ( T-1 + FOLLOWING ITEMS ) 1. 2. 3. 4. All the valves of the expressor are checked. Primary and secondary fuel oil filters are checked. Turbo super charger are checked. Under frame are checked.

M-2 SCHEDULE 1. All the works done in T-2 schedule. 2. Check all cylinder head valve lever mechanism assemblies. 3. Engine sump examination. 4. Main bearing temperature checked by temperature gun. 5. Expressor valve replaced by expressor section. 6. Wick pad examined &condemned to replace. 7. Lube oil filter changed. 8. Lube oil Strainer cleaned fitted & top cover gasket changed ,check Its drain cock 9. Expressor oil changed with new oil. MAJOR SCHEDULES M-4 SCHEDULE: M-2 schedule carried out along with tapper phasing & blow Bye test of all cylinder heads. VARIOUS SECTION IN THE SHED

The whole shed is divided into various sections depending upon the Type of work. These section assist in the repair are maintenance work of the locos. These assisting sections may be divided into two main groups:1. Directly assisting sections. 2. Indirectly assisting sections.

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DIRECTLY ASSISTING SECTIONS:These sections which directly assist in the maintenance work of the loco are called Directly assisting sections. These sections play an important role in the maintenance work. The Directly assisting sections are as follows:1. Turbo supercharger section. 2. Expresser section. 3. Bogie section. 4. Cylinder head section. 5. Power pack section. 6. Speedometer section. 7. F.I.P section. 8. Air brake section. 9. Fuel section. 10. Pit wheel lathe section. 11. Traction motor and generator section.

1. TURBO SUPERCHARGER SECTION

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PRINCIPLE The amount of power obtained from a cylinder in a diesel engine depends on how much fuel can be burnt in it. The amount of fuel which can be burnt depends on the amount of air available in the cylinder. So, if you can get more air into the cylinder, more fuel will be burnt and you will get more power out of your ignition. Turbo charging is used to increase the amount of air pushed into each cylinder. The turbo charger is driven by exhaust gas from the engine. This gas drives a fan which, in turn, drives a small compressor which pushes the additional air into the cylinder. Turbo charging gives a 50% increase in engine power.

The main advantage of the turbo charger is that it gives more power with no increase in fuel costs because it uses exhaust drive power. it does need additional maintenance, however, so there are some types of lower power locomotives which are built without it. The main working of this section is to maintain the supercharger. The different types of supercharger used in TKD diesel shed are as follows:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ALCO Turbocharger(Capacity of 1.2-1.5kg/cm2)--------water cooled A.B.B Turbocharger(Capacity of 1.2-2.0 kg/cm2)--------water cooled G.E. Turbocharger(Capacity of 1.2-2.30 kg/cm2)--------water cooled A.B.B TPR --------air cooled STANO SUJA (MEKA) Turbocharger ---------air cooled NAPIER Turbocharger -----water cooled

The difference between them is based on cooling system used & power required. STANO SUJA & NAPIER are air-cooled and other are water-cooled

HOW IT WORKS The turbocharger is bolted to the exhaust manifold of the engine. The exhaust from the cylinder spins the turbine, which works like a gas turbine engine. The turbine is connected by a shaft of the compressor, which is located between the air filter and the intake manifold. The compressor pressurizes the air going into the pistons. Hence the engine produces more power.

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2. EXPRESSOR (6CD,4 UC Compressor Exhauster)

Working of expressor The Expressor is located at the free end of the engine bloke and driven through the extension shaft attached to the engine crankshaft. Expressor is a combined unit of exhauster and compressor. The main function of exhauster unit is to create vacuum 22 in train pipe. Air from vacuum train pipe is drawn into the exhauster cylinders through the inlet valves during its suction stroke and that air is thrown out to atmosphere during compression stroke through discharge valves. The main function of compressor unit is to create air pressure in main reservoir of locomotive up to 10kg/cm2. Atmosphere air is drown into the compressor LP cylinder through the open inlet valves during suction stroke and same air is discharged to HP cylinder through discharge and delivery pipe. The HP cylinders compresses the air at high pressure and discharge it in main reservoir of locomotive for the use of brake system.
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The expressor consists of the following components mainly; 1. 2. 3. 4. Crank Case Crank shaft Four/Three exhauster cylinders with cylinder heads One/Two low pressure compressor cylinder with cylinder head. 5. One high pressure cylinder with cylinder head. 6. Six pistons with connecting rods (including one/two LP, one HP and four/three exhausters.) 7. Lube oil pump.

Models of Expressors used in Diesel Locos There are two models commonly used in Diesel Locos. They are 1. 6CD-4UC 2. 6CD-3UC In 6CD-4UC Expressor, there are six cylinders out of which the one having smaller diameter acts as HP and one LP and four exhausters while in 6CD-3UC, there are one HP, two LP and three exhausters. In both models, the LP cylinder head and each exhaust cylinder head contains two inlet and two discharge valves and the HP cylinder head contains one/two inlet and discharge valves. The valves are such that they have liberal air flow passages to avoid flow restrictions and to prevent excessive heating and choking of valve ports with carbon deposits due thermal decomposition of lube oil. The retainer stud in both the assemblies must project upward to avoid hitting the piston. The inlet valves of both LP and HP cylinders are equipped with unloaders which help to unload the compressor when the desired pressure in the main air reservoir is reached. Similarly, the compressor cylinders are loaded whenever there is a drop in air pressure.

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3. BOGIE SECTION

This is the part (called the bogie) carrying the wheels and traction motors of the locomotive. A pair of train wheels is rigidly fixed to an axle to form a wheel set. Normally, if two wheel sets are mounted in a bogie it is known as BO-BO type, but if three wheel sets are mounted on truck, it is called as CO-CO type. Most bogies have rigid frames as shown below. The bogie frame is turned into the curve by the leading wheel set as it is guided by the rails. However, there is a degree of slip and a lot of force required to allow the change of direction. The bogie carries about half the weight of the vehicle it supports. It also guides the vehicle, sometimes at high speed, into a curve against its natural tendency to travel in a straight line. They provide the propulsion, the suspensions and the braking. As you can imagine, they are tremendous structures. The trucks also provide the suspension for the locomotive. The weight of the locomotive rests on a big, round bearing which allows the trucks to pivot so the train can make a turn. Below the pivot is a huge leaf spring that rests on a platform. The platform is suspended by four, giant metal links, which connect to the boogie assembly. These links allow the locomotive to wing for side to side. The weight of the locomotive rests on the Helical springs and Leaf spring, which compress when it passes over a bump. The links allow the trucks to move from side to side with fluctuations in the truck. The truck is not perfectly straight, and at high speeds, the small variations in the track would make for a rough ride if the trucks could not swing laterally. The
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system also keeps the amount of weight on each rail relatively equal, reducing wear on the tracks and wheels. There are three pivots on which the load is distributed as 60%, 20%, 20% respectively on centre pivot, on two side bearers which are elliptical in shape. For distributing the load equally on the axles the equalizer beams are used. While running the defects which generally occur are:1. 2. 3. 4. Crack in equalizer due to stress concentration. Breaking of centre pivot due to inertia force. There might be failure of spring. Cylinder head section

The working of cylinder head is to do maintenance work on the cylinder head. The maintenance and testing of cylinder of cylinder head is done by this section. The complete overhauling procedures includes the following steps:1. Disassembling of valves and their springs and checking the tapered face of the valve kept for the indentations. 2. Washing of head, it is done for about 4 hours. 3. The separated parts are sending for zyglo-test. 4. All the clearances are checked and the two main tests (Hydraulic testing to check the cracks in the water jackets and Blow By to check the proper seat matching of the cylinder head and liner) are done. 5. Assembling of all parts is done.

4. CYLINDER HEAD SECTION TESTS CONDUCTING ON CYLINDER ON CYLINDER HEAD

HYDRAULIC TESTING In this testing the head is testing for any type of water leakage from the water jackets made for cooling system .There may be some cracks on the edges or near the valves sheet. for this the one side of the water outlet is closed and the fluid at the pressure of 70psi and at the temperature of 900 C is inserted and if there is any crack then there will be some leakage and the appropriate action is taken.

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LUBE OIL TESTING In lube oil cooler there are about 440 tubes from which water circulates due to high temperature. so there may be some cracks formed. For checking the cooler is cleaned and then fluid at a pressure of 10-54psi is injected in the tubes at 850 C for about 4 hours. This will detect any type of leakage. The same process is repeated for after cooler testing. For the testing of the valves they are cleaned and then send to zyglo lab for checking the cracks. They are also checked for clearances an descend for grinding. These clearances are as follows: Valve guide 2.25 Angle of vsi 44.5 Valves insert dia. 3.063 Spring height 0.0045 0.0054 at load of 118psi Torque values of head Cylinder head nut 75lbs

These are the important processes which are held in this section. Different parts of the cylinder head Valve guide Spring seat

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Equalizing yoke guide Push rod Valve seat insert Nozzle cooling sleeve

5. POWER PACK SECTION

The work of the power pack is to do the fitting work of the head on the loco. They take out head from the engine and assembled it again on the loco. In the power pack section the assembly of piston and connecting rod is done. The thorough checking of piston is done in this section. The piston is send for zyglo test then it is checked for all the clearances. It is checked whether the piston is seizing or not. There are two types of piston used modified and unmodified. In modified piston and piston head is made up of steel, the piston skirt is made up of aluminium. Unmodified piston is totally made up of steel only. The weight of the assembly is of 90kg.

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There are generally 5 rings used in the cylinder, first 3 are compression ring next 2 are oil rings. The first one is made up of steel and has square face. The second one is also of steel and has tapered face. The third one is of C.I. and is fuel efficient taper face. The fourth and fifth are also of C.I. and are called oil scrapper rings.

These parameters are checked for the following parts. Compression rings Groove width 4.88 Clearance in grooves 0.21 Thickness Gap 5.08 (in inches) 0.1900-0.1920 0.005-0.012 0.1835-0.1850 0.0300-0.2000 4.66-4.70 0.76(in mm) 4.830.13-

Oil scrapper ring mm) Groove width Thickness Gap 0.11

(In inches)

(in

0.3140-0.3150 7.97-8.0 0.3105-0.3125 7.89-7.93 0.0300-0.139 0.05-

Piston pin

(In inches)

(in mm) 95.22-95.25 0.051-0.064

Diameter 3.7490-3.7590 Pin to bushing clearance 0.003-0.005

Connecting rod (in mm) Rod piston clearance Small end bore Large end bore 0.0120-0.024 3.999-4.0055 6.411-6.412

(in inches) 0.33-0.61 101.544-101.57 162.84-162.865

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6. SPEEDOMETER SECTION

In this section all the gauges of an engine are tested in every schedule. If they are not working properly they are changed. In the checking process the memory card is checked and replaced. The memory cards records the data of speed at every moment when the loco runs on the line. This information makes the maintenance process much easier. The control panel of WDM2 has:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Two vacuum gauges Two vacuum duplex Two main reservoir duplex Two air flow gauge HS-4-gauge Central air gauge Fuel and lube oil gauge

Function of speedometer: Speed reading Recording data

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7. FUEL INJECTION PUMP (FIP) SECTION

F.I.P. is one of the most important parts of the loco. It stands for fuel injection pump Fine spray is needed for successful ignition of the fuel. So the fuel has to be pumped into the cylinder ay high pressure. The fuel pump is operated by a cam driven of the engine. The fuel is pumped into the injector which injects the fuel in the form of very fine spray, required for combustion in the cylinder. For this purpose a multipoint fuel injection system is used. Nozzle is made up brass and has nine holes through which the fuel is sprayed uniformly. So, the fuel injector is an important part of an engine. In the schedule the F.I.P. is overhauled. It is disassembled and then checked for any distortion at a high pressure has to be maintaining at the time of injection. Nozzle is tested at the pressure of:New nozzle Old nozzle 3900 psi to 4050 psi 3700 psi to 3800 psi

Testing of nozzle by using a hydraulic press. Spray pattern of the fuel should be uniform. There should be noise of chattering at testing. The nozzle holes are cleared by 0.3mm diameter wire. The pressure of injection can be changed by adding or removing the compensating washers (shim) which are available in different thickness. The nozzle is tested at following specific data:24

Nozzle tip dia R.P.M. Stroke Temp. Pressure Viscosity (Fuel oil)

0.44-0.65mm 500 300 100-1200 C 40psi 6.8-7.1 cst at 300 C

After the testing high pressure tubes in N.D.T lab the F.I.P. is cleared.

Maintenance instruction for injector 1. type of nozzle 2. needle valve angle 3. Nozzle valve lift Mico Bosch 60 0.016-0.026

4. Never use hard or sharp tool and emergy cloth on nozzle valve . 5. Do not allow lapping compound on the arbor shank. 6. Chattering 7. Spray pattern good uniform

Assembly parts of nozzle holder: 1. Compensating washer 2. Guide bush 3. Spring 4. Spindle with guide bush 5. Intermediate disc 6. Nozzle 7. Nozzle cap

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8. FUEL SECTION This section deals with the fuel transaction. It delivers the report to the management & passes its requirement. The oil comes from IOC, BPC, and HPC. The total oil expenditure of 4700 crore rupees/year is a big amount so this is one of the most concentrating fields for the government. So a report is sent to the head office daily. When the oil comes to the shed many data are to be filled and sent to head office as the quantity of oil, capacity, date of loading, unloading etc. are prepared in the presence of government inspector & the person from company. Before unloading following thing are checked. 1. The oil is tested by lube oil lab. 2. The temperature at time of unloading and by multiplying by the temp. with the Correction factor, the exact volume is calculated. 3. The moisture in the oil is checked. Following important factors are considered by the fuel section. 1. Fuel consumption rate of shed. (gross tone/kilometer, per unit tone/kilometer) 2. Economic factor. 3. Maintaining safety standard. 4. Oil testing. 5. Temp. correction factor. 6. Wastage allowed only 0.001%. 7. Schedule ration. For further records fuel trip cards are maintained by the driver in this lube oil change, fuel oil are filled by the driver & kept in record. These all records came in major schedule & send to major head office. The oil used are:HSD RR-813 RR 407 High speed diesel as fuel oil Engine block lube oil Expressor oil

T77 grade oil Governor, traction generator, wick lube Cadmium compound gear & pinion on axle, fast coupling

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9. PIT WHEEL LATHE SECTION

When the loco is on line there are many types of tracks in the way on which driver has to apply brakes. At the time of braking there are many possibilities of skidding due to sudden braking. When two metals slide upon each other the wear of both the metal occurs. So due this reason the wheel wears when this wear flatness exceed 50mm of length, then the wheel needs treatment. The wheel are machined in this section. So, for making the wheel perfectly round the wheel are send to this section. The lathe is installed in pit, hence is the name Pit Wheel Lathe. The cutting tool is made up of Tungstun Carbide (nutral insert).

Types of wear which is maintained in this section are as follows:1. Trade wear 2. Root wear 3. Skid wear 4. Flenge wear

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10. TRACTION MOTOR AND GENERATOR SECTION

This giant engine is hooked up to an equally impressive generator. It is about 6 feet (1.8m) in diameter and weights about 17,700 pounds (8029kg). at peak power this generator makes enough electricity to power a neighborhood of about 1,000 houses. So, where does all the power go? It goes into six, massive electric motors located in the bogies. The engine rotates the crank shaft at up to 1000rpm and this drivesthe various items need to power the locomotive. As the transmission is electric the engine is used as the power source for the electricity generator or alternator. Main alternator The diesel engine drives the main alternator which provides the power to move the train. The alternator generator AC electricity which is used to provide for traction motors mounts of the axles of the bogies. In older locomotives, the alternator was a DC machine, called a generator. It produce direct current which was used to provide power for DC traction motor. Many of these machines are still in regular use. the next development was the replacement of the generator by the alternator but still using DC traction motor. The AC output is rectified to give the DC required for the motors.

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Auxiliary Alternators Locomotives used are equipped with an auxiliary alternators. This provide AC power for lighting, air conditioning, etc. on the train. The output is transmitted on the train through an auxiliary power line. The output from the main alternator is AC but it can be used in locomotive with either DC or AC traction motors. DC motors where the traditional type use for many years but, AC motors have become standard new locomotives. They are cheaper to build and cost less to maintain and to convert the AC output from the main alternator to DC, rectifiers are required. If the motors are DC, the output from the rectifiers is used directly. If the motors are AC the DC output from the rectifier is converted to 3-phase AC for the traction motors. Traction motors. Since the diesel-electric locomotive uses electric transmission, traction motors are provided on the axles to give the final drive. These motors where the traditionally DC but the development of modern power and control electronics has led to the introduction of 3-phase AC motors. There are between four & six motors on most diesel electric locomotives. A modern AC motors with air blowing can provide up to 1000hp

Indirectly assisting sections Those sections which indirectly assist in the maintenance work are called indirectly assisting sections. The labs generally come under this sections. The various indirectly assisting section are as follows:1. 2. 3. 4. Metallurgical lab Machine shop C.T.A. cell Control room

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The brief introductions of these section are given below.

1. Metallurgical lab

In this section the properties of the lube oil & fuel oil are tested and if they are up to the mark then they are only used. When the loco comes for a schedule, the lube oil of the loco checked thoroughly. When the metals slides over each other Sometimes they cause wear, but there is continuous flow of lube oil between them which takes those particles with them. This increases the quality of different metals in them. So, in this lab the different percentage of elements are taken out by electronics method. In this test, a very thin film is created between two graphite electrodes having high potential difference between them. This causes a spark between them which carries a high temperature (25000 C). this process is done in UV-Rays. So the valence electrons of different element in outer shell get excited and jump to the excited level. They remain there for 10-2 sec. when they come down to normal state they release energy in the form of light rays. Different elements release different intensity waves which are focused on a different grating, which splits the light into a spectrum. These spectrum lights are focused on the potential tubes based on photo electric effect. This generates electric signals that are read & compared by the computer to the standard data. The data is as follows:Elements Cu Pb Sn Fe Cr Na Al Si B Min. Limit (in ppm) 10 5 5 20 5 30 5 15 10 Max. limit (in ppm) 20 10 10 50 10 50 10 20 20

So according to these limits we can easily detect which metal is wearing more, and according to that which part has to be checked and changed.

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The standard properties of the fluids are as follows:-

Fuel Oil Properties Acidity Pour point Distillation record(370oC) Flash point Kinematic viscosity (40oC) Density (15oC) Sulphur max% by weight Water max% by volume Carbon residue % wise by weight 0.25 0.05 0.30 nil 3oC(winter)15oC(summer) 95% min. 35oC min. 2 5 cst. 820-860 kg/m3

Lube oil properties Appearance Kinematic viscosity (100oC) Viscosity index Pour point Flash point Sulphur clean & bright 15.5 16.3 cst 110min. 21max 200oC 1.39-1.63%

Different tests are conducted on the oil and their properties are tested out. If the readings are different then the action is taken by the administration.

2. Machine shop In this section machining of different parts is done. The machine shop has different lathe, grinding machine, power hacksaw, drill machine & shaper machine. But the machining of

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very few components like expresser shaft, generator armature is done and most of the parts are replaced because there is no comprise for the efficiency.

3. C.T.A Cell The information for any movement is necessary to be given to the head office. So there should be a body which can form a like between administration and the shed. This is done by C.T.A cell. The few main works are as:1. Interaction between H.O and shed. 2. To keep check of the technical view on the working in the shed. 3. To check the work quality according to the standards. 4. To solves the problem s of the sheds different departments. 5. To contact the concerned private agencies if there is some problems in their services. 6. To maintain the standard criteria of I.S.O as they need the six monthly contracts. So, in this way C.T.A cell plays an important role of interaction between shed and administration.

STEPS MAY BE TAKEN FOR IMPROVEMENTS

1.

Assembly wise Trend analysis of failures

Identification of critical assemblies Internal Audit of the sections in the order of criticality Identification of nonconformities Implementation of revised maintenance instructions. Follow up

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2.

Responsibility wise analysis of failures

Counselling and check sheets

3.

Strictly ensuring that booked repairs are attended along with the Scheduled repairs

4.

Trouble shooting guide covering all types of locos

5.

Sensitising the staff to actual performance Display Boards for performance, Failure meetings

6.

Training

7.

Emphasis on refreshers Animated electrical circuits

Emphasis on staff welfare

8.

Regular grievance meeting with P Branch officials

Enhancing the safety features of the locomotive Auto flasher lights have been provided on all locomotives Dynamic braking have been made functional on all WDM class locos Provision of Twin Beam head lights has been made on 43 locomotives Focusing of head lights is being ensured on all locomotives Check lists have been issued for inspection of safety items on locos.

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Comprehensive attention to bogie is ensured when bogie run out for any work

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DIESEL TRACTION IS THE LATEST First steam locomotive Puffing Devil was built by Richard Trivethick, a Conish Engineer in 1801- Thus, beginning of steam traction. Electricity first used for traction purpose in 1881 by German engineer Werner Van Siemens using both rails to carry the current- Thus, beginning of Electric traction. First diesel loco came into existence in 1912 after invention of diesel engine in 1893- Thus, beginning of Most Modern Diesel Traction.

DIESEL TRACTION IS MOST ENERGY EFFICIENT Diesel Traction is most energy efficient mode of traction. Thermal efficiency of a diesel engine is 40% and transmission losses reduce it to about 32%. The efficiency of Electric traction when electricity is generated from coal is only about 29% with 63% losses in Power Station, 4% in Transmission lines & 4% in locomotives.

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DIESEL LOCOS CAN HAUL HEAVIER LOADS Modern Diesel Locomotives have higher load hauling capability. Load hauling capability of locomotive depends on the ability of the locomotive to start a load, which in turn depends on the following factors. 1. Axle Loadmode of traction. 2. Adhesion- Ability of loco to hold onto rail and move forward. Max adhesion of 43% achieved in state of the art 4000 HP GM Loco against 37% achieved in 6000 HP ABB loco. Starting tractive effort of 4000 HP loco is 53 tonnes as compared to 47 tonnes in case of 6000 HP ABB loco. The world over, Diesel locomotives haul trains up to 23,000 tonnes while there is no evidence of such capability in case of electric traction. A function of track geometry and is independent of the

DIESEL TRACTION IS CLOSEST TO NATURE Diesel traction is most environment friendly mode of traction. In diesel traction both the production and use of power takes place on the locomotive itself whereas in case of electric traction, electricity is produced in the power plant and then used on the electric locomotive. A comparison made on the basis of pollution created on account of generation of one KW of power in power plant shows that seen that electric traction results in 65% more pollution than diesel traction.

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WDM3A

A long distance express train

WDG-4 numbered 12049

WDP-4 diesel locomotive

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DIESEL TRACTION IS MOST ECONOMICAL

Diesel traction is more economical as compared to Electric traction. A comparative cost study reveals the following.

S. No

CAPITAL COST Description Diesel Traction Electric Traction

1.

Locomotive cost

2.69 crore

3.11 Crore

2.

Electrification

cost

(One NIL

3.25 crore

electric loco every 5 km). Total Rs. 2.69 crore Rs. 6.36 crore

RUNNING COST (Rs./1000 GTKM) S. No Description Diesel Traction Electric Traction

1.

Passenger service

Rs. 72.25

Rs. 98.62

2.

Freight services

Rs. 50.07

Rs. 51.03

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DIESEL TRACTION IS IDEAL FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS

Diesel Traction is least prone to sabotage. With on board power generation, it can move anywhere any time. In Electric traction OHE are the ones which are very much prone to sabotage activities.

Cyclones, heavy rains, thunder- storms etc. least affect diesel operations whereas these natural acts of God can cause havoc to OHE masts, catenaries and contact wires thus disturbing the entire operation of trains in one go.

With shortage of electric power for even civilian use, it will not be surprising if someday Railway operations on Electric power is affected. Future requirement of renewal of existing assets like OHE masts, wires etc. will put a heavy burden on Railways coffers which is showing a decreasing trend.

DIESEL TRACTION SAVES PRECIOUS FOREIGN EXCHANGE

Electrification can save precious foreign exchange lost through imported oil is a myth. Railways use only 2.56% of the total liquid petroleum fuel production in the country as against 4.76% for power generation and 48.67 % for road and agricultural transport.

In case entire traffic is diverted on electric traction, it will cause more power shortage for domestic & household use, as people will be forced to use inefficient Gensets. Thus more loss in terms of foreign exchange will be incurred.

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VALVES USED IN BRAKING SYSTEM

Panel Brake System The Tri-Plate Panel Mounted Brake System is mainly made out of Aluminium alloy plates specially machined and then sandwiched. These are used for compact assembly of brake valves thus saving the space as well as reduction of large number of pneumatic fittings. This is modular in concept as well as maintenance friendly. Vacuum Console Panel is a compact unit housing the Vacuum Valves as well as the Filters and also a small panel comprising of other associated Valves related to Vacuum Brake System in the Locomotive. This eliminates dispersed fitment of Vacuum Valves in the Locomotive Brake System thus eliminating leakages as well as saving of space in the Locomotive.

8" x 8" UAH Brake Cylinder UAH Brake Cylinder is used for Locomotive Brake application. It develops forces due to outward movement of Piston due to air pressure. The Brake Cylinder includes a Piston and Push Rod so designed that when it is connected to suitable brake rigging it will provide brake force through the rigging. This can be supplied in 9" and 10" dia version depending on customer's requirement

A-9 Automatic Brake Valve The A-9 Automatic Brake Valve is a compact self lapping, pressure maintaining Brake Valve which is capable of graduating the application or release of locomotive and train brakes. A-9 Automatic Brake Valve has five positions: Release, minimum Reduction, Full Service, Over Reduction and Emergency.

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SA-9 Independent Brake Valve SA-9 Independent Brake Valve is a compact self lapping, pressure maintaining Brake Valve which is capable of graduating the application or release of Locomotive Air Brakes independent of Automatic Brake. The SA-9 Independent Brake Valve is also capable of releasing an automatic brake application on the Locomotive without affecting the train brake application. The SA-9 Brake Valve has three positions : quick release, release and application

VA-1 Release Valve The VA-1 Release Valve without choke is used as a remote controlled cut out cock. It is installed in the Vacuum Brake pipe line between the VA-1B Control Valve and the Train Vacuum Brake pipe.

H-5 Relay Air Valve The H-5 relay air valve is an air operated three way valve that changes the air passage through it when the control air pressure is vented to atmosphere

HB-5 relay Air Valve The HB-5 relay Air Valve is a pneumatic, double piloted, three way valve that changes the air passages through it when air pressure of a predetermined amount or more is in the control chamber

HS-4 Control Air Valve The HS-4 Control Air Valve delivers a regulated, uniform, predetermined air pressure, which usually serves to regulate the operation of another device in the brake System

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F-1 Selector Valve The F-1 Selector Valve performs the function of commanding the brake equipment on the locomotive to lead or trail position of the adjacent locomotive and ensures operation of brakes in the trail locomotives when initiated from the lead locomotive

A-1 Differential Pilot Air Valve The A-1 Differential Pilot Air Valve is designed to activate a number of pneumatic devices for a predetermined length of time even though it's control air supply is maintained for a considerably long period

C2W Relay Air Valve The C2W Relay Air Valve is a diaphragm cooperated self lapping valve having higher capacity which is used as a remote controlled pneumatic device to relay a large quantity of main air reservoir pressure to the operating system for brake application

MU-2B valve The MU-2B Valve is a manually operated, two position and multi-ported valve arranged with a pipe bracket and is normally used for locomotive brake equipment for multiple unit service between locomotives equipped with similar system in conjunction with F-1 Selector Valve

VA-1B Control Valve The VA-1B Control Valve proportions the amount of vacuum in the vacuum brake pipe to the air pressure in the compressed air brake pipe on the locomotive and acts as a pilot valve to operate the train vacuum brake, thus securing an application simultaneously with, and in proportion to the locomotive air brake application.

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D-1 Emergency Brake Valve The D-1 Emergency Brake Valve is a manually operated device which provides a means of initiating an emergency brake application

J-1 Safety Valve The J-1 Safety Valve installed vertically in the main reservoir system vents pressure at a predetermined setting to atmosphere in order to prevent excessive main reservoir pressure buildup

D-1 Automatic Drain Valve The D-1 Automatic Drain Valve automatically discharges precipitated moisture from reservoir with each operating cycle of the control device. The drain valve may be installed on main reservoir with a sump

D-24 B Feed Valve The D-24 B Feed Valve is a large capacity highly sensitive relay valve which is designed to direct the flow of air under pressure to various devices in air brake equipment arrangement at a predetermined pressure

Duplex Check Valve Piston type duplex check valves are generally used in Railway Compressed Air Brake systems to prevent excessive use of auxiliary equipment from depleting the main compressed air supply to the detriment of the brake equipment

24-A Double Check valve The 24-A Double Check Valve is used to permit a device to be controlled by either of two other devices

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AB Test Rack This is a composite test rack where all the WABCO Brake Valves can be tested by using separate test plates for individual Brake Valves

Tread Brake Unit type BF2S Tread Brake Unit type BF2S as per SAB-WABCO design is a very compact device integrating entire brake actuating mechanism for Railway vehicles comprising of Brake Cylinder, Levers for magnification of Braking efforts, Slack Adjuster to keep Cylinder stroke constant irrespective of Brake Shoe Wear and Brake Shoe Holder with twin Brake Blocks

C3W Distributor Valve as per SAB WABCO Design C3W Distributor Valve is a graduated release UIC approved Distributor Valve for application in the Coach Brake System used for initiating the brake application. These valves are supplied in Aluminium version as well as Cast Iron version as far as Body, Top covers and Bottom Covers are concerned.

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Aim 4:- TO STUDY BENEFITS OF PANEL MOUNTED AIR BRAKE SYSTEM AND THEIR FAILURES

Insight of panel mounted on a loco The tri plate panel mounted brake system is mainly made of aluminum alloy plates specially machined and then sandwiched. These are used for compact assembly of brake valves thus saving space as well as reduction of large number of pneumatic fittings. This is modular in concept as well as maintenance friendly Vacuum Console Panel is a compact unit, housing the vacuum valves as well as the filters and also a small panel comprising of all other associated valves related to vacuum brake system in locomotive. This eliminates dispersed fitment of vacuum valves in locomotive brake system thus eliminating leakages as well as saving of space in the locomotive.

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Cab of an electric locomotive, showing the AWS visual indicator Benefits of Panel Mounted Air Brake System: It provides compact city to the system thus reducing space utilized by the braking system on the locomotives. It reduces large number of pneumatic fittings. This is maintenance friendly for the technician. It also reduces leakage as it does not require any compactness for the fitting of vacuum and pneumatic valves. By using this, it becomes very easy to identify the trouble in running condition. It is very reliable and works satisfactorily.

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Air Brake System Maintenance Schedule

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M-12 Schedule Items: A-9 valve, SA-9 valve, C-2 relay valve, VA-1B control valve & AFMV indicator device, MR safety valve setting, N-1 reducing auto drain valve, VA-1 release valve, horn strainer, limiting valve, HB-5 valve, GD80D&E filter element, J filter element, feed valve, 28VB, F-1 selector valve, duplex check valve, test all air and vacuum gauge.

M-4, M-20 Schedule Items: A-9 valve, SA-9 valve, C-2 relay valve, VA-1B control valve & AFMV indicator device, MR safety valve setting.

M-8, M-16 Schedule Items: A-9 valve, SA-9 valve, C-2 relay valve, VA-1B control valve & AFMV indicator device, MR safety valve setting, MU2B valve.

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Loco No Date 14135 06.04.10 17655 03.04.10

Reason of failure Air dryer outlet pipe flange joint O-ring was worked out due to allen bolt loosening R-1 reducing valve gauge pipe union was leaking due to vibration as gauge screw worked out MR safety valve was blowing due to choking of horn strainer S/H Control stand A-9 movement was restricted by AFI gauge due to excess length Loco was detached at NDLS due to air leakage from right side control stand A-9 Valve but no leakage was observed during joint inspection Right side control stand A-9 valve was stuck up due to ingress of dust in double check valve assembly

16491 18948 18666

04.05.10 11.05.10 13.05.10

18666

22.05.10

References:

I.R.I.M.E.E, JAMALPUR

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R.D.S.O, LUCKNOW

TKD SHED LIBRARY

INTERNET

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