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(Syllabus with Past Papers)

By

Mr Pahary S. M. Y

Islamic Studies Preface

Syllabus 9013

The need for Islamic education has been felt throughout ages. This concerns all Muslims, men and women, irrespective of age and time. However, when it comes to students, I have seen that there is not a specific book not light enough for them. Many students have prejudice once the lengthiness of a book is concerned. Students find it hard to search for notes and to make research work. That was the main reason of the presence of this book in hand. It is easy to study and grasp.

This book has been compiled based on the syllabus of the subject, Islamic Studies Year 2011 with code 9013. The page of content has been presented as per the syllabus itself. After each chapter there are questions of past exams for HSC.

Coming to the test item of the subject, an aspect of great importance is the writing of essays. If though you are an expert in the subject that does not imply that you will be able to write and compose great essays. You need an essay with an introduction, a body and a conclusion. You need to specify and enumerate the different parts of the question. You need to follow the trend of the question. You need to show knowledge and understanding of the subjects with explicit, logic and critical approach.

It is important to note that a teacher is still vital for the explanation and elaboration of the syllabus. Students must never think and pretend to be able to learn by themselves and achieve the highest level. A tutor is important at all levels.

In the hope that this booklet will be beneficial to all students.

Educator (Islamic Studies)

Mr Pahary S. M. Y

Mr Pahary

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Islamic Studies Islamic Studies (9013/1)

Syllabus 9013

Syllabus Content Paper 1 Section A: The Beginnings of Islam Pre-Islamic Arabia The life of the Prophet (pbuh) The Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs Section B: The Holy Quran Its mode of revelation, its compilation, its structure and major themes Its authority and place in Islamic beliefs A detailed study of the following surahs: - Al-Faatiha 1 - al-Baqarah 2:1193 - Al Imran 3:3562 - al-Anbiya 21:50112 - al-Qasas 28:144 - al-Duha 93 - al-Qadr 97 - al-Takathur 102 - al-Kafirun 109 - al-Ikhlas 112 Section C: Beliefs and Practices of Islam The Five Pillars of Islam Id al-Fitr and Id al-Adha Marriages and funerals The Articles of Faith and Jihad Section D: The Bases of Islamic Law The Holy Quran The Prophets Sunnah The importance of the Shariah, ijma, qiyas, ijtihad

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51 53 61 64 68 72 73 74 75 76 80 80 86 88 91 96 96 96 97

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Paper 2 Section A: The Early Dynasties of Islam The Umayyad Dynasty The early Abbasids Section B: Religious Thought in Early Islam The early development of the Shariah; 4 schools of thought The compilation and methods of compilation of the Sahih Sittah Mutazilah and Ashariyah Section C: Variety in Islamic Beliefs Sunnis and Shiis Sufism with reference to early mystics and Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali Islamic philosophy and its relationship to religious thinking Section D: Islam in the World Today Early modern intellectual movements in Islam, including the Salafis, Muhammad Abduh and Hasan al- Banna, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Iqbal, Abu Ala al-Mawdudi The relation between Islam and other faiths, especially Judaism and Christianity The place of women in Islam Muslims living as minorities, their part in the wider community and adherence to Islamic principles 102 102 105 112 112 118 132 136 136 143 152 161

161 168 175 179

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Islamic Studies Paper 1

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Section A: The Beginnings of Islam

Pre Islamic Arabia Introduction The time before the coming of the holy prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) in Arabia for the spreading of the religion of Allah, Islam, is known as Pre Islamic Arabia. That period is also known as the Jahiliyya period that is the age of ignorance. It is also known as the darkest period of history and the worst period of human era. This is due to the fact that during that period the inhabitants of Arabia were deprived of a guide and a book of guidance. Another reason is that they had forsaken their prophets and the last one coming to them was Hazrat Isa (a.s). Another reason was that they had started falsifying their texts. In order to understand that specific period, let us study it on five levels, namely social, economic, religious, political and cultural aspects. Social Conditions The society of pre Islamic Arabia was corrupted with sins and immoral aspects and deeds. Sins such as adultery, fornication, prostitution, crimes, highway robbery, theft, infanticides and all thinkable illicit activities like alcoholic drinking, dancing, singing, kidnapping, bribery, interest and so many others were rampant. Women and girls were not respected in that said society. Their rights were tampered. They were considered as sexual objects at the hands of men. They were not allowed to take part in the social aspects of the community. They received no education and they had no right to share or to have a part of the inheritance of their parents. Girls were considered as bad omens. There were three treatments reserved for them. Firstly, some were killed at birth. Secondly, some were buried alive at the age of six. Thirdly, they were let alive to lead a life of misery like women. Slavery was much common among the better off and rich Arabs. There were man, women and children slaves. Men were reserved for market works, business and cultivation. Women were kept as maids, house cores and sexual satisfaction. Children were meant for helping the wives of rich Arabs and for sexual infanticide. The lives of these slaves depended on the mood and character of their masters. Men were the owners and decision makers of Macca. They were the ones to decide on any of the activities of Arabia. They were the masters and had the rights to get married and divorce at will and at any time. Economic Conditions The economy of Arabia depended on several sectors like agriculture, industries, markets and business. Agriculturally speaking, the land of Macca was not fertile and only dates were able to be cultivated. They were thus used locally. The land of Madina and Taif was much fertile and products like dates, grapes, barley, wheat, rice as such were cultivated. They were used both locally and for export. Taif was known as the industrial city where skins of dead animals were transported there for treatment in various tanneries and then in industries for production of bags, shoes, belts and luxuries and fantasies. There were three kinds of markets. The common market was used by each and every one. All Arabs had access therein. The slave market was meant for the buying and selling of slaves and was occupied by the middle class Mr Pahary Page 4

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and rich people. The aristocrat market was meant only for the rich where only luxuries were sold. Levies were imposed on anyone, such as travellers, foreigners and caravans for entering, staying and leaving the city of Macca. Bribes were common among them for progress. High rate of interest was imposed on the borrowers. Each year it would increase by one hundred per cent and at the end of the third year, beginning the fourth year, the properties of the borrower would become the properties of the lender, including wife and children. They engaged in business with China for luxuries, Africa for crafts, Syria for carpet and India for spices. There were barter and monetary systems. Religious Conditions The religious aspects of pre Islamic Arabia were divided into different religions like polytheism, idol worshipping, Judaism, Christianity and Hanif. All of them knew about Allah but most of them forgot Him and started to worship idols. The polytheists and the idol worshippers took other gods and goddesses for worshipping. Instead of worshipping Allah, they associated objects like sun, moon, stars, trees, mountains, rocks, stones to Allah. They worshipped Laat, Uzza, Manat and Hubal. They considered angels as daughters of Allah. They sacrificed animals and virgin girls to be freed from the wrath and anger of Allah and to obtain favours. They circumambulated the Kabah in the state of nudity. They would take advice from their priests or the fortune-tellers and kahin soothsayers. The Christians would follow their monk and their Injeel but it came a time where they started falsifying their books and message. They considered Hazrat Isa (as) as the son of God and god himself. Their monks lived in seclusion in their cells in churches. The Jews followed the principles of Hazrat Musah (as) and the Tawraat but they falsified it. Their synagogue was divided into two sections one for men and one for women. They observed the day of Sabbath on Saturday. The Hanif were the followers of Hazrat Ibrahim (as) and they were waiting for the coming of the holy prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). They continued the principles of Ibrahim (as) and Ismail (as) and the Suhuf. Political Conditions Politically speaking the land was divided into the tribal system. A group of families makes a clan and a group of clans makes a tribe. There were many tribes with each a leader with specific rules and regulations. What was allowed in one tribe may be prohibited in another tribe. Due to these differences, there were many tribal wars which lasted for decades. There was no inter-tribal marriage. There was loyalty on the part of the fellows of a tribe. The leader was selected for his experience as administrator, his maturity, his experience at war, his nobility, his eloquence in speech, his influential capability among others. There were fights for the control of business and fame. Cultural Conditions Culturally based, there were different feasts in circulation among the Arabs. All feasts related to their divinity such as the day of Sabbath, the day of assumption, the day of sacrifice and the day of fast were much praised. The use of the Arabic language was prominent. Due to its richness, there were poem competitions outside Macca at the Ukaz or Ukaiz market. The winner would be praised and considered as a chief, leader, priest, law maker and would be honoured in the society. His poem would be inscribed in golden letters and would be inscribed on the black cloth of the Kabah. They were loyal, honest, resistant, and courteous towards their own people and foreigners. They made much attention to the safeguard of their culture. Any outside innovation unknown to them could be met with resistance. Mr Pahary Page 5

Islamic Studies Additional Material As Support For Past Paper Questions Were the Arabs Religious?

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If we consider it on the side that they followed their religions whether good or bad then we must say that they were religious. A Hindu is a religious person when he is abiding by his book and religion. BUT a Muslim is not a religious person if he is not abiding by the Quran and the Hadith. So, whether pre Islamic Arabs were religious or not, it depends on the elaboration of their religious beliefs and practices. It could be seen that the Arabs would always consult their priest and kahin before doing or attempting to something. They had different gods and idols for their different activities. They made sacrifices and fasted for favours from Allah. There are many ways to elaborate on the above question. However, if the question was compared to Islam, then they were not religious people as they went in contradiction to the principles of Islam. To what extent were the Arabs Jalih ignorant? If we consider the fact that they committed many sins and atrocities upon Mankind and the way they behaved, we can rightly say that they were jahil. However, if we examine their life style and especially how they obtained money, we can say that they were excellent in retrieving money from people. Their system of tax, levies and interest really worked. The way they took advantage of the kaabah and its strategic position for business was praiseworthy. They were experts in transplantation, business and treatment of skins for leather. They were loyal towards their leaders and their tribes for their welfare. Some of them were experts in poems. All positive aspects worthy of praise should be remembered and mentioned. What was the importance and significance of Macca for pre Islamic Arabs? 1. The kabah was the centre of their religious ideals 2. The Kabah had the main idols within itself and the 360 idols around it. 3. The kabah was already predominant in all religions at that time (Christianity, Judaism, Idol worshipping, polytheism and Hanif) 4. The kabah was important for all figures of religions known by them (Adam, Ibrahim etc) 5. It was a symbol of superiority for the one who had its key 6. All tribes fighting to achieve this standard proves the importance of Macca 7. It was a source of religious inspiration 8. The jews and the Christians knew that 70000 Prophets were buried in between the hajar aswad and the mizab rahmah 9. Developed haram with 20 mile radius of Kaba, violence forbidden 10. The Arabs also made pacts with tribes not to attack caravans during season of trade 11. It was the centre of trade in the desert situated on crossroads of trade routes, from Yemen to Syria, Abyssinia to Iraq 12. Meccans were shrewd financiers thus Mecca became leading financial centre 13. Business flourished through its markets 14. Taxes and levies were imposed as means of obtaining money 15. Sanctity of Kaba and pilgrimage to Mecca was essential to survival of Quraish

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Islamic Studies

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Was the System of the Arabs still important after the coming of the Prophet (s.a.w)? With the coming of the prophet of Islam (s.a.w) there have been many changes in the way people were but there are things that have been adapted or adopted by the prophet (s.a.w). On the social aspects, the prophet changed the way people thought about human being in general, giving more value to life. Girls were no more buried alive. Women were no more illtreated. They had their rights in all aspects of life. The status of old persons, orphans and the poor were elevated. Singing, dancing and drinking around fire camps were eliminated. No more inequality existed. However, men were still the breadwinners at home. They took the whole responsibility of the smooth running of the society. Men remained the leaders and administrators. The family life around the father, mother and kids took momentum. The say and decisions of the leaders were respected. On the economic conditions, bribes, taxes, levies and interest were eliminated. Human and slaves markets were eradicated. Sex business and any kind of business involving illicit activities were banned. Business of idols was declared Haram. However, inland and foreign businesses, agricultural products and leather products were continued. Rules and regulations concerning business were implemented. Different markets were praised but now had been rendered open to all. Religiously, all concepts related to polytheism and idol worshipping were banned. The kabah was cleaned from all filths. All human sacrifices were banned. All idols were destroyed. All kahin, soothsayers and fortune tellers were out of the market. However, the concepts of the Hanif monotheism were adopted. Fasting and religious feasts were continued. The same fervent for religious beliefs and practices were adopted. The Tawaaf of the Kabah and the journey of Safa and Marwa with respect and morality were the main traits of the Islamic community. Politically, the tribal system was replaced by a governmental system. The old tribal rivalries and the no inter tribal marriage concepts were crushed. Fighting as for fun was banned. Election of leaders based on interest geared criteria was no more applicable. However, the loyalty to their leaders, the hospitality to guests, the bravery on battle field and the benefit of the nomadic life were continued. The existing varieties of rules and regulations due to the different tribes were replaced by the Shariah and new administrative measures. Culturally, poem competitions based on the Arabs sins, wives, forefathers, idols and illicit thoughts and deeds were replaced by the use of the Arabic language for praise for Allah and the Prophet (s.a.w). The foul and wrong use of the Arabic language was declared immoral. However, the feasts and the values that the pre Islamic Arabs held were continued and encouraged. Quranic and Islamic criticism against Pre Islamic Arabs life 1. No idol worshipping as the idols are man-made products Say He is Allah the one 2. No idol in and around the Kabah Kabah is a blessed sanctuary 3. No associating of anything or anyone to Allah who is Pure There is no god except You 4. No question of Allah having ancestors or offsprings He begets not nor is He begotten Mr Pahary Page 7

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5. Life in Qabr and Aakhirah exist Then He made you die, then He gave you life then to Him will you return 6. The day of judgement is for real The one who makes an atom of good will see it and the one who makes an atom of bad will see it 7. No grave worshipping And I have not created the Jinn and Mankind only to worship (Me). 8. No circumambulating of the Kabah in the state of nudity Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Mecca) for Allah 9. No human sacrifice For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that whosoever killed a human being for other than man slaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and whoso saved the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind. 10. No bribe, interest, levies and taxes We will not take a bribe 11. No rich becoming richer and poor becoming poorer sharing and upgrading of status the whole surah At Takathur 12. No slave market And to those who ask and set slaves free 13. Rights of each individual We enjoyed one another 14. Rights of girls, women And they have rights similar to those over them 15. Old persons and the poor He shall feed poor persons 16. No killing and burying of baby girls - And when the girl child that was buried alive is asked 17. No use of abusive language Enjoin right conduct 18. No narration of sins Live in them with honour not fornication 19. Adultery, Fornication Do not approach Zina 20. No kidnapping, crime, murder, highway robbery, prostitution, adultery, fornication etc.. Conspire not together for crime and wrongdoing and disobedience towards the messenger 21. Only modesty and Shariah - The (faithful) slaves of the Beneficent are they who walk upon the earth modestly, and when the foolish ones address them answer: Peace 22. Truth - Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the truth. Things adapted or adopted from Pre Islamic Arabs by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Loyalty to Allah and the prophet Generosity towards people Hospitality towards the travellers and foreigners Perseverance and patience in times of problems Eagerness to excel in all domains Courage and bravery on the battle field (for Allahs cause only) Solidarity in times of general concern The use of Arabic language (not for narrating absurd events but to praise Allah and His prophet) 9. The fast of the 10th of Muharram. (the prophet added the 9th) 10. The circumambulation of the Kabah and the circuit Safa and Marwa. (the prophet did them in the state of purity and respect) 11. Prayer at the Kabah (the prophet opted for monotheism) 12. Sacrifices (not human but animal sacrifices) 13. Fasting but only for 29 or 30 days (not 40) 14. 2 feasts in the name of Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha 15. Place of cult (Masjid) 16. Announcement for prayer (not the bell and the trumpet but the human voice Azaan) Mr Pahary Page 8

Islamic Studies 17. Business and trade (but within the limit of Shariah) 18. Written Treaties with other people (but with dignity and promise) Social and Moral virtues of the Arabs

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1. Loyalty to their gods and leaders 2. Generosity towards people 3. Hospitality towards the travellers, strangers and foreigners 4. Perseverance and patience in times of problems 5. Expertise in transplantation 6. Expertise in leather product 7. Willingness to excel in all domains 8. Respect and honour given of their tribal laws 9. Adherence to their priests, kahin and soothsayer 10. Courage and bravery on the battle field 11. Solidarity in times of general concern towards the whole tribe 12. The use of Arabic language to compose poems excellence in poetry 13. Physical and mental strength 14. Lenient and gentle towards their own relatives and family members 15. They were wise and could devise tricks and plans to enrich themselves Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 1 (a) The pre-Islamic era in Arabia known as Jahiliyyah is often described as the time of ignorance. Why is this so? [12] (b) Do you think this term is appropriate for that period? [8] (2005) 1 (a) Outline the major religious beliefs and practices of the people of Mecca at the time the Prophet was born. [12] (b) Explain how early passages of the Quran criticise any two of these beliefs and practices. [8] (2006) 1 To what extent did Islam reject the traditional beliefs and practices of the Arabs at the time of the Prophet? Give illustrations to support your answer. [20] (2007) 1 (a) Why is the period leading up to the Prophets birth in Arabia often described as jahiliyyah [period of ignorance]? [12] (b) To what extent is this description justified? [8] (2008) 1 (a) Examine the main religious beliefs and practices of the people of Mecca at the time the Prophet was born. [12] (b) Explain how the Quranic teachings criticise any two of these beliefs and practices. [8] (2009) 1 (a) Explain the significance of the Kaba in pre-Islamic Arabian beliefs. [10] (b) Why, according to traditional Muslim accounts, did the Prophet Muhammad seek to cleanse the Kaba? [10] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Life Of Muhammad (s.a.w) Introduction

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In order to guide Mankind, Allah sent many prophets from Hazrat Adam (as) till Hazrat Isa (as). The last prophet Allah sent was Nabi Muhammad (s.a.w) to Hijaz to reform and guides the people there. He spent 13 years at Macca as from the age of 40 and 10 years at Madina in the spreading of Islam. His life is full of lessons to take and to put into practice. Maccan Period Birth Till Al Abwa Events The holy prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) took birth on the 12 th Rabi-ul-Awwal in the year 570 AD. He was from the Quraish tribe and the Hashim family. His grandfather was Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim and his father was Abdullah. His grandfather from his mothers side was Wahab bin Abdul Manaf and his mother was Bibi Aminah. He took birth in Macca. His father died 6 months before his birth and he was thus a posthumous child. There were many unusual events and miracles at his birth. Allah sent Angels surrounding the house of Bibi Amina (ra) for protection against Shaitaan. He fell prostrating and asked dua for his Ummah as Rabbi Habli Oummati. All idols fell down in the Kabah and 14 Towers crushed down in Persia. He took birth at Subah Swadiq the time in between night and day. At his birth Abu Lahab freed his slave Thuwaybah and the latter fed him for the first 7 days. A feast was prepared on the 8th day and Halimah Sadiyyah took away Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). He stayed with her for 6 years but visited his mother several times. At the age of 4 he returned to Macca but then he returned to Juraanah because of Drought at Macca. At the age of four, two angels came to purify his heart. They opened his heart and removed a clot like flesh for protection against evil deeds and purified the heart with water Zamzam. It was a custom to send baby boys to the desert. The importance and significance of this custom was to learn the best Arabic dialect, to become more robust through the tough atmosphere of the desert, to lead a life of shepherd, to get accustomed to the life of hardship and to get acquainted to the life of tribe. At the age of 6 returned to Makka. His mother was so much impressed by him that the mother decided to move to Yathrib (Madina) in the company of Umm Aiman for 1 month to visit his mothers family and the grave of his father. At Yathrib the prophet (s.a.w) learned how to ride horses, how to swim in a pond of Yathrib and how to use bows and arrows. On the way back his mother died at al Abwa. Umm Aiman returned him to his grandfather. Al Abwa Till Wahy Events When the prophet (s.a.w) was returned to Macca, Abdul Muttalib (his grandfather) took care of him from the year 576 578 / 579 for 2 to 3 years. Abdul Muttalib took charge of Muhammad (s.a.w) and considered him as his son. He never felt to be an orphan and never had to work. Before Abdul Muttalib died he entrusted Muhammad (s.a.w) to his son Abu Twalib who then took over the responsibility. He was not rich and he had to work. The prophet helped him in his business. From the year 580 to 590 there was a war known as Harbul Fijar (Sacrilegious) (Quraish v/s Banu Hawazin). Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) helped his uncle in bringing water, food and arrows. He helped in healing the wounded. At the age of 12, he went to Syria with Abu Twalib. The caravan had an unusual invitation from Bahira the monk of Syria. He wanted all travellers of his caravan to be his guests. But the prophet Mr Pahary Page 10

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was waiting outside. He joined the kid under a tree and started to question him. He discovered that the kid would be the promised prophet of all past prophets. He discovered Signs of Prophethood and advised Abu Twalib to take him to Makka and protect him. From the age of 12 till 20 he led a life of shepherd and he obtained business experience. He created Half-ul-Fuzul at the age of 15 to help the poor as he was disgusted by the society. He loved life of solitude for reflection and pondering on Allah. Due to his great business fame and ability, he received a business Proposal from Bibi Khadijah (r.a) in the year 595 at the age of 25. Maysarah accompanied him to Syria to discover his secrets. It was a fruitful business with much profit. During one night Khadijah dreamed of moon entering her room. She was unaware of the meaning. She went to Waraqa bin Naufal a Hanif and her cousin. Bibi Khadija sent a marriage proposal and the prophet (s.a.w) accepted. It was a successful marriage with 4 daughters (Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum and Faatima) and 2 sons (Qasim and Abdullah). In the year 605 the valley of Kabah was flooded by rain and the Arabs rebuilt the Kabah. The holy prophet (s.a.w) solved the problem of the placement of the black stone. He was disgusted with Life of Arabs and he retreated times and often in the desert and the cave of Hira. It was then that one night during the month of Ramadhan, Hazrat Jibril (as) brought the first five verses of Surah Al Alaq. When Hazrat Jibril (as) came to him, he was in his original form with wings and he asked the prophet (s.a.w) to read. But the prophet (s.a.w) replied that he was not among the readers. Hazrat Jibril asked him a second time but with the same answer. The third time Hazrat Jibril seized him and asked him to Read in the name of your Lord. Who created Insaan from a clot of blood. Read and your Lord is the most bountiful. Who taught with the pen. Taught Man that which he knew not. 1st Converts Till Other Marriages of the Prophet (s.a.w) Events In the year 610 after the prophet had received the first revelation he returned home and asked his wife to wrap him with his mantle. After Bibi Khadija had comforted the prophet (s.a.w) both of them went to Waraqa bin Nawfal who confirmed that the angel who came to the prophet (s.a.w) was the same who came to all past prophets. As such, the 1st free woman who accepted Islam was Khadijah, the 1st free man was Abu Bakr, the 1st boy was Ali, the 1st girls were his daughters, the 1st slave man was Zayd bin Haritha and the 1st slave woman was Umm Aiman. From the year 610 to 613 the prophet (s.a.w) spread Islam among families, friends and the poor people. Very few accepted. In the year 613 Allah revealed to him Therefore expound openly with what you are ordered and turn away from the Mushrikin (15: 94) and And warn your tribe of near kindred (26: 214). He then made a proclamation at mount Safa. He gathered his tribe and friends, gained their trust and belief in him and then made the proclamation about Tawheed and Nabouwat. But they turned away and went back to their occupations. There was uproar of anger. They jeered and laughed at him and no one accepted. Few days later, he organised a banquet and there were the same attitudes from them. The prophet (s.a.w) was left on his own to spread Islam. They didnt interfere in his deeds and faith, thinking that he would stop sooner or later. When his concepts were against their ways of dealings in the society, then they saw Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) as a threat. By the year 614 only 40 Muslims had accepted Islam. By that time both physical and psychological persecutions started. One day when Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) proclaimed Shahadah (2nd Kalima) in Mataaf, he was assaulted. In trying to protect the prophet (s.a.w) Harith bin Abi Hala was martyred. The Quraish wanted to deal with him. They proposed him for wives, slaves, money, fame, children and houses. Mr Pahary Page 11

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The prophet (s.a.w replied that if they gave him the sun in right hand and the moon in left hand, he would never abandon his mission. Then persecution gained much momentum. As from the year 614 the poor, destitute and needy who accepted Islam were put in prisons starved and beaten with sticks. They were exposed to the scorching sun. They were tortured and killed. Rubbish and thorny bushes were thrown on Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), thorns were put on his way, refuse and camels foetus were thrown on him, people jeered and sneered at him and stones were thrown at him. At Taif he was pelted with stones by street urchins (rogues).His companions were put to death. Uqbah bin Abi Muith wanted to strangulate him with his handkerchief. Slaves were the worst sufferers. They received beatings from their Masters. Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Walid bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, As bin Wail were the worst persecutors. The prophet (s.a.w) and the Muslims were attacked by crowd. Psychological persecutions like Abusive poems and lampoons were created for satirising and ridiculing him. They made fun of him during Swalaat. They called him by different names such as poet, wizard, insane, impostor, mad man, soothsayer, magic worker. Abu Jahl put dirty entrails of a she camel on his back during the state of Sajdah. Many Muslims like Bilal, Sumayyah, Khabbab, Ammar bin Yasir, Suhaib and Abu Fakih were the first sufferers of Islam. There were beatings, tortures, burnings, ill-treatment, mental persecutions, emotional bribe and intimidations only to harm the prophet. The Quraish wanted to bargain and deal: stop spreading of Islam AGAINST life of Muslims. Much Insult, disgrace, dishonour, disrespect and humiliation was upon the prophet (s.a.w). The two sons of Abu Lahab divorced the prophets (s.a.w) two daughters. Seeing practically all of his poor companions being ill-treated the prophet was psychologically affected. By the year 615, many Muslims were not able to bear the tortures of the Quraish. The prophet (s.a.w) ordered them to move to Abyssinia where there was a just king known as Najashi Negus. He was right, just, intelligent and sensible. By the month of Rajab 11 Men and 4 Women (1st Group) moved to Abyssinia. The Quraish followed them to influence Negus. On the Muslims side, Jafar bin Abu Twalib (cousin of Muhammad) acted as spokeman. He read Surah Maryam which the King had seen to be the Truth. He thus allowed the Muslims to stay. By the year 616, a group of 80 83 persons (2nd Group) went to Abyssinia for the same reason. The significance of these trips to Abyssinia was that: 1. The Muslims were able to live and spread their religion there. 2. They were able to have a family where the traditions of Islam could be practised. 3. There was no more persecution. 4. They were admired for their bravery in coming to the king 5. The king Negus didnt stop or prohibit anyone to convert to Islam. 6. For those staying at Abyssinia there was peace of mind. 7. They had their own business without any political or economic pressure. 8. They were able to live socially and religiously based on their customs and traditions. 9. Abyssinia later on converted to Islam. 10. Abyssinia became a supportive and an exiled country for the weak. The holy Prophet (s.a.w) wanted Islam to be reinforced through his uncle Hazrat Hamza and through the noble Hazrat Umar. He always asked that dua as such. In the year 616 Hazrat Hamza converted to Islam and 3 days later in Dhul Hijja Hazrat Umar converted to Islam. When the Muslims from Abyssinia heard about this, they thought that the whole of Macca had been converted. Thus, 30 Muslims from Abyssinia returned to Macca but they were Mr Pahary Page 12

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deceived. However, some stayed and others returned. The importance and the significance of the conversion of these two men can be seen in the boldness of the Muslims praying openly in the sanctuary of the Kabah. Both of them were respected and by now the Quraish were cautious when launching an attack upon the Muslims. They didnt want to face the two men. More people, especially the poor, were daring to convert to Islam. The Muslims had now physical support. In the year 617 extending till 620, the chiefs agreed to ban and boycott Banu Hashim. The decision was written and hung on the cloth of the Kabah where no relation was to be created with them. The Muslims took refuge in the den of Abu Twalib Shibul Twalib. During these years the Muslims ate leaves of wild plants and cactus. There was high rate of death of children, no food and no water. That situation lasted for 3 years and there were great hardships for Muslims. By the year 620, due to the sufferings of the families and relatives of the Muslims in the den of Abu Twalib, the boycott was removed. However, Abu Twalib died after the boycott and Hazrat Bibi Khadija passed away 6 months later. That year was known as the Year of Grief / Sorrow and Aamul Husn. Disgusted by the attitudes of the Quraish, the prophet accompanied by Zayd bin Haritha went to spread Islam at Taif in the year 620. However, orders were already given to drive them away. They were not able to preach but they were stoned and beaten till their shoes were filled with blood. They had to leave and took refuge in the garden of Rabia who was a Christian. He sent his slave Addas with grapes. On the way back they stopped at Wadi Nakhlah where there was the conversion of Jinn. Then they returned to Macca. By the year 620, the prophet got married to Hazrat Sawdah (r.a) in the month of Shawwal. She had young children and needed support. By the year 621 in the month of Shawwal, the prophet again married to Hazrat Aisha (r.a). Miraj till Hijrah In the year 620, 6 men from the tribes of Aws and Khazraj met the prophet at Aqabah listened to him and converted to Islam. They returned to Madina to spread Islam. In the year 621, there was the miraculous Night Journey during the month of Rajab. Hazrat Jibril came to meet him in his house at night, gave him the invitation to from Allah, went to the Kabah, slit of the chest and poured Wisdom and Faith, moved from there to Madina, Baitul Muqaddas. He had seen Hazrat Musah (as) performing Swalaat in his Qabr. At Masjid Al Aqsa, he performed 2 Units/Rakaat nafil. He then ascended through stages of heavens where he met many prophets like Hazrat Adam, Isa, Yunus, Idris, Haroun, Musah and Ibrahim (as). He visited Jannah and Jahannah. He arrived at the Station of Sidratul Muntaha and that is the limit of Jibril and starting Point of Muhammad (s.a.w). He then proceeded to Laa Makaan. He received Swalaat as gift. The conversation of Allah and the prophet can be found in Attahiyyaat. It was an invitation of the Creator to the Creature. The event of Miraj was very important for the Muslims such as that: 1. It was a spiritual elevation of the Holy Prophet, it shows the Darjah status of Holy Prophet in comparison to other prophets. 2. We obtain 50 namaz as gift from Allah then reduced to 5 3. Our imaan in Allah is consolidated. 4. It is important in the sight of the Ashab, it is a spiritual aid Mr Pahary Page 13

Islamic Studies 5. It was sent by Allah through Namaz 6. Swalaat is the Miraj of the believers 7. It is a blessed night where our dua are accepted.

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In the year 621 there was the 1st Pledge of Aqabah in the month of Dhul Hajj. 12 men from Yathrib came to accept Islam and took the oath of No Shirk No adultery No Fornication No killing of children No calumny and slander and No more sins. They promised obedience and faithfulness. Hazrat Musad bin Umair was sent as teacher to Yathrib. The next year (622) there was the 2nd Pledge of Aqabah in the month of Dhul Hajj. 73 men from Yathrib came to accept Islam and to invite the prophet (s.a.w) to Yathrib with full protection. They made the same promise as to live according to Islamic principles. These two events were very important to Muslims as: 1. They were turning points in history of Islam, the Ashab migrated to new land Madina, the Islamic Community was settled there 2. There was the establishment of the Constitution of Madina 3. It was the beginning of new era based on Shariah 4. There were the Prophets success at Madina (all achievements) 5. Persecutions stopped 6. Protection was guaranteed with Islamic progress and expansion 7. There was future victory on battlefield showing the strength of Muslims 8. Among others the conquest of Macca. 9. Prophet and Islam known as the rising power 10. Teachings of Islam already spreading beyond Macca In the year 623 there was the Hijra. However, there were many events and reasons leading up to Hijra such as: 1. The physical and psychological persecutions 2. The disgusting attitudes and threat of the Quraish 3. The inability to spread and live Islam, 4. The Maccans were so uncultured and unwilling to listen to the prophet (s.a.w) 5. The invitation of the Madineese through the 2 Pledges of Aqabah 6. An arbitrator was needed between the Aws and Khazraj 7. A leader was needed at Madina 8. The already prepared ground at Madina to welcome the prophet 9. The willingness of the Madineese to listen to the prophet 10. The order of Allah to spread Islam at Madina 11. The permission to Muslims to migrate from Macca to Madina. Muslims started to migrate to Yathrib. The Quraish became aware of it and decided to hurt the prophet before he could leave for Yathrib. Prophet Muhammad stayed back waiting for permission to move. One night the Quraish surrounded his house. He asked Ali (r.a) to take his place without question and to join him at Madina. He trusted the words of the prophet (s.a.w). The prophet read the 9th verse of Surah Yaasin And We have set a bar before them and a bar behind them, and (thus) have covered them so that they see not, blew on a fistful of sand and threw on the Quraish outside. It was said that he passed through them unseen or they felt asleep. He then met Abu Bakr and both left on 2 camels with their provision. They had as guide Abdullah bin Uraiqit (non-Muslim Guide). Instead of taking the usual route to Mr Pahary Page 14

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Madina, they passed by the cave of Thawr. They stayed therein for 3 nights and days. It was 3 miles away from Macca. After that they continued their way though they were followed by the Quraish. Abu Bakr moved on 4 sides to protect Muhammad (s.a.w). When a price was fixed on the head of the prophet, Suraqah bin Malik was sent to kill the prophet. But for 3 times his horse stumbled in the sand and was released by the dua of the prophet (s.a.w). He thus accepted Islam and returned to Macca. They reached Quba situate 3 miles from Madina on a Monday. They stayed for 2 weeks where and when they built the Masjid Quba. They left on Friday. It was the first Mosque of Islam where the first Swalaatul Jumuah was performed. The Hijrah was of utmost importance for many reasons such as: 1. It was a start of a new Islamic era 2. The building of the Islamic state 3. The liberty to spread Islam more than in Macca 4. The creation of Masjid Nabawi and consolidation of Brotherhood 5. The framing of the Constitution of Madina 6. The acknowledgement of prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) and Islam as the Rising Power 7. The Shariah being introduced 8. The spreading of Islam to different countries 9. The Conquest of Macca 10. and all achievements at Madina as a result of Hijra. Madinan Phase 1st Year of Hijrah The prophet (s.a.w) and Abu Bakr (r.a) arrived at Yathrib on the 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal. It was 270 miles north of Macca. People were awaited for his coming every day. They were warmly welcome with poetry sung by the children of Madina standing in rows. Everyone wanted him to stay at their place. He then let loose his camel and wherever he would stop, he would reside there. He stopped on a land owned by 2 brothers Sahl and Suhail near the house of Abu Ayyub Ansari (r.a). The prophet (s.a.w) stayed for a period of 7 months during which the land of Sahl and Suhail was bought, levelled to the ground and on which a house and a mosque were built. For these 7 months, it was a great favour for Abu Ayyub Ansari (r.a). In a hadith the prophet said that the mosque of Madina was his home, his place of worship and his eternal resting place. There were 2 apartments one for Sawdah and one for Aisha. Swalaat was done facing Jerusalem. Adhan (call for prayer) was instituted. The mosque of the prophet was a focal point and was used for different purposes such as for prayer, Dawah, teaching and learning, shelter for the poor, resting place for travellers, educational and spiritual place for the Ashabus Suffah, a blessings in a community, a sign of Islamic Culture and Architecture, a perfection of spirituality and a peaceful place for meditation There was the creation of brotherhood between the Ansar (helpers of Madina) and the Muhajiroun (emigrants of Macca). The emigrants came without their wealth. They left everything behind and settled to Madina. The prophet (s.a.w) created such love in between them that whatever they had they would share. 1 ansar was supposed to take the responsibility of 1 muhajiroun. There was the creation of the bait-ul-Maal meant to help the people and to finance the projects and development of the prophet and the Islamic State. That public treasury was funded by zakaat, sadaqa, al fay, ushr and voluntarily gifts. Mr Pahary Page 15

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There was a pact and treaty between the Muslims and the Jews. The prophet (s.a.w) settled the fight between the Aws and the Khazraj in order to bring the Community as a whole. They should be responsible and eligible to freedom. He acted as an arbitrator. The people wanted a leader. There was the creation of the Constitution of Madina. There should not be war and sins. All should defend the city. The prophet should protect all signing parties. He was considered as the decision taker and maker. The name of Yathrib was changed to Madinat-un Nabi (s.a.w). It was the 1st Written Constitution of a State in History. It was the Golden Age. There were the Hypocrites led by Abdullah bin Ubayy and Abdullah bin Saba. They accepted Islam with the tongue only. They wanted to know the plan of Muslims interiorly and destroy the religion or at least divide the Muslims. They were termed as Munafiq, Khawarij and Khariji. They cooperated with the Jews against the prophet (s.a.w). 2nd Year of Hijrah The 2nd year of the prophet at Madina was marked by several events. The first one was the introduction of the institution of Fasting. There were different kinds of Fasting Farz, Wajib, Sunnah and nafil. It was made farz in the month of Ramadhan. The second one was the introduction of Zakaat. A sum of money was to be taken from the rich to be given to the poor. It was meant to purify the money and the person at the same time. It is a way to show our responsibility towards other people. Thirdly, there was the change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Macca, Kabah. As it was mentioned in the Quran (2: 144) the Kabah was dear to the prophet. So Allah assigned it as his and our directions for Ibaadah. There was much prosperity of Muslims. The hatred of the Quraish for the Muslims increased. Abdullah bin Ubayy as right man to raise and setup a plot against the prophet (s.a.w). The Quraish wanted him to either kill or drive him out of Madina. Muhammad heard about it and talked to Abdullah but in vain he was a hypocrite. The Quraish went to all tribes between Macca and Madina and instilled a feeling of opposition to Muhammad in their hearts. There were 3 groups against the Muslims, namely the Quraish, the Jews and the Hypocrites. During that period, the Muslims slept fully armed till dawn. It was thus that the prophet (s.a.w) was given the permission to fight in the way of Allah. As such, the prophet talked to Abdullah bin Jahsh and told him Go to Nakhlah between Macca and Taif and there spy on Quraish in order to bring us news on them with 11 men. There was no order to fight any caravan. But instead of spying he attacked the caravan. Abu Sufyan knew about the plot and he sent Damdam to alert the Quraish. Damdam entered Haram, cut the nose of his camel, turned its saddle, tore his shirt and invented lies that the caravan was being looted and Abu Sufyan was dead. The Quraish decided to attack the Muslims. In the meantime, Abdullah bin Jahsh took the booty of war and returned to Madina. The prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) and the Ashab were very angry because no such order was given. It was only to spy and intimidate. As such, there were many reasons leading to the battle of Badr such as: 1. The disobedience of Abdullah bin Jahsh led towards the battle of Badr. 2. There were also old Enmities against Muslims persecutions and oppositions Mr Pahary Page 16

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3. The fear of the advance of Islam 4. The decision to finish off with Islam 5. The fear of other countries conversion to Islam and fight against the Quraish 6. The accusations against the prophet 7. The jealousy of the Khawarij towards the prophet 8. The order and authorisation from Allah to fight 9. The appropriate time to stop persecution from Quraish 10. The order and right given to all Muslims to defend their rights The Quraish built up their army of 1000 men, 300 horses and 700 camels, and marched towards Badr. All of them were well trained. It was known as the best army of the Arabic world. When the army met Abu Sufyan on the way, they didnt want to return back to Macca. They took that opportunity as an excuse to fight the Muslims. When the Muslims heard about the plan of the Quraish, he gathered his army of 313 Muslims, 2 horses and 70 camels. They advanced towards Badr, 80 miles away from Madina. It occurred on a Friday Morning 17th of Ramadhan. The custom was that 3 men from both armies would fight and later on the whole army would meet for fighting. From the Quraish side, the names of Shaibah, Utbah and Walid bin Utbah were mentioned and from the Muslims there were Ubaidah bin al Harith, Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib and Ali bin Abu Twalib. At the end Hamzah killed Shaibah, Ali killed Walid bin Utbah, Utbah wounded Ubaidah and lastly Ali and Hamzah killed Utbah. Ubaidah bin Saad bin al As wanted to challenge the Muslims but Zubair killed him with a spear. In that battle only 14 Muslims died but 70 Quraish died and 70 were taken as prisoners. The battle of Badr was important and significant because: 1. It was the 1st battle opening the gate for permission to fight 2. The 1st battle where a victory was necessary 3. A humiliating defeat of the Quraish 4. The assertion of the Power and strength of Muslims 5. A boast up for the Muslims 6. A lesson for the Quraish who had to think twice next time 7. The Confidence of Muslims 8. A threatening advice towards all enemies of Islam 9. A gateway towards other victories 10. A mean to stop persecutions 11. A way to know that Muslims have the rights and means to rebel and voice out their opinions 3rd Year of Hijrah That year was mainly characterised by the Battle of Uhud which was considered as a remake of the Battle of Badr. There were many reasons leading to the battle such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The crushing defeat of Badr The death of many of the Quraish leaders The promise of revenge of their death The Quraish humiliation in the eyes of the other forces (Persian ) The determination of the Quraish to kill the prophet Page 17

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6. The excuse of Quraish to fight 7. The idea to remake and enhance the image of Quraish in the eyes of its enemies 8. The growing up enmity against Muslims 9. The fear of others conversions to Islam 10. The plot of the Khawarij to uproot the prophet from Madina then to rule over there. As such, the Quraish promised to avenge their death and they resorted not to have sexual intercourse for a whole year, to apply oil on their bodies for 1 whole year and to make much dedication to their lords. The Muslims left Madina to Uhud (3 miles north) with 1000 men. However, on their way 300 Hypocrites led by Abdullah bin Ubayy deserted the army on the excuse that it was a lost battle and they preferred to return to protect Madina. So, the Muslim army reached Uhud with a reduced army of 700 men against 3000 men of the Quraish army. The Muslims pitched their camps and the prophet (s.a.w) placed 50 archers posted on Mount Uhud. They were ordered not to move and to protect the rear of the Muslims. In that battle there was the participation of women from the Quraish such as Hinda (daughter of Utba), Umm Hakeem (Granddaughter of Abu Jahl) and Fatima (sister of Khalid bin Walid). They were to encourage the Quraish. In the fight the Muslims followed orders of Prophet and took advantage. Many Quraish fled from battle field. They were overtaken by the Muslims. 43 archers joined the main army thinking that the war was over. They went to collect the booty of war. However, Khalid bin Walid who was at that time on the Quraish side had observed the battle and was waiting for the right moment to interfere. Seeing the desertion of the 43 archers, he made the round to attack the 7 remaining archers who were thus surrounded by the 100 horsemen. They had no chance and they were martyred. The horsemen descended the hillside and the main Muslim army was surrounded from every side by the Quraish. In that complete disorder the prophet (s.a.w) was injured. According to different reports, he received a stone or was hit and one of his teeth was broken. The shock was so sudden that the prophet (s.a.w) fainted to the ground. There was dismay among the Muslims. At the same time, the Quraish cried for victory and the Muslims thought that the prophet (s.a.w) was really dead. They dropped their weapons and in that confusion many died. It was Abu Bakr who reaffirmed the Muslims that the prophet (s.a.w) was still alive and he was carried away in the cave of Uhud for first aid. All Ashab mustered around the prophet to make a human shield. Many were killed in that endeavour to protect their leader. When the prophet regained his sense, the fight regained momentum and the Quraish were not able to overcome the comeback of the Muslim around their prophet (s.a.w). They thus fled away from the battle field. In that battle 70 Muslims died. The Battle Of Uhud was important and significant in the sense that: 1. There are lessons to be derived for the Muslims 2. The disobedience of the Archers led to the dismay of the army 3. The identification of the Hypocrites 4. A new strategy developed in fighting 5. The Quraish failure in crushing Islam 6. The ability to regroup the soldiers 7. The realisation of the worthiness of the prophet 8. The fear of losing the prophet 9. The double guard from the Muslims afterwards 10. The full and complete obedience to Allah and prophet afterwards

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The Jews of Madina entered in agreement with the Muslims but they conspired against the Muslims with the Quraish. Their aim was to have the prophet on their sides in order to attack Macca and take possession of both Macca and Madina. As a result, Banu Qainuqa was exiled from Madina after Battle of Badr. After the battle of Uhud, Banu Nadir fortified themselves in their forts. There was a siege upon them by the prophet (s.a.w) for 21 days. They finally surrendered. The prophet (s.a.w) gave them 10 days to leave Madina for Syria. A few of them went to Khaybar. At first the relationship with the Jews was created by the prophet (s.a.w) because for different reasons: the prophet wanted to create and tie the links with the Jews, the prophet knew about the similarities in between Islam and Judaism, the prophet wanted to create stability in his society, the prophet wanted to embark them under his wings, the prophet wanted to eliminate all potential enemies, the prophet wanted to show them what Islam was really about and the prophet wanted to spread Islam to them with wisdom. However that relationship changed after their cheap attitudes concerning the conspiracies in the battle of Badr, battle of Uhud and later on in the battle of trench. They proved to be treacherous. They proved to be interest geared to take over all cities of Hijaz. They proved to be money minded and not interested to be part of Islam but only to be under the banner and security of the prophet (s.a.w). 5th Year of Hijrah In the 5th year the main event was the Battle of Trench. There were many reasons leading to that battle as for instance: 1. The defeat Of Badr 2. The nil at Uhud 3. The on-going plot to kill the prophet 4. The desire of the Quraish to erase all defeats 5. The plot by Abdullah bin Saba and Abdullah bin Ubayy 6. The joining of many tribes/parties against Islam 7. The jealousy in the advance of Islam 8. The fear of the conversion of the whole peninsula 9. The threat of accepting Islam and abandoning their illicit activities 10. The old enmities with Islam. There was a merger of different groups to fight the prophet. It was the idea of Abdullah bi Saba and Abdullah bin Ubayy to unite the forces of the Quraish, Hypocrites, Jews and the Surrounding tribes of Macca and Madina. That was why that battle has different names such as the battle of Confederates, the battle of Trench, the battle of Ditch, the battle of Allies, the battle of Khandaq and the battle of Ahzab. After the Majlis shurah conducted by the prophet (s.a.w) it was under the decision of one sahaba, Hazrat Salman Farsi (r.a) to develop a new strategy. It was to stay in Madina, to dig a trench where no one could go through it and no one could get out from it if fallen into it. A trench was dug on the unsafe side of Madina. In this way no one was able to enter and no one was able to leave Madina. The siege lasted for a month and Muslims hunger, thirst and cold were felt. There was persistent attack from Quraish but they were not able to enter Madina. It was the time that Allah had to help the Mr Pahary Page 19

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Muslims. Allah sent a terrible wind, frightening the horses, extinguishing the fire camps, horses frightened and the Quraish fled away. The importance, significance and benefits of this battle can be seen: 1. In the new techniques of fighting 2. Allah increased their Imaan 3. It was the last most important war against the Quraish 4. Muslims were recognised as a rising power 5. There were many converts from different groups 6. The prophet (s.a.w) became renown and famous in Arab peninsula 7. There was more conviction from Muslims 8. An ability to face different situations/armies 9. A new era of status and conquest started 10. A threat to the outside world 6th Year of Hijrah The main event of that 6th year was the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. The latter was possible only because of the following reasons: 1. The dream of prophet narrated to Ashab 2. The decision to go to Macca 3. The driving out of the Muslims by the Quraish from Macca 4. The willingness to see the homeland (families) 5. The willingness to perform the Umrah 6. The willingness to visit the sacred city (Macca) and place (Kabah) 7. The willingness to accompany the prophet on such a journey 8. The willingness to please Allah 9. The willingness to be rewarded by Allah 10. The refusal of the Quraish to allow the prophet to enter the sanctuary The holy prophet (s.a.w) was accompanied by 1400 Ashab for the move to Macca. Uthman was sent as messenger to announce their arrival. But there was no sign of Uthman and a rumour of his death circulated among the Ashab. The Ashab then decided to take an oath under a tree of Hudaibiyyah to avenge the death of Uthman. That oath was known as Bayatul Ridwaan the satisfied oath. It is mentioned in the Quran concerning that oath. According to the terms Of Treaty, the Muslims should return to Madina, a permission of only 3 days for Umrah next year, the Muslims were not allowed to take Muslims of Macca, Muslims leaving Macca to Madina should return to Macca, Muslims leaving Madina to Macca would not be returned to Madina and no fighting for 10 years. Many Ashab disapproved of the treaty but on their way back, midway to Madina, Surah Al Fatah was revealed where there was the promise of victory for Muslims and later on it proved to be true with the Conquest of Macca. The Treaty of Hudaibiyyah was important and significant in different ways because of: 1. The treaty itself 2. The 10 years without war 3. The opportunity to spread of Islam to other countries Mr Pahary Page 20

Islamic Studies 4. The ability to live Islam freely 5. The return to Macca for Umrah after 7 years 6. The possibility of tribes joining Muslims 7. The future Conquest of Macca and other parts of the world 8. All benefits and success after the treaty 9. The Prophet (s.a.w) known as the power of the Arabic Peninsula 10. It reflects the fear and weakness of the Quraish 7th Year of Hijrah

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Due to the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, Islam spread outside Madina. The prophet (s.a.w) sent many messengers to different parts of the world. Heraclius of Rome was a good king but didnt convert to Islam. Chosroes of Persia insulted the messenger and didnt convert to Islam. Negus of Abyssinia was a just king and converted to Islam. Cyrus of Egypt was good and converted to Islam. It was from there that the prophet got married to Hazrat Maria Kibtiyya (r.a) and had 1 son, Ibrahim (r.a) and the rulers of Bahrain and Oman converted to Islam. There were conversions to Islam. When the Jews heard about the conversion of certain parts of the world and the treaty with the Quraish, Banu Nadir, Ghatafan tribe and Hypocrites were jealous of treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They planned to attack Madina. The prophet (s.a.w) marched with 1600 men and besieged them for 20 days. They were allowed to stay but in return of produce should be for the state. It was known as the Khaybar Expedition. In that same year, as promised through the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Muslims were allowed to stay for 3 days for Umrah. They entered Macca with no arm and ammunition. Peace and tranquillity prevailed during their stay. 8th Year of Hijrah In the 8th year there was the Conquest of Macca. The following aspects were the main reasons leading to the Conquest: 1. The breach of the Hudaibiyyah pact 2. The denial of the best prophets proposal 3. The desire of Muslims to take over Macca 4. The desire of Muslims to visit Macca and their relatives 5. The idea to finish off with the Quraish once for all 6. The possibility to spread Islam 7. The increase in adherents of Islam 8. The promise of victory in surah al Fath 9. The possibility to clean up the Kabah from all imperfections and Shirk 10. The growing enmity against the Muslims 11. The chance to ascertain their supremacy of Muslims over the Quraish. When there was the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, Banu Khuzaa joined the Muslims and Banu Bakr joined the Quraish. However, Banu Bakr killed some men of khuzaa in the sanctuary of Kabah. It was thus a violation of treaty. The remaining men of Banu Khuzaa met the Prophet and narrated what did happen. As a consequence, the prophet (s.a.w) sent 3 proposals to the Quraish namely either to pay blood money to Banu Khuzaa or to break Mr Pahary Page 21

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alliance with Banu Bakr or to consider the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah null and void. In their pride and arrogance, the Quraish choose the 3rd one, that is to declare the treaty Null and Void. There was no choice than to conquer Macca. The holy Prophet (s.a.w) left Madinah on the 10 th Ramadhan) with 10000 men divided into 4 groups of 2500 men. Each one was to enter the city from 4 sides. Before entering the prophet (s.a.w) encamped on the nearby hillside and set fire camps at night. The idea was to let the Quraish judge the army of the prophet before entering into the battle. Abu Sufyan who wanted to spy on the army of the prophet (s.a.w) was caught and after he had realised how the prophet was considered and respected, he converted to Islam. He went back to persuade the Quraish not to start the fight but they refused to listen to him. The next day, all 4 sections entered the city with the Talbiyyah Labbaik Allahoumma Labbaik safe except the army led by Khalid bin Walid had some problems. Some Quraish wanted to interfere and 28 Quraish were killed. Otherwise, there was no problem. The Muslim army was a wellequipped army never seen before. The soldiers entered Macca without any resistance and fighting. There was a General Amnesty and Pardon except for 16 bitterest enemies of Islam. The prophet (s.a.w) promised protection to all those who would not oppose him. He then proceeded to Kabah, performed the Tawaaf, entered the Kabah and broke down all idols. He then pardoned 12 out of the 16. It was time for Zohar prayer and Hazrat Bilal (r.a) went for Azan. After prayer, the prophet (s.a.w) went to Safa and Marwa for the 7 circuits. Many converted to Islam. The Muslims stayed in Macca for 15 days. The importance and significance of the Conquest of Macca can be seen by: 1. The Maccan conversion to Islam 2. The surrounding tribes and main centres converted 3. The elimination of all threats 4. The prophet becoming the sole leader 5. Islam reigning over the whole Arabia 6. Islam spreading outside Arabia 7. A new Era of stability and recognition started 8. Macca (Kabah) being in the hands of Muslims 9. The religious and spiritual significance of Macca restored 10. The Muslims of today are benefiting from the grasp of Macca. 9th Year of Hijrah After the conquest of Macca, the Roman Empire was jealous and angry of the situation. He wanted to fight the Muslims. Before allowing him to leave his country, the prophet (s.a.w) left Macca and embarked on the Tabuk Expedition. It was a hard period of famine and drought. That was why it was known as the Expedition of Straightness. The prophet (s.a.w) appealed for donations and they marched during the night and took shelter during the day because of the intensity of the sun. 3000 men encamped at Tabuk but there was no fighting because the Roman dispersed. The Muslims stayed for 20 days to spread Islam. There were numerous converting tribes and that was the last military expedition of Prophet (s.a.w). 10th Year of Hijrah That year was known as the Year Of deputations or Amr-ul-Wafd. The reason was that many tribes converted to Islam. Mr Pahary Page 22

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There was also the Farewell Pilgrimage of the prophet (s.a.w). The prophet left Madina on the 25th of Dhul Qadah and arrived on the 4th Dhul Hijjah. All his wives accompanied him. There was the famous Sermon at Jabal Rahmah (Mount of Mercy) which was a memorable sermon in the presence of 124000 of his companions. The extract of the sermon is as follows: Farewell Address O people, hear me well: I explain to you. For I do not know; I may well not meet you again in this place where I now stand, after this year of mine. O people: your lives and your property, until the very day you meet your Lord, are as inviolable to each other as the inviolability of this day you are now in, and the month you are now in. Have I given the message? -- O Allah, be my witness. So let whoever has been given something for safekeeping give it back to him who gave him it. Truly, the usury of the Era of Ignorance has been laid aside forever, and the first usury I begin with is that which is due to my fathers brother Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. And truly the blood-vengeance of the Era of Ignorance has been laid aside forever, and the first bloodvengeance we shall start with is that which is due for the blood of [my kinsman] Amir ibn Rabia ibn Harith ibn Abd al-Muttalib. Truly, the hereditary distinctions that were pretensions to respect in the Era of Ignorance have been laid aside forever, except for the custodianship of the Kaaba [by Bani Abd al-Dar] and the giving of drink to pilgrims [by al-Abbas]. A deliberate murder is subject to retaliation in kind. An accidental death from a deliberate injury means a death resulting from [something not usually used or intended as a deadly weapon such as] a stick or a rock, for which the indemnity is one hundred camels: whoever asks for more is a person of the Era of Ignorance. O people: the Devil has despaired of ever being worshipped in this land of yours, though he is content to be obeyed in other works of yours that you deem to be of little importance. O people: postponing the inviolability of a sacred month [claiming to postpone the prohibition of killing in it to a subsequent month, so as to continue warring despite the sacred months having arrived] is a surfeit of unbelief, by which those who disbelieve are led astray, making it lawful one year and unlawful in another, in order to match the number [of months] Allah has made inviolable. Time has verily come full turn, to how it was the day Allah created the heavens and the earth. Four months there are which are inviolable, three in a row and forth by itself: Dhul Qada, Dhul Hijja, and Muharram; and Rajab, which lies between Jumada and Shaban. Have I given the message? -- O Allah, be my witness. O people: verily you owe your women their rights, and they owe you yours. They may not lay with other men in your beds, let anyone into your houses you do not want without your permission, or commit indecency. If they do, Allah has given you leave to debar them, send them from your beds, or [finally] strike them in a way that does no harm. But if they desist, and obey you, then you must provide for them and clothe them fittingly. The women who live with you are like captives, unable to manage for themselves: you took them as a trust from Allah, and enjoyed their sex as lawful through a word [legal ruling] from Allah. So fear Allah in respect to women, and concern yourselves with their welfare. Have I given the message? -O Allah, be my witness. Mr Pahary Page 23

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O people, believers are but brothers. No one may take his brothers property without his full consent. Have I given the message? -- O Allah, be my witness. Never go back to being unbelievers, smiting each others necks, for verily, I have left among you that which if you take it, you will never stray after me: the Book of Allah. Have I given the message? -- O Allah, be my witness. O people, your Lord is One, and your father is one: all of you are from Adam, and Adam was from the ground. The noblest of you in Allahs sight is the most god-fearing: Arab has no merit over non-Arab other than god-fearingness. Have I given the message? -- O Allah, be my witness. At this, they said yes. He said, Then let whomever is present tell whomever is absent. O people: Allah has apportioned to every deserving heir his share of the estate, and no deserving heir may accept a special bequest, and no special bequest may exceed a third of the estate. A childs lineage is that of the [husband who owns the] bed, and adulterers shall be stoned. Whoever claims to be the son of someone besides his father or a bondsman who claims to belong to other than his masters shall bear the curse of Allah and the angels and all men: no deflecting of it or ransom for it shall be accepted from him. And peace be upon all of you, and the mercy of Allah. At this we can summarise the address into the following main points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. TRUST AND ACCOUNTABILITY FINANCIAL OBLIGATIONS INTEREST (RIBAH) TREATMENT OF WIFE (SPOUSE) WARNING ABOUT SATAN BROTHERHOOD SUPERIORITY IS ONLY IN PIETY AND SUBMISSION IN ORDER TO BE SUCCESSFUL WE MUST OBEY BOTH GOD AND HIS MESSENGER 9. OBSERVE THE PILLARS OF ISLAM 10. DUTIES REGARDING THOSE WORKING UNDER US 11. MUHAMMAD WAS THE LAST PROPHET 12. OUR DUTY IS TO SPREAD THE MESSAGE OF THE PROPHET (QURAN) 11th Year of Hijrah There was also a very important event in the illness and wafaat of the prophet (s.a.w). His illness started in the month of Safar and on the 5th day of illness, he shifted to Hazrat Aisha (r.a). It lasted for 13 days then breathed his last on the 12 th Rabi-ul-Awwal at the age 63. He was then buried in the apartment of Hazrat Aisha (r.a).

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Islamic Studies Additional Material For Past Exam Questions

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How did the Prophets life before the first revelation prepare him for the years to come? 1. He was an orphan (so championed the cause of orphans, widows and destitute) 2. He was also a shepherd, had time to contemplate on life and the art of guiding people 3. He was aware of suffering and cruelty perpetuated by wars between Quraish and others 4. He was present when the alliance (Half ul Fudul) was formed to protect the weak 5. He travelled with his uncle making him aware of other faiths outside Mecca 6. His business with his uncle made him mature in dealings and treaties 7. Like all Arabs he was aware of religious significance of the Kaaba in Mecca 8. He was also aware of the beliefs of hanifs (those who followed pure religion of Abraham) 9. He never took part in frivolous activities when young 10. His personal qualities known to Meccans who named him as Al Amin (Trustworthy) and As Sadiq (Truthful) 11. He never engaged in sins and immoral activities 12. He always had a different view concerning idol worshipping and polytheism 13. His marriage to Khadijah allowed him financial security 14. He spent long hours meditating in the hills away from Mecca especially during month of Ramadan 15. His soft words and character made him known and famous among the Arabs and helped him in the spreading of Islam. Failure at Macca and Success at Madina The prophet of Islam (s.a.w) spent 13 years at Macca and 10 years at Madina. The situation was different and the people were not the same. Due to various reasons, the prophet didnt succeed in spreading Islam at Macca and was more accepted at Madina. Reasons for failure at Macca 1. At Macca the people were deeply incrusted into their religions that it was difficult for them to change and accept another religion. 2. They were loyal to their tribal leaders and religious guides that it was practically impossible to shatter that loyalty. 3. They were so much stubborn that they were difficult to be convinced. 4. Due to their ignorance and lack of education they were easily corrupted by the priests. 5. They were rough, uncultured and not refined. 6. Due to their egos their eyes, ears and hearts were veiled. 7. They were trapped in the influence of Shaitaan 8. They were manipulated by the Kahin and the soothsayers 9. They were not ready to abandon their old concepts 10. It was only from the wish of Allah Reasons for success at Madina 1. At Madina the people were awaiting for the coming of the prophet through the pledges of Aqabah. Mr Pahary Page 25

Islamic Studies 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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They were poor, destitute and weak in need of a protector The tribes of Aws and Khazraj needed an arbitrator to end up their fights. They were refined, cultured and literate. They were keener to hear and listen to the words of the prophet The ground for spreading Islam was already prepared by Musad bin Umair who was sent with the people of Madina as from the 1st pledge of Aqabah. 7. The order was given by Allah to go to Madina, and then success was assured. 8. He made the constitution of Madina and thus ensured security 9. There was the treaty of Hudaibiyyah and the 10 years promise without fight 10. The Muslims had faith in Allah and His prophet (s.a.w) and they were victorious in their battles Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) as the final Messenger According to the Quran and the Hadith of the prophet (s.a.w) there will not be any prophet after the prophet of Islam. That was confirmed also by past prophets. The following verses and narrations will enlighten us. Allah says in the Quran: Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Last of the Prophets; and Allah has full knowledge of all things. (33:40) Prophet Ibrahim prayed for his coming Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them your Verses, and shall teach them the Scripture, and the Wisdom and shall purify them. Surely, You are the Mighty, the Wise. (2:129) Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The Israelis used to be ruled and guided by prophets: Whenever a prophet died, another would take over his place. There will be no prophet after me, but there will be Caliphs who will increase in number." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What do you order us (to do)?" He said, "Obey the one who will be given the pledge of allegiance first. Fulfil their (i.e. the Caliphs) rights, for Allah will ask them about (any shortcoming) in ruling those Allah has put under their guardianship." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 661) Narrated Jubair bin Mutim: Allah's Apostle said, "I have five names: I am Muhammad and Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi through whom Allah will eliminate infidelity; I am Al-Hashir who will be the first to be resurrected, the people being resurrected thereafter; and I am also Al-'Aqib (i.e. There will be no prophet after me)." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 732 Why the prophet was given the title of As Swadiq (the Truthful) and Al Amin (the Trustworthy)? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Because of his qualities e.g. being virtuous, thoughtful towards others He never took part in any frivolity of Meccan society The employment by Khadijah and his truthfulness observed by her maid Maisarah, Led to Khadijah proposing marriage to him a sign that he was pure. People left their belongings with him when they journeyed, claimed them on return as he was trustworthy 6. He was already known as Al Amin when he happened to come to the Kaaba during the final stages of repairing. Mr Pahary Page 26

Islamic Studies 7. He was the arbiter in the dispute of placing the stone 8. He worked to promote justice and peace 9. He never lied or accused anyone 10. He always propounded morality and dignity 11. He never got involved in highway robbery, theft or any kind of crime 12. He always tried to protect the low class

Syllabus 9013

How the revelations received in Medina influenced the behaviour of the Muslim community? 1. Let there be no compulsion in religion so no forcible conversions 2. Battle of Badr: permission given to fight in self-defence (lesser jihad). They fought bravely, unlike suffering years of persecution in Mecca when not allowed to retaliate 3. Revelation about Allahs help: a small force victorious over a large one, Muslims felt Allah was on their side 4. Consequences of Uhud mentioned: lesson to Muslims to remain united 5. Revelation about change of Qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca, focused thoughts on the importance of Mecca 6. Strong wind at battle of the Ditch: reinforced faith in Allahs help 7. Fasting (known to Arabs) but defined and made obligatory for Muslims 8. Payment of zakat became obligatory as community began to thrive 9. Spending in the way of Allah Wealth would stay in circulation and benefit community Surah Takathur 10. Gambling, drinking alcohol, games of chance and eating of swine are forbidden 11. Lawful and legal trade was encouraged 12. Begging was considered undesirable 13. Law pertaining to the rights of orphans 14. Rights of non Muslims 15. Surah Fatah announcing clear victory after the treaty of Hudaibiyyah faith increased. 16. Women were given status: dowry, inherit, chose husband, divorce 17. Rights and duties of men and women were defined 18. History of past prophets and nations influenced their code of conduct (lessons from surah Qasas and Ambiya) What guidelines did the Prophet establish for the communal life of Medina? 1. On entering Medina Prophet said Spread peace [salaam], feed the hungry, honour kinship ties, pray while people sleep, you shall enter Paradise in peace 2. He established brotherhood between muhajireen from Mecca and Medina] because muhajireen were homeless and penniless. This nurtured a collective spirit based on sharing and mutual assistance rather than individual competitiveness 3. He made mutual assistance agreement between Jews of Medina and Muslims [whether Aus, Khazraj or muhajireen] known as the Charter of Medina 4. He made signifying justice and dignity for all on a solid legal base 5. He allocated the same rights and same duties for all; a multi-cultural, multi-racial state 6. The Jews and Muslims would help each other in times of attack defend Madina 7. All relationships would be based on contracts; Prophet advised Muslims to stand by their contracts 8. He stressed all relations within the society to be egalitarian 9. There would be no forcible conversions 10. Working together to construct the society Mr Pahary Page 27

Islamic Studies 11. Working with everyone in construction of mosque 12. The call to prayer [adhan] was initiated and still resonates today 13. The five daily prayers set the pace of daily life for Muslims 14. Fasting [sawm] became obligatory in the month of Ramadan 15. Purifying social tax [zakat] made obligatory as well 16. Morality and spirituality prevailed 17. Rights of girls, women and the poor 18. The Shariah elaborated and amended What were the main features of the Constitution of Madina?

Syllabus 9013

1. Prophet Muhammad made the first and formal agreement between himself and all of the significant tribes and families of Yathrib [later known as Medina] and those who followed them from Mecca in 622 [also known as the Constitution or Charter of Medina] 2. The document was drawn up with the explicit concern of tribal fighting between the clans of were buried. 3. It effectively established the first Islamic state, yet this political entity was not Islamic law [Shariah] but rather by established tribal customs 4. It normalized tribal relations within Medina, instituted a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities bringing them within the fold of one community. 5. He guaranteed religious freedom and tolerance to all 6. He established parameters for political alliances e.g. making peace together with outsiders 7. There must be mutual advice and consultation 8. All parties would defend Medina 9. He established Medina as a sacred place 10. He ensured the security of the community 11. He created a system for granting protection to all individuals, especially the security of women 12. He established a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict 13. He instituted a judicial system for resolving disputes; only when people would differ it would be referred to God and to the Prophet who would be impartial arbiter of disputes between Muslims; his decision would be final 14. The payment of blood money [for the slaying of an individual] instead of taking another life, would be regulated 15. The motto was morality and faith. Proof that Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) was a Prophet 1. He was known before becoming a Prophet as a truthful and honest person 2. His good biography and high morals as well as the noble qualities that distinguished him 3. The powers and triumphs Allaah gave him and the spread of the religion he preached, as well as the triumph of this religion over all existing religions in a short period of time 4. The miracles Allaah gave him as supporting evidence were beyond the ability of human beings and were beyond range of natural phenomena. The moon split for him, water gushed from his fingers, food became more abundant in his hands, and similar phenomena were authentically reported and happened in a way that could not be denied Mr Pahary Page 28

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5. The Prophet was backed by the greatest miracle which is the Quran. In fact, Quran was a challenge and remains a challenge for Arabs who were known to be good poets and eloquent speakers 6. The things from the unseen that he (the Prophet) informed us about. Some of them occurred during his life time. Others happened later 7. The testimony of some of the people of the Book that he was a true Prophet. Some of them believed in him like 'Abdullaah Ibn Salaam who was a Jew as well as Negus (king of Abyssinia) who was a Christian 8. The way he dealt with problems of persecutions 9. His eagerly will to spread Islam though in dire problems and threats 10. His continuous battle against the miseries, atrocities and immoral aspects of his society though being offered worldly luxuries in order to stop his mission 11. The events of Miraj and its journey. 12. The far sighted view he had when he advised his people to migrate 13. The ability to contain all problems with patience and perseverance. Why the Prophet Muhammad was at first friendly towards the Jews of Medina ? 1. Prophet Muhammads own conduct of humility, compassion, faithfulness was towards them 2. The population of Medina accepted him as leader 3. He made treaties with the Jews to cement peace and friendship 4. He granted the Jews full freedom to practise their faith, just as Muslims would practise theirs 5. He befriended the Jews as they believed in One God 6. The jews were also followers of a revealed book (Tawraat) 7. There is a link between Muslims and Jews through Musah (as) 8. Jews prayed towards Jerusalem as did the Muslims (initially) 9. He believed by strengthening ties Medina would be secure if attacked 10. Each group would contribute resources for the betterment of the city 11. Relations between the Jews and the Muslims were based on equality and justice 12. The prophet as leader would deal with any disagreement 13. Initially he allowed Muslims to help the Jews in the construction of their places of cult 14. He allowed Muslims to adapt the fast on the 10th of Muharram. 15. Once the prophet stood up when the dead body of a Jew was taken to the cemetery as a sign of respect 16. He accepted the invitation of the Jews for lunch or dinner Why did that relationship change later on? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Jews became allies of the Maccans They suggested the Quraish to fight the Muslims Banu Nadir (Jewish tribe) in exile in Khaybar, plotted against Muslims Jewish delegation went to Banu Ghatafan and other tribes, suggesting fighting Muslims for a reward A large army of 10 000 men (Meccans and tribes, including Jews) led by Abu Sufiyan The hypocrisy of Abdullah bin Saba and Abdullah bin Ubayy 300 Jews abandoned the army on the way to Uhud Banu Qurayza (Jewish tribe) living in Medina, also conspired with Meccans to attack from rear Page 29

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9. Month long confrontation resulted in differences/disagreements between Muslims and Jews 10. Jews were rich and thus influential people in Medina. They had monopoly of commerce and finance 11. Some became unhappy because the prohibition of usury 12. They wanted only favours from the Prophet 13. Jews only wanted Macca to fall and then to take possession 14. They were jealous of the fame of the prophet Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 1 Referring to the main events of the Prophets career while he lived in Mecca between 610 and 622, show how his actions indicate his confidence that he was rasul Allah, messenger of God. [20] 2 (a) Trace the development of the Prophets relationship with the Jews of Medinah, [12] And (b) explain why this relationship changed as time moved on. [8] (2004) 2 Discuss the main reasons why the Prophet faced severe opposition in Mecca during the early days of his prophethood. [20] 3 (a) Describe the event of the Hijrah to Medina. [8] (b) What is the significance of this event in Islam? [12] (2005) 2 (a) Describe in detail the main persecutions suffered by the Prophet and his followers in Mecca. [10] (b) Explain how the Prophet reacted to these persecutions. [10] 3 Give reasons why the following events are significant in the development of the early Muslim community: (a) The Battle of Badr [5] (b) The Battle of Uhud [5] (c) The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah [5] (d) The Fall of Mecca. [5] (2006) 2 Explain how the Prophets response to the main events during the early period of Islam in Mecca shows his belief that he was Rasul Allah, the Messenger of God. [20] (2007) 2 Discuss the ways in which the Hijrah enabled the Prophet to put into practice the teachings he had received at Mecca. [20] (2008) 2 Discuss the significance of the event of the Hijra to Medina in the development of Islam. [20] (2009) 2 (a) Write brief accounts of the following: (i) the Prophet Muhammads first experience of revelation [4] (ii) the first migration to Abyssinia [4] (iii) the Charter of Medina. [4] (b) Explain the significance of any two of these for Muslim reflection about relations with other faiths. [8] (2010) Mr Pahary Page 30

Islamic Studies Caliph Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq (r.a) Introduction

Syllabus 9013

Among the various personalities the Islamic world has known, the name of Abu Bakr, known as Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddeeq (r.a) can be cited. His name is as much popular for his contribution before and during his caliphate. He had contributed so much to the progress of Islam that he deserves to be called the saviour of Islam. Life before acceptance of Islam He was from a simple family of the Quraish people with his father as Uthman and his mother as Salma. He was two years and three months younger than the holy prophet (s.a.w). He had a common ancestor with the prophet in Murra. He received no formal education but he was known for his experience and high level of intellect and wisdom. Since childhood he had another feeling and touch for the poor and the destitute. He would always care for them and would help them in whatever ways he could. He joined the family business of cloth merchant at the age of eighteen. He never got engaged in the sins of pre Islamic Arabia and idol worshipping. He was dedicated to one God and to high level of morality. Life after acceptance of Islam He was the first free man to accept Islam at the hands of the prophet (s.a.w). According to the prophet (s.a.w) Abu Bakr never questioned him concerning the validity and truthfulness of his claim of being a prophet. He proved to be a great asset for the prophet (s.a.w) for he would always be by his side, encouraging, comforting and supporting him in great difficulties. He would act as his counsellor and advisor. His help would extent to the family of the prophet (s.a.w) and to all the companions (Ashab). He would buy slaves and would free them. He was given the title of Siddeeq for his acceptance of the prophets (s.a.w) night journey the Miraj. He was the leader Ameer of one delegation for the Hajj period. He was given the good news of Jannati inhabitant of paradise by the prophet (s.a.w). He was honoured to lead Muslims in prayer during the illness of the prophet (s.a.w). He used to contribute a lot for Islam and would spend all his wealth in Jihad and spreading of Islam. He would militate for the rights of all believers and unbelievers. Life of Caliphate and Achievements After the death of the prophet (s.a.w), both the people of Macca the Muhajiroun and the people of Madina the Ansar were demanding a leader for both camps in order to avoid the discussion of who would become the Ameer and caliph. For the best interest of the community, Hazrat Umar (r.a) took the hand of Abu Bakr and swore allegiance to him saying that there should always be one caliph not two. Then batches of companions would take the oath on his hands. After his election, he gave his speech as follows: I have been elected as your Ameer, although I am not better than you. Help me, if I am in the right; set me right if I am in the wrong; obey me as long as I obey Allah and His prophet; when I disobey Him and His prophet, then obey me not It opens the room for freedom and democracy. Once at the head of the state, he had to face several problems as follows. He created and founded a truly democratic state where each of Mr Pahary Page 31

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his people was authorised to have their say in the society. They had the liberty to choose their own leader. He created and reinforced the Majlis Shura for a better consultation with his companions. In order to have a better control over his state, he divided Arabia into provinces each one with officers to work. He established Military cantonments and a reserve force for his army and for better security. He embarked on various Expeditions to Iraq, Palestine and Syria in order to reinforce and spread Islam. He observed the Rights of both Muslims and non-Muslims ensuring freedom and security for all his people. He was the first one to undertake the work of Preservation of the Quran (zaid bin Thabit to collect Quranic verses) for his Ummah. He emphasized much on the idea and concept of morality and self-respect among his people. He conquered and reinforced different countries like Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah, Yemen, Hadramuth, eastern and western Iraq, Hira, Damascus, Syria, Basrah and Ajnadein. Problems he faced Before the death of the prophet (s.a.w), the latter had assigned Usamah bin Zaid for an expedition to Syria. The army had not the time to leave Madina when the prophet (s.a.w) passed away. Now, many people thought that it would be better not to send any army outside Madina for its security. Some proposed to assign a more experienced commander for the expedition due to his young age and being the son of a slave. However, Abu Bakr adhered by the decision of the prophet (s.a.w). Later after several months, Usamah returned victoriously. After the death of the prophet (s.a.w) many persons rose and pretended to be prophets. Among them there was Aswad Ansi from the tribe of Ansi in Yemen. He was known as the Veiled Prophet for his ugliness. Another one was Tulaiha from north Arabia who claimed prophethood during the time of the prophet (s.a.w). He was known as the Liar. When Khalid bin Walid attacked him at Buzaka, he fled to Syria. When Syria was conquered by the Muslims, he converted to Islam. Another false prophet was Musailima / Musailama belonging to Banu Hanifa tribe. He wanted to imitate the prophet and reduced the number of namaz, he abolished zakaat and sawm. He Legalised drinking and adultery and composed sentences and pretended them to be Wahy. He was known as Musalima the Liar. He was killed by Khalid bin Walid. A false prophetess rose in the name of Sajjah a Christian woman belonging to Tamim Tribe. She got married to Musailima to reinforce their army. When Iraq was conquered, she converted to Islam. Another problem was the refusal to pay Zakaat by some tribes such as Banu Asad, Banu Ghatafan, Banu Abbas, Banu Murrah. The caliph despatched an army of eleven battalions to face and crush all problem. In less than one year there was calm and security in the Islamic dominion. Death of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (ra) He was caliph for a period of 2 years and 3 months. On the 7th of Jamadi-ul-Akhir, 13 A.H., Abu Bakr was taken ill. He had severe fever. Everything was done to bring down the fever, but all in vain. It became clear to the aged Caliph that his end has come. Even in these last days, the thought that troubled Abu Bakr was the future of Islam. He thus opted for Hazrat Umar (ra) as his successor. After an illness of two weeks, Abu Bakr passed away. He was sixty-three at the time. He was buried by the side of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w).

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Islamic Studies Hazrat Umar Farooq (r.a) Introduction

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Among the Ashab of the holy prophet (s.a.w), Hazrat Umar was one of the bravest. He was known for his sincerity in his work, his high personality and his bravery. There had been many crucial events where his presence had been of utmost importance. We can have the examples of the first public swalaat, strategies at war, consultation through the Majlis Shurah consolidation of the Islamic territories, the introduction of Tarawih Namaz in Jamaah and the crushing of the Byzantines. Life before acceptance of Islam He was born from a Merchant family and he developed the sharp idea of a successful businessman. His Father was Khattab and his Mother was Khatmah. According to history he was 12/13 years younger than the prophet (s.a.w) and they shared a common Ancestor in Kaab. He received both Formal and informal education making him suitable and apt for reading and writing Arabic Language. He was very Learned, Intelligent and studious to the extent that no one was able to challenge him in educational field. He was a successful trader as well as a wise and loyal friend. He was admired for his sharp mind, his dedication to his work, his loyalty towards his relatives, his eagerness towards his religion and for his bravery. He was much in business with foreign countries. He was known for being powerful and influential both physically and verbally. He was among those people who could just influence a whole nation by his mere presence. His Conversion to Islam was one of the greatest moments in the life of the prophet and of Islam. Life after acceptance of Islam He was among the polytheists and the idol worshippers but Allah had planned otherwise. One day when he was on the way to kill the prophet (s.a.w), he was told that his own sister had converted to Islam and was reading part of the Quran. He turned way towards the house of his in law and after he had read a chapter of the Quran he converted to Islam. He worked very hard for the spread of Islam. He obtained of title of Farooq and he was one of the distinguished companions of the prophet. After his conversion to Islam, all Muslims became bold enough to pray publicly. The first namaz to be conducted openly was from the endeavour of Umar. He would help Abu Bakr in the affairs of the prophet. He participated in all battles of the prophet and was successful in each of his conquest. On the battle field he was fierce and his enemies were not able to match with him. He would participate both physically and financially in all battles and expeditions of the Muslim conquest. He would always be the first to come forward and present himself in front of the prophet as one of the first three starting soldiers. During dire situations umar was the leading soldier and leader to convert a defeat into a victory. Umar would always regard the status of the prophet, his family, Islam and the benefit of the Ummah before his own interest. He was considered as one of the 10 persons the prophet gave the good news of Jannati. At the death of the prophet he was not in his natural state of mind as he didnt conceive and accept the death of his leader. According to the holy prophet if there would have been another prophet after Muhammad (s.a.w) Hazrat umar would have been that last prophet.

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Islamic Studies Life of Caliphate and Achievements

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After the death of Hazrat Abu Bakr (r.a), Hazrat Umar was chosen as caliph on both the demand of Abu Bakr before his death and the consensus of the Ashab. All Ashab pledged allegiance to him. He was thus the 2nd Ameer-ul Muminin. He consolidated the Muslim territory with the creation of boundary posts and reinforced army. He created and consolidated the democratic state. He increased the members of the Majlis Shurah, consisting of both Muhajirin and Ansar, to 11. He created a Majlis Aam (more than 11 members public sometimes). He made sure that the Shariah should be prevailed. He divided the State divided into provinces with each one an Ameer. Each province was divided into districts with an Amil. Both Ameer and Amil were called during period of Hajj for account of financial year concerning problems and solutions, achievements and development, spirituality and morality and everything related to the spreading of Islam. He watched the activities of his officers consciously. This was done for a better control. He appointed Qazi judge for courts. He standardised the Military division, Police department, Educational department and the Finance department Diwan. There were different sources of revenue such as Jizya (poll tax), zakaat, kharaj (spoils of war), fay (income from crown lands) and ushr (1/10 of produce). All these were meant for funding the Baitul Maal (public treasury). He had a well-disciplined army and considered the welfare of soldiers, both Muslims and nonMuslims. He dedicated great deal of time to religious affairs and he spiritualised the whole state. He conquered and consolidated the whole of Persia at Namarraq, Jasra and Buwaid where Christians helped the Muslims. He conquered Madain, Jalula, Nahawand, Jerusalem, Yarmuk in Syria and Egypt. He crushed the Byzantines. Death of Hazrat Umar (r.a) There lived in Medina a Persian slave, Abu Loulou Firoz by name. One day, he came to the Calpih and said, "My master squeezes too heavy a tax out of me. Please get it reduced." "How much is the tax?" asked Umar. "Two dirhams a day," replied the slave. "And what skills do you possess?" was the next question of the Caliph. "I am a carpenter, a painter, and a black-smith," Firoz said. "Then the tax is by no means too heavy," the Calpih remarked. "A person with your skills can easy pay this tax and shall live comfortably." "All right, I will settle with you," grunted the slave as he went away. Umar took no notice of the words. "I have been rebuked by a slave." he remarked with a smile. Early next morning Umar went to the mosque as usual to lead the prayer. Abu Lolo was already hiding in the corner, with a dagger in hand. As soon as Umar began the prayer, the slave jumped on him. He gave six cuts with the dagger on the Caliph's body. The horrified worshippers overpowered the assassin. Thereupon the wretch slew himself with the same dagger. The next moment Umar was in the lap of Allah's mercy and forgiveness. He died on Wednesday the 27th of Dhul Hijjah, 23 A.H., after lying wounded for three days. He was sixty-three at the time of death. His caliphate lasted for 10 years. Mr Pahary Page 34

Islamic Studies Hazrat Uthman Ghaniy (r.a) Introduction

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Among the Ashab the holy prophet (s.a.w) loved the most, the name of Uthman can be cited. He loved him so much that he gave him 2 of his daughters in marriage and told him that if he had more he would have agreed to marry them off of him (Uthman). Life before acceptance of Islam He was the son of the father Affan and the mother Arwa. Born in Macca in the 6 th year of elephant, he was 5 years younger than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w). They were related through the common ancestor Abd Manaf. As from his formal education, he was able to read and write Arabic language. He was much learned, intelligent, wise (wisdom) and studious. In addition he was a successful trader and was always polite with his customers and business partners. Well before his conversion to Islam, he was a pious man. He never indulged in polytheism and idol worshipping. He was among the Hanif. Life after acceptance of Islam He embraced Islam at the demand of Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra). He was a very tender hearted person. He would cater for the needy, destitute, low class and the poor. He would always come to the help of the persecuted. He was among those who could do anything to help and succour their friends, relatives and even strangers. He was easily moved by the sufferings of others. He was among those early Muslims who suffered persecutions at the hands of the Quraish. He thus went to Abyssinia. He got married to two of the prophets (s.a.w) daughters Kulthum and Ruqayyaah. He was thus known as Dhun Nurain. According to hadith it is said that if the prophet had 40 daughters, he would get them married to hazrat Uthman. The prophet wanted to show how excellent was Uthman towards his wives and his excellence in morality. He was among those ashab given the title of Jannati by the prophet. Uthman was deeply rooted in religion and spirituality that he used to spend most of his nights in Ibaadah and remembrance of Allah. The holy Quran became his weapon against all his problems whether financial, social or spiritual. Reading the Quran was the blessing in which Uthman dedicated his life. He was not able to participate in all battles of the prophet due to illness of Ruqayyah at Madina. Nevertheless he was always among the first to spend his wealth and property in the way of Allah and Jihad. Life of Caliphate and Achievements After the death Of Umar killed by Abu Lulu known as Firoz, there was a panel from which the new caliph would be chosen. The following names can be mentioned: Hazrat Ali, Uthman, Zubair bin Awwam, Talha, Abdur rahman bin Awf, Sad bin Abi Waqqas. He was thus selected as Ameerul Mumineen. He continued with the same administrative measures as the 2 previous caliphs, but he was a bit relaxed on the restrictions imposed on people and consequences when going against the Shariah. He ordered the construction of inns for foreigners, border-out-posts for consolidating the borders, guest houses and supply of water for travellers. There were wells on the sides of roads (routes) and dam was built to protect Macca and Madina from flood. He raised salaries of officers and armed forces. He increased allowance paid to people by 25%. He helped in the spreading of Islam till India. He deputed teachers for the spreading of Islam. He embarked in the recompilation of the Quran. Due to the problems between the Yemenite and Syrian armies on dialects of the Quran, he burned Mr Pahary Page 35

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all circulating copies of the Quran, made 7 copies to be distributed to 7 different parts of the world. He made different conquests to the whole of North Africa, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, the Island of Cyprus and Hijaz. In this way he crushed down all revolts and differences in the Quranic dialects. This move was much appreciated by the people of the whole Islamic kingdom, even the Khawarij. During his khilafat he ensured a constant level of morality but due to internal rebellions he was not able to cope with all problems. According to historians, he was considered too weak or rather too good at heart to contain all the problems of his reign. Hazrat Uthman was so pious that he did not dare to wage war or insult any individual living in this community, both Muslims and non Muslims. He was always ready to help and upgrade the level and welfare of his people not leaving the poor to themselves. During his reign education flourished and great deal of spirituality spread throughout the land. However, people did not recognise and appreciate his effort. Problems he faced When he came to power, he wanted to make some changes in the posts of his government. He wanted to place his trusted men for a better control and to crush all problems. He did never want to give any favour to any member of his family, but instead, he was accused of appointing inefficient relatives as governors and he was so weak at commanding his people. He was also accused of his wrong and bad administrative measures of replacing already existing governors and that he did not check his newly appointed officers. He was charged of all the problems emerging in his dominion. He was accused of being too tender hearted towards those breaching the Shariah. He took lesser decisions against them. The greatest accusation was that he burned down the words and message of Allah the Quran. Some of the rebellious persons accused him of corruption and upsurging the right of his people and money from the Bait-ul-Maal. All these accusations came from the Khawarij. Death of Hazrat Uthman (r.a) Uthman made use of only one weapon. It was his kind and soft words. The Khawarij wanted him to step down from caliphate. But Uthman did not want to become the reason of any civil war in his period. He went to the roof of his house several times and spoke to the rioters. He told them how close he had been to the Holy Prophet. He reminded them what services he had rendered to Islam. But his words fell on deaf ears. Nothing could stop the rioters from mischief. As the day of Haj grew near, the rioters' anxiety grew. In a few days hundreds of men would be back from Haj, they knew. Help from provinces might also arrive. They had to put through their plot without delay or it would be too late. They had to act quickly. Uthman's house was very big. Hasan, Husain, Muhammad bin Talha and Abdullah bin Zubair stood guard at the main gate. The rioters had no wish to cross swords with these men. That would draw the kinsmen of these men into the fight. To avoid this, a part of rioters stealthily jumped over the back wall of the house, and rushed towards where the aged Caliph was. The guards at the main gate knew nothing about what was going on inside. Uthman was sitting with the Holy Book open before him. He was reciting the Qur'an. Muhammad bin Abu Bakr was leading the party of assassins. He got hold of the Caliph's beard and pulled it. "My dear nephew," said Usman, looking into Muhammad's eyes, "if your father had been alive, he would not have liked this conduct of yours." Mr Pahary Page 36

Islamic Studies The young man was cut to the quick and turned back.

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Then another man hit the Caliph on the head with an axe. The third struck him with a sword. Naila, the faithful wife of Uthman, had her fingers cut off in trying to shield her husband. Then all the rioters fell upon the aged Caliph. They inflicted several wounds on his body. One of them, Amr bin Hamq by name, cut off his head. The news of Usman's cruel murder came as a rude shock to everybody. Ali was stunned when he heard of it. He rushed to Medina. "Where were you?" he rebuked his sons, Hasan and Husain, "when the Commander of the Faithful was murdered?" Similarly, he was angry with Abdullah bin Zubair and others who stood guard at the gate. Usman was murdered on Friday, the 17th of Dhul Hijja, 35 A.H. He served the Ummah for a period of 12 years.

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Islamic Studies Hazrat Ali Murtadwa (r.a) Introduction

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He was the cousin of the holy prophet (s.a.w). According to the prophet, he had a huge retentive memory and was known for his education and intelligence. According to history, he was one of the first, not to say the first, to have memorised the whole of the Holy Quran practically the same time of the prophet (s.a.w). Life before acceptance of Islam He was the son of Abu Twalib and as mother Faatima. He was a descendant of Hashim, cousin and in-law of Holy Prophet (s.a.w). He was 30 years younger than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w). Due to his surroundings, he obtained formal education by which he was able to read and write. He was learned, intelligent and studious. He learned the Quran by heart and was pious well before his acceptance of Islam. He had a good guide in the person of the holy prophet (s.a.w) Life after acceptance of Islam He was the first free boy to accept Islam on the same day the prophet was given wahy. He was always by the side of the prophet (s.a.w) and as such he maintained a written record of the sayings of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w). The latter accepted to get his daughter Hazrat Bibi Faatima (r.a) to Ali. The prophets (s.a.w) lineage was continued through him. He held the post of Chief Justice and was a member of Majlis Shurah. Life of Caliphate and Achievements After the death Uthman (killed by hypocrites after siege of his house by Amr Bin Hamq) there were 3 days where no caliph was ruling over the Islamic dominion. The hypocrites Khawarij gave an ultimatum of 24 hours to elect a caliph. There were 3 names cited for the caliphate namely Ali, Talha and Zubair. Ali was then elected. Ali was able to force the rebels to withdraw from Madinah and to establish peace and order in the city. The powerful governor of Syria, Mu'awiyah, challenged Ali and refused to pay homage to him. Mu'awiyah insisted that Ali should arrest the murderers of 'Uthman and hand them over to him. Ali was a man with a deep sense of justice and did not want to accuse the wrong people. He needed a peaceful period to trace the culprits. But, Mu'awiyah began accusing him of protecting the murderers, and in this way the old enmity between the two families was revived. When he came to power he wanted to change governors for a better control and he went against all advices from his friends not to go ahead. But it was too late to manage and change the situation. Due to the last 6 bad years of Hazrat Uthman, it was difficult to contain all problems. Problems he faced There was a demand for the head of those who murdered Uthman. But Ali wanted to settle first and then find out the culprits. But Talha and Zubair wanted the hypocrites and murderers of Uthman immediately. So they met Aisha to wage an army. Ali didnt appreciate that move and a fight was planned between both armies. It was known as the battle of camel because during the battle Aishas camels feet were cut off. The war was stopped and she was escorted to Madina. Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) had to crush all opposition. A bloody Mr Pahary Page 38

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battle took place near Basrah on the 9th of December 656 A.C. This battle was sparked off by a third force who were the real troublemakers. Just before the battle, both parties had already reached an agreement to settle the dispute. But this third force, the real assassinators of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), launched an overnight attack on both camps simultaneously. Each side were under the impression that the other had attacked. The battle began. Several thousand men were lost including the two Sahaba. Sayyadah Aishah (radi Allahu anha) was safe. She was riding a camel during the battlehence the name "Battle of the Camel." Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu) treated her in a most noble and dignified manner and respectfully sent her back to Madinatul Munawwarah. She praised him and deeply regretted opposing Sayyiduna Ali (radi Allahu anhu). Kufa was now made the capital of the Islamic world. The same problem emerged with Muawiyyah in the Battle of Siffin. Muawiyah didnt want to accept Ali until the latter brought the murderers of Uthman to court. The fight started through mischief-mongers. Ali was on the point to win when Muawiyah took pages of Quran and stuck to sword to stop war. By the clever proposal of Amr bin Al As, the retreating army raised pieces of the Holy Quran on their spears demanding judgement between the two parties. Many pious Muslims on the side of Ali refused to fight seeing the Holy Quran displayed in the air. Ali thought it was a trick and he ordered to continue fight. Hypocrites in the army of Ali turned against him and he had to stop the war. There was an arbitration between Ali and Muawiyah in which Amr bin Aas representing Muawiyah and Abu Musah Ashari for Ali. Abu Musah Al Ashari said both must be abdicated but when it was the turn for Amr bin Aas, the latter surprisingly announced in favour of Muawiyah. His words were: "He has declared the removal of his leader, while I would conform Muaawiyah as the Caliph." Chaos followed. The Islamic dominion was thus divided into 2 parts with 2 caliphs. Syria was under the control of Muawiyyah and the rest under Ali. There was also the battle of Nahrawan against the Kharijites where a few dozens of the hypocrites only escaped. The Kharijites decided to avenge and kill Ali, Amr and Muawiyah. Two escaped except Ali. It was at the time of Fajr prayer that Abdur Rahman bin Muljim stabbed him with a poisoned dagger and he died after 4 days. Ibn Muljim was killed the next day by Hazrat Imam Hassan (r.a). Death of Hazrat Ali (ra) After the battle of Nahrawan the "Khawarij" had gone underground. As a matter of fact they were as much against Hadrat Ali (R.A.) as they were against Hadrat Mu'awiyah (R.A.). They were still working against the Khilafat and they were greatly disgusted with the civil war that seemed endless. To end this state of affairs, they worked out a dangerous plot. According to Muslims were divided because of differences between Hadrat Ali and Amir Mu'awiyah. also disliked 'Amr ibn 'As and considered him as chief planner for Amir Mu'awiyah. decided, therefore, to assassinate all the three of them. It was planned that the personalities would be struck at the same time on the same day. them They They three

Three persons, appointed to assassinate Ali, Mu'awiyah, and 'Amr ibn 'As (R.A.) were Abdur Rahman Muljim, Bark ibn 'Abdullah, and 'Amr ibn Bark respectively. Early hours of the 17th of Ramadan, 40 A.H., was fixed for the assassination.

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After the Fajr Swalat of the 17th Ramadan in the year 40 A.H., the three appointed Kharljis struck the three men. Amir Mu'awiyah escaped with a scratch, Hadrat Amr ibn 'As did not turn out for the Imamat because he was sick that day thus was unhurt, but Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was mortally wounded with the poisoned sword of Ibn Muljim. He passed away in the evening of Ramadan 20, 40 A.H. Ibn Muljim was caught by the people after he had struck Hadrat Ali. Hadrat Ali asked the Muslims to slay him if he died. At the same time of his death Hadrat Ali called his sons and advised them to serve Islam and to be good with the Muslims. When somebody asked him should the Muslims take pledge of loyalty at the hands of his elder son, Hadrat Hassan, he replied, "I leave this decision to the Muslims." He also advised people not to kill any person other than the assassin to avenge him. He was sixty three years old at the time of his death and had ruled for five years. Ali lived a simple life. He refused any luxury food and wore simple clothes thinking of the poor. He should sleep on the ground and even sit on the floor. He repaired his own clothes and shoes and even did manual labour. He spent nights in Swalaat and should fast for three days in a row. Honesty, piety, justice and love of truth were the main marks of his character. Additional Material For Past Papers Questions The events that led up to Umar becoming a Muslim. 1. He opposed the Muslims because he believed in the gods of the Kaaba 2. Umar felt strongly about killing Prophet Mohammad to end all problems arising in Mecca; set out with sword 3. He told a clansman where he was going 4. He who suggested Umar sort out Muslims in his own family: his sister and husband 5. Umar angry; Fatima (his sister) hid pages of Quran she was reading but Umar saw them 6. He began hitting Said (his brother in law), Fatima defended her husband and she got hit by Umar 7. Umar was sorry and asked to read pages. Fatima did not trust him and told him to take off his sword wash himself 8. He impressed by words he read of Surah Ta-Ha 9. Umar went to find Prophet 10. The Prophet asked why he had come and Umar said to declare his faith in Allah and His Messenger 11. Everyone rejoiced saying Allahu Akbar 12. He was told the Prophet was praying to Allah to strengthen Islam with Umar 13. From then on Muslims felt strong enough to pray at the Kaaba What made the four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Khulafa al Rashidun) special in Muslim history? 1. They were of exemplary personal character 2. They followed the Quran and Sunnah 3. They had known the Prophet at close quarters so had model to follow they were Ashab 4. They lived simply just as the prophet had done 5. There was election by Majlis-e-Shura Mr Pahary Page 40

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6. After taking oath of allegiance each one reaffirmed their adherence to Islam 7. They were available to the common man at any time 8. They asked Muslims to obey him only so long as he followed Islam e.g. Abu Bakr when elected 9. They promoted healthy pattern of democracy, consultation was the basis of this society 10. They treated their Caliphate as a trust given to them by Allah not inherited like a monarchy 11. They were good administrators 12. Basic human rights of all citizens were guaranteed 13. Non-Muslims enjoyed freedom of opinion, property and religion 14. They themselves took advice from the Shura 15. If problem arose, they looked for solution in Quran, then endeavoured to implement a welfare state which would promote brotherhood, equality, prosperity without differentiation or discrimination 16. The Baitul Mal [treasury] was not considered property of the Caliph 17. They received small allowance 18. Contribution in the compilation of the Quran 19. For individual achievements e.g. Umar wandering around Medina at night to see how people were doing Give two examples to suggest what governments today can learn from the principles the Caliphs followed. 1. Officials to live simply rather than follow ostentatious life styles; Abu Bakr made a will saying he wanted his garden sold to refund the salary given to him as Caliph 2. To promote healthy pattern of democracy [many are dictators]. Caliphs used the Shura to ask opinions 3. Officials in government to treat their position as one of trust, not their right to do what they like 4. To make sure of basic human rights of all citizens 5. To give Minority subjects the same rights especially to practice their religion 6. Baitul Mal must not be considered as their personal property 7. To have a constant watch over their officials and other ministers 8. To constantly monitor the development, projects and problems of their ministers 9. To enhance morality and spirituality throughout the country 10. To accept different the views of all existing religious bodies, especially the minorities. Why do you think it was important to make a collection of the Quran during the periods of the 4 Caliphs? 1. The Prophet had died and therefore there were few remaining who were left to consult about Allahs message; if the revelations were not compiled there may have been conflicting versions which would not be good for Islam 2. Due to the anxiety of Umar for future generations it was incumbent to compile the Quran. The fear after the death of 700 Huffaz of Quran. 3. In order to eliminate any false copy of the Quran and to have a standardised text, Uthman decided for the best interest of the Ummah. 4. The Quran is a miracle for the Muslims. It tells us about things we cannot know of otherwise: Allah, His signs and attributes, the past (stories of earlier prophets) the Mr Pahary Page 41

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present and the future (the Day of Judgement, Paradise and Hell); therefore vital that the revelations had to be recorded 5. The Quran gives infallible guidance to Muslims on how to conduct their lives; it is the foundation of Islam, guides us about Hajj, Ramadan, Zakat and worship; if not compiled it would be irreplaceable 6. Early Muslims were men of vision. They knew the message of the Quran was for all people in the world not just the Arabs. The Muslim empire was expanding, more people becoming Muslim, therefore vital to compile revelations so that the message could be conveyed 7. Allah tells us the Quran is for those who think, therefore early Muslims realised a written version was imperative so that individual Muslims could read it and take Allahs message to heart 8. It is a mean for those who dont know the Quran to handle the book for reading and studying. 9. It is a mean of obtaining blessing and favours from Allah 10. It is a source of guidance and a book to help the Jurists of Islam. Why is the era of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs known as the Golden Age of Islam? 1. Caliphs [khalifa] were from amongst the closest companions of the Prophet; hence the were the best people after the prophets and messengers. 2. Their personal character, conduct and attitude followed the letter and spirit of the Quran and sunnah. 3. Their way of life far from show off and exaggeration but filled with spirituality and simplicity gave them that specific beauty. 4. Each considered becoming Caliph [khalifa] a sacred trust; promoted the healthy pattern of democracy known as the consultative system [shura] 5. They were chosen by this system and were bound by its decisions. They didnt give or take bribes to access khilafate 6. They were devoid of sins and immoralities. They were symbols and role models of the Shariah. 7. Freedom of speech and basic human rights were fully guaranteed for Muslims and non Muslims alike 8. Caliph was accessible during five prayer times each day, on Friday and during Hajj when people came from far and wide 9. They endeavoured to make the Caliphate a welfare state promoting brotherhood, equality, prosperity without discrimination 10. The state treasury [baitul mal] was not private property of Caliph but was meant and used for the public 11. Judiciary was supreme; judges [qadis] were not interfered with even if judgement was against Caliph 12. The Muslim empire stretched far and wide; the message of Islam continued to touch the hearts of people, many became Muslim Describe the relationship between the Prophet and Ali in the years after the first revelation. 1. Both were very close; Ali was brought up in the Prophets household 2. When the Prophet was instructed to warn thy nearest kin [26:214] Ali said I will be your helper 3. He always listened and learned from the Prophet (relation of teacher and student) Mr Pahary Page 42

Islamic Studies 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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He was the first child to accept Islam without questioning the prophet Ali and Abu Bakr stayed behind in Mecca with the Prophet before the Hijra He risked his own life by sleeping in the place of the holy Prophet on the night of Hijra Ali had mission to perform, to return things kept with the Prophet for safekeeping During the time of brotherhood in Medina Prophet declared Ali to be his brother [not wanting to show favouritism to any ansar] 9. He was married to Fatima, the Prophets daughter 10. Ali and his family lived a frugal life, just like the Prophets family 11. He worked as a labourer with Prophet, building the mosque in Medina 12. He was the father of Hasan and Husain, Prophets beloved grandchildren 13. He was a scribe of the Prophet [main scribe at Hudaibiyah] 14. He was made standard bearer for the Muslims 15. He was a great warrior in all the battles during the Prophets lifetime 16. Ghadir Khumm episode [For whomever I am the authority and guide Ali is also his guide and authority. Oh God! Be friendly with the friends of Ali and the enemy of his enemies. Whoever helps him, help him, and whoever leaves him, leave him.] 17. Ali [along with others] washed the Prophets body and buried him Main events and contributions of Abu Bakr 1. He solved the crisis at the death of the prophet and brought calm and peace 2. His election and declaration of a democratic country and society 3. Sending of Usamas army to Syria 4. Tribes declaring the treaties with the prophet as void and null 5. Tribes reducing the amount of Swalaat to 3 6. Tribes refusing to pay Zakaat 7. Surrounding tribes of the Islamic dominion rebelled 8. Presence of false prophets 9. Crushing down of all these revolts in less than 1 year 10. Compilation of the Quran 11. Administrative measures and achievements (See notes above) Main events and contributions of Umar 1. Election and nomination of Umar through Abu Bakr 2. Crushing down of all Khawarij groups 3. Exile of Jews and Christians (unbelievers) from Macca and Madina to other parts of the Islamic world 4. Consolidation of Islamic frontiers 5. Conquest of Persia, Syria and Egypt 6. Creation of a well disciplined army 7. Military camps outside the cities with religious facilities 8. Tarawih in Jamaah (Umar said: nimal bidatou haadhihi) 9. Strict Application of Shariah (Ex 3 talaq at one instance) 10. His murder and death 11. Administrative measures and achievements (See notes above) Main events and contributions of Uthman 1. Chosen from a panel of 6 men 2. Wanted to make changes in his government Mr Pahary Page 43

Islamic Studies 3. Severe oppositions from different governors 4. Problems in his army with the Syrians and the Yemenites 5. Burning and Standardisation of the Quran 6. Conquest of Islamic Territories for the first 6 years 7. Charges against him 8. Lost of many of Islamic territories for the last 6 years 9. Murdered by the Khawarij while reading the Quran 10. No caliph and no burial for 3 days 11. Administrative measures and achievements (See notes above) Main events and contributions of Ali 1. Election from a panel of 3 men 2. Ultimatum of 24 hours from the Khawarij 3. Desired to change governors and went against advice of the Shurah 4. Rebellions and protests against his decisions 5. Battle of camel (jamal) 6. Battle of Siffin 7. Arbitration and lost of territories (Syria) 8. Islamic dominion having 2 caliphs 9. Battle of Nahrawan 10. Creation and foundation of Shia movement 11. Murdered by the Khawarij 12. Administrative measures and achievements (See notes above)

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Explain how the policies followed by the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs were continued: 1. Put the shariah into practice 2. The character of 4 caliph similar to the prophet, sincerity and truthfulness of Abu Bakr 3. Severity and hardness concerning matters of shariah by Umar 4. Generosity and soft heartedness of Uthman 5. Importance of education and striving in the way of Allah by Ali 6. Baitul maal 7. Majlis shurah 8. Morality and spirituality 9. The status of the poor and the low class 10. The application of the last khutbah at mount Atafat. Explain how the 4 caliphs expanded the policies and teachings of the Prophet: 1. Abu Bakr: crushing down of rebellions and false prophets 2. Expansion of the Islamic state 3. Copies of quran sent to other parts of the Islamic dominion 4. Sending of teachers alongside 5. Umar: consolidation of empire, elimination of jews 6. Conquest till Persia, Egypt, Syria, Rome 7. Morality and spirituality 8. Uthman: education throughout the dominion 9. Shariah in administrative blocks 10. Ali: justice at the cost of his own life 11. Equality and opportunity for ones defence. Mr Pahary Page 44

Islamic Studies 12. Equal rights of human beings 13. Rights of non Muslims 14. Respect of treaties 15. Majlis Aam 16. Creation of Diwan 17. Fight against corruption and all kinds of immoralities and sins. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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3 Explain: (a) Why Abu Bakr was known as the Saviour of Islam, [10] and (b) why `Ali was forced to fight against his former allies at the battle of Nahrawand. [10] (2004) 3 Explain how the policies followed by the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs: (a) continued [8] and (b) expanded the policies and teachings of the Prophet. [12] (2007) 3 (a) Give an outline of the expansion of the Islamic empire in the period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. [12] (b) Why did the Islamic empire expand so rapidly in this period? [8] (2008) 3 Give a critical assessment of the main events in the caliphates of: (a) Abu Bakr [12] and either (b) Uthman ibn Affan [8] or (c) Ali ibn Abi Talib. [8] (2009) 3 Explain why the Caliph Ali was compelled to fight against (a) Talha and Zubayr [10] (b) Muawiya. [10] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Paper 1 Section B: The Holy Quran Quran Introduction

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Since the sending of prophets to earth and to guide people and Mankind, Allah had bestowed knowledge upon His prophets in various forms such as Wahy - revelation. As such, many books like the Tawraat, Injeel, Zabour, Souhouf and the Quran can be noted. All of them are specific to their people and important for Mankind. Structure The holy Quran is a book of 30 Juz (Siparah), 114 surah, 540 Ruku, 7 manzil and 6666 verses. Maccan Themes There are 86 surahs which were revealed at Macca. The main themes revealed during that period of 13 years were on topics like Allah, the holy prophet, angels, books, destiny, day of judgement, grave, paradise, hell, sacrifice, reward, punishment, strive in Allahs path, education and all Islamic Theoretical Part. Madinan Themes There are 28 surahs which were then revealed at Madina. Their main topics were on the Islamic Law, criminal law, inheritance, will, divorce, marriage, fight in the way of Allah, family law, the hypocrites, local and foreign affairs, dedication to Islam and Islamic Practical Part Mode of Revelation upon which the Quran was revealed: 1. Hazrat Jibril (as) came in his real form with wings to the prophet. In the cave of Hira 2. He used to take the form of a human being, a Sahaba known as Hazrat Dahyah Qalbiy (ra). the hadith on Islam, Iman and Ihsan 3. The prophet (s.a.w) would hear the sound of a bell and verses would be revealed to him. the hadith of Aisha during winter the prophet perspired 4. He would have a dream which would become reality. the move to Macca in the 6th Hijri with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah 5. Allah will converse with him through a veil. 6. He would see Allah with his naked eyes. Miraj (53: 8-13) Compilation of the Quran into 5 stages: 1. It was during the time of the holy prophet (s.a.w). The latter had several scribes who would jot down in their books or records verses revealed by Allah and recited by the prophet (s.a.w). These records were known as Musnad. For example, in the Musnad of Zaid bin Thabit, there were only verses heard by him directly from the prophet Mr Pahary Page 46

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2.

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(s.a.w). The prophet also used to encourage his Ashab to learn the Quran by heart and there were Quranic competition. It was during the caliphate of Abu Bakr when 700 huffaz Quran were killed in the battle of Yamama. Hazrat Umar was anxious concerning the loss of the holy Quran, not for his generation but for future ones. He then urged Abu Bakr to compile the verses into a book form. With much reluctance and consultation, he agreed to go ahead and he appointed Zaid bin Thabit for the task. He was authorised to collect all verses kept by all Ashab and he made the first compiled verses of the Quran in a Book form. He followed four steps. First he verified the verse with his own memory. Secondly, Sayyidna Umar, Radi-Allahu anhu, who was a Hafiz, was also in charge of the project and he verified it, too. Thirdly, before the verse could be accepted, the two reliable witnesses had to testify that it was written in the presence of Prophet Muhammad Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam. Fourthly, after that, written verses were collated with the collections of different Companions. It was then kept with Hazrat Hafsa (ra). There was a discussion in the army of Hazrat Uthman concerning the recitation of the Quran by the Yemenites and the Syrians. He gathered and collected all circulating copies of the Quran, burnt them and made 7 copies for distribution to 7 different places of the Islamic dominion. Due to the increasing converts to Islam and the difficulties to read the Quran by the non-Arab and Arab children, Muawiyyah bin Sufyan during the Umayyad dynasty introduced the syntactical marks like fatha, kasra, dwamma, soukoun, tanween, madd among others. Due to the problem of differentiating between the alphabets of the Arabic language, Abdul Malik bin Marwan introduced dots above and below the Arabic alphabets.

Importance of The Quran 1. The message itself is divine 2. The Quran is a book of guidance for all generations. 3. It enables people to a new path from darkness to light. 4. It allows man to be far from sins and to avoid pitfalls. 5. The Quran is a book of spirituality. 6. The Quran is a total and complete code of conduct. 7. It enables man to lead a life based on a moral discipline. 8. It is a mean of approaching Allah. 9. Its readings purify the heart from sins and diseases. 10. It eradicates doubts of human beings concerning the law of Halal and Haram. 11. It is a book without error. What is meant by the Quran is the kalam Allah, the word of God? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is the word and saying (speech) directly from Allah There is no mistake in that book It is pure from error, contradiction and lies It is a sacred book with divine lessons and advices It is the unaltered and preserved words of Allah It is the message and guidance from Allah but in the Arabic Language It is an oath and promise of Allah It is the response from Allah after the believer has asked for guidance It is the answer of Allah to the prophet in search of the Truth Allah Page 47

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Islamic Studies 10. It is the cured words (shifa) from Allah to Mankind 11. It is simply the rules and regulations as in the form of Law Books revealed to other prophets and their worthiness 1. Suhuf to Ibrahim (as) 2. Zaboor to Dawoud (as) 3. Tawraat to Musah (as) 4. Injil to Isa) 5. Holy Quran to Muhammad (s.a.w) 6. Their importance can be examined as above mentioned. 7. They were sources of guidance 8. They removed people from darkness to light 9. However, nowadays there are only fragments of the Truth 10. All past books except the Holy Quran were falsified Importance to memorise the Quran as to study its meaning?

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1. Benefits found in the Quran 2. People of the Quran are of exalted rank 3. The People of Quran hope for a trade that will never perish 4. We cannot do without the Book of Allah 5. Memorisation of the Quran guides you to the Straight Path 6. The Quran is a cure for the hardening of the heart 7. The Quran increases your Imaan 8. Memorisation of Quran is easy and easily-accomplished 9. None takes delight in the Night prayer except the people of Quran 10. Treasures of goodness in the memorisation of Quran 11. Hifdh al-Quran is one of the causes of salvation from the Hellfire 12. From the honour of Allah is to honour the carrier (preserver) of Quran 13. Memorisation of the Quran is better than the world and all that is in it 14. Tranquillity descends upon the people of Quran and mercy envelopes them 15. The Quran opens up the doors of goodness for the Muslim 16. The Quran is a Cure 17. The recitor of Quran is not returned to senile old age 18. The Haafidh of Quran is in the Shade of the Throne of the Most Merciful 19. The Quran intercedes for its companion in Qabr and on the Day of Judgement 20. The Haafidh of Quran ascends through the levels of Paradise Main teachings of the Quran about the line of prophetic messengers sent by God In Islam we believe in all the prophets that was sent by GOD before the time of Mohammad (s.a.w) and that was mentioned in the holy Quran. The messenger believed in that which had been revealed unto him from his Lord and (so do) believers. Each one believed in Allah and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers We make no distinction between any of His messengers and they say: We hear, and we obey. (Grant us) Thy forgiveness, our Lord. Unto Thee is the journeying. Prophets were infallible in conveying the message from Allaah. They did not conceal anything that Allah had revealed to them, and they did not add anything from themselves. Allah said to His Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) (interpretation of the meaning): Mr Pahary Page 48

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O Messenger (Muhammad)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. Allaah will protect you from mankind [5:67] And if he (Muhammad) had forged a false saying concerning Us (Allaah), We surely would have seized him by his right hand (or with power and might), And then We certainly would have cut off his life artery (aorta), And none of you could have withheld Us from (punishing) him [69:44-47] All the Muslims are unanimously agreed that the Prophets (peace be upon them) especially Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) are infallible and protected from error in that which they conveyed from Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): By the star when it goes down (or vanishes).Your companion (Muhammad) has neither gone astray nor has erred. Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only a Revelation revealed. He has been taught (this Quraan) by one mighty in power [Jibreel (Gabriel)] [53: 1-5] Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 4 If you were talking to someone who had not read the Quran, how would you (a) describe its contents, [8] and (b) explain its importance in the life of a Muslim? [12] 6 (a) How did the Prophet describe the different ways in which he received revelation? [10] (b) What do Muslims mean when they call the Quran kalam Allah, the word of God? [10] (2004) 4 The compilers of the Quran followed a very clear, systematic and careful method. Give reasons to either agree or disagree with this statement. [20] 6 (a) Describe the main teachings of the Quran about the line of prophetic messengers sent by God. [8] (b) Assess the value of the books revealed to these messengers. [12] (2005) 5 Give an account of the process by which it is generally believed the Quran was compiled in its present form, between the death of the Prophet and the end of the caliphate of Uthman. [20] 6 Discuss the significance of the Quran in the beliefs and practices of the Muslim community today. [20] (2006) 5 (a) Explain why the early Muslims thought it important to collect the Quran in a written form. [8] (b) Describe how this was done in the period of the early caliphs. [12] 6 (a) How did the Prophet describe the different ways in which he received the revelation? [12] (b) What do Muslims mean when they call the Quran Kalam Allah? [8] (2007)

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6 (a) What are the basic teachings of the Quran about other revealed Books?` [12] (b) Why, according to general belief, was the Quran revealed to the Prophet over a period of time? [8] (2008) 5 Discuss the significance of the Quran in the beliefs and practices of Muslims today. [20] 6 With reference to parts of the Quran you have studied, explain why Tawhid is often thought to be the main theme of the Quran. [20] (2009) 4 (a) Describe the part played by Zayd ibn Thabit in the process of compiling the Quran. [10] (b) Explain the differences between the revelations delivered in Mecca and Medina. [10] 6 Why do many Muslims attach as much importance to memorising the Quran as to studying its meaning? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Surah For HSC Introduction

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All the Surah that we have in the holy Quran they are for specific purposes. Allah has never revealed a verse upon any messenger in vain. There was a reason. It is then the duty and responsibility of each one of us to learn and study these Surah to our maximum. This chapter will be based on the Tafsir of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (ra), sahaba and cousin of the holy prophet (s.a.w) Surah Al Faatiha According to a group of Ulama, the Basmallah forms part of the surah but according to others it doesnt. It was revealed as a blessing for Mankind because according to the prophet (s.a.w), there is no such surah before the time of the prophet (s.a.w). The surah is about the praise and characteristics of Allah. The first four verses deal with the attributes, praise, glory and status of Allah. It gives us an indication of how Allah supersedes everyone. It is also about worship and help being for and from Allah. Then we ask for guidance and we are selective in our demand. We ask for the right path not the opposite. Allah warns us concerning those who took a different way.


In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. The name of Allah must always be present at all times. In whatever we undertake, we must imperatively start with the blessings from Allah. Allah gives us a clue on two of His attributes and characters. According to some ulama both attributes mentioned above (Ar Rahman and Ar Rahim) have the same meanings. However, Allah is the most compassionate (towards His people) and merciful (concerning the sufferings and sins of His people)


Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds And on his authority it is related that Ibn 'Abbas said, regarding the saying of Allah, Exalted is He, (Praise be to Allah): 'He says: laudation is Allah's in that He is kind towards His created beings and, hence, they praise Him. It is also said that laudation is Allah's because of His excessive blessings upon His servants whom He has guided to believe in Him. It is also said: laudation, absolute unity and godhood all belong to Allah Who has neither progeny, partner, helper nor an assistant. (Lord of the worlds): Lord of any that has a spirit and walks about on the face of the earth and also of the dwellers of heaven. It is also said that this means: the Master of the jinn and human beings. It is also said that (Lord of the worlds) means the Creator of all created beings, their Provider and the One Who changes them from one state into another.

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The Beneficent, the Merciful (The Beneficent) the Gentle. (The Merciful) the Gentle. The Compassionate, the Merciful: that is to say, the One who possesses mercy, which means to want what is good for those who deserve it.


Owner of the Day of Judgment (Owner of the Day of Judgement) the Arbitrator on the Day of Judgement which is the Day of Reckoning and settlement of disputes between created beings, i.e. the Day when people are judged according to their deeds; there is no judge save Him.


You (alone) we worship and You alone we ask for help (Thee (alone) we worship), we turn to you as the only One God and we obey you; ((Thee alone) we ask for help), we ask for your help in worshipping You and from You we obtain confidence in obeying You.


Show us the straight path (Guide us to the straight path) guide us to the established Religion that You are pleased with, i.e. Islam. It is also said that this means: make us firm in holding fast to it. It is also said that the straight path refers to Allah's Book, and guidance to this means guidance to that which it prescribes as lawful or unlawful and to the exposition of its content.


The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not (the path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray (The path of those whom Thou hast favoured), the Religion of those whom You have blessed with the Religion and who are the followers of Moses, before the blessings of Allah deserted them, in that He shaded them with a white cloud and sent down on them honey and quails when they were in the wilderness. It is also said that (the path of those whom Thou hast favoured) refers to the prophets. (Not of those who earn Thine anger), not the religion of the Jews who earned Your anger, whom You forsook and whose hearts You did not protect until they became complaisant. (Nor of those who go astray), nor the religion of the Christians who erred from Islam. Amen: thus shall be its custodians; it is also said that Amen means let it be so. It is also said that it means: O our Lord! Do with us as we have requested You. And Allah knows best'. Mr Pahary Page 52

Islamic Studies Surah Al Baqarah (2: 1-193)

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This surah is considered as the longest surah and according to Hazrat Ali (ra) it englobes all teachings of the Quran. There are many topics discussed in that surah and the following are those from verse 1 till 193 according to the syllabus. (Verses 1 20): These introductory verses declare the Quran to be the Book of Guidance: enunciate the articles of the Faith -- belief in Allah, Prophethood and Life-after-death; divide mankind into three main groups with regard to its acceptance or rejection -- Believers, disbelievers and hypocrites. Allah elaborates on the characteristics of the believers who really believer in Allah, then the unbelievers who openly declare their rejection of Islam and the hypocrites whose hearts and what is therein are concealed. To one they are Muslims to others they are non Muslims they are the hypocrites. Concerning the first verse of the surah, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (ra) said: concerning Allah's saying, exalted is He, (Alif. Lam. Mim): 'Alif stands for Allah, Lam for the Archangel Gabriel (Jibril) and Mim for Muhammad. It is also said Alif stands for Allah's blessings (ala'uh), Lam for His kindness (lutfuh) and Mim for His dominion (mulkuh). It is also said that Alif stands for the beginning of the Name Allah, Lam for the beginning of His Name the Kind (al-Latif) and Mim for the beginning of His Name the Glorious (al-Majid). It is also said that only Allah knows the meaning of these disjointed letters; while some maintain that it is an oath that He made. Concerning the believers, Allah says:


3. Who believe in the unseen, and establish worship, and spend of that We have bestowed upon them


4. And who believe in that which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and are certain of the Hereafter In these verses above, Allah describes the characteristics of those who really believe in Him. Concerning the unbelievers, Allah says:


6. As for the disbelievers, whether thou warn them or thou warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not


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7. Allah hath sealed their hearing and their hearts, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be an awful doom Concerning the hypocrites, Allah says:


8. And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not


9. They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not.


10. In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increases their disease. A painful doom theirs because they lie.


16. These are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, so their commerce doth not prosper, neither are they guided.


18. Deaf, dumb and blind; and they return not (Verse 21 29): Allah invites mankind to accept the Guidance voluntarily and to submit to Him, the Lord and the Creator of the Universe, and to believe in the Quran, His Guidance, and in the Life-afterdeath. It is our responsibility to put the Shariah into practice irrespective of the place , time and ideology or feelings towards human beings. There must be no distraction in the hearts of the Muslims and we will be accountable for all our deeds and sayings. Allah says:


21. O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that ye may ward off (evil).

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25. And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) unto those who believe and do good works; that theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow; as often as they are regaled with food of the fruit thereof, they say: This is what was given us aforetime; and it is given to them in resemblance. There for them are pure companions; there for ever they abide.


27. Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it and sever that which Allah ordered to be joined, and (who) make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are the losers (Verse 30 39): The story of the appointment of Adam as Allah's Vicegerent on Earth, of his life in the Garden, of his falling a prey to the temptations of Satan, of his repentance and its acceptance, has been related to show to mankind (Adam's offspring), that the only right thing for them is to accept and follow the Guidance. This story also shows that the Guidance of Islam is the same that was given to Adam and that it is the original religion of mankind. There is also evidence of Shaitaan (Iblis) being the open and declared enemy. Allah says:


30. And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: wilt Thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.


34. And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever.


35. And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat you freely (of the fruits) will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrongdoers. Mr Pahary Page 55

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36. But Satan caused them to deflect therefrom and expelled them from the (happy) state in which they were; and we said: Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a tune.


37. Then Adam received from his Lord words (of revelation), and He relented toward him. Lo! He is the Relenting the Merciful. (Verse 40 120): In this portion invitation to the Guidance has particularly been extended to the children of Israel and their past and present attitude has been criticised to show that the cause of their degradation was their deviation from the Guidance. Allah asks for being worshipped, to observe Sabr, to remember the favours of Allah and to fear His punishment. Allah says:


40. O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, and fulfil your (part of the) covenant, I shall fulfil My (part of the) covenant and fear Me.


41. And believe in that which I reveal, confirming that which ye possess already (of the Scripture), and be not first to disbelieve therein, and part not with My revelations for a trifling price, and keep your duty unto Me.


42. Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the truth.


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43. Establish worship, pay the poor-due, and bow your heads with those who bow (in worship).


44. Enjoin ye righteousness upon mankind while ye yourselves forget (to practise it)? And ye are readers of the Scripture! Have ye then no sense?


45. Seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is hard save for the humble-minded,


46. Who know that they will have to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are returning.


49. And (remember) when We did deliver you from Pharaoh's folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment, slaying your sons and sparing your women: That was a tremendous trial from your Lord.


51. And when We did appoint for Moses forty nights (of solitude), and then ye chose the calf, when he had gone from you, and were wrongdoers.


53. And when We gave unto Moses the Scripture and the Criterion (of right and wrong), that ye might be led aright.


59. But those who did wrong changed the word which had been told the evil-doers wrath from Heaven for their evil doing.

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62. Lo! those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabaeans whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. (Verse 121 141): The Jews have been exhorted to follow Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him) who had come with the same Guidance and who was a descendant and follower of Prophet Abraham whom they highly honoured as their ancestor, and professed to follow as a prophet. The story of the building of the Kabah by him has been mentioned because it was going to be made the Qiblah of the Muslim Community. Allah says:


122. O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and how I referred you to (all) creatures.


124. And (remember) when his Lord tried Abraham with (His) commands and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring (will there be leaders)? He said: My covenant includes not wrongdoers.


125. And when We made the House (at Mecca) a resort for mankind and a sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship).


129. Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise. Mr Pahary Page 58

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140. Or say ye that Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know best, or doth Allah? And who is more unjust than he who hides a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (Verse 142 152): In this portion, the declaration of the change of Qiblah from the Temple (Jerusalem) to the Kabah (Makkah) has been made as a symbol of the change of leadership from the children of Israel to the Muslim Community, which has also been fore-warned to guard against those transgressions against the Guidance that had led to the deposition of the Jews. Allah says:


144. We have seen the turning of thy face to heaven (for guidance, O Muhammad). And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a Qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces when ye pray) toward it. Lo! Those who have received the Scripture know that (this Revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.


149. And whencesoever thou comes forth (for prayer, O Muhammad) turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship. Lo! It is the Truth from thy Lord Allah is not unaware of what ye do. (Verse 153 193): If we are unbelievers there will surely be the curse of Allah. In this portion practical measures have been prescribed to enable the Muslims to discharge the heavy responsibilities of the leadership that had been entrusted to them for the promulgation of Guidance. Salat, Fast, Zakat, Haj and Jihad have been prescribed for the moral training of the Ummat. Allah says:


153. O ye who believe! Seek help in steadfastness, and prayer. Lo! Allah is with the steadfast. Mr Pahary Page 59

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154. And call not those who are slain in the way of Allah "dead." Nay, they are living, only ye perceive not.


158. Lo! (The mountains) Al-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the indications of Allah. It is therefore no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House (of God) or visits it, to go around them (as the pagan custom is). And he who doeth good of his own accord (for him), Lo! Allah is Responsive, Aware.


161. Lo! Those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers; on them is the curse of Allah and of angels and of men combined.


173. He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swine flesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.


175. Those are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of pardon. How constant are they in their strife to reach the Fire!


183. O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you that ye may ward off evil)


184. (Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need. But whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know

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188. And eat not up your property among yourselves in vanity, nor seek by it to gain the hearing of the judges that ye may knowingly devour a portion of the property of others wrongfully.


190. Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loves not, aggressors.


191. And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers.


192. But if they desist, then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.


193. And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrongdoers. Allah knows best. Surah Ali Imran (3: 35 62) This surah deals with the family of Imran, Hannah, Maryam, Hazrat Zakariyyah and their surroundings. It relates the story of Hazrat Hannah who desired a boy and she would dedicate him to God. However, Allah gave her a girl, Maryam who was left under the care of Zakariyyah. Miracles of foodstuff were produced to fulfil the needs of Maryam. Fruits of winter were available during summer and vice versa. Hazrat Zakariyya was impressed and wanted a son but the couple was barren. He was ordered to fast for 3 days and then to have sex with his wife. Allah gave him Hazrat Yahya (as). There is also the miraculous birth of Jesus who talked in his cradle and made miracles. The Injeel was given to him and he was ordered to spread Islam towards his people. There is also the will of Allah He doesnt need a father for a son or daughter to take birth. He is enough. Allah says:

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35. (Remember) when the wife of Imran said: My Lord I have vowed unto Thee that which is in my belly as a consecrated (offering). Accept it from me. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower!


36. And when she was delivered she said: My Lord! Lo! I am delivered of a female. Allah knew best of what she was delivered. The male is not as the female; and Lo! I have named her Mary, and Lo! I crave Thy protection for her and for her offspring from Satan the outcast.


37. And her Lord accepted her with full acceptance and vouchsafed to her a goodly growth; and made Zakariyyah her guardian. Whenever Zakariyyah went into the sanctuary where she was, he found that she had food. He said: O Mary! Whence cometh unto thee this (food)? She answered: It is from Allah. Allah gives without stint to whom He will.


38. Then Zakariyyah prayed unto his Lord and said: My Lord! Bestow upon me of Thy bounty goodly offspring. Lo! Thou art the Hearer of Prayer.


39. And the angels called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: Allah gives thee glad tidings of (a son whose name is) John, (who cometh) to confirm a word from Allah, lordly, chaste, a Prophet of the righteous.


40. He said: My Lord! How can I have a son when age hath overtaken me already and my wife is barren? (The angel) answered: So (it will be). Allah doeth what He wills.


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41. He said: My Lord! Appoint a token for me. (The angel) said: The token unto thee (shall be) that thou shalt not speak unto mankind three days except by signs. Remember thy Lord much, and praise (Him) in the early hours of night and morning.


45. (And remember) when the angels said: O Mary! Allah gives thee glad tidings of a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, illustrious in the world and the Hereafter, and one of those brought near (unto Allah).


46. He will speak unto mankind in his cradle and in his manhood, and he is of the righteous.


47. She said: My Lord! How can I have a child when no mortal hath touched me? He said: So (it will be). Allah creates what He will. If He decrees a thing, He says unto it only: Be! and it is.


48. And He will teach him the Scripture and wisdom, and the Torah and the Gospel.


49. And will make him a messenger unto the children of Israel, (saying): Lo! I come unto you with a sign from your Lord. Lo! I fashion for you out of clay the likeness of a bird, and I breathe into it and it is a bird, by Allah's leave. I heal him who was born blind, and the leper, and I raise the dead, by Allah's leave. And I announce unto you what ye eat and what ye store up in your houses. Lo! Herein verily is a portent for you, if ye are believers. Allah knows best.

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This surah deals with the different prophets and their lives. Lessons are derived from their past histories. Hazrat Ibrahim (as) Here is the story of Hazrat Ibrahim who was born among the idol worshippers. Since childhood he was disgusted with that society. When he grew up he challenged to crush down the idols. When the polytheists were gone to other services he destroyed all of the idols except one on which he placed his axe. He wanted his people to think but instead he was thrown to the big fire. He had faith in Allah who protected him. Allah says:

51. And We verily gave Abraham of old his proper course, and We were Aware of him,

52. When he said unto his father and his folk: What are these images unto which ye pay devotion?


57. And, by Allah, I shall circumvent your idols after ye have gone away and turned your backs.


68. They cried: Burn him and stand by your gods, if ye will be doing.


69. We said: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham.

Hazrat Lut (as) This is the story of a people who didnt believe in their prophet. Due to their intellect and ability to adjust with different situations with pride they started to commit sins. Allah sent His wrath and His people was destroyed.


71. And We rescued him and Lot (and brought them) to the land which We have blessed for (all) peoples. Mr Pahary Page 64

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74. And unto Lot We gave judgment and knowledge, and We delivered him from the community that did abominations. Lo! They were folk of evil, lewd. Hazrat Ishaq (as) and Hazrat Yaqub (as) This is the story of 2 prophets who were on the right track and were blessed by Allah.


72. And We bestowed upon him Isaac, and Jacob as a grandson. Each of them We made righteous.


73. And We made them chiefs who guide by Our command, and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds and the right establishment of worship and the giving of alms and they were worshippers of Us (alone). Hazrat Nuh (as) This is the story of the boat built by Nuh (as). His people disobeyed him and he asked wrath upon the non Muslims. Flood came and lasted for 40 days and nights and the boat stopped at Mount Judi. His wife and son who disbelieved did not come in the boat, they were killed. Allah got rid of the disbelievers of his people once for all. Allah says:


76. And Noah, when he cried of old, We heard his prayer and saved him and his household from the great affliction.


77. And delivered him from the people who denied Our revelations. Lo! They were folk of evil; therefor did We drown them all. Hazrat Dawood (as) and Hazrat Sulaiman (as) This is the story of the father and the son, both prophets. They had their specific characters with their own way of miracles.

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78. And David and Solomon, when they gave judgment concerning the field, when people's sheep had strayed and browsed therein by night; and We were witnesses to their judgment.


79. And We made Solomon to understand (the case); and unto each of them We gave judgment and knowledge. And We subdued the hills and the birds to hymn (His) praise along with David. We were the doers (thereof).


80. And We taught him the art of making garments (of mail) to protect you in your daring. Are ye then thankful?


81. And unto Solomon (We subdued) the wind in its raging. It set by His command toward the land which We had blessed. And of everything We are aware.


82. And of the evil ones (subdued We unto him) some who dived (for pearls) for him and did other work, and We were warders unto them. Hazrat Ayyub (as) This is the story of the test inflicted upon the prophet Ayyub (as) and his patience and perseverance he showed throughout his life. Allah says:


83. And Job, when he cried unto his Lord, (saying): Lo! Adversity afflicts me, and Thou art Most Merciful of all who show mercy.

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84. Then We heard his prayer and removed that adversity from which he suffered, and We gave him his household (that he had lost) and the like thereof along with them, a mercy from Our store, and a remembrance for the worshippers. Hazrat Ismail (as) and Hazrat Idris (as) and Hazrat Dhul Kifl (as) They are briefly mentioned in the Quran but all of them are the beloved of Allah without defects. Allah says:


85. And (mention) Ishmael, and Idris, and Dhul-Kifl. All were of the steadfast.


86. And We brought them in unto Our mercy. Lo! They are among the righteous. Hazrat Dhun Nun (Yunus) (as) This is the story of Hazrat Yunus (as) known as Dhun Nun. Due to the disbelief of his people, he left them. He embarked a ship from which he was chosen to be thrown overboard. Allah ordered a big fish to swallow him but to let him alive. After 40 days and nights he was freed on the shore of a deserted island. He recovered little by little and returned to his people. He was astonished to see his people accepting now. Allah says:


87. And (mention) Dhun Nun, when he went off in anger and deemed that We had no power over him, but he cried out in the darkness, saying: There is no God save Thee. Be Thou glorified! I have been a wrong doer.


88. Then We heard his prayer and saved him from the anguish. Thus We save believers. Hazrat Zakariyyah (as) and Hazrat Yahya (as) This is the story of the father and the son, both prophets and dedicated to Deen. A brief sketch of their lives was mentioned above.


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89. And Zachariah, when he cried unto his Lord: My Lord! Leave me not childless, though Thou art the best of inheritors.


90. Then We heard his prayer, and bestowed upon him John, and adjusted his wife (to bear a child) for him. Lo! They used to vie one with the other in good deeds, and they cried unto Us in longing and in fear, and were submissive unto Us. Hazrat Maryam (ra) and Hazrat Isa (as) The story of the mother and son who has enormous power spreading Islam to the unbelievers and the Israelites.


91. And she who was chaste, therefor We breathed into her (something) of Our spirit and made her and her son a token for (all) peoples. Gog and Magog The 2 tribes which will emerge before the last day spreading chaos on earth will be then destroyed by Allah. Allah says:

96. Until, when Gog and Magog are let loose, and they hasten out of every mound.


97. And the True Promise draws nigh; then behold them, starring wide (in terror), the eyes of those who disbelieve! (They say): Alas for us! We (lived) in forgetfulness of this. Ah, but we were wrong doers! Surah Al Qasas (28: 1 44) This surah deals with the history of Hazrat Musah (as) and Pharaoh. Musah was born during a period where boys were killed following a prophecy of Pharaohs soothsayer that a boy would dethrone him. He was kept secret till the time he was let loose through a basket in the river leading to the palace of the king. Pharaohs wife, Aasiyah, took the baby and adopted him. Later that same kid would return to his homeland after leaving it due to his killing of an Egyptian. He would be accompanied by his brother, Haroun, a prophet as well. They would spread Islam and then persecuted till the sea shore where Pharaoh would be drown. Mr Pahary Page 68

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3. We narrate unto thee (somewhat) of the story of Moses and Pharaoh with truth, for folk who believe.


4. Lo! Pharaoh exalted himself in the earth and made its people castes. A tribe among them he suppressed, killing their sons and sparing their women. Lo! He was of those who work corruption.


7. And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: Suckle him and, when thou fears for him, then cast him into the river and fear not nor grieve. Lo! We shall bring him back unto thee and shall make him (one) of Our messengers.


8. And the family of Pharaoh took him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a sorrow. Lo! Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were ever sinning.


9. And the wife of Pharaoh said: (He will be) a consolation for me and for thee. Kill him not. Peradventure he may be of use to us, or we may choose him for a son. And they perceived not.


13. So We restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grieve, and that she might know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of them know not.


14. And when he reached his full strength and was ripe, We gave him wisdom and knowledge. Thus do We reward the good.

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15. And he entered the city at a time of carelessness of its folk, and he found therein two men fighting, one of his own caste, and the other of his enemies; and he who was of his caste asked him for help against him who was of his enemies. So Moses struck him with his fist and killed him. He said: This is of the devil's doing. Lo! He is an enemy, a mere misleader.


16. He said: My Lord! Lo! I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. Then He forgave him. Lo! He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.


20. And a man came from the uttermost part of the city, running. He said: O Moses! Lo! The chiefs take counsel against thee to slay thee; therefor escape. Lo! I am of those who give thee good advice.


23. And when he came unto the water of Median he found there a whole tribe of men, watering. And he found apart from them two women keeping, back (their flocks). He said: What ails you? The two said: We cannot give (our flocks) to drink till the shepherds return from the water; and our father is a very old man.


24. So he watered (their flock) for them. Then he turned aside into the shade, and said: My Lord! I am needy of whatever good thou sends down for me.


25. Then there came unto him one of the two women, walking shyly. She said: Lo! My father bids thee, that he may reward thee with a payment for that thou didst water (the flock) for us. Then, when he came unto him and told him the (whole) story, he said: Fear not! Thou hast escaped from the wrongdoing folk.

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26. One of the two women said: O my father! Hire him! For the best (man) that thou canst hire is the strong, the trustworthy.


27. He said: Lo! I fain would marry thee to one of these two daughters of mine on condition that thou hires thyself to me for (the term of) eight pilgrimages. Then if thou completest ten it will be of thine own accord, for I would not make it hard for thee. Allah willing, thou wilt find me of the righteous.


28. He said: That (is settled) between thee and me. Whichever of the two terms I fulfil, there will be no injustice to me, and Allah is Surety over what we say.


29. Then, when Moses had fulfilled the term, and was traveling with his house folk, he saw in the distance a fire and said unto his house folk: Bide ye (here). Lo! I see in the distance a fire; peradventure I shall bring you tidings hence, or a brand from the fire that you may warm yourselves.


30. And when he reached it, he was called from the right side of the valley in the blessed field, from the tree: O Moses! Lo! I, even I, am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds;


31. Throw down thy staff. And when he saw it writhing as it had been a demon, he turned to flee headlong, (and it was said unto him): O Moses! Draw nigh and fear not. Lo! Thou art of those who are secure.


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36. But when Moses came unto them with our clear tokens, they said: This is naught but invented magic. We never heard of this among our fathers of old.


38. And Pharaoh said: O chiefs! I know not that ye have a god other than me, so kindle for me (a fire) , O Haman, to bake the mud; and set up for me a lofty tower in order that I may survey the god of Moses; and lo! I deem him of the liars.


40. Therefor We seized him and his hosts, and abandoned them unto the sea. Behold the nature of the consequence for evil doers!

Surah Ad Duha This surah is a Makki surah revealed to the prophet. According to some Ulama it was revealed after 3 years from the 1st Wahy and it was the second revelation. According to others it is not the second surah but it was revealed to comfort the prophet of his anxieties of either Allah has abandoned him or was angry at him. Allah says:

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (By the morning hours): '(By the morning hours) He says: Allah swears by the whole day

(And by the night when it is stillest) and by the night when it becomes dark,


(Thy Lord hath not forsaken thee) your Lord has not left you since He inspired you (nor doth He hate thee) since He loved you; this is the reason for Allah's oath, this was revealed after the revelations from Allah stopped for 15 nights because the Prophet (pbuh) forgot to say " if Allah wills " when he promised the idolaters to answer their questions. And because the revelations stopped for this period of time the idolaters said: the Lord of Prophet has forsaken him and He hates him.

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(And verily the latter portion will be better for thee than the former) He says: the reward of the Hereafter is better for you than the reward of the life of the world.

(And verily thy Lord will give unto thee) in the Hereafter of intercession (so that thou wilt be content) until you are content.

Allah then mentioned His blessings upon the Prophet (pbuh) saying (Did He not find thee) O Muhammad (an orphan) without a father or mother (and protect (thee)) and joined you to your uncle Abu Talib and sufficed you your provision? The Prophet (pbuh) said: "Yes, O Gabriel!

Gabriel then said: (Did He not find thee) O Muhammad (wandering) among people in error (and direct (thee)) and guided you by means of prophethood? The Prophet (pbuh) said: Yes, O Gabriel!

And he also said: (Did He not find thee) O Muhammad (destitute) poor (and enrich (thee)) with the wealth of Khadijah; and it is also said this means: and made you content with that which He gave you? The Prophet (pbuh) said: Yes, O Gabriel!

So he also said: (Therefore the orphan oppress not) do not transgress on him nor deride him,


(Therefore the beggar drive not away) nor rebuke,

(Therefore of the bounty of thy Lord) through prophethood and Islam (be thy discourse) speak to people and let them know about it'.

Surah Al Qadr That surah was revealed concerning the night of destiny known as the Lailat-ul-Qadr. It is a Makki surah and Allah elaborates on the benefits of this night. Allah says:


And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Lo! We revealed it): '(Lo! We revealed it) He says: We sent Gabriel with the Mr Pahary Page 73

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entire Qur'an to the scribes of the nether heaven (on the Night of Power) on the night of judgement and decree; it is also said this means: on a night blessed with forgiveness and mercy, and then it was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) in instalments.


(Ah, what will convey unto thee) O Muhammad-this is said out of glorification of this night(what the Night of Power is) what the merit of the Night of Power is!


He then explained its merit by saying: (The Night of Power is better than a thousand months) He says: works in this night are better than works performed in 1,000 months which do not include such a night.


(The angels and the Spirit) Gabriel with them (descend therein) at the beginning of the Night of Power, (by the permission of their Lord) by the command of their Lord, (with all decrees.


(That night is) Peace) He says: they greet the greeting of peace those who fast and those who pray, on that day, from among the nation of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (until the rising of the dawn) He says: its merit and grace lasts until the rise of dawn'.

Surah at Takaathur That surah was revealed as a warning for those who use to amass their money and wealth and dont spend in the way of Allah. Their punishment will be hell fire. It is a Makki surah. Allah says:

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said about the interpretation of Allah's saying (Rivalry in worldly increase distracts you): '(Rivalry in worldly increase distracts you) He says: bragging about your status and lineage has distracted you


(Until ye come to the graves) this is because the Banu Sahm and Banu 'Abd Manaf were bragging to each other about which tribe is larger as concerns the number of its population, and found out that the Banu 'Abd Manaf were more numerous. The Banu Sahm said at that point: We were rooted out by injustice in the pagan era; go and count the living and the dead of our people and the living and the dead of your people. When they did so they found out that the Banu Sahm was more numerous.

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(Nay) this is a reply and threat to them, (but ye will come to know) what will be done to you in the graves!


(Nay, but ye will come to know!) What will be done to you when you die!


(Nay, would that ye knew (now)) what will be done to you on the Day of Judgement (with a sure knowledge!) what you bragged about in the life of the world!


(For ye will behold hellfire) on the Day of Judgement.


(Aye, ye will behold it with sure vision) which cannot be missed on the Day of Judgement.


(Then, on that day) on the Day of Judgement, (ye will be asked concerning pleasure) you will be asked about whether you gave thanks for all the bounties you enjoyed, of food, drink, clothing, etc. Surah Al Kaafiroun This surah was revealed in order to crush down all hope of the Quraish in compromising with the holy prophet (s.a.w). They wanted the prophet to follow their religion for one year and then they would follow the prophet for the next year one year as Muslims and another as polytheists. Allah says:

And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Say: O disbelievers!): '(Say: O disbelievers!) a group of people who derided the Prophet (pbuh) among whom were al-'As Ibn Wa'il al-Sahmi and al-Walid Ibn alMughirah, said to the Prophet: O Muhammad! Surrender to our deity so that we worship the God you worship. And so Allah said addressing his Prophet: Say, O Muhammad, to these deriders, O disbelievers who mock Allah and the Qur'an.


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(Nor worship ye that which I worship) that which I will worship in the future.


(And I shall not worship that which ye worship) beside Allah.


(Nor will ye worship that which I worship) that which I worshipped in the past; it is also said this means: I do not believe in the divinity in which you believe nor will I believe in the divinity which you believe in beside Allah nor will you believe in the divine Oneness of Allah which I believe in.

(Unto you your religion) of disbelief and ascribing partners to Allah, (and unto me my religion) Islam and faith in Allah. The verses of fighting then abrogated this and the Prophet (pbuh) did fight them'

Surah Ikhlas This surah was revealed as a response to the demand of the Quraish people of how Allah is, whether He has children, whether He has parents and from where He inherited the whole world. Allah revealed this surah to annihilate their thoughts in comparing Allah with the idols and goddesses. Allah says:

Say: He is Allah, the One And from his narration on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas that he said regarding the interpretation of Allah's saying (Say: He is Allah, the One!): '(Say: He is Allah, the One!) the people of Quraysh asked the Prophet (pbuh): O Muhammad! Describe for us your Lord; is He made of gold or silver? And so Allah revealed this surah to describe His attributes and traits, saying: say to Quraysh, O Muhammad: He is Allah, the One, He has no son or partner.


Allah, the eternally besought of all (Allah, the eternally besought of all!) the Master whose glory is at its peak and for Whom all created beings are in need; it is also said that (al-Samad) means: He Who does not eat or drink; it is also said that this means: He Who does not have an interior; it is also said that this means: the Everlasting; and it is also said this means: the Sufficient; and it is also said this means: He who does not have an entrance or exit. Mr Pahary Page 76

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He begets not nor was begotten And it is also said that al-Samad means: (He begets not nor was begotten) He says: He did not inherit and will not be inherited; and it is also said this means: He does not have a son who will inherit His dominion and He was not begotten, which means that He did not inherit His dominion.

And there is none comparable unto Him (And there is none comparable unto Him) He says: He does not have an opposite, peer, or equal nor anyone who may resemble or begin to resemble Him; and it is also said this means: He does not have any co-equal who would compete with Him about dominion and sovereignty'. Authority and Place of the Quran The authority and place of the Quran in the lives of Muslims can be weighted by the importance it bears in their lives. Great importance is placed on it due to the fact that it is a divine book from God, it is a guidance for all Mankind, it is unique and cant be imitated, there is only divine truth in it, it is a code of conduct, it is a mean to avoid sins and pitfalls, it is a protection against diseases, problems and Shaitaan, it is a book of law, lessons can be derived from it, it is learned and read in Swalaat and it is a book or criterion between Halal and Haram. Relationship with other sources of knowledge Knowledge can be divided into two categories. The first one is Divine knowledge emanating from Allah and the second one from human beings. The characteristics of both is one is Divine and the other is man-made. Dealing with the divine one, there are other sources of knowledge like from the Tawraat of Hazrat Musah (as), the Zabour of Hazrat Dawood (as), the Suhuf of Hazrat Ibrahim (as) and the Injeel of Hazrat Isa (as). There is another source which is the Hadith and Sunnah of the holy prophet (s.a.w), Ashab, Tabiin and Tabut Tabiin. Finally we have the explanation (Tafsir) of the Quran and Hadith followed by the Islamic Law (Shariah). However, there are many falsifications in the books given to the past prophets mentioned above. For the Hadith, Sunnah, Tafsir, Shariah and Fiqh there are consistency and validity as long as the contrary is not proven. The second type of knowledge is from human reasoning. This part deals with the contribution brought by intellectual of different categories. All concepts, philosophies and theories proven or not are part of other sources of knowledge. It brings a plus to the intellectual and critical development of people. However, deprived of an Islamic literature background, Muslims can be influenced and wrongly guided. All philosophies going against the Quran, Hadith, Sunnah, Tafsir, Shariah, Fiqh and Islamic concepts are not accepted by Muslims. Relationship between Allah and human beings: 1. Allah is the Praised One and we owe submission to Him 2. Allah is the most Merciful and Compassionate and we need Him. Mr Pahary Page 77

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3. Allah is the Judge and we will be judged 4. Allah is the One to be worshipped and we are the worshippers 5. Allah is the giver and we are the askers 6. Allah is the right path and we are trying to enrol it 7. Allah is the sender of blessings and we are his slaves desiring favours (Faatiha) 8. Allah being the Creator and we are the creatures 9. Allah is the Guide with guidance and we are the wanderers without help 10. Allah is the forgiver and we are the sinners (Baqara) 11. Allah is the decision maker and we have to accept His will (Ali Imran) 12. Allah is the One favoured prophets and we are their vicegerents. (Ambiyaa) 13. Allah is the Supreme Power and we are nothing (Qasas) 14. Allah is the one who favoured the prophet and we have to show our love. (Duha) 15. Allah is the One who decides our destiny and what we have to do it only supplications and ibaadah to him (Qadr) 16. Allah is the One who distributes wealth, so we have to spend in His way (Takaathur) 17. Allah is our own God and we must not commit Kufr or Shirk (Kaafiroun) 18. Allah is the One and Only being Eternal and we are simple mortals 19. Allah is unique within His characteristics and we are full of defects 20. Allah is infallible and we are fallible (Ikhlaas) 21. Allah is the Teacher and we are the students (Alaq) 22. Allah is the One who will send punishment and the last day and we will have to prepare for it (Zalzala) Surah Ikhlaas is said to be one third of the Quran: The whole of the holy Quran elaborates on 3 topics: 1. The Quran from Allah to the Prophet 2. The Quran from the Prophet to Human beings 3. The Quran put into practice by Human Beings Surah Ikhlaas deals with the first part that is the whole aspect of Allah. As such, the two other parts are Prophet and Human beings. In brief, there must be elaboration on: 1. Allah His uniqueness and literature on Him 2. Muhammad (s.a.w) his Uniqueness and literature on him 3. Mankind His traits and literature on him Similarities among Hazrat Musah (as), Hazrat Ibrahim and Hazrat Muhammad (s.a.w) 1. Both were from Arab families 2. They were born among polytheist people 3. They were never idol worshippers 4. Since childhood they rejected and had disgust for the corrupted society 5. They helped the poor and the needy 6. They were persecuted and blamed 7. They were obliged to leave their motherlands 8. They obtained shelter and support from the exiled country 9. They returned to their motherlands to spread Islam 10. They were partly accepted and rejected 11. They were given Wahy as a source of guidance Mr Pahary Page 78

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12. They had capacities to perform miracles 13. Majority of their followers were the poor, needy, destitute and low class 14. Their words touched the rich as well 15. Their religions spread throughout the world 16. They were successful in the eyes of Allah Different ways is Surat al-Faatiha used in the religious life of Muslims 1. It is used at the beginning of the Quran to praise Allah 2. Each time we read the Quran we (through respect) read the Surah 3. It is read to have Thawab (each letter accounts for 10 thawab) 4. There is no Swalaat without the Surah 5. It is read to have blessings on food 6. If read before any dua, the dua is accepted 7. If read and blow in water for drinking or on any injury or harm with Iman then it is Shifa 8. It is read at the death of a person and the Thawab is sent for the dead person 9. Is used to drive away Jinn from a person as a Ruqya 10. It is used to protect oneself from the influence of Shaitaan Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 5 Referring to the Surahs you have especially studied, outline and discuss the main teachings of the Quran about the relationship between God and human beings. [20] (2004) 5 (a) What are the main teachings of Surat al-Faatiha? [12] (b) How do these teachings explain the relationship between human beings and God? [8] (2005) 4 The Prophet is reported to have said that Surah al-Ikhlas [Surah 112] is equivalent in value to one third of the whole Quran. Explain why this is so. [20] (2006) 4 Explain Surat al-Duha with special reference to the life of the Prophet. [20] (2007) 4 In what different ways is Surat al-Faatiha used in the religious life of Muslims? [20] (2008) 4 Present and explain the main themes of Surat al-Qadr. [20] (2009) 5 How do the experiences of the prophet Moses as they are recounted in Surat al-qasas (ch 28 of the Quran) relate to the experiences of the Prophet Muhammad? [20] (2010)

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Pillars of Islam Introduction In Islam, there are five pillars which are of great importance for the Muslim individual as well as for the community. They are the foundations and backbones of the religion of Islam. The rejection of anyone of them will render the person a disbeliever. In order to be accepted as a Muslim, one must imperatively put all of them into practice. Accordingly, there are Shahadah, Swalaat, Sawm, Zakaat and Hajj. Shahadah: Testimony The first pillar of Islam is Shahadah which means to attest. Here there is the question of accepting and attesting the unity of Allah and the prophethood of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). It is thus divided into two parts Allah and Muhammad. There is no need to introduce who is Allah and who is the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). A brief introduction from the students is important. However, to believe in Allah is to believe in the uniqueness of Allah which is divided into three: 1. Being The being of Allah is not and cannot be compared. We cant attribute any form, shape and density to Him. This brings us to say that Allah is a noor, deprived of head, hands, feet, nose, mouth and any bodily part. Many may say that several parts of physical aspects are mentioned in the Quran, but it must be known that they are used metaphorically. 2. Attributes no one will be able to possess the same qualities as Allah does. We can be forgiving, intelligent, wise, powerful, dependant, merciful, compassionate but not to the extent as Allah is. 3. Action when Allah decides on something, He just has to say Be to it and it is. However, we, human beings must resort to resources and material for the creation or building of anything. The prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) is unique on four bases. 1. He is the first and the last meaning that he was the first to be created by Allah and the last to be sent to spread Islam to Mankind. 2. He is considered as a universal prophet meaning that he has been prophesised by all prophets before his coming and is accepted by all by the leader of all prophets. 3. His message is considered as a universal message meaning that the Quran is a book of guidance for all times to come. It will never change and no book will be sent after it. 4. He is considered as a mercy for Mankind meaning that he was sent not as a destructor but as a mercy towards both Muslims and non-Muslims, animals and plants, jinn and angels. Mr Pahary Page 80

Islamic Studies Swalaat: Prayer

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All prophets before the coming of the holy prophet (s.a.w) had their Swalaat namaz for their own people. When the prophet (s.a.w) came, he perfected the institution of Swalaat. It is thus divided into Farz, Wajib, Sunnah Muakkidah, Sunnah Ghair Muakkidah and Nawafil (Nafil). All of them are important for the progress of Mankind. There are different steps in Swalaat such as the: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Takbeer Qiyam Ruku Sajdah Jalsah Qadah Salaam.

All of them must be incorporated in Swalaat. Any omission will render the Swalaat void. There are some conditions to be respected for Swalaat such as: 1. To be a Muslim 2. To attain the age of puberty 3. To be sane of mind 4. To be in the state of Taharaat (Ghusal and Wudhu) 5. To wait for the Time of Swalaat 6. To find a proper Place of worship 7. To wear clean cloth 8. To find the Direction of Qiblah 9. To formulate the Intention (Niyyat) of Swalaat. 10. To know how to perform Swalaat There are many benefits derived from Swalaat such as: 1. It brings Barakat (Blessing) in ones life 2. It protects us from sins and impurities 3. It protects us from punishment in all worlds 4. It is the Beauty of the Swalih (pious) 5. There are Thawab (Reward) for all others deeds 6. Our Dua (Invocation) will be accepted 7. We will be Loved by every creature 8. We will receive Dua of angels, animals and human beings 9. We will Cultivate Taqwa (fear) for Allah 10. We will be loved by Allah and the holy prophet (s.a.w) Difference between Swalaat of men and women 1. Takbeer: for men the hands must be raised till the lobes of the ears and for women till the shoulders 2. Qiyam: for men the hands must be tied either below or above the navel and for women they are tied on the stomach (breasts) Mr Pahary Page 81

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3. Ruku: for men the ruku must be 90 degree and for women till the hands touch the knees. 4. Jalsa / Qadah: for men the right foot must be elevated upright and the left foot flat turning to the right. For women both feet must turn to the right 5. Sajdah: for men the elbows must be apart from the body and for women close to the body. For men the waist must be elevated and for women flat with the stomach on the thighs.

Sawm: Fasting This institution has been present for all prophets since Hazrat Adam (a.s). For past prophets, it was over a period of 40 days but for the Ummah of the last prophet (s.a.w), it is over a period of twenty-nine or thirty days. It was made Farz in the second year of Hijri and it spread from Sehri till Iftar. There is prohibition of eating, drinking and sexual intercourse. However, before and after these hours they are allowed. Sins are still prohibited. Fasting is one kind of Ibaadah meant to purify the individual. There are some benefits derived from Sawm such as: 1. Blessings in our lives 2. We obtain the Beauty of the Swalih (pious) and Swabir (patient) 3. Our Dua (Invocation) will be accepted 4. We will Cultivate Taqwa (fear) for Allah and Sabr (Patience) 5. There will be Purification of heart, mind and body 6. We will feel the sufferings of the poor 7. We will develop qualities of patience and tolerance 8. It is a training period of Ibaadah to be continued throughout lifetime 9. Our Darjah (stage) will increase in the sight of Allah 10. It has been Scientific proven to be beneficial.

Zakaat Before the coming of the last prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), zakaat existed in form of Sadaqa or generous gifts. It was not yet standardised. However, with the coming of the last book of guidance, the Quran, it was established at 2 % on our wealth. Zakaat can be taken from money, wealth, business, gold, and silver among others. It is the taking of money from the rich and better off to be given to the poor and the needy. The rates differ as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. on cash 2 % on Silver 52 Tolas (598.40 g) on Gold 7 Tolas (85.5 g) on Khums (On Mines) 1/5 of produce on Ushr (Land Tax) 1/10 - 1/20 of produce.

Many people can take Zakaat such as: 1. The first condition is the person must be a Muslim Mr Pahary Page 82

Islamic Studies 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The poor The beggar The collectors of Zakaat The new Converts The slaves in search of Freedom (no more exist) The Debtor (Islamic purpose) The person in great difficulty and Obligation The travellers in need of help

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Those giving Zakaat are: 1. The first condition is the person must be a Muslim 2. He must possess the minimum amount of Nisab a. on cash (2 %) the amount must be for the financial year (12 months) 3. He must possess the minimum amount of Nisab a. on Silver 52 Tolas (598.40 g) b. on Gold 7 Tolas (85.5 g) c. on Khums (On Mines) 1/5 of produce d. on Ushr (Land Tax) 1/10 - 1/20 of produce 4. If one criteria is not enough to reach the Nisab, then a mixture of the value of more than one item. Example: if the value of silver is Rs 10 / gm the person must have at least (598.40 gm) Rs 5984 worth of silver. if the value of gold is Rs 1000 / gm the person must have at least (85.5 gm) Rs 85500 worth of gold. If the person has less silver and less gold, we add the value of both silver and gold and then we calculate its 2 % of the whole. There are many benefits such as: 1. Barakat (blessings) in our lives 2. Protection from poverty 3. Barakat in money 4. Purification of money 5. Flow of money among the people 6. An opportunity to help the needy 7. To attain righteousness 8. To create a proximity with the poor 9. A sense of solidarity and gentleness towards the poor and the needy 10. The acknowledgement of the worthiness of money

Hajj: Pilgrimage The last pillar is Hajj. Before the rulings of the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), all prophets in a way or another had visited the holy Kabah. It was during the time of Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s) and his son Ismail (a.s) that Allah had ordered Man to come to the Kabah or else it was towards Jerusalem. It became farz since the tenth year of Hijri of the prophets (s.a.w) life. There are various steps such as: 1. The move to Macca for Umrah Mr Pahary Page 83

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2. On the 8th of Dhul Hijja, the move from Macca to Mina before noon 3. The move from Mina to Arafat on the 9th after Fajr prayer 4. The move from Arafat to Muzdalifa on the 9th after Maghrib 5. The move from Muzdalifa to Mina on the 10th before sunrise 6. The stoning of the 1st Shaitaan before Zawaal 7. The move to Macca for the shaving of the head and the Tawaaf Ziyarah 8. The return to Mina on the same day to beat the 3 Shaitaan on the 11th and 12th 9. The leaving of Mina to Macca for Tawaaf al Wida 10. The visit to Madina There are many benefits derived from that institution such as: 1. Blessings in all worlds 2. The protection from punishment in all worlds 3. The protection from poverty 4. The encapsulating of all pillars of Islam 5. The unity among Muslims and nations 6. The strengthening of Islam 7. The spiritual Development 8. The historical enhancement 9. The sense of belonging to the Prophet (s.a.w) 10. The unlimited rewards for each Ibaadah done Muslim Observance of Ramadhan 1. Wake up for Tahajjud and Tilaawat 2. Sehri 3. Swalaat Fajr and the rest in Jamaah 4. Aftar 5. Taraawi 6. Qiraat of the Quran for the whole month 7. Lailatul Qadr for Ibaadah. More Ibaadah. 8. No sin and insult 9. No drink and eat from Sehri to aftar 10. No sexual intercourse from Sehri till aftar What features distinguish these prayers from the Jumah [Friday] prayers? 1. Jumah prayer is once a week 2. It is only on Fridays 3. It is encouragement for people to put on their finery 4. It is held only in congregation 5. The number of Rakaat is 4 Sunnah 2 Fard 4 Sunnah 2 Sunnah 2 Nafil 6. Two calls of Adhan one at the regular time and the second before the Khutbah 7. The Khutbah with special message 8. Jumah is also an Id day of festivity 9. It commemorates the 2 nafil Shukranah of Hazrat Adam (as) 10. It invites for a larger gathering and contribution of Muslims as Sadaqa

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Islamic Studies How does Zakat differ from Sadaqah?

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1. Zakaat is Fard but Sadaqa is Nafil 2. Zakaat must be given during the month of Ramadhan but Sadaqa can be offered at any time 3. Zakaat must be rightly calculated but for Sadaqa, any amount can be given 4. Zakaat is given to Muslims only but Sadaqa can be given to Muslims and non Muslims 5. Zakaat cant be given to the family of the Prophet (s.a.w) but Sadaqa can be given 6. Zakaat must be in the form of money but Sadaqa can take any form 7. Zakaat must be used for specific means but Sadaqa can be used for anything 8. Zakaat can be taken by specific persons but Sadaqa can be taken by anyone Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 7 (a) Give an account of the main aspects of the Muslim observance of Ramadan. [12] (b) Explain why this observance is important to the individual and to the Muslim community. [8] (2004) 7 (a) Give an account of the main aspects of the Hajj. [12] (b) How does this institution indicate equality and universality in Islam? [8] (2005) 7 Explain how the Five Pillars of Islam promote communal solidarity amongst Muslims. [20] 8 (a) Describe the way the five daily prayers [Salat ] are performed. [12] (b) What features distinguish these prayers from the Jumah [Friday] prayers? [8] (2006) 8 Explain the main teachings of Islam about: (a) personal struggle [Jihad] [10] and any two of the following: (b) the command to enjoin good and prohibit evil [al-amr bil maruf wa nahy an al-munkar] [5] (c) fasting outside Ramadhan [Sawm] [5] (d) resurrection and the Day of Judgement [Yawm al-Qiyamah]. [5] (2007) 7 (a) Outline the Muslim teachings about Zakat. [12] (b) How does Zakat differ from Sadaqah ? [8] 8 (a) Give an account of the main features of the Muslim observance of Ramadan. [12] (b) Explain why this observance is important to the individual and the community as a whole. [8] (2008) 9 Explain how the following Pillars of Islam promote communal solidarity amongst Muslims: Shahadah, Salah, Zakat, Sawm. [20] (2009) 7 In what ways do the observances of prayer (salat), almsgiving (zakat) and fasting (sawm) strengthen ties within the Muslim community? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Id-ul Fitr And Id-ul Adha Introduction

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In Islam there are customs and practices as well as religious festivals. Sometime these religious festivals are merged with the customs and traditions of a country. According to the scholars of Islam there are many different religious festivals and among them there are two widely recognised. They are Id-ul Fitr and Id-ul Adha. Id-ul Fitr Literally speaking id means feast, festival or holiday. Fitr means separation or breaking. As such, id-ul Fitr means the feast of the breaking and here it implies the breaking of the fast of the month of Ramadhan, the 9th Islamic month. It has always been the practice of past prophets to show their gratitude to Allah by worship and Ibaadah and in return Allah would bestow Wahy revelation upon them. However during the time of the holy prophet (s.a.w) when he entered Madina, these two days (id-ul Fitr and Id-ul Adha) were moments of amusement and joy. So the prophet (s.a.w) declared them as feast for Muslims. Id-ul Fitr commemorates the ending of 1 month of Ibaadah, fasting and sacrifice by the Muslims and in return for their efforts, Allah bestow on them the feast day. It starts as from the sighting of the moon on the last day of Ramadhan by Swalaatul Maghrib. According to the prophet (s.a.w) that night is considered as full of blessings and the Swalaat Fajr must be done in Jamaah. It is recommended to take a bath (Ghusal), wear good (or new) clothes according to the Islamic practice and pay Zakaat if not yet paid. The Climate on the day of Id: 1. The Swalaatul Id can be offered either in open field or Masjid (depending on population). 2. There is no Azan and no Iqaamah before the Namaaz Id. 3. It is done in 2 Rakaat (units) of Swalaat Waajib with 6 additional Takbeer or 12 according to other schools of thought. 4. In the 1st Rakaat there are 3 Takbeer before Qiraat and for the 2 nd Rakaat there are 3 Takbeer before Ruku. 5. After the Swalaat there is a khutbah read for the occasion 6. After which dua can be made in any language. 7. Then there will be greetings by the Muslims. 8. There can be family union or gathering for the feast. 9. Gifts can be distributed as a mean of happiness. 10. Amusement can be conducted as long as there must be no show off. Id-ul Adha Id having the meaning of feast and Adha means slaughtering leads to the feast of the slaughtering of the animal. This is done during the month of Dhul Hijja for the period of Hajj. It is a way to remember the history of Hazrat Ibrahim (as) and his son Hazrat Ismail (as) and the event of the sacrifice. This was accepted and executed in the love of Allah. It is conducted in the same way as Id-ul Fitr is done with the small difference that after the Swalaat-ul id-ul Adha, there is the slaughtering of the animal. It must not be done after Swalaat-ul Fajr or before Swalaat-ul id. It is against the prophets (s.a.w) practice. If a person cant afford a whole animal, then it can be shared into a maximum number of 7 persons. The Mr Pahary Page 86

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one share of the meat is then divided into 3 parts - One for the relatives, one for the poor and one for oneself. The Swalaat-ul id-ul Adha is conducted as mentioned above. However, the khutbah will be based on id-ul Adha and the lessons from the sacrifice of Hazrat Ibrahim (as) and Hazrat Ismail (as). Importance / Significance of both Id in Islam Accordingly, it is a remarkable achievement in the service of Allah for the Muslims as follows: 1. It is a Thanksgiving Day thanks to Allah and human beings for favours and help and everything. 2. It is also a Day of Remembrance we must remember the favours of Allah and Human beings. 3. It is a Day of Victory we went against Shaitaan and ourselves to perform Ibaadah. 4. It is a Harvest Day it is the overall blessings from Allah for the whole Ramadhan and also for Id-ul Adha. 5. It is a Day of Forgiveness we must ask forgiveness from Allah and human beings. 6. It is a Day of Peace there is peace of mind among Muslims and sending of peace from Allah in our hearts. 7. It is a Day of Reward Allah will reward us for the efforts of Ramadhan and gifts distributed among Muslims. 8. Swalaat-ul-Fajr in Jamaah in Mosque creates brotherhood and fraternity. Through the Swalaat-ul-id and Khutbah lessons derived. 9. It is the feast of the Muslims 10. It is a mean to learn some lessons conducted by the Imam Past Papers Questions

Syllabus 9013 8 (a) How do Muslims in your country celebrate `Id al-Adha? [12] (b) How does this differ from the way `Id al-Fitr is celebrated? [8] (2005) 7 Discuss the historical, social and religious significance of Id al-Adha. [20] (2007) 8 How do the various ceremonies carried out each year in the Islamic world remind Muslims of the life and example of the prophet Abraham? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Marriage And Funeral Introduction

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The above mentioned topics of birth, marriage and funeral are of great importance in a life of a Muslim. All of them must be conducted in the Islamic way of life. It does occur that unislamic concepts, especially European, western and Indian cultures made their way to incorporate the two above institutions. Marriage This has been the Sunnah and principle of all prophets before the coming of the holy prophet (s.a.w). Their rules were different to those of our rules today but the main idea was to please Allah. All Ibaadah are for that cause. It is a tie between 2 persons, a man and a woman. In Islam, celibacy is Haram and Nikah is the Sunnah of the Prophet (s.a.w). It is a Bond and contract where terms and conditions of marriage can be stipulated. Each partner must then obey and adhere by the terms and conditions. Breaching of any one is against the Shariah. It is the beginning of marital relationship and rights of both parties and Shariah must be observed and accepted. There are some Islamic rules and regulations to be set up for a Nikah to be accepted and validated. 1. 2. 3. 4. There must be the proposal and acceptance of both the man and the woman There must be two witnesses from both sides, There must be the dowry in form of either money, wealth or any valuable goods The khutbah delivered by the father of the girl or by the Imam and the approval of the parents. 5. There must be the Imam The Muslim Marriage in Mauritius: 1. Betrothal it is only a way to make people know of the intention of marriage. It is an engagement contracted by the 2 persons. There must not have singing, dancing, music, alcoholic drink etc 2. Mawlood it is done to seek the blessings of Allah and dua for the future couple. There is the recitation of the Quran and dua. 3. Mehendi it is a Indian practice where there is the application of henna and the sharing of marriage gifts in between the boy and the girl. There must not be show off and music. 4. Nikah there must be the above mentioned conditions 5. Walimah it is conducted after the couple had sexual intercourse, after 3 days. 6. Chawtari it is an Indian practice where family will gather around a meal. No music and show off is allowed The Importance and Significance of Marriage 1. 2. 3. 4. Marriage is important as it is a Sunnah of the prophet It is a way of procreation It is a mean to avoid sins and pitfalls It is a way to support each other Page 88

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Islamic Studies 5. It is a way to continue a lineage 6. It is to have a life partner 7. It is to avoid mental and physical stress 8. It is to induce the physical development of the man and woman 9. It allows us to be responsible 10. It helps in to attain piety and obtain Jannah. Funeral

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It has different names like Mayyit, Mayyat, Burial, Death process and there are religious ceremonies, traditions and culture for the burial. It is the leaving of this physical world (Alamul Ajsam) to the world of Qabr (Alamul Barzakh). It is a mere transition. After the death of the person, there are some procedures like: 1. The bath of the dead must be as gentle as possible men being responsible for the bath of the dead male women for the dead female. It is done as the same Ghusal as when we are alive but with more respect and gentleness. 2. We then put on the Qafn the white cloth over the body of the man and woman. 3. There is the reciting of the Quran and Dua. 4. The namaz Janaza is either performed inside a mosque or at a graveyard. It is in 4 Takbeer (Takbeer + Thana + Al Faatiha / Takbeer + Darood Ibrahim / Takbeer + Dua of Maghfirat / Takbeer + Salaam). 5. At the graveyard, the body is placed on the back with the head turning to the right. 6. There can be tilaawat, prayer and dua for the dead person, especially Dua of forgiveness and for the Qabr and Aakhirah. The Significance of death: 1. It is the start of our test exam in Qabr 2. A prelude of what is waiting us in Paradise 3. The possibility of the beatific vision of Allah 4. The sight of the Holy Prophet 5. The start of eternal life 6. The feeling of security and peace 7. The start of reward being bestowed 8. No worldly worry 9. Or the prelude of punishment in the Aakhirah 10. The fright of the dark with threat False Concepts on Funeral: 1. Not to ask dua for the death many people say and advocate that after the death of a person there is no dua or recitation of the Quran. 2. To cover all mirrors at home supposedly not to see the rouh of the dead 3. To make Isaaluth Thawab on the 40th day some advocate that it is obligatory that a Khatamul Quran be done exactly on the 40 th day after burial or else the rouh will not be free. Asking dua for the dead can be at any time 4. The rouh will roam if the Khatam is not done then the rouh will roam in the house 5. The cloth of a woman if a widowed woman dies, she must be covered with a blue cloth instead of a white one. Mr Pahary Page 89

Islamic Studies Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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8 Referring to the ways in which (a) Muslim marriage ceremonies and (b) Muslim funerals are celebrated in your country explain what elements in them give them their particular Islamic character. [20] (2004)

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Islamic Studies Articles Of Faith Introduction

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For one to be considered as a Muslim, one must believe in the articles of faith. Disbelief in anyone of them will render the person a disbeliever. This is to show to what extent they are of utmost importance. It can be said that they are means in regulating our deeds, activities and thoughts in this present world. They are seven in number such as Allah, Angels, Books, Messengers, Day of Judgement, Destiny, and Life after Death. Allah He is no doubt our Creator, our Sustainer, our Provider, our Protector among others. We depend on Him and we obtain help from Him. Ibaadah is meant for Him and we must be at his service for all the time. He is the giver and the taker of life. He is unique in Being, Attributes and Action. We have already discussed that through the chapter Pillars of Islam. If a disbelief in Allah occurs, then one is not considered as a Muslim. Angels They are Creatures of Allah being created from light. There are four Main Angels, namely Hazrat Jibril, Hazrat Mikail, Hazrat Israil and Hazrat Israil. There are other main angels like Hazrat Malik, Ridwaan, Munkar, Nakir, and the 2 noble writers angels Kiraaman Kaatibin. They are always obedient to Allah. They are creatures of wings 2, 3 and 4 pairs of wings. They are mortal and they will also taste death as human beings. But we dont know how this is done. Why are they created? 1. To praise Allah in all worlds and near the throne of Allah 2. To help Human Beings both Muslims and non-Muslims 3. To say Ameen over our dua 4. To protect human beings 5. To bring Wahy to Prophets 6. To help prophets and the righteous 7. To help in the creation of creatures 8. To help in distributing food and drink 9. To help man in this world, Qabr and Aakhirah 10. To be witnesses of our good and bad deeds among others.

Books Since the sending of prophets and nations to earth, Allah has sent many books or set of orders to human beings. They are divine guidance for the progress of Man in all worlds. Among others we have the Tawraat to Hazrat Musah (as), the Zabour to Hazrat Dawoud (as), the Souhouf to Hazrat Ibrahim (as), the Injeel to Hazrat Isa (as) and the Quran to the last Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w). these books and scriptures are divine and wont be able to imitate. They are devoid of sins .

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Islamic Studies Why were we given books? 1. They act as source of guidance for Mankind 2. Code of conduct for success 3. Reminder of the favours from Allah 4. Lessons derived from stories therein 5. Ways of how to avoid Pitfalls 6. Ways to distinguish between Halal and Haram 7. Means to obtain wisdom 8. Ways to remember Allah 9. To tenderise the heart 10. To teach us about Allah, prophets and Mankind Messengers

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According to Hadith there are approximately 124000 prophets and 313 messengers. They are the vicegerent of Allah sent to help Mankind. They are closer to Allah than anyone. Their intercessions are important. They are different prophets for different periods such as Adam, Shiite, Nuh, Musah, Isa, Ismail, Ibrahim, Zakariyyah, Idris, Haroun, Dhun Nun, Yaqub, Dawoud, Sulliman, Ayyub and Muhammad among others. They had been sent as messengers and vice gerent of Allah. All of them accepted Allah and monotheism. They are infallible, that is they dont commit sins. Why were they sent? 1. They were sent with orders and commands from Allah as messages to their people. 2. They are examples to be followed 3. They are our educators 4. They are our interprets of the holy Books 5. They are magnets of blessings from Allah 6. They are shields from punishment for Mankind 7. Their dua are accepted by Allah 8. They acted as guides 9. Their lives are as codes of conduct 10. They know Allah much more than we do know.

Day of Judgement That day will come but when and how, we dont know. The seriousness and gravity of that day can be seen through the numerous Hadith on that day. Those Muslims who spent their time in Ibaadah and for the best cause Islam, will find himself rewarded on that day. The one who went against the Shariah and Islam will find oneself poor and deprived of help to enter paradise. The punishment will be the fire of hell. Ways of how our lives can change through the knowledge of that day. 1. 2. 3. 4. The fear of that day can bring a person to stop committing sins. The fear of the punishment of Hell The fear of the unknown The fear of the anger of Allah can lead someone to adhering by the Shariah. Page 92

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5. This can lead a Muslim behaving as a real Muslim, considering the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) as the model, respecting the rights of Allah and human beings. 6. The idea of benefiting in the Aakhirah all stages and phases of test in the Hereafter and to be close to Allah and the prophet can change ones behaviour. Destiny It is always said that one has a good fate or a bad destiny. In whatever case it depends on three parties Allah, oneself and Shaitaan. Allah is the Master mind behind our destiny. He has written only what is right and good for the individual. He does never want what is bad for His servants. Secondly, it is our own responsibility to decide either to take the right or the wrong path. Allah is and will never be responsible for our taking of the way of Shaitaan. Thirdly, it will be the work of Shaitaan to influence us in order to commit sins and go against Shariah. As such we will be responsible for our bad deeds. However, repentance and abstinence from sins, live as a real and good Muslim, follow the Shariah, read much of the Quran, send Darood upon the Prophet (s.a.w), think of Allah, make khidmat (service at) for ones parents, differentiate between Halaal and Haraam, help and be beneficial to human beings, think of death and make dua can change our destiny. Life after Death This is a normal and inevitable stage in the life of all people. It will happen but when we dont know. This is only in the hands of Allah. Life after death in our grave can be pleasant as well as unpleasant depending on the deeds, Ibaadah, sayings and intention of human beings. What is important is to follow the Shariah in order to avoid punishment of the grave and be prepared for the three questions and the answers such as who is your Lord? What is your religion? What do you think of that person? No one knows the physical sufferings of that moment if the answers are wrong. However, in order to benefit a life of a good Mumin in Qabr, one must: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Jihad Jihad literally means to strive. Here it is to strive in the way of Allah. Striving to achieve higher. In the tongue of the Arabs, al-Jihad means, exerting ability and effort to do an action or express opinions. Jihad is to have patience on difficulties. It could be during war and it could be inside the nafs. Based on this linguistic definition, the opponent that the Muslim engages Jihad against could be his own nafs, or the shaiytan, or the transgressor or the kuffar. Additionally, by this definition, Jihad could also be that which is in the way of Allah Fi Sabeel Lillah. So the Jihad could be undertaken to please Allah or to please the shaiytan, like the Jihad of the Mr Pahary Page 93 Follow the Shariah Make much sincere Ibaadah Read much of the Quran and Darood Shareef Take care of ones parents and relatives Cater for the rights of both Muslims and non-Muslims Cater for the needs of the weak Be a perfect practical and sincere Muslim among others.

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Kuffar against others. It is, the exerting of the effort to fight in the Way of Allah directly or by financial aid, or opinion and the like In Badiul Sanai of the Hanafi Mazhab, it states the following: Jihad in the language is exerting effort. In the understanding of the Shara, it is exerting effort and energy in fighting fi sabeel lillah by nafs, finance, tongue or another. In Manhul Jaleel of the Maliki Mazhab, al-Jihad is defined as the, fighting by a Muslim against a kaafir (who does not have a treaty with the Muslims) to make the word of Allah the highest. or for a Muslim to arrive to do Jihad or to enter the Kaafirs land for fighting. Ibn Arafa defined this. According to the Shafi Mazhab in Al-Iqna, Jihad is fighting Fi Sabeel Lillah. Al-Shirazi in AlMuhazab said that Jihad is qitaal. In Al-Mughni according to the Hambali Mazhab, Ibn Qudama did not give any other definition. In the section kitab ul-Jihad whatever is related to war, whether it was fard ulkifaya (collective obligation) or fard ul-ayn (individual obligation) or whether it was in the form of guarding the believers from the enemy and the guards ribat at the borders, all of this is connected to Jihad. He also said, If the enemy arrives, Jihad becomes fardul-ayn on the murabitoon (border guards). If it becomes evident that the enemy arrived, then they do not leave to meet them except by an order of the Ameer, since the Ameer is the one who has the authority for issuing orders in the matters of war. Allah has purchased of the believers their persons and their goods; for theirs (in return) is the garden (of Paradise): they fight in His cause, and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in truth, through the Law, the Gospel, and the Quran: and who is more faithful to his covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded: that is the achievement supreme. (9:111) O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that, when you are asked to go forth in the cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth? Do you prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter? But little is the comfort of this life, as compared with the Hereafter. (9:38) Additional Material For Past Papers Questions: Explain how Angels, Books and Prophets are connected with one another as part of Gods plan to give guidance to his creatures. 1. 2. 3. 4. The importance and roles of Angels towards Mankind (to elaborate) The importance and roles of Books towards Mankind (to elaborate) The importance and roles of Prophets towards Mankind (to elaborate) Angels are the creatures of Allah meant to deliver the message of Allah in the form of Wahy found in books to the vicegerents of Allah as Prophets and messengers.

Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 9 Explain how Angels, Books and Prophets are connected with one another as part of Gods plan to give guidance to his creatures. [20] (2004) Mr Pahary Page 94

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9 Outline the teachings of Islam on the following: (a) Angels [5] (b) Enjoining good and prohibiting evil [5] (c) Jihad [5] (d) Gods predestination of all events. [5] (2006) 8 Explain the main teachings of Islam about: (a) Personal struggle [Jihad] [10] And any two of the following: (b) The command to enjoin good and prohibit evil [al-amr bil maruf wa nahy an al-munkar] [5] (c) Fasting outside Ramadhan [Sawm] [5] (d) Resurrection and the Day of Judgement [Yawm al-Qiyamah]. [5] (2007) 9 Explain how belief in the Life Hereafter influences the behaviour of a Muslim in this life. [20] (2008) 8 Explain the main teachings of Islam about: (a) Gods predestination of all events [10] And any two of the following: (b) Angels [5] (c) Revealed books other than the Quran [5] (d) The Prophet as a model of behaviour. [5] (2009)

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Islamic Studies Paper 1 Section D: The Bases of Islamic Law Shariah

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Shariah literally means a path to a watering pond. It is the way towards life in Arabic customs. According to Islamic terminology, it is the Islamic law. It is the set of rules and regulations guiding human beings towards success. It is compulsory on every Muslim man and woman. It can be divided into 5 categories, the Quran, the Hadith, the Ijma, the Qiyas and the Ijtihad. Quran According to the scholars of Islam, laws are formulated and codified through different injunctions of the Quran. They are all important in a way or another. We have the injunctions from the Ayatul Ahkaam. They are the verses of the Quran dealing with rules and regulations. They are the direct law to Muslims. According to Imam Suyuti (ra) there are about 600 verses dealing directly with order from Allah. These verses cant be altered in any way. 1. Firstly, they deal with family, business, crimes, halal, haram and many others. 2. Secondly, we have the injunctions from histories of past prophets. From them, lessons can be derived and be applied as laws of permissible or not. Due to the deeds and sayings of past prophets, it is either allowed or not to say or to do something. Many invocations and Ibaadah that we practise today are from the past prophets. 3. Thirdly there are the injunctions from the remembrance of Allah. It is a fact that the remembrance of Allah brings love and fear at the same time in the hearts of Muslims. If sincerely we love Allah, this will be the natural feeling. Being a sinner and at the same time a worshipper is not compatible. Committing sins and at the same time remembering Allah is not compatible. 4. Fourthly there are injunctions through death and life after death. Laws pertaining to what will happen at ones death or life after death is mentioned through the Quran. There are many verses dealing with the peaceful atmosphere and the punishment at that moment. Hadith Laws are derived from the hadith of the prophet through different ways. Firstly, the scholars will study and examine all hadith Qudsiy hadith narrated by the prophet from the words and message of Allah. Then there will be the analysis of all hadith Swahih, Hasan and dwaif from the prophet, Ashab, Tabiin and Tabut Tabiin. All the words and sayings or laws decided and codified by the above mentioned groups of persons must be taken into consideration. Not only the words but the deeds and actions of all of them are also considered as Sunnah. Their silent approval is regarded as law. Thus, rules and regulations pertaining to the hadith and Sunnah of the prophet and the next three generations are classified as Shariah. The hadith and Sunnah act as a complementary body to the Quran. They are the explanation tafsir of the Quran. There are verses of the Quran or the application of certain verses in Mr Pahary Page 96

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common usages which need the authority and explanation of the Sunnah. It is a way of following the footsteps of the prophet. Ijma Ijma is the verbal noun of the Arabic word Ajma'a having 2 meanings: 1. to determine 2. to agree upon something. It is the general consensus of the scholars of Islam. It is the agreed opinion of the ulama on a specific verdict. There are three kinds of Ijma namely: 1. Ijma al Qawl: 2. Ijma al Fil 3. Ijma al Soukout. Ijma al Qawl is the Ijma and decision uttered by the scholars verbally. The ulama voice out their opinions and decisions. If there is unanimity among the scholars, then it is called al Ijma al Qawl al Azimah where azimah means regular. Thus it is a consensus through a regular saying. If there are differences of opinions, then it will be al ijma al qawl al rukhsah where rukhsah means irregular. Thus it is a consensus through an irregular saying. It can be also an ijma through regular or irregular deeds al ijma al fil al azimah or al ijma al fil al rukhsah. The same is applied to al ijma al soukout. Qiyas It is the analogy or the analogical deduction. Islamically spoken, it is the analogical deduction on a specific domain or problem according to the Islamic Law. It is the deliberation on any new problem or situation arising in a society resulting on a solution. Qiyas is done by analysing and scrutinising all cases and events resembling any new situation as from the time of the prophet (s.a.w) till the present one. The ulama must analyse one by one for deduction. If ever there was a similar problem, then the solution will be of similar character. However, if it is partly similar, then the solution will be according to the degree of severity. There are two kinds of Qiyas, one al Qiyas al Jaliyy and secondly al Qiyas al Khafiyy. The first type is where there is no need for explanation. It is clear. The second one needs explanation from the Ulama. The latter will be gathered through a Majlis Shurah consisting of 11 members including the president and they will deliberate on the situation. Ijtihad Literally it is the using of the human faculty for judgement. Islamically speaking, it is the use of the intellect based on the Quran, Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas to arrive to a solution to any cropping up problem of the society. This is also done by the ulama of the Majlis Shurah. It is the logically way of thinking taking into account the interest of the public in general not individually. Ibn al-'Athir defines `ijtihad' as the effort and endeavour undertaken for attaining some objective. He further remarks that the word occurs in many ahdith. Juhd means employing ones complete strength, and `jahd' means hardship and difficulty.` Said al-Khuri says: Ijtihad means undertaking effort and endeavour in performing some task. Mr Pahary Page 97

Islamic Studies Additional Material For Past Question Papers Some examples of (new) present problems or new situations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Transplantation of organ during lifetime and/or death of a Muslim Giving of blood Usage of false (substitute) legs and/or arms Usage of pacemaker for the heart InVitro for those who cant have babies Usage of CD, DVD or any modern technology to listen to Qiraat Taking of photos for any use Abortion in cases of rape or incest

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Without the Sunnah no one could be a good Muslim OR The Importance and significance of Sunnah 1. 2. 3. 4. Obey Allah and obey His prophet and those in authority among you Taharaat, Swalaat, Sawm, Zakaat and Hajj Morality, Wisdom, Politeness towards human beings Application of the Shariah the law of Hudud (Flogging, cutting of the hand, stoning till death) 5. Importance of Education and Spreading of Islam 6. Sunnah of the Ashab, Tabiin and Tabut Tabiin 7. Protection from Allah against Shaitaan, mistakes, sins and pitfalls 8. The Quran and the Sunnah being complement 9. The Sunnah is the Tafsir of the Quran 10. Both are important one is theory and the other is practice. 11. To know the theory, to practice it and to spread it makes one a good Muslim How does the Shari`ah affect private and public activities in Islam 1. Private life: personal life based on Shariah 2. Public life: Life outside your house in society based on Shariah and Rights of Human Beings 3. Private: a. The way you talk to your parents b. Responsibility towards husbands, wives and kids c. Tah2Sarat, Swalaat and Sawm d. Sins 4. Public: a. The way you dress when you merge with other people b. Respecting the rights of others (Muslims) c. Interest, Bribes, Corruption d. Rights of non Muslims 5. Actions and sayings (Islam is accepting Allah through the tongue, Imaan is witnessing through the limbs and Ihsan is accepting and purifying of the heart)

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The importance of the four bases of the Shari`ah and the relationship between them They (Quran, Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas) are our code of conduct Islamic Laws regulating Halal and Haram are found therein Explanation on how each one of them is important to Muslims They are related through their roles they link each other Without the Quran there is no Sunnah and Hadith The Sunnah and the Hadith are practical aspects of the Quran Without the Quran and the Sunnah (being the primary sources) there is no secondary source 8. The Ijma (consensus of the scholars) is based on the principles of Halal and Haram of the primary sources 9. Without the Primary sources and the Ijma there is no Qiyas and Ijtihad 10. The Qiyas is the examination of the Ijma of all previous periods the analogical deduction 11. No Fatwa (juristic judgement) can be issued without the bases of Shariah 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Sunnah of the Prophet is a human implementation of the revealed word of God. 1. Allah says: By the Star when it sets. Your comrade errs not, nor is deceived. Nor doth he speak of (his own) desire. It is naught save an inspiration that is inspired. Which one of mighty powers hath taught him. (53: 1-5) 2. O ye who believe! Obey Allah and His messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak). Be not as those who say, We hear, and they hear not. (8: 20 21) 3. The Quran is the Theoretical part of Islam and the Sunnah is its practical part. 4. The sunnah is an interpretation based on the prophet from the Quran 5. All hadith and sunnah are from the divine words of Allah but in the words and actions of the prophet (s.a.w) 6. How the prophet implement the words of the Quran in (his) actions? 7. Explanation on the importance of Sunnah in the life of a Muslim Importance of The Quran 1. The message itself is divine 2. The Quran is a book of guidance for all generations. 3. It enables people to a new path from darkness to light. 4. It allows man to be far from sins and to avoid pitfalls. 5. The Quran is a book of spirituality. 6. The Quran is a total and complete code of conduct. 7. It enables man to lead a life based on a moral discipline. 8. It is a mean of approaching Allah. 9. Its readings purify the heart from sins and diseases. 10. It eradicates doubts of human beings concerning the law of Halal and Haram. 11. It is a book without error. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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10 Without the Sunnah no one could be a good Muslim. Explain the meaning of this statement, and say whether you think it is accurate or not. [20] 11 (a) what methods have legal experts traditionally employed to find answers in the authoritative sources of Islam to the questions raised in a constantly changing world? [8] (b) Give three examples to show how legal experts have actually done this in practice. [12] 12 It is often said that Islam is a whole way of life. How does the Shari`ah affect private and public activities in Islam? [20] (2004) 10 Explain why many Muslims believe that the Quran cannot be understood properly without the help of the Sunnah. [20] 11 How would you tell someone about the importance of the four bases of the Shari`ah and the relationship between them? [20] 12 The teachings of Islam can be made relevant in new situations. Explain this statement giving clear examples to illustrate your answer. [20] (2005) 10 To what extent does a Muslim wedding ceremony in any country you know conform to the teachings of the Quran and Hadith? [20] 11 How can the teachings of Islam be made relevant in new situations? Give examples to illustrate your answer. [20] 12 Discuss the relationship between the four bases of the Shariah. [20] (2006) 10 How would you tell someone about the significance of the Quran in a Muslims life? [20] 11 Define and discuss the importance of the Sunnah, explaining how it differs from the Quran. [20] 12 With specific examples, discuss how the legal sources of consensus [Ijma] and analogy [Qiyas] are employed in Islamic legal thinking. [20] (2007) 10 (a) what traditional methods are used to relate the Quran to changing conditions in society? [12] (b) Giving three examples, discuss how legal experts have actually done this in practice. [8] 11 The Sunnah of the Prophet is a human implementation of the revealed word of God. To what extent is this claim accurate? [20] 12 How relevant is the Shariah to Muslim individuals and communities in the modern world? [20] (2008) 10 How can the teachings of Islam be made relevant in new situations? Give examples to illustrate your answer. [20] 11 Discuss the relationship between the four bases of the Shari ah. [20] Mr Pahary Page 100

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12 Define and explain the place of (a) Sunnah And (b) Ijtihad In Islamic legal method. [20] (2009) 10 In what main ways have Muslim legal experts made use of the Prophet Muhammads Sunnah in order to interpret the Quran? [20] 11 Why was it thought necessary to make use of consensus (ijma) and analogy (Qiyas) by early Muslim legal experts? [20] 12 In a rapidly changing world, can the Quran continue to form the basis of belief and action in the Muslim community? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Paper 2 Section A: The Early Dynasties of Islam Umayyad Dynasties

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The Umayyad Dynasties lasted from the year 661 750 CE. They were characterized by 4 main caliphs: Muawiyah, Abdul Malik, Umar II and Marwan II. Muawiyah (661 680) Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan was the governor over Syria for 20 years. He changed Syria into a powerful military and naval base. His career began in 655 with the murder of the caliph Othman who was his cousin. He was determined to bring the murderer to court. After death of Ali (ra), he persuaded Imam Hasan (ra), to renounce his claim to the caliphate. He set about restoring the unity and renewing the expansion of the Muslim state. He obtained strength from two quarters--the Syrian tribesmen and his Umayyad kinsmen. To consolidate the support of the Syrian, he transferred the centre of Muslim government from Iraq to Damascus. However, there was a lack of the support from the influential religious circles. He transformed the Islamic government to an Arab tribal aristocracy served by a bureaucracy. He created a postal service and a bureau of registry. He framed a tolerant policy toward Christians. There was the distribution of bribes to dissident (rebellious) tribes. He organised military expansion - on land and sea, to the north, east, and west. That was a new era of Muslim Arab conquest which was established. He established his kingdom to the east, the north-eastern province of PersiaKhurasan, to the west, North Africa as far west as Algeria and to the north, with the Byzantine. Abdul Malik (685 705) He was recognized by his partisans and he strengthened the governmental administration. He adopted Arabic as the language of administration. He crushed his Enemies: the Kharijites, the Shi'ah, and the forces of the anticaliph 'Abdallah ibn az-Zubayr. The Khawarij was still being a problem. 'Abd al-Malik had appointed al-Hajjaj to govern Basra that campaigns against them began to prove successful. In the north of Kufah, another Kharijite trouble centre developed. The Kharijite movement remained strong, especially among the Bakr tribes between Mosul and Kufah. He captured Carthage and other coastal cities fell, and thus there was the work of pacification and Islamization. He set up a money system. He built mosques from local materials. There was the system of coinage and development in religious architecture. He made the Dome of the Rock, the Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem and the Great Mosque of Damascus. Umar II (717 720) He was not a hereditary successor to the former caliph, but was appointed. His mother was a granddaughter of Hazrat Umar (r.a). He formed a council with which he administered the province. He preferred to keep things simple. All depositing equipment in the public treasury was meant for the caliph. He decided in abandoning the palace to the family of Suleiman and lived in a tent. He was publicly encouraging the people to elect someone else if they were not satisfied with him. He confiscated all estates seized by Umayyad "royalty" and redistributed it to the people. He was unpopular with the Umayyad court but was beloved by the masses. Umar ended a tradition among some Umayyad rulers where Ali would be cursed during Mr Pahary Page 102

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Friday sermons, replacing the tradition with the recitation of the following verse, Surely God enjoins justice, doing of good and giving to kinsfolk. He enforced the Shariah and ended drinking and bathhouses. He continued the welfare programs and special programs for orphans and the destitute. He reinforced the Islamic frontier but he had to contend with Kharijite uprisings. He was one of the finest caliphs in Islamic History. He gave much importance to Education, Schools of Shariah and advocated the return to Shariah. Marwan II (744 750) He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus. He took the caliphate after his cousin Ibrahim abdicated and went into hiding. He inherited an empire that was falling apart and he dedicated his life in trying to keep the Umayyad Empire together. There were Anti-Umayyad in Iran and Iraq and thus the Abbasids had gained a lot of followers. He was killed by Abu Al Abbas As Saffa (at bank of river Nile). There were too many problems and could not solve all of them. He lost many territories to the Abbasid and the Islamic dominion was surrounded by enemies from all sides. There was a lack of administrative measures due to inefficiency of his governors. He was thus not able to consolidate the Islamic frontiers and wasnt able to cope with the existing and uprising Khawarij. For 6 years he tried to regain the lost cause. His society was characterized by Shariah being established in the dominion, loyalty of some of his governors, support of the masses, inefficiency of his men, materialistic influence of the society, degradation of the society (sins), emergence of Shia movement helping the Abbasid, uprising movement and slogan against the state and threat against the Umayyad families. Main Traits Of The Umayyad Dynasty 1. Umayyad architecture is a major witness of the dynasty, with numerous buildings still extant. Extensive municipal architectural programmes were undertaken, in addition to those constructions that were built by order of the Umayyad royal family. (Architectural Buildings and Palaces) 2. Both the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus appear to have been built as symbols of Umayyad power and victory, and these buildings still give an impression of the grandeur of the dynastys architecture. (Dome of the Rock and Mosques) 3. In addition, the remarkable palatial buildings formerly known as desert castles continue to fascinate us for the window they provide into Umayyad court life and ceremonials. (Palaces for festivities, Forts and Ruins) 4. Extensive building programmes were undertaken for the benefit of the community as well as for the ruling elite. Cities such as Amman had a palatial complex, a mosque, a marketplace and a water reservoir, and thus served the government and the administration of the country in addition to the needs of the community. Vitally important infrastructure such as dams, cisterns and water reservoirs were constructed and bridges were erected. 5. In this formative phase one cannot speak strictly of a full-blown Islamic art as it is the juxtaposition and innovative combination of various decorative styles and motifs drawn from different artistic traditions that produced such striking results and made them appear different. 6. During the caliphate of Abd al-Malik bin Marwan (r. 6586 / 685705), a policy of administrative and political centralisation was initiated. Each province had its own way of administration and policy. However the rulers and governors will be accountable for the financial development and problems. Mr Pahary Page 103

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7. In the fiscal administration, however, the Arabs introduced an innovative system according to which all fully fledged members of the new polity were entitled to regular stipends (ata); a system that was financed by the taxes of the local populous. The main taxes were land tax (kharaj), a fixed rate in kind or money and the poll tax (jizya), which was imposed on every mature non-Muslim and means tested according to income. Priests, monks, and the disabled were exempt from paying jizya. 8. A standard Arabic coinage was developed to replace the Arab-Byzantine and ArabSassanian types which had been used up to this time. From the coin reform on, all Umayyad coinage was of a standardised weight and design: purely epigraphic, with an inscription giving the date and a religious formula. These measures served to introduce a unity which hitherto had been lacking. Reasons for the Downfall of Umayyad Dynasty 1. Battle of Karbala against the Ahlu Bait by Yazid the son of Muawiyah 2. Illicit thoughts and activities (policies). Adultery, prostitution, bait-ul-Maal became the kingdoms property. 3. Bribes were distributed to gain popularity and election by the governors of the future caliph. 4. Interest was ramping and too much liberty was given to non-Muslims in many fields. 5. A return to islamisation from the good caliphs meant a reduction of illicit gain. In this way people tried their best to eliminate them. 6. The Christian and Jews were not loyal to the caliph and they plotted against them for personnel interest. 7. Khawarij were always uprising from all sides to create instability in the society. 8. There were revolts from those tribes who accepted Islam based for personnel interest and once a caliph passed away they rose against the Muslims. 9. There were constant revolts from the Abbasid leaders against any Umayyad caliph. 10. There were revolts from the Shia movement in search for a leader from the Ahle Bait. 11. There was a decrease in the amount of jizya obtained from non-Muslims resulting in a decrease in the Bait-ul-Maal. 12. The unpopular caliphs due to their personnel interest disgusted the common people. 13. There were so many other small Karbala (murders) against the caliph of the Umayyad. 14. There was a general political instability among the caliph due to their inexperienced governance. 15. There was a lack of expertise and counselling from Umayyad caliphs. 16. There were well established conspiracies led by the Abbasid to bribe and buy the Umayyad governors. 17. There was a series of attack on the main points/strength of the caliphate or related to their family members. 18. There were so many unreligious and egocentric deputies, governors and caliphs of the Umayyad period. 19. There was no regular check on the work and expenses of the governors. 20. There were so many critics concerning the morality of both the Umayyad caliphs and the state of the Islamic society. Mr Pahary Page 104

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Abbasid Dynasties The Abbasid Dynasties came just after the Umayyad Dynasties and lasted from 750 to 1258. There were achievements and twists during that period. The most Important Caliphs were Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, Abu Jafar al Mansur, al-Mahdi, Harun al-Rashid, al-Mamun and alMutawakkil. Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah (750 754) He magnified the virtues and claims of the descendants of the Prophet and Hazrat Abbas (ra). He denounced the usurpation and crimes of the Umayyad and their Syrian followers and praised the Kufans for their fidelity to his family. He declared openly: "I am the Great Revenger, and my name is As-Saffah, the Shedder of Blood." His first care was to sweep from the face of the earth the entire Umayyad race. In Palestine, an amnesty was offered to the Umayyad family. They (90) were invited for a feast and killed. The bodies of Umayyad caliphs (except Muawiyah and Umar II) were unearthed, hung and burned (throughout Syria, Khurasan and Ethiopia. He used to stand looking at himself in a mirror and exclaimed, "I do not say, as Suleiman, Behold the kingly youth; but I say, Lord give me long life, and health to enjoy it. As he spoke, a slave said to his fellow, "The term between us is two months and five days." He took it as an evil augury (prophesy); and so he sickened, and death (smallpox) overtook him as the term expired. Towers were constructed for protection of the pilgrims at convenient distances all the way from Al-Kufa to Mecca. He had small respect for human life. He intensified his cruelty and guilt by treachery in the face of solemn oaths, and also by ingratitude. He began his rule at Kufa. He had to face revolts from the partisans of Umayyad, Shia and the Khawarij. He had two great men and soldiers with him Abu Salama and Abu Muslim. They played a leading role to the downfall of the Umayyad. There was jealousy between them. Men of Abu Muslim killed Abu Salama. Abu Jafar al Mansur (754 775) He was the brother of As Saffah and when he returned from pilgrimage, he assumed khilafat. He led the prayer and made his announcements of caliph. He assumed the name of AlMansur, the Victorious. Al Mansur feared the attitudes of his uncle Abdullah. Abu Muslim assured him that he would take charge of him. When the enemy and burden Abdullah was calmed down, al Mansur killed Abu Muslim. The reason he gave was "It was a lesson to be laid to heart; the man began well, but ended ill, and now by pride and rebellion hath forfeited his life. Abu Muslim was at the head of the army. He was powerful and a threat to al Mansur. There was complete loyalty of the army towards al Mansur. Peace restored in Persia and Ethiopia (Mesopotamia). Abdullah was imprisoned. There was the rise of the Rawendiyah a Persian sect. Al Mansur already had 200 of their leaders imprisoned. They didnt consider al Mansur as divine though he came personally talking to them. They were then extirpated. There was rebellion at Khurasan and as such its leaders hands, feet and head were cut off after cruelty. Al Mansur, to his enemies he was cruel but to his friends he was liberal. He invested in statecraft and was very strict in maintaining accounts. He left the treasury to his successor. He maintained religious discipline in his court and didnt allow repugnant practice outside Islam. Mr Pahary Page 105

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He succeeded his father, al-Mansur. Al-Mahdi, whose name means "Rightly-guided" or "Redeemer," was proclaimed caliph when his father was on his deathbed. He was mild and generous in contrast to his father. He tried to win the hearts of people by kind and benevolent policies. He adopted a conciliatory attitude towards his opponents. He made a rapprochement with the Shi'a Muslims in the Caliphate and Islamization of the administration. He tried in reaching out to Shi'a and he appointed them to senior posts. The city attracted immigrants from all of Arabia, Iraq, Syria, Persia, and lands as far away as India and Spain. He also engaged in dialogue with the leader of the Nestorian Church, an early episode in Christian-Muslim relations. It was the period of prosperity, scholarly excellence and religious freedom although there were persecutions. He expanded the Abbasid administration, creating new divans, or departments, for the army, the chancery and taxation. Qazi or judges were appointed, and laws against non-Arabs put into place by the Umayyad were dropped. Shariah began to develop, neglected under the Umayyad as part of an Islamization process. The Abbasids had swept the Umayyad from power promising to restore Islam to the centre of the what, effectively, was an imperial polity. The Umayyad had privileged Arabs over nonArabs. Al-Mahdi had two important religious policies: the persecution of the zanadiqa (atheists), and the declaration of orthodoxy. The zanadiqa ridiculed the Qur'an, but admired Muhammad as a human law-maker. The zanadiqa were almost certainly followers of Mani, or Manichaeans (one of the Iranian Gnostic religion). Al-Mahdi singled out the persecution of the zanadiqa in order to improve his standing among the Shi'i, whom he also presented with gifts and appointed to posts, including the Viziership as well as releasing political prisoners. He was able to use the considerable financial legacy left by his father. Scholarship flourished, including the translation of Greek philosophical works into Arabic. Al-Mahdi "enlarged and beautified the Mosques of the Holy Cities, and of the capital towns elsewhere. Al-Mahdi also began the practice of withdrawing into isolation, to emphasize the sanctity of the office of caliph. He therefore depended heavily on his Vizier. Ultimately, this led to a weakening of the temporal power of the caliphate, although it may have enhanced the caliph's spiritual status. Al-Mahdi continued the war with the Byzantine Empire throughout his reign, extending the caliphate as far as Ankara (capital of Turkey). It was a prosperous period marked by internal stability and peace although territorial expansion continued. Al-Mahdi dealt severely with what he saw as heresy. He tried to build bridges with Shi'a Muslims and was tolerant and even magnanimous in his dealings with the "people of the book". Harun Ar-Rashid (786 809) He was the brother of Musa (surnamed as Hade) being the son of al Mahdi. His time was marked by scientific, cultural and religious prosperity. Art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established the library Bait al-Hikma ("House of Wisdom"). Islamic literature (the work of ibn Kathir, for example) has raised him to the level of an ideal figure, a great military and intellectual leader, even a paragon for future rulers to emulate. His best-known portrayal in the West, in the stories of the Thousand and One Nights, has little basis in historical fact, but does show the mythic stature he has attained over time. He was strongly influenced by the will of his mother, Khaizuran in the governance of the empire. Baghdad flourished into the most splendid city of its period. Tribute was paid by many rulers to the caliph, and these funds were used on architecture, the arts and a luxurious life at court. Agriculture was flourishing to support the new Imperial centre. He tried to bring to heel Mr Pahary Page 106

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the princes and chieftains of the region, and to re-impose the full authority of the central government on them. This new policy met with fierce resistance and provoked numerous uprisings in the region. He imposed heavy taxes on farmers, traders and artisans. He maintained slave-girls and concubines to entertain him. Al-Rashid virtually dismembered the empire by apportioning it between his two sons, al-Amin and al-Ma'mun. Very soon it became clear that by dividing the empire, Rashid had actually helped to set the opposing parties against one another, and had provided them with sufficient resources to become independent of each other. After the death of Harun al-Rashid civil war broke out in the empire between his two sons, al-Amin and al-Ma'mun. Harun made the pilgrimage to Mecca several times. Hrn is widely considered the greatest of the Abbasid caliphs, presiding over the Arab Empire at its political and cultural peak. He died in Tus, Iran. Al Mamun (813 833) On the death of Al Amin, al Mamun took over. There were many disturbances in Iraq during the first several years of al-Ma'mun's reign. Lawlessness in Baghdad led to the formation of neighbourhood watches. Most of Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites. Al-Ma'mun's opponents in Baghdad gave allegiance to Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi (one of the Alids). Imam Ali Raza informed al-Ma'mun of happenings in Baghdad and sided with the Alids. When Ali Raza fell sick and died at Tus, Al-Mamun wept and mourned for Imam Reza and tried to show himself innocent of the supposed crime. While Baghdad became peaceful, there were disturbances elsewhere. There was uprising in Qum sparked by complaints about taxes. After it was quashed (crushed), the tax assessment was set significantly higher. Egypt continued to be unquiet. Sind was rebellious. There was also struggle against the Byzantines. In 830, al-Ma'mun led a victorious force across the border. He captured several fortresses, sparing the surrendering Byzantines. Al-Ma'mun's relations with the Byzantine Greeks were marked by his efforts in the translation of Greek philosophy and science. AlMa'mun gathered scholars of many religions at Baghdad, whom he treated magnificently and with tolerance. He sent an emissary to the Byzantine Empire to collect the most famous manuscripts there, and had them translated into Arabic. It is said that, had he been victorious over the Byzantine Emperor, Al-Ma'mun would have made a condition of peace be that the emperor hand over of a copy of the "Almagest". He made efforts toward the centralization of power and the certainty of succession. The Bayt al-Hikma, or House of Wisdom, was developed during his reign. The ulama emerged as a real force in Islamic politics during al-Ma'mun's reign for opposing the mihna (it is a move to impose his theoretical views upon people), which was initiated in 833, only four months before he died. People who were subject to the mihna were traditionalist scholars whose social influence and intellectual quality was uncommonly high. Al-Ma'mun introduced the mihna with the intention to centralize religious power in the caliphate institution and test the loyalty of his subjects. The mihna had to be undergone by elites, scholars, judges and other government officials, and in consisted of a series of questions relating to theology and faith. The central question was about the createdness of the Qur'an, if the interrogate stated he believed the Qur'an to be created he was free to leave and continue his profession. During his reign Alchemy greatly developed and the pioneers of the science were Jabir Ibn Hayyan and his student Yusuf Lukwa was patronized by Al-Ma'mun, although he was unsuccessful in his attempts regarding the transmutation gold, his methods greatly led to the patronization of Pharmaceuticals compounds. Although the mihna persisted through the Mr Pahary Page 107

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reigns of two more caliphs, al-Mutawakkil abandoned it in 848. The ulama and the major Islamic law schools became truly defined in the period of al-Ma'mun and Sunnism, as a religion of legalism, became defined in parallel. Doctrinal differences between Sunni and Shi'a Islam began to become more pronounced. Al Mutawakkil (847 861) Upon the death of al Mamun, he appointed his brother Mustasim, then the latters son Wasiq then the latters brother Jaafar known as Mutawakkil. The latter was not in good term with Wasiq. During Wasiqs reign, Mutawakkil was ill-treated. Mutawakkil on assuming caliphate reversed the policies of the regime and avenged himself. He restored fundamentalism (strict adherence to specific theological doctrines) and banned rationalism (use of reason as a source of knowledge). He stated that the Quran was not created. The rationalists were expelled from public offices and all discussions on science and philosophy were banned. All fundamentalist Imams like Imam Ahmad bin Hambal were set free and the Mutazilah were imprisoned and their properties confiscated. He was hostile to the Shia and continued anti-Shia policies. He destroyed Mausoleum of Imam Husain and banned pilgrimage of Najaf (according to the Shia Hazrat Ali said that this valley is part of paradise) and Karbala (martyrs of Karbala). He ordered the Jews and the Christians to wear distinctive dress. They were forbidden to ride on animals other than donkeys and mules. No new church and synagogue was built. There were revolts in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Hims. All of them were crushed. In Egypt the Sufi Dhun Nun proclaimed communication with God. The fundamentalist wanted punitive measures. But when he was questioned by al Mutawakkil, he found nothing wrong in his belief and let him free to return to Egypt. During his reign, a great part of his dominion suffered from earthquakes and other natural calamities. Special measures and prayers were made. Mutawakkil wanted his son Muntasir to succeed him but through the influence of his wife Qabiha he changed his idea and wanted Mutaaz (the son of Qabiha) to be the successor. Muntasir refused and that created bitterness between them. Muntasir and his army conspired and killed the caliph. He was the first caliph to be killed by his own army. Main Traits of the Abassid Dynasty 1. The Golden age of the Abbasids was between the 3rd and 4th / 9th and 10th centuries, during which time the Middle East and North Africa witnessed a major shift from a largely agricultural economy to one driven by trade. (Agriculture & Economy) 2. The seeking of formal knowledge was encouraged by the state. Many schools were established in Baghdad and the provinces. The art of book translation thrived and led to the preservation of many key Greek, Persian and Indian works which were translated into Arabic. Significant contributions were made in the fields of science, mathematics, medicine and philosophy. (Knowledge) 3. The Abbasids supported and patronised medical research and medical practitioners. Great developments in medicine were achieved: books on a variety of medical subjects were written and translated; medical experiments were conducted and documented and a number of medical instruments were designed to deal with a variety of procedures. (Medical Field) 4. With an expanding population and an awareness of how valuable was good urban planning, the Abbasids built a number of towns and cities where special attention was given to communications and transport routes. (Towns Infrastructures) Mr Pahary Page 108

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5. It is not until the Abbasid period that a distinct type and style of ceramic was emerged and that can be distinguished technically as Islamic. (Islamic Ceramic) 6. During the early Abbasid period, the refined and luxury-loving ruler and imperial court got directly involved in sponsoring new innovations in the ceramics industry, especially in the development and manufacture of luster wares. They were meant for inland and foreign business. (Luster wares) 7. As the Abbasid Empire expanded from Afghanistan to Algeria, regional ceramics industries were influenced by techniques, designs and motifs from other parts of the empire, adding to the variety of designs, decorations and styles available locally. (Innovative Architectural Designs) Reasons for the Downfall of the Abbasid Dynasties 1. Most of the later Khalifas of this dynasty led pompous and luxurious life and cared little for the state. 2. Instead of making any attempt to uplift the condition of the subjects and to improve the government, they devoted their valuable time to wine, women and music. 3. The supremacy of the Turks in the later period was one of the causes of the fall of the empire. After the death of Mutawakkil the power of the Turks began to increase rapidly and the successors of Mutawakkil could not resist it. 4. The Arabs and the Persians became disgusted with their high handed policy. 5. The negligence of the military department under the later Khalifa greatly contributed to the downfall of the Abbasids. 6. The relation between the province and the central government was not cordial. 7. Many provinces declared their independence. 8. The struggle between the Arabs and non-Arabs between the Muslims and non-Muslim was going on in full swing during this period. 9. The Iranians who were favoured by the Abbasids despaired (saw no hope in) the Arabs and the Arabs despaired the Iranians and other. 10. The imposition of taxes for the interest of the ruling class discouraged farming and industry and the constant bloody stripers left many a piece of cultivated land desolate and forlorn. 11. The flood in Mesopotamia made the people hopeless and homeless. Besides this famine and epidemic decimated the population in many provinces. 12. To these causes of decay must be added the invasion of Halaqu, a grandson of Changez Khan who divested the city of Baghdad on such a scale that for three years the streets ran with blood and the water of the Tigris was dyed red for miles along the course. He killed the last Khalifa of this dynasty and massacred his family so much so that for the first time in its history the Muslim world was left without a Khalifa whose name could be cited in the Friday prayers. 13. The Khawarij were continuing their plots to instabilise the society. 14. The Shia party was constantly demanding their rights and as such dividing the Ummah. 15. The people were disgusted with a society based on blood and iron policy of the Abbasids.

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Islamic Studies Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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1 Most of the later Umayyad caliphs are considered to be weak rulers. How far does this explain the overthrow of the dynasty? [20] 2 How far can purely religious factors explain the success of the `Abbasid dynasty in coming to power in the eighth century?` [20] 3 It is often said that al-Mamun and al-Mutawakkil had completely opposite religious policies. How far do you consider this view true? [20] (2004) 1 Why do Muslims often regard the period of Umayyad rule as unislamic? [20] 2 Explain why Muslims have generally given `Umar II (`Umar Ibn `Abd al-`Aziz) a special place among Umayyad and other early rulers. [20] 3 Write short notes on the main activities of the following `Abbasid rulers: (a) Abu Ja`far al-Mansur (b) Harun al-Rashid (c) al-Mamun (d) al-Mutawakkil. [20] (2005) 1 Explain how Muawiya and his immediate successors up to Abd al-Malik in the period between 661 and 705 maintained their power in the face of internal and external opposition. [20] 2 Discuss the steps taken by the Umayyad caliphs to promote the Arab and Muslim character of their administrations. [20] 3 Give an account of the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid, explaining why he is often seen as a popular ruler. [20] (2006) 1 By tracing the events of the caliphates of Ali and Muawiyah, show how the Umayyad dynasty came into power and suppressed resistance to its rule. [20] 2 (a) Trace the main stages by which the Abbasids seized power from the Umayyad. [8] (b) Discuss three major reasons for the change of dynasty. [12] 3 It is often asserted that the Abbasid dynasty reached the height of its success during the first century of its rule. Discuss, saying why you agree or disagree. [20] (2007) 1 Why is Umar II remembered as the only pious Caliph amongst the Umayyad Rulers? [20] 2 Identify and explain the factors that contributed to making the reigns of Harun al-Rashid and his immediate successors the most successful among the Abbasid Caliphs. [20]

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3 It is often asserted that al-Mamun and al-Mutawakkil had completely opposite policies. How far do you consider this assertion to be valid? [20] (2008) 1 Why were the reigns of Muawiyah and his son Yazid full of violent events? [20] 2 Present a critical assessment of the Caliphates of: (a) Abd al-Malik [685705] [12] and either (b) Umar II [717720] [8] or (c) Marwan II [744750]. [8] 3 Why did the personal authority of the Abbasid caliphs begin to decline only a century after their dynasty came to power? [20] (2009) 1 (a) Trace the main events through which Muawiya obtained and secured his position as caliph of the Islamic state. [12] (b) Explain how his position as caliph differed from that of his predecessors. [8] 2 How did the early Abbasid caliphs justify in religious terms their overthrow of the Umayyad? [20] 3 Harun al-Rashid is often regarded as the greatest of the Abbasid caliphs. Give reasons to agree or disagree with this view. [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Paper 2 Section B: Religious Thought in Early Islam The 4 Schools of Thought

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Among the schools of thought emerging after the death of the prophet (s.a.w) there were 4 famous ones in the name of Hanafi, Maliki, ShafiI and Hambali Mathhab. Imam-ul-Azam Abu Hanifa (ra) He was born in the year 80 AH and died in the year 150 AH. His name was Numan bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Mah. He was an Ajami non Arab scholar and was born in Kufah. He lived during the Notable Period of the Ashab of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w). According to different historians, he had been acquainted with 7 or 17 ashab namely the famous Anas bin Malik (93 AH), Sahl bin Saad (91 AH), Abul Tufail Amir bin Wathilah (100 AH). Among his famous teachers, the names of Imam Shabi, Shubah (Hadith), Hammad (Fiqh), Ata bin Rabah, Ikramah (pupil of Abdullah bin Abbas), Imam Baqar, Imam Jafar as Swadiq and 93 Tabiin of Kufah can be cited. Among his students the names of Qadi Abu Yusuf (113 182 AH), Muhammad bin al Hasan al Shaibani (135 189 AH) and Imam Zufar (110 158 AH) can be cited. Views on Shariah Focussed on needs and circumstances around him Jurisprudence on measuring relative cases with equivalents in Quran and Sunnah to address the daily changes in life. Solutions in the Quran and sunnah, then the sayings of Ashab Then opinion on measuring new problems with relatively similar ones in Quran and sunnah, and then finding a solution by analogy Abu Hanifa wanted to make Islam fill the gap and go in parallel with daily needs of life Supposed future problems and found out relevant solutions hypothetical jurisprudence Established the freedom of thought principle. Not imposed his ideas on his students Wanted them to develop their own personalities Thus development of other sciences Quran Hadith of Holy Prophet (s.a.w) Hadith of Ashab (r.a) Ijma Qiyas He was the pioneer in classification and compilation of fiqh. One of the biggest contributions of Imam Abu Hanifa is that he organized fiqh into functional sub categories starting with Taharaat (purification). All other imams and scholars followed his organization. He is known for his unparalleled knowledge of fiqh and skill in Qiyas as well as Taqwa and an amazing memory. A quote attributed to Imam ShafiI states that a person who wanted to specialize in fiqh should read Abu Hanifas books. Mr Pahary Page 112

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Abdullah Ibn Mubarak said, I have not seen another specialist as learned as Abu Hanifa in the knowledge of fiqh. Sufyan al-Thawri encapsulated all of the qualities of imam al-a`zam in this statement, This man holds a high rank in knowledge, and if I did not stand up for his science I would stand up for his age, and if not for his age then for his God wariness (wara`), and if not for his God wariness then for his jurisprudence (fiqh). Qadi Abu Yusuf , while describing imam Abu Hanifas personality, said, As far as I know, Abu Hanifah was extremely pious, avoided forbidden things, remained silent and absorbed in his thoughts most of the time, and answered a question only if he knew the answer. He was very generous and self-respecting, never asked a favour of anybody, shunned the company of the worldly-minded and held worldly power and position in contempt. He avoided slander and only talked well of people. He was a man of profound learning and was as generous with his knowledge as with his money. Despite being regarded as one of the greatest contributors to Islamic jurisprudence, Imam ShafiI openly acknowledges the stature of Imam Abu Hanifa. People are all the children of Abu Hanifa in fiqh. Imam Malik (ra) He was one of the best Tabut Tabiin. He was born in the year 93 AH and died in the year 179 AH. His name was Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Amr. He was an Arab scholar and born in Madina. He was born when the time Ashab of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) had come to an end and he witnessed the Period of the Tabiin, the Umayyad Dynasty and the Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik. Among his teachers the names of his uncle: Abu Suhail Nafi (Hadith), Abu Radim Nafi bin Abdur Rahman (Quran), Nafi (Hadith), Jafar As Swadiq, Muhammad bin Yahya al Ansari, Abu Hazim Salmah bin Dinar, Yahya bin Sad and Hasham bin Urwah can be mentioned. Among his students famous names like Yahya bin Yahya al Masmudi, Ibn Wahb Abu Muhammad Abdullah and Abi Abdallah Abdal Rahman bin al Qasim can be cited. Views on Shariah Scrutinised all kinds of narrations, sermons of Holy Prophet (s.a.w), everything ... Compiled thousands of Hadith before his Al Muwatta Legal theories based on Hadith Fearlessly gave his Fatwa No Fatwa from a distance place No narration from the great scholars of Iraq Codification of Madinan Fiqh Madinan Fiqh based on the pious Tabiin Anything taken as reported would be: considered, then interpreted, then accepted or rejected, or otherwise use reasoning and legal tradition of Madina Local Consensus of Opinion Wanted to revive the Sunnah of Holy Prophet (s.a.w) Spent his life in collecting Ahadith Choose authentic ones to include in his Al Muwatta Quran and Hadith of Holy Prophet (s.a.w) and Ashab Ijma of Madina only Qiyas Page 113

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Al Muwatta (the Approved) is his seminal work that contains the most authentic and sound ahadith and sayings of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Imam ShafiI considers it the most correct and the most beneficial book on earth after Quran. According to Imam Malik, he had seventy jurists of Madinah examine Muwatta and each one of them approved it. He was extremely careful in narrating hadith and said, I do not accept knowledge from four types of people: a person well-known to be foolish, even though all the other people narrate from him, a person involved in committing heresy and calling others towards innovation in Deen, a person who lies in regular conversation with people, even though I do not accuse him as liar in regards to Hadith, a person who is pious worshipper or scholar, but does not properly and correctly memorize what he narrates. His chain of narration (from Malik from Nafi from Ibn Umar) was called the golden chain of narrators by Imam Bukhari. He was regarded in the highest esteem by other three of the great imams. Imam ShafiI says, If Malik and Ibn Uyainah where not here, the knowledge of Hijaaz would be gone. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal praised him, I compared Imam Malik to Awzaaeey, Thawri, Laith, Hammaad, and al-Hakam in knowledge, and he is the leader in Hadith and Fiqh. Imam Abu Hanifah said while acknowledging his qualities, I have never seen anyone more fast understanding, correct answering, and test-taking than Imam Malik. Imam ShafiI He was the third school of thought. He took birth in the year 150 AH and died in the year 204 AH. His name was Muhammad Idris Al ShafiI. He was an Arab scholar and born in Gaza. He was from the Quraishite Family and witnessing the period of Tabiin and the Abbasid Dynasty. He was known as the Father of Jurisprudence. He learned through famous Tabiin and the names of Muslim bin Khalid al Zanji (Fiqh), Imam bin Anas, Imam Malik, Imam Shaybani and various Imam and Mufti of Hanafi and Maliki schools can be cited. His famous students are Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, Rabi bin Sulaiman al Marali and Abu Yakub al Ruwayti. Views on Shariah Studied both the Hanafi and Maliki Thought Derived his thought in between them Experience through his intense debates Views from Imam Shaybani Rejected Theology (Kalam) and Theologians No assumption when we dont have the knowledge Divided Bidah into Good and Bad Study of Hadith and Knowledge Quran Sunnah Ijma Ijtihad through Qiyas

Imam ShafiI is attributed with two madhahib; al-qadm (the Old) from his stay in Iraq and aljadd (the New) from his stay in Egypt. Al-jadid forms most of the ShafiI fiqh except in a limited number of cases where scholars have followed al-qadm. The most famous works of Mr Pahary Page 114

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the imam include Kitab al-Umm (the source of al-qadm) and Kitab al-Hujja (the source of aljadd). A significant contribution of imam ShafiI is the distinction between good bid`a and bad bid`a. In his words, Therefore, whatever innovation conforms to the Sunnah is approved (mahmd), and whatever opposes it is abominable (madhmm). He is known for his mastery of the Arabic language, eloquence, humility, and knowledge of hadith. As acknowledged by Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal, Our napes were in the hands of the Companions of Abu Hanifah (RA) when it came to hadith (i.e. we were inclined to them more) until we saw Imaam ShafiI, he was the most knowledgeable in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) that he would even suffice one who was not well informed in Hadith. On another occasion Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal said, When I am questioned about some matter that I do not know of I say to myself Imaam ShafiI knows about this and he will have some say in it, because he is an Alim (Scholar) of Quraish. And the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said, An Alim of Quraish fills the earth with knowledge. Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal (ra) He was the last of the four imams and he was born in the year 164 AH and died in the year 241 AH. His name was Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal. He was an Arab scholar and was born in Marw (in Jordan). He was from a Mujahid (Warrior) Family and witnessed the Period of Tabiin and the Abbasid Dynasty. He was the most learned in the affairs of Ahadith. He was a Tabut Tabiin. He obtained his education from famous Tabiin and the names of Imam ShafiI, Bishr bin al Mufaddal and Yahya bin Said can be noted. His renowned students are Abu Bakr al Ahram, Hanbal bin Ishaq and Abul Qasim al Baghwi. Views on Shariah Made a merger of the 3 Mathhab before him Based his opinion on Hadith Devoted life to Ahadith and Fiqh Refused Mutazilites doctrines No use of Kalam (Theology) Kalam is reprehensible Quran Sunnah Ijma Qiyas

In addition to Masnad, his exceptional collection of Hadith, Kitab al-Zuhd is also considered to be an influential work in Islamic heritage as well as Kitabul Amaal, Kitaabut Tafseer, Kitaabul Naasikh wal Mansookh, Kitaabul Masaail and Kitaabul Fadaail. He strongly believed in the orthodox doctrine of Islam and propagated it. He wrote two important books on the orthodox religious doctrine, the Kitab al-Sunnah and al-Rad Ala al-Zanadiqah wa alJahmiyah. He was a great jurist but was reluctant to give fatwa. Al-Mukhtasar by al-Khiraqi is the first written manual of fiqh and an introductory work on Hanbali fiqh. One of the most significant events of his life was the trial of khalq-e-Quran (creation of Quran) during the reign of Abbaside caliph Mamun. Mutazilah had instigated the belief that Allah created His speech as a distinct entity and called it the Quran. This was against the Mr Pahary Page 115

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orthodox Muslim belief. The caliph forced all of the scholars of the time to accept this belief and most of them did but Imam Ahmad completely disregarded the pressure and refused to accept this heresy. As a result, he was imprisoned and severely tortured for over two years. He was highly regarded by the likes of Imam ShafiI, who said, I left Baghdad, and I did not leave behind me a man better, having more knowledge, or greater fiqh (understanding), nor having greater Taqwa (piety) than Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. According to Abu Dawood, The lectures of Ahmad were sittings of the Hereafter. He would not mention in them anything of the worldly affairs; and I never saw him mention this world. The famous Hanafi scholar Yahya ibn Main praised him in these words, I have not seen the like of Ahmad, we have accompanied him for fifty years, and he never boasted about anything from the good which he was characterized with. Examples of Difference among the 4 Mathhab 1. Nikah According to the Hanafi, Maliki and Hambali it is obligatory Wajib. But according to the ShafiI it is superogetory Mubah 2. Proposal on the proposal of a brother According to the Hanafi, Maliki and ShafiI it is a sin. But according to the Hambali it is not a sin. 3. Marriage with the people of the Book According to the Hanafi it is unlawful to marry a woman of the Book if she is in a country known as Dar-ul Harb. She may return to her ancient religion. According to the Maliki, it depends to what extent the husband trusts the wife and the wifes sincerity in Islam. According to the ShafiI and the Hambali both of her parents must be from people of the Book. 4. Role of the Guardian in Nikah According to the Hanafi and the Hambali the guardian is optional. According to the Maliki and the ShafiI it is one of the essential elements of Nikah. 5. Talaq through duress or pressure According to the Hanafi and the Hambali it is valid but according to the Maliki and the ShafiI it is not valid. 6. Punishment for bestiality According to the Maliki and the Hanafi there is no Hadd punishment but Taazir. But according to the ShafiI and the Hambali, there is Hadd punishment. The animal must be killed and its flesh is unlawful. 7. Defamation According to the Hanafi and the Maliki the person must receive 80 lashes. But according to the ShafiI and the Hambali, the reason for his action must be known first before lashing him. Then Taazir must be applied by the judge. 8. Stealing of a brothers or relatives property or belonging According to the Maliki, ShafiI and the Hambali there is Hadd punishment (cutting of the hand) but according to the Hanafi there is no Hadd but Taazir punishment. 9. Alcoholic drink According to the Hanafi, Maliki and the Hambali there are 80 lashes as punishment but according to the ShafiI there are only 40 lashes. 10. Sunnah in Swalaat - The Shafi'is consider them to be eleven rak'ahs: two before the morning (subh) prayer, two before the noon (zuhr) prayer and two after it, two after the sunset (maghrib) prayer, two after the night ('isha') prayer and a single rak'ah called 'al-watirah'. The Hanbalis consider them to be ten rak'ahs; two rak'ahs before and after the noon prayer, two after the sunset and the night prayer, and two rak'ahs before the Morning Prayer. According to the Malikis there is no fixed number for the supererogatory (Nawafil) prayers performed with the obligatory salat, though it is best to offer four rak'ahs before the zuhr and six after the Maghrib prayer. The Hanafis classify the nawafil performed along with the fara'id into 'masnunah' and Mr Pahary Page 116

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'mandubah'.(1) The 'masnunah' are five: two rak'ahs before the subh; four before the zuhr, and two after it, except on Friday; two after the maghrib and two after the 'isha' prayer. The 'mandubah' are four: four -or two- rak'ahs before the 'asr, six after the Maghrib, and four before and after the 'isha' prayer. 11. Folding of hands in Swalaat According to the Hanafi the hands are folded right over left below the navel, according to the Maliki they are on the sides of the body, according to the ShafiI they are folded right over left above the navel below the chest and according to the Hambali they are folded right over left above the navel Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 4 Many Muslim scholars regard al-ShafiI as the most important of the early legal experts. Give reasons to agree or disagree with this judgement. [20] (2003) 4 (a) What was al-Shafiis teaching about the relationship between the Quran and Sunnah in developing Islamic law? [12] (b) How did these teachings differ from those of Malik and Abu Hanifah? [8] (2004) 5 Choose any two of the four Imams after whom the Madhahib [schools of law] are named and (a) discuss the main principles of their legal teachings [12] and (b) explain any differences between these two sets of principles. [8] (2005) 4 It is said that Imam al-ShafiI was the most important of the early legal experts. Give reasons to agree or disagree with this opinion. [20] (2006) 4 Give reasons to explain why al-Ashari is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of early Islam. [20] 6 Write briefly on the following legal scholars in Islam, pointing out clearly what is distinctive about their teachings: (a) Malik b. Anas [5] (b) Abu Hanifah [5] (c) al-ShafiI [5] (d) Ahmad b. Hanbal [5] (2007) 4 (a) Outline the teachings of al-ShafiI about the relationship between the Quran and the Sunnah in the development of Islamic thinking. [12] (b) How do these differ from the teachings of any other two Sunni Imams you have studied? [8] (2008) 6 Many Muslim scholars regard al-ShafiI as the most important of the early legal experts. Give reasons to agree or disagree with this judgement. [20] (2009) 4 What are the main differences in the methods employed by the founders of the four Sunni schools of law? [20] (2010) Mr Pahary Page 117

Islamic Studies Swahih Sittah Introduction

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After the sending of the holy Quran to the holy prophet (s.a.w) there was the need for explanation and interpretation of the divine message. Then came the work and part of the mission of the prophet (s.a.w). Hadith And Sunnah Literally, Hadith means a narration or a recitation of a specific event. Sunnah is the deeds of the prophet (s.a.w). However, according to Islamic terminology Hadith is generally characterised as the deeds, sayings and silent approval of the holy prophet (s.a.w). A hadith is divided into two parts: 1. The isnad: It is the chain of narrators or reporters. It is the list of Ashab, Tabiin, Tabut Tabiin and scholars who have heard or reported the Hadith directly or indirectly from the holy prophet (s.a.w). The number of person in an Isnad varies. It may reach 150 persons. 2. The Matn: It is the text or context. It is what has been reported or done by the prophet (s.a.w) or any Sahaba. Criteria For Isnad There are some criteria for an Isnad to be considered as good: 1. The narrator must be a Muslim 2. He must be pious 3. He must be a practicing Muslim 4. He must have a retentive memory 5. He must not be a liar 6. He must be clean from any judicial case against him 7. He must be known for his knowledge 8. He must be known for his authority 9. He must have lived among the pious men 10. He must be dedicated to religion. Criteria For Matn There are some criteria for the Matn to be respected: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The text must not be against the Quran The text must not be against any Swahih Hadith or Hadith Qudsiy It must not be against any article of faith It must not be against logic and nature It must not give precise time, date, day, year of the day of judgement It must not include rough words.

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Islamic Studies Types of Hadith There are 4 types of Hadith, namely:

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1. Swahih e. Swahih li dhaatihi is a Hadith whose chain of narrators is unbroken, every narrator is reliable (aadil), well-known for memorization and preservation (dabt) of the hadith f. We have also Swahih li ghayrihi which is a hadith having the same qualities as the previous one except for the dabt of a narrator which may be slightly less reliable but that is compensated for by the fact that the hadith is narrated from many chains of people. [The word dabt refers to a narrator having a good grasp of what he narrates as well as a sound memory and/or carefully kept books.] 2. Hasan ii. Hasan li dhaatihi is a hadith which has the qualities of Swahih except that the dabt is not as reliable and there are not enough other chains of narrations to raise it to the status of Swahih li ghayrihi. iii. Hasan li ghayrihi is a hadith which is lacking in more than one quality required for the Swahih but this lack is again compensated for by the presence of other chains of transmission of the same hadith 3. Dwaif: It is a hadith which is lacking more than one of the qualities of Swahih and there are not enough alternate chains to raise its status to Hasan 4. Matrook and Mawdu a. Matrook is a hadith in whose chain is a narrator known for being a Liar b. Mawdu is a hadith in whose chain is a narrator upon whom it is established that he fabricated hadith. Importance of Hadith In many different ways Hadith is important both for the individual Muslim and the Ummah. 1. It is a personal Code of Conduct 2. It forms part of the Shariah 3. Is a complement to the Quran 4. It is the Tafsir and explanation of the verses of the Quran 5. It gives details on how to perform Ibaadah and other acts of worship 6. It helps to avoid pitfalls 7. It helps to upgrade our status through wazifah 8. It helps in having the knowledge of the life of the prophet and the Salaf 9. It explains how to deal with Muslims and non-Muslims 10. It elaborates on Halal and Haram 11. It is an example in all spheres of live (materialistic and spiritual) Relationship between Quran and Hadith Allah Almighty says in the Quran what means: [[We sent them] with clear proofs and written ordinances. And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.] (An-Nahl 16:44) Mr Pahary Page 119

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Commenting on this verse, Imam Al-Baghawi, one of the well-versed scholars of Islam, said in his tafseer: "The message in the verse refers to the divine inspiration. And the Prophet is the clarifier of the divine inspiration. The explanation of the Quran is to be sought in the Sunnah." (Al-Baghawi 25) Thus, the relation between the Quran and the Sunnah is such that the latter is a clarification of the former. The Sunnah explains and interprets the Quran. It gives more details about what is concisely mentioned in the Quran, especially when it comes to legal rulings. Many laws, as well as acts of worships, are briefly mentioned in the Quran. Then, the Sunnah elaborates on such items and gives more details and explanation or interpretation. A good example for this is the prayers. The Quran orders Muslims to pray, but it does not mention how many times Muslims should pray. Or, when and how to pray but it does mention what means: And obey Allah and obey the messenger; but if you turn away, then upon Our messenger is only [the duty of] clear notification. (At-Taghabun 64:12) And it also mentions what means And whatever the messenger has given you, take; and what he has forbidden you, refrain from. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty. (Al-Hashr 59:7) So, Allah orders us clearly to follow and obey the messenger and take whatever he gives us. And as we are talking about prayers, the Prophet says: "Pray as you saw me praying." (Al-Bukhari) Zakah (obligatory alms), fasting the month of Ramadan, monetary transactions, and so on. All of the above titles are touched on briefly by the Quran but the Sunnah elaborates on them. It is worth mentioning that Quran is communally transmitted from generation to generation in such a way that huge number of people memorised and transmitted it to the subsequent generation all the way from the time of the Prophet until today. This is what makes the Quran so authentic, because it is impossible that an entire generation will be mistaken in their narration. On the other hand, not all the Sunnah was transmitted to us in the same way like the Quran, only some if it is. However, Muslim scholars developed a very scientific and sophisticated methodology to categorise the narrations that come to us from the Prophet. This science is called hadith methodology. Using certain scientific criteria, they can tell which narration is authentic and which is not. In a nutshell, the Quran is inspired by Allah in meaning and wording. However, the Sunnah is inspired by Allah in meaning while the wording is from Prophet Muhammad. Allah says in the Quran what means: Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed. (An-Najm 53:3-4). So, the Sunnah, as the Prophetic text, comes right after the Quran as part of the revelation, and both of them are the two main sources of Islam. Allah made it clear that Sunnah should be followed when he says: Mr Pahary Page 120

Islamic Studies He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah. (An-Nisaa' 4:80).

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Another hadith that shows that Quran and Sunnah are interrelated, and warns against taking the Quran and abandoning Sunnah goes: "Indeed I have been given the Book (that is, the Quran) and something like it along with it." (Abu Dawud) To conclude, the Quran and the Sunnah together are the sources of guidance and laws for Muslims. The Sunnah is the explanation and interpretation of the Quran. That is why they cannot be separated, as they work harmoniously to convey the message of Islam and show people what Allah wants from them in order for them to lead the best life on this earth and also to win Heaven in the hereafter. Six Canonical Hadith According to the Ulama of Islam, there are six canonical books of Hadith known as the Swahih Sitta. They are the Swahih Al Bukhariy, Swahih Muslim, Jami Al Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan NasaaI and Sunan Ibn Majaa. All of the said books are important to the understanding of Islam. 1. Swahih Al Bukhariy The author of the book of Hadith is Imaam Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ismaail alBukhaari. He took birth in the year 194 and died in the year 256 AH. He was born in Bukhara, Iran and memorized 200000 Hadith. The book of Hadith has 7275 out of 600000 hadith collected by the Imam. Imm al-muhaddithn Hadrat Imm Ab `Abdullh Muhammad ibn Ism`l al-Bukhr was born on the 13th of the Islmic month of Shawwl, 194AH, in the famous city of Bukhara, of the land "beyond the canal" - present day Uzbekistan Hashid ibn Ism`l states that in his childhood: "Imm Bukhr used to go with us to the Scholars of Basra to listen to Ahdth. All of us used to write Ahdth down, except Imm Bukhr. After sixteen days, we thought about it and we condemned Imm Bukhr saying that, 'you had wasted so many days work by not writing down Ahdth.' Imm Bukhr asked us to bring our notes to him. So we all brought our notes, upon which Imm Bukhr began to read Ahdth one by one from the top of his head until he narrated to us more than fifteen thousand! Hearing these, it seemed that Imm Bukhr was reteaching us all of the Ahdth we had noted." Muhammad ibn Azhar Sajistn says: "I used to go to Sulaymn ibn Harab accompanied by Imm Bukhr for listening to Ahdth. I used to write the Ahdth, but Imm Bukhr wouldn't. Somone said to me, 'Why doesn't Imm Bukhr note the Ahdth down?' I told him, 'if you missed any Hdth in writing, you could obtain it from the memory of Imm Bukhr.'" Sulaymn ibn Mujhid says: "One day I was present in the company of Muhammad ibn Salm Baykand. Muhammad ibn Salm said, 'If you had come earlier, I would have shown you the child who has seventy thousand Ahdth in his memory.' Sulaymn stood up from his Mr Pahary Page 121

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company and started looking for Imm Bukhr. Shortly he found him and asked, 'Are you the one who has committed seventy thousand Ahdth to memory?' Imm Bukhr replied, 'I have learnt more Ahdth than this by heart. I even know the place of birth, death and residence of most of those companions from whom the Ahdth are narrated." Haafidh adh-Dhahabee mentions, When Imaam Bukhaaree started teaching and writing he did not have a single hair on his beard, (meaning that he was young) and the people he wrote hadeeth from he himself has mentioned more than 1000. [Tadhkirrah tal-Huffaadh (2/122)] Some of his teachers include: Dhihaak Ibn Mukhlid, Makkee Ibn Ibraheem Khadhalee, Ubaidullah Ibn Moosaa Abasa, Abdul Quddoos Ibn Hajjaaj and Muhammad Ibn Abdullaah Ansaaree. The names of the Muhadditheen that were his students are Tirmidhee, Muslim, Nasaaee, Ibraaheem Ibn Ishaaq Al-Harawee, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Doolaabee and the last person who narrated As-Saheeh from him was Mansoor Ibn Muhammad Bazdooree (d.329H) Criteria Of Collection All reporters as from him should be trustworthy and reliable Preference to students of highest rank of any particular teacher Accepted the usage an - contemporary Rejected Hadith with discontinued Sanad Accepted reports of no matured children

2. Swahih al Muslim The author of this book is Imaam Abul-Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaaj. He was born in the year 202 261 AH in Nisaabur, Iran. His book has 4000 Hadith out of 300000 he has collected. Imam Muslim travelled widely to collect traditions in Arabia, Egypt, Syria and Iraq, where he attended the lectures of some of the prominent Traditionists of his time: Ishaq b. Rahwaih, Ahmad b. Hanbal, 'Ubaydullah al-Qawariri, Qutaiba b. Said, 'Abdullah b. Maslama, Harmalah b. Yahya, and others. Having finished his studies he settled down at Nishapur. There he came into contact with Imam Bukhari, and was so much impressed by his vast knowledge of Hadith and his deep insight into it that he kept himself attached to him up to the end of his life. Imam Muslim considered only such traditions to be genuine and authentic as had been transmitted to him by an unbroken chain of reliable authorities and were in perfect harmony with what had been related by other narrators whose trustworthiness was unanimously accepted and who were free from all defects. Moreover, Imam Bukhari, while describing the chain of narrators, sometimes mentions their kunya and sometimes gives their names. This is particularly true in case of the narrators of Syria. This creates a sort of confusion, which Imam Muslim has avoided. Imam Muslim takes particular care in according the exact words of the narrators and points out even the minutest difference in the wording of their reports. Mr Pahary Page 122

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Imam Muslim has also constantly kept in view the difference between the two well-known modes of narration, haddathana (he narrated to us) and akhbarana (he informed us). He is of the opinion that the first mode is used only when the teacher is narrating the hadith and the student is listening to it, while the second mode of expression implies that the student is reading the hadith before the teacher. This reflects his utmost care in the transmission of a hadith. Imam Muslim has taken great pains in connecting the chain of narrators. He has recorded only that hadith which, at least, two reliable tabi'in (successors) had heard from two Companions and this principle is observed throughout the subsequent chain of narrators. Imaam Muslim R.A. adhered strictly to the path of righteousness. He was in fact a great saint of a very high calibre. His excellent character can be well judged from the simple fact that he never ever indulged in backbiting, a very common human failing. He had a remarkable memory. Ishaq bin Rahwi said of Imaam Muslim; " I wonder what this person is going to be?" This was said in his youth. Ishaq Kausar once addressed lmaam Muslim (R.A.) and said; "Your presence in the Muslim community will always keep it in the good. Abu Saimah who was a colleague of lmaam Muslim was so attached to him that while lmaam Sahib was busy compiling the Sahih Muslim, he remained in lmaam Sahib's company for fifteen years. He never told a lie nor did he ever use vulgar words. Imaam Muslim (R.A.) apart from attending the lessons of Imaam Bukhari regularly, also attended the lectures of lmaam Ahmad bin Hambal, Abdullah al Qarri, Qutaiba bin Said, Abdullah bin Maslama and other great Muhaddith. Imaam Muslim (R.A.'s) most noted students are Hatim Razi, Ahmad bin Salmah, Abu Isa Tirmizi, Abubaker bin Khuzaima and other great scholars. Criteria of Collection Distinction between Haddathana and Akhbarana Accepted usage of an no need to be in contemporary period Accepted Hadith only through consensus of Traditionist Classified students in 3 categories: 1. High memory and credibility 2. Lesser than 1st group 3. Accused of lying Choose the 1st category and rarely the 2nd never the 3rd

3. Jami al Tirmidhi The author of this collection is Imaam Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi. He took birth in Tirmidh, Iran in the year 209 and died in the year 279 AH during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Ma'mun al-Rashid. His Jami has 2028 Hadith. Once Imam Bukhari mentioned to him "I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me." Musa ibn `Alaq once said: "When Imam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasan who compared with Abu `Isa Tirmidhi in knowledge, memory, piety and abstinence." According to `Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansari, Imam Tirmidhi's Al-Jami` is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim since their compilations can only be

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understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al-Jami` can be understood by both the scholar and the layman. Imam Tirmidhi had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: "Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by." They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. "If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of the Prophet (s) due to my weak memory." On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed. Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: "His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta'la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight." The Special characteristics of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi 1. It is a Sunan and a Jami`. 2. Only 83 hadith are repeated. 3. Imam Tirmidhi omits the major portion of the hadith and only mentions that part which is relevant to the heading. (title) 4. After mentioning a hadith he classifies it narration (whether it is authentic or weak, etc.) 5. He specifies the narrators names, e.g. if the narrators kunya (honorific name) was mentioned, he would then mention his proper name and vice versa. 6. One hadith in Tirmidhi is a thulaathiyaat i.e. the transmitters of the hadith betwen Imam Tirmidhi and the Prophet (s) are only three. 7. Every hadith in Tirmidhi al-Jami` is "ma'mul bihi" (practised upon by the jurists.) 8. He explains the different madhahib together with their proofs. 9. He gives an explanation to all difficult ahadith. 10. His book has been set out in an excellent sequence, hence to look for a hadith is very easy. 11. There is no fabricated hadith in the entire book. The conditions of Imam Tirmidhi in the selection of hadith According to the commentators of Al-Jami Imam Tirmidhi maintained the following conditions throughout the compilation of his book. 1. He never narrated hadith from those who fabricated hadith. 2. Allama Tahir Muqaddisi mentions that al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi contains four types of hadith: Mr Pahary Page 124

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a) Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim. b) Those ahadith that conform with the conditions of Abu Dawud and Nasa'i. c) Those ahadith that have certain discrepancies either in the sanad or matan. d) Those weak hadith that some fuqaha have relied on. 3. Imam Tirmidhi accepts a hadith which is narrated with the word "a'n" provided both the narrators are contemporaries. 4. After mentioning a weak hadith, he explains the state of its weakness. 5. A mursal hadith is accepted by Imam Tirmidhi when it is supported by a chain of narrators which is not broken. The status of al-Jami` ut-Tirmidhi among the six authentic books of hadith. al-Jami` utTirmidhi has been categorized as fifth amongst the six most authentic books of hadith. According to the most preferred opinion, Bukhari enjoys the highest status, followed by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah respectively. Haji Khalifa in al-Kashf alDhunoon has categorised Tirmidhi in third position. Al-Dhahabi has written that Tirmidhi in actual fact should be holding the third position, but due to him bringing weak narrators like Kalbi and Masloob its status has dropped. However, looking at the manner in which he set out his book it seems that Haji Khalifa's opinion is best. Imam al-Tirmidhi had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once, he would never forget it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imam al-Tirmidhi met a scholar of hadith from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the scholar if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he could correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the scholar realised what he was doing he rebuked Imam al-Tirmidhi saying: "Have you no shame, why are you wasting my time." Imam al-Tirmidhi assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The scholar was not convinced, even though Imam al-Tirmidhi had recited all the hadith from memory. Imam al-Tirmidhi requested him to recite to him some other hadith. The scholar recited forty ahadith that Imam al-Tirmidhi then repeated without making a single error. Upon this the scholar apologized and said, I have never imagined that such a thing was humanly possible. Some of the most famous teachers that he studied with were Imam al-Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Abu Dawood, Imam Qutaibah ibn Sa'eed and Shaykh Abu Bakr al-Zuhri. Imam Tirmidhi had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib, Abul Abbaas and Muhammed ibn Ahmed Shah Abdul `Aziz describes Imam Tirmidhi in the following words: "His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah ta'la was of a very high calibre. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight." Criteria of Collection Collected all sorts of Ahadith but in headings Then he gave his opinion of its authenticity Gave opinions of early jurists, Imam and Lawyers Mentioned the names and nicknames of all reporters Page 125

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Islamic Studies Usage of an contemporary Mursal Hadith All Hadith practiced by the Jurists Explanation of Hadith No Fabricated Hadith Conditions of Bukhariy, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Nasai Hadith having any discrepancy either in Isnad or Matn Weak Hadith which Fuqaha relied on

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4. Sunan Abu Dawood Its author is Imaam Abu Dawood Sulaymaan ibn al-Ashath Sijistaaniy who took birth in Sijistaan, Khuraasaan in the year 202 and died in the year 275 AH. The book consists of 4,800 Hadith. He belonged to the Arab tribe, Azd. Even though he was born in Sajistan he spent the greater part of his life at Basrah which was the seat of Islamic learning in his time. It is stated that Imam Abu Dawud used to wear one of his sleeves wide and the other correctly sized. When he was asked for the reason of this oddity he replied, "To store notes on hadith. I consider widening the other sleeve unnecessarily as an extravagance". Imam Abu Dawud heard hadith from 300 persons who were his teachers. Some were: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq ibn Rahawaiy, Abu Thaur, Yahya ibn Ma'in. For one to grasp his elevated status, he narrated hadith to the teachers of Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also narrated one hadith from him. Among the students of Imam Abu Dawud are great personalities like: Ibn Arabi, Abu `Isa al-Tirmidhi and Abu `Abdur-Rahman An Nasa'i. He presented the completed compilation to his beloved teacher Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal who was greatly pleased at this collection. Sunan Abu Dawud is an important collection of hadith: Most of the scholars have assigned it to third position among the six authentic books of hadith. It is only after the compilation of Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. Imam Abu Dawud himself has stated: From this book of mine four (4) hadith are sufficient for an intelligent and insightful person. They are:

Deeds are to be judged only by intentions. Part of a man's good observance of Islam is that he leaves alone that which does not concern him. None of you can be a believer unless you love for your brother that which you love for yourself. The permitted (halal) is clear, and the forbidden (haram) is clear, between these two are doubtful matters. Whosoever abstains from these doubtful matters has saved his religion.

The traditions compiled in Sunan Abu Dawud were generally followed by companions, successors and their followers. It is a basic source of knowledge about the legal points of

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views held by Imam Malik, Sufyan Al-Thawri and Al-Awza'i. It serves as an arbiter for disagreement among jurists. He was blessed with an exceptional mind. Imam Abu Dawud had to read a book only once to commit its entire contents to memory. He was well versed in the criticism of hadith and an expert in distinguishing the sound hadith from the weak and defective ones. Only four persons are reported to have earned their names for the criticism of hadith. They are: Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Abu Dawud and Imam Nasa'i. Imam Abu Dawud lived during the time when the Muslim world was full of eminent scholars. He had so much command over hadith, he was considered by many as Imam al-muhaddithin of his time. Besides his expertise in hadith he was also a great jurist. He had keen insight in fiqh and ijtihad. He was a religious man. He led a pious and ascetic life. He devoted most of his time for worship, devotion and remembrance of Allah. He always kept away from men of rank, the company of sultans and courtiers Criteria of Collection Hadith supported by Practice of Ashab Investigation if any contradictory Hadith If a Mursal Hadith (1 person omitted) is backed and supported by a Swahih The conditions and styles of Imam Bukhariy and Imam Muslim

5. Sunan Nasaai Its author is Imaam Abu Abdur-Rahmaan Ahmad ibn Shuayb ibn Ali NasaaI taking birth in Nasa, Iran (in the year 215 and died in the year 303 AH) situated in Western Asia known at that time as Khurusan which was a famous centre for Islamic Knowledge where millions of Ulama'a were situated and Hadeeth and Fiqh was at its peak . The book has 5761 Hadith. When he was 20 years old, he started traveling and made his first journey to Qutaibah. He covered the whole Arabian Peninsula seeking knowledge from the Ulama and Muhadditheen of Iraq, Kufa, Hijaz, Syria and Egypt. Finally he decided to stay in Egypt. He was a man full of Taqwa, piety and he possessed a photographic memory too. The famous Sheikh Allamah Dhahabi was once asked who has a better memory, Imam Muslim (author of Sahih Muslim) or this great Imam he replied this great Imam. Allamah Dhahabi would also say that this great Imam possessed more knowledge in Hadeeth than Imam Muslim, Imam Tirmidhi and Imam Abu Dawood (who was his teacher). The famous Scholar and Commentator of the Holy Qura'an would say narrating from his teachers that this Great Imam was the most knowledgeable in Egypt. The Great Imam would put on good clothing according to the Sunnah of our beloved Prophet Muhammad and would eat poultry everyday with nabeeth (a fruit drink) acting on the Sunnah so that he could worship Allah with ease. In fact it is narrated that the man would fast every other day which is classified in the Hadeeth as Saum-u-Dawoodi (the fast of Dawood A.S). He would worship Allah continuously throughout the nights and teach Hadeeth throughout the day without forgetting that to fulfil the rights of his four wives and treat his slaves like Mr Pahary Page 127

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children. The Imam would also perform Hajj nearly every year and would also take part in Jihad. He was a straight forward truthful man and nothing or none could stop him from saying the truth. Allah the Bestower had granted him all the good qualities a person could possess. At the same time he was an extremely beautiful man and the beauty of his face stayed up till his death. This in reality was the Noor Allah bestows upon certain pious accepted servants. In reality when the Imam had finished compiling Sunan Al-Kubra he presented to the governor of Ramalah so the governor asked him is it all sahih (are all the narrators 100% authentic)? he replied in the negative, thus the governor suggested and requested that he compiles another book and gathers in there Sahih Hadeeth. So then he did this and named his book Sunan Al-Sughra (the small Sunan) and Al-Mujtaba and Al-Mujtana (both mean carefully chosen) and this is the Sunan which we know as Sunan Al-Nasai. In this book he follows the footsteps of Imam Muslim and Imam Bukhari (R.A). Overall most of the Ahadeeth are Sahih and where he narrates a weak narration he clearly clarifies the weakness. Teachers of Imam Nasai: Qutayba, Ishaq Ibn Rawahaiyi, Ahmad Ibn Mani, Ali Ibn Hajr, Imam Abu Dawood, Imam Tirmidhi, Imam Abu Hatham, Imam Abu Zura, Muhammad Ibn Yahya, Muhammad Ibn Bashshaar and others taught Imam Nasai. Most of them were teachers of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Students of Imam Nasai: Eminent scholars like Ibn Hibban, Uqaili, Ibn Adi, At Talabi, At Tahawi, Abu Uwanah, At Tabrani, Ibn Sina, Imam Abi Dunya, Abu Uwanah and others studied under Imam Nasai. Criteria of Collection Rejected a reporter if all Traditionists did so Rejected if the reporter has mentioned anything extra while other have not reported it from the same teacher Recorded weak Hadith only to show their mistakes 6. Sunan Ibn Majaa Its author is Imaam Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yazeed ibn Maajah al-Qazweeniy, born in Qazween, Iran in the year 209 and died in the year 273 AH. The sunan has 4,000 Hadith. He develops and grows up as a man who loves to study science and knowledge, especially about the Hadith and Sunnah. To achieve its business in the search for and collect the Hadith, he has conducted tour and travelled through several countries. He visited Iraq, the Hijaz, Syria, Egypt, Kufa, Basra and countries as well as other cities to meet and learn from the Hadith scholars. Moreover, he learned under Malik (not Imam Malik) and al-Laith, may Allah have mercy, so that he became one of the leading imam on his time in the field of science for this noble Prophet. He studied under Ab Bakr ibn Ab Shaybah (through whom came over a quarter of alSunan), Muammad ibn Abdillh ibn Numayr, Jubrah ibn al-Mughallis, Ibrhm ibn alMundhir al-izm, Abdullh ibn Muwiyah, Hishm ibn Ammr, Muammad ibn Rum, Dwd ibn Rashd and others from their era. Ab Yal al-Khall praised Ibn Mjah as "reliable (thiqah), prominent, agreed upon, a religious authority, possessing knowledge and the capability to memorize." Mr Pahary Page 128

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Ya'la Abu al-Khalili al-Qazwini said: "Ibn Majah is a great trust, which agreed about honesty, he can argue his opinions. He has extensive knowledge and many Hadith memorization." Imam Dhahabi in Tazkiratul Huffaz, described him as an expert commentator of Hadith, the author of the book of Sunan and commentary, as well as famous Hadith experts country. Ibn Cashier, an expert in Hadith and Hadith critics say the Bidayah him: "Muhammad ibn Yazid (Ibn Majah) is the author of the famous book of Sunan. His book is a testament to the charitable and knowledge, breadth of knowledge and views, as well as the credibility and loyalty to Hadith. Students of Imam Nasai: Ali Ibn Ibrahim Al Qattan, Sulaiman Ibn Yazid, Muhammad Ibn Eesa, Abu Bakar Hamid. Teachers of Imam Nasai: Abdullah Ibn Abi Shayba, Ali Ibn Muhammad, Usman Ibn Abi Shayba, Ali Ibn Muhammad and others Criteria of Collection Didnt mention his methodology Merger of all categories of Hadith Methods to Determine the Reliability of the Traditions According to the traditionists, a Hadith can only be considered reliable when its Sanad offers an unbroken series of credible and veracious authorities till the Prophet (S.A.W.). The critical investigation of the Sanad had caused the Muslim scholars to make thorough research. They endeavoured not only to ascertain the names and circumstances of the narrators in order to investigate where and when they lived, and which of them had been personally acquainted with the other, but also to test their reliability, truthfulness and accuracy in transmitting the texts, to make certain which of them were reliable. This criticism of the narrators was called "disparaging and authentication". The "character and background of the man" was considered indispensable for every student of Hadith, therefore all the commentaries on the collections of tradition contain more or less copious details concerning the narrators. Special works are also devoted to this subject, among them many of the so-called Tabaqat works (that is biographies arranged in Islam & Muslims of various scholars). Gradually six collections, which were compiled in the third century of Islam succeeded in gaining such general approval that later generations, tacitly accepted them as the six Canonical Collections (Sihah Sitta). They are: Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Nasai, Jami' Tirmidhi and Su-an ibn Maja. In preparing their collections, these traditionists obviously used a critical technique of selection to decide what they would include and what they would reject. Their purpose was to assemble a corpus of traditions which would serve as a code of life for Muslims, so their primary interest was in selecting such traditions that would give clear guidance concerning what Muslim belief and practice should be, which things were permissible and approved, and which were not. In their attempt to set up tests of authenticity which would exclude unauthentic material, these traditionists chose the Isnad (chains of transmitters) as the testing point and worked out an elaborate system for testing the trustworthiness of these "chains" and of the individuals who formed the links therein, so that a Isnad could be labelled "excellent", "good", "fair", "weak" and the tradition itself rated accordingly. Mr Pahary Page 129

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The primary aim of the reporters was to establish unerring authority for laws and customs; thus the narrators devoted scrupulous attention to the Isnad. Ibn Sirin (d. 110 A.H.), the famous interpreter of dreams, said that the traditionists did not ask about the Isnad, but did so when civil war broke out, and those men who adhered to the Sunna, their traditions were accepted and those who were innovators, their traditions were rejected. 'Abd AllAh b. Mubarak (d. 181 A.H.), a student of Abu Hanifa (d. 150 A.H.), was very outspoken with regards to the importance of the chains of narrators, and this is evidenced in the following statement by him, "The chains of narrators according to me are part of religion. If there were no chains of reporters, anybody would say whatever he liked and about whomsoever he wished". Ahmad Abu Wahb throws more light on the extent to which 'Abd Allah b. Mubarak regarded the Isnad by saying that he ('Abd AllAh b. Mubarak) would consider committing highway robbery rather than narrating from a narrator accused of lying. Thus, there came into existence the science of criticism on Hadith relating to the Isnad and Matn (text). The following is a summary of the principles of criticism of the Isnad: 1. All the traditions must be traced to their original reporter through a chain of transmitters. These transmitters must be of excellent character, truthful and have a good retentive memory. 2. Every tradition which reports an event that occurred frequently in the presence of a large number of people, must have originally been reported by several narrators. As far as the Matn is concerned, the following principles of criticism of Hadith are laid down: 1. The Hadith should not be contrary to the text or the teachings of the Qur'an or the accepted basic principles of Islam. 2. The Hadith should not be against the dictates, reasons or laws of nature and common experience. 3. The Hadith should not be contrary to the traditions which have already been accepted by the authorities as reliable and authentic. 4. A Hadith that contains the dates and minute details of future events should be rejected. 5. A Hadith that contains some remarks of the Prophet (S.A.W) which are not in keeping with the Islamic belief of Prophethood or the position of the Prophet (S.A.W.), should also be rejected. According to the overwhelming majority of the traditionists, the rank of the six canonical works are as follows., (1) Sahih Bukhari (2) Sahih Muslim (3) Sunan Abu Dawud (4) Sunan Nasai (5) Jami' Tirmidhi (6) Sunan Ibn Maja. The relative status of the canonical works on Hadith are determined by the conditions laid down by each traditionist in his method of compiling Ahadith. There is unanimity among the traditionists that every reporter must be a Muslim, sane and a just person. Together with the above qualities a reporter must not be one who commits major sins nor should he be persistent on minor sins. Subsequently, there is a difference of opinion among the traditionists as to what the conditions will be to accept a Hadith.

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Islamic Studies Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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5 (a) Outline three methods which the collectors of the Hadiths employed to ensure that the sayings they compiled had come from the Prophet himself. [12] (b) What major common features are shared by the Six Canonical Collections that make them different from earlier collections? [8] (2003) 4 Outline the main stages that led to the compilation of the Sunnah in the six canonical collections. [20] (2005) 5 (a) What specific methods were used to ensure that the six authoritative collections of Hadith contained only authentic sayings of the Prophet? [12] (b) Give two examples of how the Hadith have been employed in Muslim life. [8] (2006) 6 Identify and explain the four main methods which the collectors of the Hadiths used to ensure that the sayings they compiled could reliably be traced to the Prophet. [20] (2008) 5 (a) Outline the main stages that led to the compilation of the Sunnah in the six canonical collections. [10] (b) Identify and discuss the main methods by which the compilers ensured that the Hadiths were authentic. [10] (2009) 5 (a) Write an account of the methods used by al-Bukhari to ensure the Hadiths he collected were authentic. [12] (b) Why was it thought important to ensure the Hadiths were authentic? [8] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Mutazilah And Ashariyyah

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Mutazilah, the name of a religious movement founded at Basra, in the first half of the 2nd/8th century by Wasil b. 'Ata' (699-749), subsequently becoming one of the most important theological schools of Islam. The origin of this term-which has the sense of 'those who separate themselves, who stand aside'-remains enigmatic. According to a traditional explanation (sometimes acknowledged by the Mutazilah themselves), the word would have been applied to Wasil or to his lieutenant, 'Amr b. 'Ubayd (d. 144/761) because on the question relating to the definition applicable to the Muslim guilty of a serious offence, the former (or the second) 'would have separated himself' from al-Hasan al-Basri (or from qatada). It appears to be established that Wasil, originally a disciple of al-Hasan al-Basri was indeed the sole founder and this during the lifetime of the latter. It was only at the end of a relatively long period, and after the death of al-Hasan (110/728), that 'Amr b. 'Ubayd, another disciple of al-Hasan, and a particularly eminent one decided to join him. After the death of Wasil in 131/749, it was 'Amr who took on the leadership of the group. It is hardly likely that at this early stage of the movement the Mu'tazili doctrine, as it was to be formulated several decades later by Abu 'l-Hujayl, was already fully developed. Al Ashari Abul Hasan 'Ali b. Isma'il, theologian, and founder of the school of orthodox theology which bears his name. He is said to have been born in 873 till 935 at Basra, and was ninth in descent from the Companion Abu Musa al-Ash'ari. Little is known of his life. He was one of the best pupils of al-Dhubba'i, head of the Mutazilah in Basra, and might have succeeded him, had he not left the Mutazilah for the party of the orthodox traditionists (ahl al-sunna). This change or conversion is placed in 300/913. In later life he moved to Baghdad, and died there in 935. The story of al-Ash'ari's conversion is told with many variations of detail. Three times during the month of Ramadan he is said to have seen Muhammad in a vision, and to have been commanded to adhere to true Tradition. He regarded this vision as authoritative, and, since the traditionists disapproved of rational argument (kalam), he gave up this also. In the third vision, however, he was told to adhere to true Tradition but not to abandon kalam. Whatever be the truth of this story, it is a succinct account of al-Ash'ari's position. He abandoned the dogmatic theses of the Mutazilah for those of opponents like Ahmad b. Hanbal, whom he professed to follow; but he defended his new beliefs by the type of rational argument which the Mutazilah employed. There are different fields of divergence between the two schools of thought. Anthropomorphic Verses. Concerning the anthropomorphic verses on the Unity Of Allah about God's 'hands' (38: 75), 'eyes' (54: 14), 'face' (55: 27), throne (Surah 20: 5) and beatific vision (Surah 75: 23), the following can be noted. The Mutazilah deny the literal meaning of these verses and believed in the metaphorical meaning. They believe that they cant be seen in this world and the next. The Attributes of Allah are the Attributes of His Essence which are within Him. According to them the Quran has been created. The Holy Qur'an (Kalam Allah) is created (kalam, or speech, is an attribute of Act, not of the Essence). God cannot be seen with the eyes, either in this world or in the Hereafter.

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The Ashari accept them but adhere that only Allah knows how these features are and we dont need to understand. We dont have the faculty to understand. The attributes of Allah need no question to be stipulated. We just have to accept them. For them the Quran is Eternal as the words of Allah are eternal. The Divine Attributes, contrary to the belief of the Mu'tazilah and the philosophers, are not identical with the Divine Essence. Possibility of the beatific vision: God shall be visible to the eyes on the Day of Resurrection (contrary to the view of the Mu'tazilah and the philosophers). To tell a lie or break a promise is not possible for God. The Divine Acts do not follow any purpose or aim (contrary to the view of the philosophers and the Mu'tazilah) Divine Justice and Human Destiny According to the Mutazilah Allah must be just as He has promised. Justice ('adl), i.e. God is just and that He does not oppress His creatures. We have the opportunity to choose between the right and the wrong path. Allah is not responsible for our deeds as there is no Predestination. The Divine Acts are caused and controlled by purposes (i.e. every Divine Act is for the sake of some beneficial outcome). 'Ali (A) was superior to the Caliphs who preceded him (this is the view of some of the Mu'tazilah, not of all. The earlier Mu'tazilah with the exception of Wasil ibn 'Ata' considered Abu Bakr as the best, but the majority of the latter Mu'tazilah considered 'Ali (A) as superior). Evaluation and criticism of the Companions of the Prophet (S) and their deeds is permissible. A comparative study and analysis of the state policies of 'Umar and 'Ali (A). According to the Ashari Divine Justice is a matter of Faith. We are responsible for our deeds and for our future in Jannah or/and Jahannam. There is predestination but we can influence our destiny. The Divine Will is all-embracing. The Divine providence and predestination encompass all events (this belief, too, is contrary to the view held by the Mu'tazilah, though in agreement with those of the philosophers). All evil, like good, is from God (of course, this view is a logical corollary, in al-Ash'ari's view of the above belief). Man is not free in his acts, which are created by God (this belief, too, in al-Ash'ari's view, necessarily follows from the doctrine of all-embracing nature of the Divine Will). Acts are not intrinsically good or evil, i.e. husn or qubh of deeds is not intrinsic, but determined by the Shari'ah. The same is true of justice. What is 'just', is determined by the Shari'ah not by reason (contrary to the belief of the Mu'tazilah). The Promise and the Threat According to some of the Mutazilah it is used metaphorically and according to others it does not exist as it is only a mean to encourage Muslims. Divine retribution (at-wa'd wa al-wa'id), i.e. God has determined a reward for the obedient and a punishment for the disobedient, and there can be no uncertainty about it. Therefore, Divine pardon is only possible if the sinner repents, for forgiveness without repentance (tawbah) is not possible. According to the Ashari Allah has to keep His promise as He always does. Paradise and Hell are for real. Intercession (shafa'ah) is justifiable (contrary to the Mu'tazilite position). The Intermediate Position According to the Mutazilah when someone commits a sin, he is neither a Muslim nor a nonMuslim at that specific moment. He is in an intermediate position. Manzilah bayna almanzilatayn (a position between the two positions). This means that a fasiq (i.e. one who Mr Pahary Page 133

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commits one of the "greater sins," such as a wine imbiber, adulterer, or a liar etc.) is neither a believer (mu'min) nor an infidel (kafir); fisq is an intermediary state between belief and infidelity. Forgiveness without repentance is not possible (the doctrine of retribution - wa'd wa wa'id). According to the Ashari the person committing a sin at any moment and even before dying remains a Muslim. The fasiq is a believer (mu'min) (contrary to the view of the Khawarij, who consider him kafir, and contrary to the Mu'tazilite doctrine of manzilah bayna al-manzilatayn). There is nothing wrong about God's pardoning someone without repentance. Similarly, nothing is wrong about God's subjecting a believer to chastisement (contrary to the Mu'tazilite position). Commanding Good & Forbidding Evil According to the Mutazilah it is the duty of all Muslims. al-'amr bil ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an almunkar bidding to do what is right and lawful, and forbidding what is wrong and unlawful. The opinion of the Mu'tazilah about this Islamic duty is, firstly, that the Shari'ah is not the exclusive means of identifying the ma'ruf and the munkar; human reason can, at least partially, independently identify the various kinds of ma'ruf and munkar. Secondly, the implementation of this duty does not necessitate the presence of the Imam, and is a universal obligation of all Muslims, whether the Imam or leader is present or not. Only some categories of it are the obligation of the Imam or ruler of Muslims, such as, implementation of the punishments (hudud) prescribed by the Shari'ah, guarding of the frontiers of Islamic countries, and other such matters relating to the Islamic government. In case of conflict between reason and Hadith, reason is to be preferred. It is possible to interpret the Qur'an with the help of reason. Human reason can understand and judge some matters independently (without the prior need of guidance from the Shari'ah). However according to the Ashari it is the responsibility of the State to create that atmosphere. Doctrine of acquisition: Man does not 'create' his own acts; rather he 'acquires' or 'earns' them (this is in justification of the Ahl al-Sunnah's belief in the creation of human acts by God). In History During the rule of the Banu Umayyah, the Mu'tazilah did not have good relations with the ruling authorities. During the early days of the Banu al-'Abbas, they took on a neutral stand. But during the rule of al-Ma'mun, who was himself learned in literature, sciences and philosophy, they attracted the ruler's patronage. Al-Ma'mun, and after him al-Mu'tasim and alWathiq, were staunch patrons of the Mu'tazilah. All the three caliphs called themselves Mu'tazilites. It was during this period that a heated controversy began extending to all corners of the vast Islamic dominions of the period. The issue under debate was whether Speech is an attribute of the Divine Act or an attribute of the Essence. Whether it is created and temporal (hadith) or uncreated and eternal (qadim) like Divine Knowledge, Power, and Life. The Mu'tazilah believed that the Qur'an is created (in time) and, therefore, is a creation of God (makhluq) and so temporal. They also maintained that belief in the pre-eternity of the Qur'an amounted to infidelity (kufr). The opponents of the Mu'tazilah, on the contrary, believed in the pre-eternity and Mr Pahary Page 134

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uncreatedness of the Qur'an. Al-Ma'mun (r. 198/813 to 218/833) sent out a circular that any believer in the pre-eternity of the Qur'an would be liable to punishment. Many persons were thrown into prison and subjected to torture. Al-Mu'tasim (r. 218/833 to 227/842) and al-Withiq (r. 227/842 to 232/847) also followed alMa'mun's practice. Of those who went to the prison during that time was Ahmad ibn Hanbal. This policy remained in force until al-Mutawakkil assumed power (r. 232/847 to 247/861). AlMutawakkil was not inclined in favour of the Mu'tazilah, and also most of the people were opposed to them. As a result the Mu'tazilah and their admirers suffered a reverse, nay, a reprisal. In the purges that followed, much blood was shed and homes were ruined. The period is remembered by Muslims as the times of "mihnah " - times of adversity and trial. The Mu'tazilah never recuperated after this, and the field was left open forever for their opponents: the Ahl al-Sunnah and the Ahl al-Hadith. Nevertheless, there appeared some prominent personalities even during the following periods of their decline, like, 'Abd Allah ibn Ahmad Abu al-Qasim al-Balkhi, well-known as al-Ka'bi (d. 319/ 931); Abu 'Ali al-Jubba'i (d. 303/915-6); Abu al-Hashim al-Jubba'i (d. 321/933) the son of Abu 'Ali al-Jubba'i; Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar (d. 415/1024); Abu al-Hasan al-Khayyat; al-Sahib ibn 'Abbad, al-Zamakhshari (d. 538/1144); and Abu Ja'far al-'Iskafi. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 6 Explain why the Mu`tazilah called themselves the People of Gods Unity and Justice. [20] (2003) 6 Give reasons to explain why al-Ash`ari is regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of early Islam. [20] (2004) 6 (a) Briefly describe the main teachings of the Mu`tazilah. [12] (b) Why do some Muslims see the ideas of the Mu`tazilah as not part of Islam? [8] (2005) 5 (a) Why were the Mutazilah known as the people of divine justice? [10] (b) Why did their opponents disagree with them over the contents of their teachings about the justice of God? [10] (2007) 5 What were the distinctive features of the teachings of the Mutazilah about Tawhid [Oneness of God]? [20] (2008) 4 Explain why the Mutazilah were often referred to as the People of Divine Unity [Ahl alTawhid]. [20] (2009) 6 (a) Write an account of the Mutazili principle of divine justice (adl). [12] (b) Explain how it conflicted with earlier views which stressed that God was all-powerful. [8] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Paper 2 Section C: Variety in Islamic Beliefs Sunni And Shia

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Both Sunni and Shia Muslims share the most fundamental Islamic beliefs and articles of faith. The differences between these two main sub-groups within Islam initially stemmed not from spiritual differences, but political ones. Over the centuries, however, these political differences have spawned a number of varying practices and positions which have come to carry a spiritual significance. The division between Shia and Sunni dates back to the death of the Prophet Muhammad, and the question of who was to take over the leadership of the Muslim nation also existed. Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet's companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job. This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad's close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of the Islamic nation. The word "Sunni" in Arabic comes from a word meaning "one who follows the traditions of the Prophet." On the other hand, some Muslims share the belief that leadership should have stayed within the Prophet's own family, among those specifically appointed by him, or among Imams appointed by God Himself. The Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad's death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali. Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself. The word "Shia" in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical "Shiat-Ali," or "the Party of Ali." They are also known as followers of "Ahl-al-Bayt" or "People of the Household" (of the Prophet). Sunni Muslims make up the majority (85%) of Muslims all over the world. Significant populations of Shia Muslims can be found in Iran and Iraq, and large minority communities in Yemen, Bahrain, Syria, and Lebanon. Shia Muslims believe that the Imam is sinless by nature, and that his authority is infallible as it comes directly from God. Therefore, Shia Muslims often venerate the Imams as saints and perform pilgrimages to their tombs and shrines in the hopes of divine intercession. Sunni Muslims counter that there is no basis in Islam for a hereditary privileged class of spiritual leaders, and certainly no basis for the veneration or intercession of saints. Sunni Muslims contend that leadership of the community is not a birth right, but a trust that is earned and which may be given or taken away by the people themselves. Shia Muslims also feel animosity towards some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, based on their positions and actions during the early years of discord about leadership in the community. Many of these companions (Abu Bakr, Umar, Aisha, etc.) have narrated traditions about the Prophet's life and spiritual practice. Shia Muslims reject these traditions (hadith) and do not base any of their religious practices on the testimony of these individuals. This naturally gives rise to some differences in religious practice between the two groups. These differences touch all detailed aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.

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All the Muslims agree that Allah is One, Muhammad (s.a.w) is His last Prophet, the Quran is His last Book for mankind, and that one day Allah will resurrect all human beings, and they will be questioned about their beliefs and actions. There are, however, disagreements between the two schools in the following two areas: The second issue has root into the first one. The Shia bound them to refer to Ahlu-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet. They do this in conformity with the order of Prophet reported in the authentic Sunni and Shi'i collections of traditions beside what the Quran attests to their perfect purity. The disagreement about the caliphate should not be a source of division between the two schools. Muslims agree that the caliphate of Abu Bakr came through election by a limited number of people and was a surprise for all other companions. By limited number, I mean, the majority of the prominent companions of prophet had no knowledge of this election. Ali, Ibn Abbas, Uthman, Talha, Zubair, Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas, Salman al-Farsi, Abu Dhar, Ammar Ibn Yasir, Miqdad, Abdurrahman Ibn Owf were among those who were not consulted nor even informed of. Even Umar confessed to the fact that the election of Abu Bakr was without consultation of Muslims. (See sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Tradition 8.817) On the other hand, election implies choice and freedom, and that every Muslim has the right to elect the nominee. Whoever refuses to elect him does not oppose God or His Messenger because neither God nor His Messenger appointed the nominated person by people. Election, by its nature, does not compel any Muslim to elect a specific nominee. Otherwise, the election would be coercion. This means that the election would lose its own nature and it would be a dictatorial operation. It is well known that the Prophet said: "There is no validity for any allegiance given by force." Imam Ali refused to give his allegiance to Abu Bakr for six months. He gave his allegiance to Abu Bakr only after the martyrdom of his wife Fatimah al-Zahra, Daughter of the Holy Prophet, six months after the departure of Prophet. (See Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Tradition 5.546). If refusal to give allegiance to an elected nominee was prohibited in Islam, Imam Ali would not have allowed himself to delay in giving his allegiance. In the same tradition in Sahih al-Bukhari, Imam Ali (ra) said that he had some rights in Caliphate which was not honoured, and he complained why Abu Bakr should have not consulted him in deciding upon the ruler. He later gave his allegiance when he found that the only way to save Islam is to leave the isolation which occurred due to his refusal of giving the oath of allegiance. The Shia say that Imam must be appointed by God; that appointment may be known through the declaration of the Prophet or the preceding Imam. The Sunni scholars say that Imam (or Caliph, as they prefer to say) can be either elected, or nominated by the preceding Caliph, or selected by a committee, or may attempt to gain the power through a military coup (as was in the case of Muawiyah). The Shi'a scholars say that a divinely appointed Imam is sinless and Allah does not grant such position to the sinful. The Sunni scholars (including Mu'tazilites) say that Imam can be sinful as he is appointed by other than Allah. Even if he is tyrant and sunk in sins, the majority of the scholars from the schools of Hanbali, ShafiI, and Maliki discourage people to rise against that Caliph. They think that they should be preserved although they disagree with the evil actions. Mr Pahary Page 137

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Shia is the shorten of Shiatu Ali ( ) meaning the Partisan of Hazrat Ali or the Party of Ali. They are also known as Shite. The Shia shahadah (declaration of faith) states: "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Al is the Friend of Allah. The Successor of the Messenger of Allah And his first Caliph." The fundamentals of Islam for the Shia are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Tawhd (The Oneness of Allah) 'Adl (Divine Justice) Nubuwwah (The Prophethood) Immah (The Imamate) Qiymah (The Day of Judgement)

The main branches of Islam for the Shia are: 1) Salat (Prayer) 2) Sawm (Fasting) 3) Zakt 4) (Poor-due of 2.5%) 5) Hajj (Pilgrimage to Makkah) 6) Khums (The Charity of 20%) 7) Jihad (To Struggle in the Path of Allh) 8) Amr bil ma'ruf (To Promote the Good) 9) Nahy 'an al-munkar (To Forbid the Wrong) 10) Tawalla (Loving the Prophet's Family) 11) Tabarra (Shunning Enemies of the Prophet's Family) 12) Takiyyah (deceit) The five holy ones are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Muhammad Ftima al-Zahra Al Hasan Husayn

The Twelvers In 873 when Shia Imam (Imam Muhammad al Mahdi) disappeared at the age of 4 there was no successor Shia waited for his return but in vain Then Shia choose their Imam most popular is Ayatollah Khomeni Their imam is infallible He possessed spiritual power Inheritance from Holy Prophet Received Wahy Inerrant interpreters of Shariah Glorification Of Hazrat Ali as (as) instead of (ra) Mr Pahary Page 138

Islamic Studies Theme of Martyrdom and suffering Karbala event Different call to prayer Different wazu Different namaz (Combined prayers 3 instead of 5)

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The Ismailites the Seveners Muhammad son of Isma'il as the seventh Imam Isma'ili doctrine considers history to be divided into seven periods: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. Their six interpreters were Seth, Shem, Isaac, Aaron, Simon Peter and Ali The six Shi'a Imams (from al-Hasan to Isma'il) have followed Muhammad and his interpreter Ali. The seventh Imam, Muhammad, did not die but went into hiding, and will appear as the Mahdi The Sadiyyah Zaydis believe that anyone in the house of Ali is eligible for the Imamate The Zaydis reject the doctrine of the Hidden Imam and the return of the Mahdi The Imam is regarded as neither infallible nor capable of performing miracles Personal merit, rather than investiture, governs who should be made Imam. The Zaydis reject any form of 'sufi' tradition closest to the Mutazilah school.

Additional Material for Past Papers Questions The main spiritual differences between the position of the Imam in Shii beliefs and of the Khalifah in Sunni beliefs OR Why was the position of Imam so powerful for early Shii Muslims? 1. Election: the imam is supposed to be nominated directly from God and the caliph must be elected by the people and population. 2. Authority: the imam is considered as the supreme authority and no one has the right to contradict or disobey his command, but the caliph is considered as a leader and a guide where his order and command can be reviewed based on circumstances. 3. Sayings: the imams discourse and khutbah are considered as sacred and divinely guided and are compiled as source of guidance (shariah), but the caliphs discourse and sermons are not sources of Shariah but merely advices and words of an ordinary person (Muslim). 4. Wahy: for the shia imam angel Jibril (as) made the mistake by sending wahy upon the prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) instead of Hazrat Ali but the sunni caliph advocates for the angel Jibril is devoid of the capacity to commit mistakes and disobey Allah 5. Infallibility: the shia people consider their imam as infallible, that is deprived of sins and mistakes whereas the sunni people consider their caliph as a normal human being with the weakness of committing errors, mistakes or sins.

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6. Love and Loyalty: the shia people love their imam and are loyal to him to such an extent that they venerate him exaggeratedly whereas the sunni people love their caliph but in case he is wrong or cruel, then they wont be loyal to him. 7. Mandate: the time of reign of the imam of shia is not determined, meaning that as long as he is alive he will be the imam but for the sunni caliph once his mandate is over, there will be another election. 8. Status of the State: for the imam it is a question of dictatorship where his followers and those residing in his country have to abide and comply by his rules but for the sunni it is a question of democracy where there is dialogue among the different parties in the society in the interest of the public. 9. Leader: for the shia, the leader must be from the descendant of the prophet and Ahl Bait only but for the sunni he must be someone with the calibre of a leader whether from the Ahl Bait or not. 10. Shariah: the Islamic law applied on the population of shia by the imam is from their (odd) fabricated Quran, their limited Hadith (from the prophet, Ali, Faatima, Hasan, Hussein and their lineage), the imam own explanation and his sermons. For the sunni, it will be from the Quran, Hadith, Ijma, Qiyas, Ijtihad and Fatwa of the Ulama. 11. Spirituality: for the shia their imam receives wahy and commands from Allah and before his death he passes on his spirituality to his successor but for the sunni caliph wahy has stopped at the death of the prophet. 12. Pillars of Islam: there is also the main difference between the shia and the sunni concerning the 5 pillars of Islam and their call to prayer. 13. Love for the Ashab: the shia imam criticises and curses the first 3 caliph of Islam as usurpers of the place and post of Ali but the sunni imam praises them in the Friday sermon. 14. Sincerity: the shia imam advocates for Takiyya which is the act of hiding ones own Aqeedah when face to someone of different creed and to make the person feel and think that they are similar in thought and faith. For the sunni caliph this is Haram and deceitful. 15. Mutah: for the shia imam temporary marriage is allowed but the sunni caliph this is banned by the prophet and thus haram. 16. Mahdi: for the shia, the promised imam is hidden and will soon conquer the world from among their midst but for the sunni he has not yet appeared and will be soon revealed. 17. Architecture: for the shia it is allowed to have pictures of their imam and the symbol of the five fingers of a hand representing the five holy persons in their houses and mosques but for the sunni pictures and photos of human beings are haram whether at home or in the mosque. 18. Human mutilation: for the event of Ashourah the shia practised the mutilation on that day and women observed the Maatam (mourning) but for the sunni is it only a lesson to be taken from the sacrifice of imam Hussein and the Ahl Bait 19. Shrines: venerating and asking dua from dead people like the Shuadah of Karbala is allowed by the shia imam but this act amount to shirk by the sunni. 20. Practical Islam: there are major differences between the shia and the sunni in terms of putting Islam into practice, like the call for swalaat, the swalaat itself, Friday Khutbah, the day of Ashurah, the burial ceremony, the Qafn at burial, the Umrah and Hajj. Events leading up to the emergence of the Shia 1. The plot of the Khawarij in instigating revolts and rebellions against Banu Umayya Mr Pahary Page 140

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The difference between Banu Hashim and the Umayya The reviving conflict between Banu Umayya and Hashim The desire to see only Ahl Bait ruling over the country The events of battle of camel where Talha, Zubair and Aisha were against Ali (the caliph at that time) 6. The events of battle of Siffin and the rejection from Muawiyah 7. The challenge of authority by Muawiyah 8. The lost of territories from Ali after the arbitration 9. The battle of Nahrawand against the Khawarij where instead of peace there were revolts and confusions in the Islamic kingdom 10. The usurpation of power from Hazrat Imam Hassan after only 6 months of reign 11. The poisoning of Hazrat Imam Hassan 12. The massacre of Karbala 13. The humiliation of the 73 dead bodies 14. The humiliation by Yazid upon the rest of the family of Ahl Bait 15. This developed the devotional practices of Ashourah and the feeling of sorrow 16. The 3 black days of Madina where the city was confined by the Khawarij with the army of Yazid 17. The constant persecutions of the Umayyad caliphs upon the shia due to their false concepts 18. Inequality towards the hashimites in all aspects of life. 19. Shi`ism attracted other dissenting groups, especially representatives of older nonArab (Mawali) and civilizations (Persian, Indian, etc.) that felt they had not been treated fairly by the Arab Muslims 20. The personal interest of each of the Abbasid caliph with the support of the Shia. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 7 Explain the significance of (a) the battle of Siffin, and [8] (b) the massacre of Karbala [12] in the development of Shi`i Islam. (2003) 7 Discuss the importance of the line of Imams in early Shi`i Islam. [20] (2004) 7 The events that led to the emergence of the Shi`ah are often seen as tragic in Islamic history. Outline these events and explain their significance in Islam. [20] (2005) 7 The events at Siffin and Karbala had a direct impact on the development of early Shii Islam. Give reasons why you agree or disagree with this statement. [20] (2006) 7 Give reasons why Shiites attach great importance to the succession of the Imams. [20] (2007) 7 Discuss the main spiritual differences between the position of the Imam in Shii beliefs and of the Khalifah in Sunni beliefs. [20] (2008) 7 Give a critical account of the following in the development of early Shii Islam: Mr Pahary Page 141

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8 Compare and contrast the differing understandings of authority in Sunni and Shii Islam. [20] (2009) 7 Why was the position of Imam so powerful for early Shii Muslims? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Sufism

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According to Mawlana Syed Aleem Ashraf Jilani, in his book Introduction to Tasawwuf, there are approximately 2000 meanings and definitions of Tasawwuf in different and numerous books. However, I will cite some of them as follows: 1. Sufism, an umbrella term for the ascetic and mystical movements within Islam. (Columbia Encyclopedia) 2. From around 800 the term Sufi (from the Persian for coarse wool, denoting the kind of garment worn) was applied to Islamic mystics who adopted ascetic practices as a means of achieving union with God. (Philosophy Dictionary) 3. Mystical movement within Islam that seeks to find divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of mankind and God and to facilitate the experience of divine love and wisdom in the world. (Britannica Concise Encyclopedia) 4. Sufis are members of a small Islamic sect that arose as a protest against the growing worldliness of Muslims after the time of the Prophet Although Sufism is firmly anchored in orthodox Islamic doctrine, it emphasizes the inner pursuit of love, obedience, and devotion to God over concern with the outward law or Shariah, and is often associated with mysticism and esotericism. (Food & Culture Encyclopedia) 5. Sufism (Arabic: taawwuf, Persian: sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf) is generally understood to be the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. (Wikipedia) Origin of Sufism There are many opinions regarding the origin of this word. They may be summarized as follows: 1. Some people associate Sufism to the Ahlus-Sufaah (people of As-Sufaah) who were at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w). That group of people was very poor and they stayed in the courtyard of the mosque of the holy prophet (s.a.w) in devotional acts. 2. Some say that Sufism comes from As-Saff al-Awwal (First Row), implying that some companions of the holy prophet (s.a.w) would stay in the first row in the mosque of Madinah. Their main aim was to study Islam in depth. 3. Some claim that the term is derived from As-Safaa meaning clearness, purity, sincerity. 4. But the most accepted opinion is that the term Sufism refers to the wearing of woollen clothing (Suf). This is so because many scholars known to be Sufis used to wear woollen cloth. Allah says in the holy Quran (3: 102):


Oh those who believe! Fear Allah as He should be feared and die not except as Muslims

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This is addressed to Muslims and Mumin. It is incumbent to fear Allah but as He must be feared. How then to fear Allah? It is through the purification of the Heart, Rouh, Nafs and the whole body through sincere Ibaadah. The way of the Sufis is the way of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w), Ashab (r.a), Tabiin and Tabatut Tabiin. It is the sincere and devoted every day and every time practice of the Law of Allah the Shariah. It is done out of love for Allah, not for Jannah as reward and protection from Jahannam. Ibn Khaldun said, The way of the Sufis is the way of the Salaf, the Scholars among the Sahaba, Tabi'in, and Tab'ut Tabii'een. Its origin is to worship Allah and to leave the ornaments of this world and its pleasures. (Muqaddimat ibn Khaldun, p. 328) (Shaykh al-Azhar), Imam Abd al-Halim Mahmud said: The Sufi is both an ascetic and a worshipper. Thus the Sufi abstains from the world, since he is beyond the point where nothing can distract him from God. Also, the Sufi is a worshipper because of his constancy with God and his link with God (May He be exalted). He worships God because God is suitable for worshipping, not out of desire or fear. (From the Fatawa of Imam Abd al-Halim Mahmud, p. 334, 38) Early Stage Ashab Period Developed 4 disciplines Ihsan (State of Perfection to perfect each of their acts, sayings and intentions of ibaadah) Zuhd (State of Austerity strictness in their ibaadah no influence of Shaitaan) Wara (State of piousness abstinence of haraam and the doubtful to reach piousness) Taqwa (State of Godfearingness to fear that God doesnt consider and accept their ibaadah and doesnt love them, reject them and neglect them) Hazrat An-Numan bin Bashir (r.a) said that the holy Prophet (s.a.w) said: ... Surely there is in the body a small piece of meat; if it is good the whole body is good and if it is corrupted the whole body is corrupted and that is the heart. (alBukhari: Vol 2, Book 1, Hadith 49) (Muslim: Book 10, Hadith 3882) Hazrat Abu Huraira (r.a) said that the holy Prophet (s.a.w) said (emphasizing on the heart): Verily Allah does not look to your bodies nor to your faces but He looks to your hearts, and he pointed towards the heart with his fingers. (Swahih Muslim: Book 32, Hadith 6220) Imam Abu Hanifa (85 H. - 150 H) said: If it were not for two years, I would have perished. He said, for two years I accompanied Sayyidina Jafar as-Sadiq and I acquired the spiritual knowledge that made me a Gnostic in the Way. (Ad-Durr al-Mukhtar, vol 1. p. 43)

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Whoever studies Jurisprudence (tafaqaha) and doesnt study Sufism [tasawwuf] will be corrupted; and whoever studies Sufism and doesnt study Jurisprudence will become a heretic; and whoever combined both will be reaching the Truth. (Ali alAdawi , vol. 2, p 195.) Imam ShafiI (150 - 205 AH.) said: I accompanied the Sufi people and I received from them three knowledges: (1) how to speak; (2) how to treat people with leniency and a soft heart, (3) and they guided me in the ways of Sufism. (Kashf al-Khafa, Ajluni, vol. 1, p 341) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (164 - 241 AH.) said: O my son, you have to sit with the People of Sufism, because they are like a fountain of knowledge and they keep the Remembrance of Allah in their hearts. They are the ascetics and they have the most spiritual power. (Tanwir al-Qulub p. 405) The Sufi Path Shariah (the whole concept of the Islamic Law) Tariqah (spiritual way and exercises towards Allah) Haqiqah (spiritual awareness of the real Truth) Marifah (knowledge of the spiritual realities)

Daily Internal Concepts and Practices 1. Tawbah (Repentance for small and big sins) 2. Muhaasabah (Analysing our nafs) 3. Khawf (fear for Allah) 4. Rajaa (hope we place in Allah) 5. Swidq (Attestation of truth) 6. Ikhlaas (Sincerity in faith and action) 7. Swabr (Patience in worldly and spiritual affairs) 8. Waraa (Abstaining from haram and doubtful) 9. Zuhd (Abstaining from love of worldly luxuries) 10. Radwaa (Satisfaction from what Allah gives) 11. Tawakkul (Complete Trust in Allah in all circumstances) 12. Shukr (Everyday Thanks to Allah for everything) External Concepts and Practices 1. Dhikr (Constant Remembrance of Allah through any kind of Ibaadah especially Shahadah Laa Ilaaha Illallah) 2. Muzaakarah (Seeking guidance from Shaikh for Shariah and spirituality) 3. Khalwah (Ikhtikaf Ramadhan and retreat for any length (short / long) of time for Ibaadah) 4. Muraaqaabah / Muraaqibah (Sincere Concentration on Allah in all Ibaadah)

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Islamic Studies Concept Behind Silsila

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1. Silsila Silsila (Arabic: )is an Arabic word meaning chain, often used in various senses of lineage. In particular, it may be translated as "(religious) order" or "genealogy". 2. Centuries ago, Arabia did not have schools for formal education. Students went to masters who taught them. Upon completion of their study, they received ijazah (permission) which acted as the certification of education. A graduate then acted as a master having his own students. This chain of masters was known as Silsila. 3. Theoretically one can only receive instruction in these practices (talqn) from an authorised teacher of the tariqa, and only after pledging a vow of obedience (bay'ah) to this shaikh. The shaikh gives his disciples permission (ijza) to practice the tariqa: he may also authorise one or more of them to teach it to others. 4. Each shaikh can show a chain of authorities for the Tariqah he teaches, his silsila or spiritual genealogy and the silsila reaches back from one's own teacher up to the Prophet (s.a.w) 5. The Chain of Transmission within a Sufi order is of central importance in the Sufi work. It is a major conduit of the baraka of any genuine Sufi school, and links the mureeds of that order with the combined spiritual power of their spiritual antecedents and with the unseen transformative forces that transpire behind the outward manifestation of the Chain, which is called the Silsila ("chain" or "pedigree"). 6. The representation of the chain of transmission is called the Shajara (tree). It is worth noting that at any juncture, there may be several shaykhs authorized to carry on a lineage. A Shajara is a tracing of initiatic ancestry rather than a representation of the full flow of baraka from the Source 7. The Silsila is recited at pivotal occasions such as the group Dhikr of the order, or at initiations. Relationship between the Mursheed (Pir or Sufi Master or Shaikh) and the Mureed (student) There are two categories of conduct of the murid with his shaikh: internal conduct and external conduct. Internal Conduct of the Murid 1. The seeker must submit to the will of the shaikh and to obey him in all his orders and advice, because the shaikh has more experience and more knowledge in haqiqat, in tariqat and in shari'ah. As the sick person gives himself to his doctor to be cured, so too does the murid, sick in his conduct and behaviour, submit to the shaikh's experience in order to be healed. 2. The seeker must not object to the way the shaikh instructs and controls the murids. Each shaikh has his own way, which he has been permitted by his own shaikh to use. Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haythami said, "Whoever opens the door of criticism against shaikhs and their behaviour with their murids and their actions will be punished and will be isolated from receiving spiritual knowledge. Whoever says to his shaikh, 'Why?' will never succeed." [al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya, p. 55] 3. The seeker must know that the shaikh might make some mistakes, but that these will not prevent him from lifting the murid up to the Divine Presence. So the murid must excuse the shaikh, as the shaikh is not the Prophet (s). Only the Prophet (s) was free Mr Pahary Page 146

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of error. Although it is rare, just as the doctor might make a mistake in treating a patient, so too might the shaikh make a mistake in treating his murid's spiritual illness and that must be excused. 4. The seeker must respect and honour the shaikh in his presence and his absence, if only because the shaikh can see with the eye of the heart. It is said that whoever is not happy with the orders of the shaikh, and does not keep good conduct and adab with him, will never keep good conduct with the Qur'an and with the Sunnah of the Prophet (s). Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani said, "Whoever criticised a saint, Allah will cause his heart to wither." 5. The murid must be sincere and loyal to the company of his shaikh. 6. He must love his shaikh with an extraordinary love. He must know that his shaikh is going to take him to the Presence of Allah, Almighty and Exalted, and to the Presence of the Prophet (s). 7. He must not look to any other than his shaikh, though he must keep respect for all other shaikhs. External Conduct of the Murid 1. He must agree with the opinion of his shaikh completely, as the patient agrees with the physician. 2. He must behave well in the association of the shaikh, by avoiding yawning, laughing, raising the voice, talking without authorization, extending the feet, and always sitting in a respectful manner. 3. He must serve his shaikh and make himself as useful as possible. 4. He must not mention from the speeches of his shaikh what listeners cannot understand. This might harm the shaikh in a way that the murid is unaware of. Sayyidina `Ali said, in a hadith narrated in Bukhari, "Speak to people at a level they can understand, because you don't want them to deny Allah and His Prophet (s)." 5. He must attend the association of the shaikh. Even if living far away, he must make an effort to come as often as possible. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami said, "Many people, when they see their guide is firm on the matter of obligations and the Sunnah of the Prophet (s), accuse him of being strict. They say that he is praying too much or keeping the Sunnah too firmly. These people don't realize that they are falling to their own destruction. Beware of believing your ego's complaints about the firmness of the shaikh's adherence to the shari'ah." [al-Fatawa al-Hadithiyya, p. 55.] Abu Hafsa an-Nisaburi is quoted in Shaikh as-Sulami's book Tabaqat as-sufiyya, p. 119, as saying: "Sufism is composed of adab [good conduct]. For every state and station there is an appropriate adab. For every time there is a proper conduct. Whoever keeps the adab will reach the Station of Manhood, and whoever discards adab is very far from acceptance into Allah's Divine Presence." The Conduct of the Murid with his Brothers 1. He must keep respect for them in their presence and in their absence, not backbiting anyone. Mr Pahary Page 147

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2. He should advise them when they need it with the intention of strengthening them. His advice to them must be in private and it must be with leniency and free of arrogance. The one advised must accept the advice, must be thankful, and must practice the advice. 3. He must think only good about his brothers and not search out their bad manners. 4. He must accept their apology if they apologize. 5. He must make peace between them. 6. He must support them when they are attacked. 7. He must not ask to lead them, but to be brothers with them. 8. He must show humbleness with them as much as possible. The Prophet (s) said, "The master of a people is the one who serves them." False Sufis & Claims against Sufism OR Why Sufi teachers were often regarded as a threat to orthodox Islamic believers? OR Why has the orthodoxy of Sufism often been doubted? 1. They steal the words of the Sufis and present them as their own 2. They do not have true knowledge of that which they are speaking only on their lips but not from their hearts 3. These people take the title of "Sufi" because it gives them a certain amount of prestige and power among people in the society 4. They are despicable, weak, incapable, morose, without any exit from uncertainties, and deficient in all their senses 5. They steal away all your attainments and will not benefit neither in this world nor the next 6. They are like blind men who cure eyes but in fact will be worsened 7. They have no scent or trace of God, but their claims are greater than those of Seth (Hazrat Shiite (as)) or Adam (as). 8. The devil himself is embarrassed to appear before them but they keep on saying, "We are of the saints and even greater. They are only liars 9. They steal many of the words of the dervishes, so that people may think they really are someone, having knowledge and spirituality 10. They are destitute of the bread and provisions of heaven: God has not thrown him a single bone. 11. They are engaged in revealing to their disciples or any one the future pretending to know the future. 12. They are attached to the jinns asking for their help. 13. They are unaware of the reality of Shariah and commit much mistake. 14. Their lives are not compatible with the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah 15. They are the mischief-mongers of the society Mr Pahary Page 148

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16. They say that they possess supernatural power 17. They say they can predict the future 18. They say they can do miracles 19. They say they can travel throughout time and space 20. Some of them advice their followers not to perform Swalaat they will perform the ibaadah for the followers 21. Some spend their time in the ruins away from society and family 22. They order their students things against Shariah 23. Complete submission from the followers to the will of their leaders 24. Creation of Khanqa to stay apart from this world 25. Pretended disgust against this worldly luxuries and life Contribution of Al Ghazzali (1058 1111) He was also involved in Sufi practices from an early age, he was the Intellectual head of the Islamic community (1091), he was lecturing on Islamic jurisprudence and four years later, however, al-Ghazzali fell into a serious spiritual crisis and finally left Baghdad. After wandering in Syria and Palestine for about two years and finishing the pilgrimage to Mecca, he returned to Tus, where he was engaged in writing, Sufi practices and teaching his disciples until his death. His realization that there was no way to certain knowledge or the conviction of revelatory truth except through Sufism Reconciliation of Islam with Sufism from Al Ghazzali 1. Attained to that truth in the ecstatic state (fana') of the Sufi the best way for concentration 2. The religious sciences upon the basis of Sufism 3. To search for the true reality of things 4. To set out to examine the teachings of 'the seekers after truth': the theologians, philosophers, Isma'ilis and Sufis. 5. In order to reach this ultimate truth of the Sufis, however, it is first necessary to renounce the race for the world and to devote oneself to mystical and spiritual practices 6. The mystical experience (fana') of the Sufi is a foretaste of the real vision of God in the hereafter. 7. Al-Ghazzali tells us that, of the four groups of people who claimed to be in possession of the truth, only the sufis, who walked the right path, because they combined knowledge with action, had sincerity of purpose, and actually experienced the serenity and contentment that comes from direct illumination of the heart by God. 8. al-Ghazzali seeks to demystify Islam and mentions three fundamental features related to his mystical experience: a) the purification of the soul from those evils and worldly desires that hinder moral perfection; b) those spiritual dispositions or explorations that occur after the process of purification reaches the level of maturity (described as extraordinary intellectual intuitions); and c) that these dispositions are not explicable through reason. 9. He also rejected the Sufi claim that in the mystical experience one reaches God through fusion into or unity with the divine Being. Such a claim he regarded as blasphemous. The true perception of God is always perception of the presence of the Mr Pahary Page 149

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transcendent as a commanding being; knowledge of Him is never knowledge of His self but of His will. 10. By reaffirming that Islam implies action, al-Ghazzali meant to repudiate those sufis who preached mockery and withdrawal from society, any form of asceticism or mortification, or non-obligation to observe the rituals and all other laws of the Shariah. Al-Ghazzali thus made Tasawwuf respectable and conformant with the Shariah and spirit of Islam. Contribution of Sufism Social Cohesion: (through love, patience, help, charity, tolerance, solidarity) Economic Development: economically they wage war against ignorance, poverty and conflicting ideas Democratic Process: Participation in political and social affairs for better life Civil Society: Engaged in helping people to accept any kind of differences Religious Plurality: Respect of other religions and other groups within Islam. Understand Sufism: help us to understand the real concepts of Islam Erase Misconceptions: Help us to crush all misconceptions and wrong says about Sufism What are the main teachings of al-Ghazzali Ihya ulum al-din (Revival of the Religious Sciences)? 1. Knowledge: It is a clear sign in the hearts of those to whom knowledge has reached. It is obligatory upon Muslims. The superiority of the one who leans and teaches over other people. 2. 5 pillars: strict observance of all pillars 3. Dhikr and Dua: to be constantly in the remembrance of Allah and to ask Allah only 4. Rules of eating and drinking: following the path and conduct of the prophet, that is the Sunnah 5. Marriage and divorce and the duties of partners 6. Trade 7. Halal, Haram and doubt 8. Love and brotherhood 9. Music 10. Enjoining good and prohibiting bad 11. Conduct and character of prophet 12. Soul 13. Efforts for good conduct in the way of Allah 14. Harms of greed 15. Harms of tongue 16. Harms of anger 17. Evils of the world 18. Evils of wealth 19. Evils of power 20. Evils of pride 21. Evils of erroneous beliefs 22. Tawba 23. Patience and Gratefulness 24. Fear and Hope 25. Poverty and Renunciation Mr Pahary Page 150

Islamic Studies 26. Tawheed and Tawakkul 27. Love and Attachment 28. Will / Intention 29. Meditation and Introspection 30. Pondering over good 31. Death and subsequent events Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013

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8 How far did al-Ghazzali succeed in reconciling Sufi beliefs with the beliefs of the majority of Muslims of his day? [20] (2003) 8 Explain why Sufi teachers were often regarded as a threat to orthodox Islamic believers. [20] (2004) 8 (a) Discuss the principal features of the teachings of Sufism. [12] (b) Why has the orthodoxy of Sufism often been doubted? [8] (2005) 8 What would you say are the main contributions of Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali to the relationship between Muslim belief and practice? [20] (2006) 9 (a) Describe the relationship between Sufism and Islam. [8] (b) How far did al-Ghazzali succeed in his attempt to reform Sufi beliefs? [12] (2007) 9 Discuss how the following terms are used by Sufis: (a) Dhikr [5] (b) Zuhd [5] (c) Silsila [5] (d) murid. [5] (2008) 8 (a) What are the main teachings of al-Ghazzali Ihya ulum al-din (Revival of the Religious Sciences)? [12] (b) How would you defend or reject the view that this book is one of the most important Islamic religious texts ever written? [8] (2010)

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There is no generally accepted definition of what Islamic philosophy is, and the term will be used here to mean the sort of philosophy which arose within the culture of Islam. There are several main strands to Islamic philosophy. Peripatetic philosophy follows broadly the Greek tradition, while Sufism uses the principle of mystical knowledge as its leading idea. Some would argue that Islamic philosophy has never lost its concentration on the Qur'an and other significant Muslim texts, and that throughout its history it has sought to understand the essence of the realities both of the Sacred Book and of the created world. The decline of Peripatetic philosophy in the Islamic world did not mean the decline of philosophy as such, which continued to flourish and develop in other forms. Although it is sometimes argued that philosophy is not a proper activity for Muslims, since they already have a perfect guide to action and knowledge in the Qur'an, there are good reasons for thinking that Islamic philosophy is not intrinsically objectionable on religious grounds. Philosophy is a Way of thinking, a set of Concepts and Ideology, a Way of seeing things, a mean of Assumptions whether proven or not etc It generates way back since Hazrat Adam (as) in the use of Islam with human reasoning and the way of doing things. It was since the Existence of Man. However, there are different philosophies like for the Greek philosophy, Persian Philosophy and Arabic Philosophy. Types of Philosophy 1. Islamic Philosophy The Islamic philosophy can be divided into the True and the False Islamic Philosophy. The true philosophy is the one from the source of the Shariah, that is the Quran, the Hadith, the Ijma, the Qiyas and the Ijtihad. Nothing is changed and a code of conduct and way of thinking are derived from it. The false philosophy or the altered philosophy is the one taken from the true philosophy and then changes are made therein. Either concepts are erased or added to suit the concepts of the philosophers. 2. Non Islamic Philosophy This can be divided into the philosophy of the Ahl Kitab and the philosophy of the Kaafir. The philosophy of the Ahl Kitab can be either true or false. It is true as long as the books of Tawraat, Zabour and Injeel are not falsified. When there is falsification, then it is a false philosophical approach. Secondly, we have the philosophy of the kaafir divided into the philosophy of Individual Atheist, philosophy of any religious creed and the philosophy of Organisation or sects. Some Arab Philosophers 1. Al Kindi Yaqb ibn Isq al-Kind (c. 801873 CE), known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", was a Muslim Arab scientist, philosopher, mathematician, physician, and musician. Al-Kindi was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Islamic or Arabic philosophy" for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion of Greek and Hellenistic philosophy in the Muslim world. Mr Pahary Page 152

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Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe. He was born and educated in Kufa, before going to pursue further studies in Baghdad. Al-Kindi became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. Concepts of Al Kindi On Greek philosophy as important Greek philosophy possesses some truths Reason as source of all true knowledge Revelation (Wahy) guides Mankind towards success Soul into 4 categories: 1. Agent intellect: From Allah 2. Rational Faculty: Distinguish Man from Animal 3. Acquired Intellect: Acquired through Rational Faculty 4. Intellect in Action

2. Al Farabi Ab Nar Muammad al-Frb (c. 872 between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951), was a Muslim scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world. He was also a cosmologist, logician, musician and psychologist born in Iran. As a philosopher, Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophy known as "Farabism" or "Alfarabism". AlFarabi's school of philosophy "breaks with the philosophy of Plato and Aristotle and moves from metaphysics to methodology, a move that anticipates modernity", and "at the level of philosophy, Alfarabi unites theory and practice and in the sphere of the political he liberates practice from theory". In his attempt to think through the nature of a First Cause, Alfarabi discovers the limits of human knowledge". Al-Farabi had great influence on science and philosophy for several centuries, and was widely regarded to be second only to Aristotle in knowledge (alluded to by his title of "the Second Teacher") in his time. His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Concepts of Al Farabi Try to reconcile philosophy of Plato and Aristotle with the Quran (both sources of knowledge) 2nd teacher Dealt with prophecy, angels, resurrection, pen, tablet World from God Denied eternity of matter Ikhwan As Safa (Risalah) 3. Ibn Sina Ab Al al-usayn ibn Abd Allh ibn Sna (c. 980, Afshana near Bukhara 1037, Hamadan, Iran), commonly known as Ibn Sn was a Persian. Ibn Sn studied medicine under a physician named Koushyar. He wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, Islamic psychologist, Islamic scholar, Islamic theologian, logician, Mr Pahary Page 153

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mathematician, Maktab teacher, physicist, poet, and scientist. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age. Concepts of Ibn Sina Separation between theology and philosophy Philosophy and Religion Separately Proved religious problems (good and evil) through philosophy 4. Al Ghazzali Abu Hmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzl (1058-1111) known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran) was a Persian Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic. Ghazali has sometimes been referred to by historians as the single most influential Muslim after the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Besides his work that successfully changed the course of Islamic philosophythe early Islamic Neoplatonism developed on the grounds of Hellenistic philosophy, for example, was so successfully refuted by Ghazali that it never recoveredhe also brought the orthodox Islam of his time in close contact with Sufism. The orthodox theologians still went their own way, and so did the mystics, but both developed a sense of mutual appreciation which ensured that no sweeping condemnation could be made by one for the practices of the other. Concepts of Al Ghazzali Separation between theology and philosophy Philosophy and Religion Separately Proved religious problems (good and evil) through philosophy 5. Ibn Rushd Ab l-Wald Muammad bin Amad bin Rud, better known just as Ibn Rushd (1126 December 10, 1198) was a Muslim polymath (sage and specialist); a master of Aristotelian philosophy, Islamic philosophy, Islamic theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, logic, psychology, politics, Arabic music theory, and the sciences of medicine, astronomy, geography, mathematics, physics and celestial mechanics. He was born in Crdoba, Al Andalus, modern-day Spain, and died in Marrakesh, Morocco. His school of philosophy is known as Averroism. Ibn Rushd was a defender of Aristotelian philosophy against claims from Islamic theologians such as Ghazali who feared that such teachings would become an affront to the teachings of Islam. Concepts of Ibn Rushd Religion has to agree with philosophy Religious people into 3 categories: 1. Unsophisticated orthodox group 2. Scholastics and Theologians 3. Philosophers

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Islamic Studies Additional Material For Past Papers Questions Concepts and Contributions of some philosophers i) Background and scope of philosophical interest in Islam.

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The background of philosophic interest in Islam is found in the earlier phases of theology. But its origin is found in the translation of Greek philosophic works. By the middle of the 9th century, there were enough translations of scientific and philosophic works from Greek, Pahlavi, and Sanskrit to show those who read them with care that scientific and philosophic inquiry was something more than a series of disputations based on what the theologians had called sound reason. Moreover, it became evident that there existed a tradition of observation, calculation, and theoretical reflection that had been pursued systematically, refined, and modified for over a millennium. The scope of this tradition was broad: it included the study of logic, the sciences of nature (including psychology and biology), the mathematical sciences (including music and astronomy), metaphysics, ethics, and politics. Each of these disciplines had a body of literature in which its principles and problems had been investigated by classical authors, whose positions had been, in turn, stated, discussed, criticized, or developed by various commentators. Islamic philosophy emerged from its theological background when Muslim thinkers began to study this foreign tradition, became competent students of the ancient philosophers and scientists, criticized and developed their doctrines, clarified their relevance for the questions raised by the theologians, and showed what light they threw on the fundamental issues of revelation, prophecy, and the divine law. The teachings of al-Kindi. Although the first Muslim philosopher, al- Kindi, who flourished in the first half of the 9th century, lived during the triumph of the Mu'tazilah of Baghdad and was connected with the 'Abbasid caliphs who championed the Mu'tazilah and patronized the Hellenistic sciences, there is no clear evidence that he belonged to a theological school. His writings show him to have been a diligent student of Greek and Hellenistic authors in philosophy and point to his familiarity with Indian arithmetic. His conscious, open, and unashamed acknowledgment of earlier contributions to scientific inquiry was foreign to the spirit, method, and purpose of the theologians of the time. His acquaintance with the writings of Plato and Aristotle was still incomplete and technically inadequate. He improved the Arabic translation of the "Theology of Aristotle" but made only a selective and circumspect use of it. Devoting most of his writings to questions of natural philosophy and mathematics, al-Kindi was particularly concerned with the relation between corporeal things, which are changeable, in constant flux, infinite, and as such unknowable, on the one hand, and the permanent world of forms (spiritual or secondary substances), which are not subject to flux yet to which man has no access except through things of the senses. He insisted that a purely human knowledge of all things is possible, through the use of various scientific devices, learning such things as mathematics and logic, and assimilating the contributions of earlier thinkers. The existence of a "supernatural" way to this knowledge in which all these requirements can be dispensed with was acknowledged by al-Kindi: God may choose to impart it to his prophets by cleansing and illuminating their souls and by giving them his aid, right guidance, and inspiration; and they, in turn, communicate it to ordinary men in an admirably clear, concise, and comprehensible style. This is the prophets' "divine" knowledge, characterized by a special mode of access and style of exposition. In principle, however, this very same Mr Pahary Page 155

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knowledge is accessible to man without divine aid, even though "human" knowledge may lack the completeness and consummate logic of the prophets' divine message. (see also Index: matter) Reflection on the two kinds of knowledge--the human knowledge bequeathed by the ancients and the revealed knowledge expressed in the Qur`an--led al-Kindi to pose a number of themes that became central in Islamic philosophy: the rational-metaphorical exegesis of the Qur`an and the Hadith; the identification of God with the first being and the first cause; creation as the giving of being and as a kind of causation distinct from natural causation and Neoplatonic emanation; and the immortality of the individual soul. The teachings of Abu Bakr ar-Razi. The philosopher whose principal concerns, method, and opposition to authority were inspired by the extreme Mu'tazilah was the physician Abu Bakr ar-Razi (flourished 9th-10th centuries). He adopted the Mu'tazilah's atomism and was intent on developing a rationally defensible theory of creation that would not require any change in God or attribute to him responsibility for the imperfection and evil prevalent in the created world. To this end, he expounded the view that there are five eternal principles--God, Soul, prime matter, infinite, or absolute, space, and unlimited, or absolute, time--and explained creation as the result of the unexpected and sudden turn of events (faltah). Faltah occurred when Soul, in her ignorance, desired matter and the good God eased her misery by allowing her to satisfy her desire and to experience the suffering of the material world, and then gave her reason to make her realize her mistake and deliver her from her union with matter, the cause of her suffering and of all evil. Ar-Razi claimed that he was a Platonist, that he disagreed with Aristotle, and that his views were those of the Sabians of Harran and the Brahmins (Hindu teachers). Isma'ili theologians became aware of the kinship between certain elements of his cosmology and their own. They disputed with him during his lifetime and continued afterward to refute his doctrines in their writings. According to their account of his doctrines, he was totally opposed to authority in matters of knowledge, believed in the progress of the arts and sciences, and held that all reasonable men are equally able to look after their own affairs, equally inspired and able to know the truth of what earlier men had taught, and equally able to improve upon it. Isma'ili theologians were incensed, in particular, by his wholesale rejection of prophecy, particular revelation, and divine laws. They were likewise opposed to his criticisms of religion in general as a device employed by evil men and a kind of tyranny over men that exploits their innocence and credulity, perpetuates ignorance, and leads to conflicts and wars. Although the fragmentary character of al-Kindi's and ar-Razi's surviving philosophic writings does not permit passing firm and independent judgment on their accomplishments, they tend to bear out the view of later Muslim students of philosophy that both lacked competence in the logical foundation of philosophy, were knowledgeable in some of the natural sciences but not in metaphysics, and were unable to narrow the gap that separated philosophy from the new religion, Islam. The teachings of al-Farabi. 1. Political philosophy and the study of religion. The first philosopher to meet this challenge was al- Farabi (flourished 9th-10th centuries). He saw that theology and the juridical study of the law were derivative phenomena that function Mr Pahary Page 156

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within a framework set by the prophet as lawgiver and founder of a human community. In this community, revelation defines the opinions the members of the community must hold and the actions they must perform if they are to attain the earthly happiness of this world and the supreme happiness of the other world. Philosophy could not understand this framework of religion as long as it concerned itself almost exclusively with its truth content and confined the study of practical science to individualistic ethics and personal salvation. In contrast to al-Kindi and ar-Razi, al-Farabi recast philosophy in a new framework analogous to that of the Islamic religion. The sciences were organized within this philosophic framework so that logic, physics, mathematics, and metaphysics culminated in a political science whose subject matter is the investigation of happiness and how it can be realized in cities and nations. The central theme of this political science is the founder of a virtuous or excellent community. Included in this theme are views concerning the supreme rulers who follow the founder, their qualifications, and how the community must be ordered so that its members attain happiness as citizens rather than isolated human beings. Once this new philosophical framework was established, it became possible to conduct a philosophical investigation of all the elements that constituted the Islamic community: the prophet-lawgiver, the aims of the divine laws, the legislation of beliefs as well as actions, the role of the succeessors to the founding legislator, the grounds of the interpretation or reform of the law, the classification of human communities according to their doctrines in addition to their size, and the critique of "ignorant" (pagan), "transgressing," "falsifying," and "erring" communities. Philosophical cosmology, psychology, and politics were blended by al-Farabi into a political theology whose aim was to clarify the foundations of the Islamic community and defend its reform in a direction that would promote scientific inquiry and encourage philosophers to play an active role in practical affairs. (see also Index: political philosophy) 2. Interpretation of Plato and Aristotle. Behind this public, or exoteric, aspect of al-Farabi's work stood a massive body of more properly philosophic or scientific inquiries, which established his reputation among Muslims as the greatest philosophical authority after Aristotle, a great interpreter of the thought of Plato and Aristotle and their commentators, and a master to whom almost all major Muslim as well as a number of Jewish and Christian philosophers turned for a fuller understanding of the controversial, troublesome, and intricate questions of philosophy. Continuing the tradition of the Hellenistic masters of the Athenian and Alexandrian philosophical schools, al-Farabi broadened the range of philosophical inquiry and fixed its form. He paid special attention to the study of language and its relation to logic. In his numerous commentaries on Aristotle's logical works, he expounded for the first time in Arabic the entire range of the scientific and nonscientific forms of argument and established the place of logic as an indispensable prerequisite for philosophic inquiry. His writings on natural science exposed the foundation and assumptions of Aristotle's physics and dealt with the arguments of Aristotle's opponents, both philosophers and scientists, pagan, Christian, and Muslim. 3. The analogy of religion and philosophy. Al-Farabi's theological and political writings showed later Muslim philosophers the way to deal with the question of the relation between philosophy and religion and presented them with a complex set of problems that they continued to elaborate, modify, and develop in different directions. Starting with the view that religion is analogous or similar to philosophy, al-Farabi argued that the idea of the true prophet-lawgiver ought to be the same as that of the true philosopher-king. Thus, he challenged both al-Kindi's view that prophets and philosophers have different and independent ways to the highest truth available to man and Mr Pahary Page 157

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ar-Razi's view that philosophy is the only way to that knowledge. That a man could combine the functions of prophecy, lawgiving, philosophy, and kingship did not necessarily mean that these functions were identical; it did mean, however, that they all are legitimate subjects of philosophic inquiry. Philosophy must account for the powers, knowledge, and activities of the prophet, lawgiver, and king, which it must distinguish from and relate to those of the philosopher. The public, or political, function of philosophy was emphasized. Unlike Neoplatonism, which had for long limited itself to the Platonic teaching that the function of philosophy is to liberate the soul from the shadowy existence of the cave--in which knowledge can only be imperfectly comprehended as shadows reflecting the light of the truth beyond the cave (the world of senses)--al-Farabi insisted with Plato that the philosopher must be forced to return to the cave, learn to talk to its inhabitants in a manner they can comprehend, and engage in actions that may improve their lot. Background and characteristics of the western Muslim philosophical tradition. Andalusia (in Spain) and western North Africa contributed little of substance to Islamic theology and philosophy until the 12th century. Legal strictures against the study of philosophy were more effective than in the east. Scientific interest was channelled into medicine, pharmacology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic. More general questions of physics and metaphysics were treated sparingly and in symbols, hints, and allegories. By the 12th century, however, the writings of al-Farabi, Avicenna, and al-Ghazali had found their way to the west. A philosophical tradition emerged, based primarily on the study of al-Farabi. It was critical of Avicenna's philosophic innovations and not convinced that al-Ghazali's critique of Avicenna touched philosophy as such, and it refused to acknowledge the position assigned by both to mysticism. The survival of philosophy in the west required extreme prudence, emphasis on its scientific character, abstention from meddling in political or religious matters, and abandonment of the hope of effecting extensive doctrinal or institutional reform. Critiques of Aristotle in Islamic theology. The critique of Aristotle that had begun in Mu'tazili circles and had found a prominent champion in Abu Bakr ar-Razi was provided with a more solid foundation in the 10th and 11th centuries by the Christian theologians and philosophers of Baghdad, who translated the writings of the Hellenistic critics of Aristotle (e.g., John Philoponus) and made use of their arguments in commenting on Aristotle and in independent theological and philosophic works. Avicenna's attack on these so-called Aristotelians and their Hellenistic predecessors (an attack that had been initiated by al-Farabi and was to be continued by Averros) did not prevent the spread of their theologically based anti-Aristotelianism among Jewish and Muslim students of philosophy in the 12th century, such as Abu al-Barakat al-Baghdadi (died c. 1175) and Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi. These theologians continued and intensified al-Ghazali's attacks on Avicenna and Aristotle (especially their views on time, movement, matter, and form, the nature of the heavenly bodies, and the relation between the intelligible and sensible worlds). They suggested that a thorough examination of Aristotle had revealed to them, on philosophic grounds, that the fundamental disagreements between him and the theologies based on the revealed religions represented open options and that Aristotle's view of the universe was in need of explanatory principles that could very well be supplied by theology. This critique provided the framework for the integration of philosophy into theology from the 13th century onward.

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Islamic Studies The teachings of Ibn al-'Arabi.

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The account of the doctrines of Ibn al-'Arabi (12th-13th centuries) belongs properly to the history of Islamic mysticism. Yet his impact on the subsequent development of the new wisdom was in many ways far greater than was that of as-Suhrawardi. This is true especially of his central doctrine of the "unity of being" and his sharp distinction between the absolute One, which is undefinable Truth (haqq), and his self-manifestation (zuhur), or creation (khalq), which is ever new (jadid) and in perpetual movement, a movement that unites the whole of creation in a process of constant renewal. At the very core of this dynamic edifice stands nature, the "dark cloud" ('ama`) or "mist" (bukhar), as the ultimate principle of things and forms: intelligence, heavenly bodies, and elements and their mixtures that culminate in the "perfect man." This primordial nature is the "breath" of the Merciful God in his aspect as Lord. It "flows" throughout the universe and manifests Truth in all its parts. It is the first mother through which Truth manifests itself to itself and generates the universe. And it is the universal natural body that gives birth to the translucent bodies of the spheres, to the elements, and to their mixtures, all of which are related to that primary source as daughters to their mother. Ibn al-'Arabi attempted to explain how Intelligence proceeds from the absolute One by inserting between them a primordial feminine principle, which is all things in potentiality but which also possesses the capacity, readiness, and desire to manifest or generate them first as archetypes in Intelligence and then as actually existing things in the universe below. Ibn al-'Arabi gave this principle numerous names, including prime "matter" ('unsur), and characterized it as the principle "whose existence makes manifest the essences of the potential worlds." The doctrine that the first simple originated thing is not Intelligence but "indefinite matter" and that Intelligence was originated through the mediation of this matter was attributed to Empedocles, a 5th-century-BC Greek philosopher, in doxographies (compilations of extracts from the Greek philosophers) translated into Arabic. It represented an attempt to bridge the gulf between the absolute One and the multiplicity of forms in Intelligence. The Andalusian mystic Ibn Masarrah (9th-10th centuries) is reported to have championed pseudo-Empedoclean doctrines, and Ibn al-'Arabi (who studied under some of his followers) quotes Ibn Masarrah on a number of occasions. This philosophic tradition is distinct from the one followed by the Isma'ili theologians, who explained the origination of Intelligence by the mediation of God's will. Teachings of Philosophers leading to disagreement with theological or orthodox thinkers (Hostility against the philosophers) 1. Supremacy of reason over revelation: to the philosophers intellectual progress can be attained through reason. In some cases there things like miracles cannot be explained. 2. The use of Greek, Persian, Indian, Roman, Arabic and Westernised learning: some philosophers stick themselves to these texts to derive their philosophical thoughts. 3. The eternity of the world: whether it has been created or not, whether it will be destroyed or not 4. The eternity of the Quran: for the philosophers the Quran is created and either preserved or not in its original form but disapprove of its importance for all generations. 5. Anthropomorphism: the attributing of a bodily shape to Allah like hands, face, chair etc..

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6. Any idea contrasting with Orthodoxy: man is from apes, life in Aakhirat doesnt exist, there is no Divinity who created the Earth and human beings but it was through evolution, the purification of the heart of the prophet by Jibril, the miracles of the prophet, Miraj of the prophet. Main characteristics of Islamic philosophy (falsafah) in the classical Islamic period 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The authority of Greek philosophers translation of Greek books to Arabic. The place of Aristotle The place of Plato Great value attached to human reason and less emphasis on revelation. Al-Arabi Ibn Sina Other philosophers and their critique of the existing philosophical ideas

Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 9 Identify and explain the significance of two main teachings of the philosophers that led to disagreement with theological thinkers in early Islam. [20] (2003) 9 Some of the great theologians of Islam condemned the thinking of the philosophers as inconsistent. Explain why Islamic theologians were usually very hostile towards philosophy. [20] (2004) 9 Explain the main characteristics of Islamic philosophy (falsafah) in the classical Islamic period. [20] (2005) 9 Explain why Islamic theologians have traditionally been hostile towards philosophy. [20] (2006) 8 Identify and explain the significance of two main teachings of the philosophers that led to disagreement with theological thinkers in early Islam. [20] (2007) 8 Explain the main characteristics of Islamic philosophy [falsafah] in the classical Islamic period. [20] (2008) 9 Explain why many great theologians of Islam condemned the thinking of the philosophers as inconsistent with Islamic teachings. [20] (2009) 9 How far can Islamic philosophy be accepted by Muslims as a means of explaining the truth about God and the world? [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Paper 2 Section D: Islam in the World Today

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Intellectual Movement With the ability to think and reflect there has been the emergence of many groups and thoughts in the course of Islamic history. The following will enlighten us on some of these intellectual thoughts. 1. Salafis The word salafi or "early Muslim" in traditional Islamic scholarship means someone who died within the first four hundred years after the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), including scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Malik, ShafiI, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Anyone who died after this is one of the khalaf or "latter-day Muslims". The term "Salafi" was revived as a slogan and movement, among latter-day Muslims, by the followers of Muhammad Abduh (the student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani) some thirteen centuries after the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), approximately a hundred years ago. The term "Salafi" was revived as a slogan and movement, among latter-day Muslims, by the followers of Muhammad Abduh (the student of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani) some thirteen centuries after the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), approximately a hundred years ago Present-day Salafi a. - Ibn Taymiyya and his student Ibn al-Qayyim b. - Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab and his Najdi epigones c. - Bin Baz, Uthaymin, Albani, and their propagandists The Sunnis disagree with them because neither do these belong to the time of the Salaf, nor are they considered representative of the belief and practice of the Salaf, nor are they considered foremost authorities by Ahl al-Sunna. In fact the condemnation of the first three by many scholars is well-known, as are the innovations and blunders of the latter. It is interesting to note that al-Dhahabi, who is listed by the "Salafis" alongside Ibn Taymiyya has himself characterized Ibn Taymiyya as an innovator. His precise words were: He [Ibn Taymiyya] was a virtuous and outstanding scholar, very accurate and meticulous in his intellectual examinations, but guilty of introducing innovations in the Religion (mubtadi') Criticism against the Salafis 1. Anthropomorphism of Allah's attributes: affirming a place, direction, and corporeal limbs for Allah Almighty Who is far exalted above all of those; 2. Disrespect of the Prophet, blessings and peace upon him; 3. An amateurish, egalitarian approach to Qur'an and hadith (no need for scholars, or mastery of Arabic, or ijaza -- traditional accreditation, or the Islamic sciences); 4. Hatred of the Four Sunni schools of Law (the Four madhahib), the Two Schools of doctrine (Ash`aris and Maturidis), and all the schools of self-purification (Tasawwuf); Mr Pahary Page 161

Islamic Studies 5. The practice of takfir: declaring other Muslims unbelievers. Doctrines of Present-day Salafi

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1. Affirming the face, hand, and spatial direction of the Creator and making Him a body that descends and ascends; 2. Making principles derived from narration (naql) prior to those derived from reason (`aql); 3. Denial and rejection of consensus as a principle (asl) of Shari`a legislation; 4. Similar denial and rejection of analogy (qiyas); 5. Not permitting copying and emulating the judgments of the Imams who have in Islam the status of those capable of exercising independent reasoning in matters of Shari`a; 6. Declaring Muslims who contradict them disbelievers; 7. Prohibition of using the name of the Messenger in petitions to God or the name of someone else among the friends of God and the pious; 8. Making the visiting of the tombs of prophets and of pious people illicit; 9. Declaring a Muslim a disbeliever who makes a vow to someone other than God or sacrifices at the grave or final resting place of awliya or the pious. Present-day Salafi Methodology 1. The source and foundation of all beliefs must be the revelation that has come from Allah as found in the Quran and the Sunnah: The Quran and Sunnah are sufficient in guiding mankind to all of the essentials of the faith. 2. Affirmation of the place of the Sunnah in matters of aqeedah: based on definitive evidence. This led to a rejection of certain authentic hadith of the Prophet 3. Using the statements of the Companions and the consensus and explanations of the early scholars as supportive evidence. There is no question that their understanding and devotion to the faith is greater than any generation that came later. 4. Adhering to all of the relevant texts concerning an issue, seeking to resolve any apparent contradiction between them without discarding any of them: 5. There is no complete allegiance and submission to the teachings of any human save the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): 6. Avoidance of any and all heresies in the religion 7. Avoidance of the discussions of the philosophers and dialecticians in matters of faith (aqeedah)again, relying solely on the clear teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. 2. Muhammad Abduh Muhammad Abduh was an Egyptian reformer and pioneer of Islamic modernism and nationalism. He was born in Lower Egypt (1849-1905) and studied at the village Qur'an school, the Ahmadi mosque in Tanta, and the great mosque-university of al-Azhar in Cairo. He was influenced by Jamal ad Din al Afghani (1839-1897). When Afghani was expelled from Egypt in 1879, his disciple Abduh was dismissed from teaching duties at al-Azhar and returned to his village. Abduh came back to Cairo in 1880 as editor of the government's Official Journal. He supported a revolt against Egypt's domination by Europeans. In 1884 Abduh joined Afghani in Paris to publish a short-lived journal, The Indissoluble Bond. In 1888 he returned to Egypt and became a judge on the National Courts.

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Islamic Studies Concepts of Muhammad Abduh

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1. Believed that Muslims everywhere must cooperate to reverse internal decline and counter European imperialism 2. return to the spirit of early Islam 3. reinterpretation of the Quran and the sunna (precedent) of the prophet Muhammad in light of modern times 4. He interprets the Islamic law in such a way as to free it from the traditional interpretations and prove that Islam and modern Western civilization were compatible. 5. Abduh was thus the chief exponent of what has been termed as the "Two-Book" school of thought which, though it basically holds the unity of God inseparable from the unity of truth, recognizes two open ways to it: the way of revelation and that of natural science. 6. Abduh tried to break through the rigidities of scholastic interpretation and to promote considerations of equity, welfare, and common sense, even if this occasionally meant disregarding the literal texts of the Quran. 7. Abduh's theology was innovative. He believed that the gates of Ijtihad (innovation) were not closed, Abduh rejected the divine origin of much of the Quran. He believed part of it reflected the ideas of Muhammad, and he advocated reasoned interpretation of the Quran 8. Abduh deplored the blind acceptance of traditional doctrines and customs and asserted that a return to the pristine faith of the earliest age of Islam not only would restore the Muslims' spiritual vitality but would provide an enlightened criterion for the assimilation of modern scientific culture. 9. Abduh nonetheless believed that the Quran was the only true ethical and logical guide, implying that the Madhhab (schools of Jurisprudence) might be wrong 10. Abduh was an innovative and controversial jurisprudent. He ruled that meat from animals slaughtered by Christians or Jews was Halal, permitted to Muslims 11. He reformed the provisions of the Waqf law and allowed interest on loans.

3. Hassan Al Banna Hassan Al Banna was an Egyptian reformer. He was born in Mahmudiyya in Egypt (19061949). He was the Founder of Muslim Brethren (Brotherhood) Ikhwan Al Muslimoun. He had a Traditional education. He created his Organisation in the 20th century in the year 1928 politically geared against the West. At the age of 16 (year 1923), he entered Al Azhar darul uloom. He was influenced by the works of Salafiyya movement, especially those of Rashid Reedah (1865 1935). He was influenced by the Magazine Al Manar of Rashid Reedah. He launched the Muslim Society (Brethren) by 1928. . In 1932, headquarters shifted to Cairo. There was the growth of the brotherhood during the 1930s and 1940s. By the early 1950s, branches had been established in Syria, Sudan, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. He gave lectures at night for parents at Ismailiyyah institute. He wanted to make changes through institutions around mosque, Islamic welfare associations, activism, and mass communication. He placed his members in all sectors. Al-Banna's message tackled issues including colonialism, public health, educational policy, natural resources management, Marxism, social inequalities, Arab nationalism, the weakness of the Islamic world on the international scene, and the growing conflict in Palestine. Due to its illicit activities in killings, the Prime Minister Nuqrashi Pasha disbanded it in December 1948. The organization's assets were impounded and scores of its members sent to jail. 3 weeks later, the prime minister was assassinated by a member of the brotherhood. This in turn prompted Mr Pahary Page 163

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the murder of Al-Banna, presumably by a government agent, in February 1949, when AlBanna was still only 43 and at the height of his career. Concepts of al Banna 1. Central importance of violent Jihad - In traditional Islam, Jihad, which means "struggle, was divided into "Greater Jihad," an inner struggle to achieve sanctity and religious truth and a "Lesser Jihad" - war against enemies of Islam or Jihad Masala. Al-Banna reversed the priorities. He relegated inner spiritual struggle to Jihad alasghar, the lesser Jihad, and elevated violent war against enemies of Islam to Jihad al akbar, the great Jihad. His stance on this point is explicit. 2. The cult of martyrdom - Al-Banna wrote: My brother, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. 3. The supremacy of Islam - "Islam must dominate and is not to be dominated. 4. Restoration of the lost caliphate - i'adat al Khalifa al Mafqudah - is the chief immediate political goal of the Islamist movement. 5. The decadence and imminent demise of the west - "The civilization of the West, which was brilliant by virtue of its scientific perfection for a long time, and which subjugated the whole world with the products of this science to its states and nations, is now bankrupt and in decline. " 6. Anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism The Jews are the agents of change and westernization, and responsible for the decline of the west as well as Islam. This was not a new theme in the Muslim and Arab world. 7. Al-Banna and Nazism the growth of the Muslim Brotherhood was accompanied or caused in part by the fact that Al-Banna associated it with the German Nazi party and the Third Reich. From the ideological point of view, the Jew hatred, authoritarianism, addiction to violence and desire to defeat the British of both the Muslim Brothers and the Nazis were quite enough to make the two movements find common cause. 4. Sayyid Ahmad Khan Syed Ahmad Khan was born in the year 1817 and died in the year 1898 in Shahjahn Abd, new Dehli. He was influenced by his grandfather Khwaja Farid for his diplomatic skills with the British and by his mother for her generosity and piety. In the Indian sub-continent, he was among the first for this kind of reform. He wanted a return to Islam. He advocated for not following the British and the west. He devoted in many activities in education and politics. In 1960, he developed a concept of new and modern Islam. He wrote articles on the state of Indian and Indian Muslims. He criticised their loyalty to the British. He assumed that India was a Dar ul Islam when all Ulama of India said that it was Dar ul Harb. He perceived Indian Muslims as backward and need education. On January 9, 1864, he convened the first meeting of the Scientific Society at Ghazipur with the British. Ahmad Khan and the Society moved to Aligarh in 1867 where he was able to procure a piece of land from the government for experimental farming. On April 1, 1869, Ahmad Khan, his two sons, Sayyid Hamid and Sayyid Mahmud, a younger friend, Mirza Khuda Dad Beg, and a servant known only by the affectionate name of Chachu left Benaras and arrived in London on May 4, 1869 after spending five days in Marseilles and Paris. He was in the society of lords and dukes at dinners and evening parties, he saw artisans and the common working-man in great numbers, and he was awarded the title of Mr Pahary Page 164

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the Companion of the Star of India by none other than the Queen herself. He obtained the title of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Without flattering the English, he wrote, I can truly say that the natives of India, high and low, merchants and petty shopkeepers, educated and illiterate, when contrasted with the English in education, manners, and uprightness, are like a dirty animal is to an able and handsome man. In Aligarh he established the Muhammadan AngloOriental College in 1877. In 1920, the College would become Aligarh Muslim University. Concepts of Syed Ahmad Khan 1. In his drive for modernization, Ahmad Khan wanted to re-interpret Islam. We need a modern ilm al-Kalm, he said in a speech delivered at Lahore in 1884, by which we should either refute the doctrines of modern sciences or show that they are in conformity with the articles of Islamic faith. But what became apparent in the subsequent writings was the fact that Ahmad Khan was not really interested (or qualified) to refute any modern scientific doctrine; all he could do was to re-interpret Islam to show that the work of God (nature and its laws) was in conformity with the Word of God (the Qurn), an adage that earned him the title of Natur. In his attempts to re-interpret Islam to accommodate modern Western science, Ahmad Khan exposed his weaknesses in both domains of knowledge. He was severely criticized by the ulama for the lack of qualifications to interpret the Qurn and Hadith and the shallowness of his knowledge of Western science and its philosophical underpinnings was apparent from his own writings. He had no training in any natural science or in philosophy of science and he had never finished his traditional education. 2. Ahmad Khan decided to write a tafsir and he said: When I tried to educate Muslims in modern sciences and English, I wondered whether these are, in fact, against Islam as it is often claimed. I studied tafsir, according to my abilities, and except for the literary matters, found in them nothing but rubbish and worthless (fadl) discussions, mostly based on baseless and unauthentic traditions and fables (mamlu barrawyt dacf wa modc aur qasas bey saropa) which were often taken from the Jewish sources. Then I studied books of the principles of tafsir according to my ability with the hope that they would definitely provide clues to the principles of the Qurnic interpretation based on the Qurn itself or which would be otherwise so sound that no one could object to them but in them I found nothing but statements that the Qurn contains knowledge of such and such nature Then I pondered over the Qurn itself to understand the foundational principles of its composition and as far as I could grasp, I found no contradiction between these principles and the modern knowledge then I decided to write a tafsir of the Qurn which is now complete up to Suratul Nahl. 3. Ahmad Khan denied all miracles. In the Ninth Principle of his tafsir, he stated: there could be nothing in the Qurn that is against the principles on which nature works as far as the supernatural is concerned, I state it clearly that they are impossible, just like it is impossible for the Word of God to be false I know that some of my brothers would be angry to [read this] and they would present verses of the Qurn that mention miracles and supernatural events but we will listen to them without annoyance and ask: could there could not be another meaning of these verses that is consonant with Arabic idiom and the Qurnic usage? And if they could prove that it is not possible, then we will accept that our principle is wrong but until they do so, we will insist that God does not do anything that is against the principles of nature that He has Himself established.

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Islamic Studies 5. Muhammad Iqbal

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Muhammad Iqbal was born in Sialkot, Punjab (now Pakistan) (1877 - 1937). He was proficient in Arabic and Persian languages. He graduated in philosophy, college teacher in Lahore. He moved to Cambridge for higher studies and PhD at Munich. He was a Barrister at law in 1908 and returned to Lahore. A collection of his six (later seven) addresses was first published in 1930 titled Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. He said in this country Islam would have an opportunity to mobilize its law, its education, its culture, and to being them into closer contact with its own original spirit and with the spirit of modern times. Concepts of Muhammad Iqbal 1. mans achieving full self-consciousness 2. Iqbal assumes this idea of the finality of prophethood to be a psychological cure for the Magian attitude of constant expectation. 3. all personal authority claiming a supernatural origin came to an end in this history of man. 4. the constant appeal to reason and experience in the Quran and the emphasis that it lays on nature and history as sources of human knowledges are different aspects of the same idea of finality 5. birth of Islam is the birth of inductive intellect 6. Albeit Quran and sunnah we must use reasoning 7. Accept modern knowledge but with cautious 8. Dont reject what benefit West can bring 9. Contributed to the understanding of the contribution of sufism in Ibaadah 10. Observance of nature 11. Advancement is made through prayer 6. Abu Ala Al Mawdudi Abu Alaa Mawdudi was born in the year 1903 and died in the year 1979. He was the founder of Jamiah Islami of Pakistan. He was a Contemporary thinker and wrote much about society, economy and politics. He introduced the ideology of Hizbiyyah (strict loyalty to a particular group or party). Though many sayings against, he is renowned. He is the leader of many Muslims today. He is the writer and philosopher of many books. He had great influence on youngsters who dont want to complicate Islam. There are many critics against him for his thoughts on other people. He had his positive and negative ways of thinking which have and still are causing harm to some and welfare to others Concepts of Abu Ala Al Mawdudi 1. Distorted view of Islam as being primarily a political system 2. Speaking about desiring authority in the land, Maududi said, "So without the desire for authority, there is no meaning for calling to a particular philosophy, and there is no meaning for what is lawful and what is forbidden, nor for the prescribed laws." 3. Maududi even went a step further by claiming that the principal goal of all of the Prophets was to establish a state: "Therefore the goal aspired for in the messengership of the Prophets in this world did not cease to be the establishment of the Islamic government upon the earth." Mr Pahary Page 166

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4. Maududi used to base his conclusions upon intellectual and political analogies and deductions as opposed to returning to the textual sources of the religion understood by the early Muslims as a source of guidance 5. reviling some of the Prophets and the righteous companions of the last Prophet 6. Maududi said the following about Joseph (Yusuf (as)): "This (his request to become the custodian of Egypt) was not a demand to be the Minister of Finance only, as some people understand, this was not a demand of the ministerial office of finance only, but a demand for dictatorship. As a result, this position which Sayyidinaa Yusuf (Joseph) got is almost the same which Mussolini enjoyed in Italy in these days." Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 10 Outline the main features of the teachings of any two of the following: Muhammad `Abduh, Hasan al-Banna, Muhammad Iqbal. [20] (2003) 10 Explain the main differences between the thought of the modernist Islamic scholar Sayyid Ahmad Khan, and the thought of traditionalist scholars of the Salafi movement. [20] (2004) 10 Compare and contrast the main features of the teachings of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Hasan al-Banna. [20] (2005) 10 Give an account of the main teachings of any two of the following: (a) Muhammad Abduh (b) Muhammad Iqbal (c) Abu Ala al-Mawdudi. [20] (2006) 12 (a) Trace the early historical development of the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt founded by Hasan al-Banna. [12] (b) Discuss the significance of its main ideas today. [8] (2007) 10 Compare and contrast the main features of the teachings of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Hasan al-Banna. [20] (2008) 10 Outline the main differences between the religious thought of Hasan al-Banna and Muhammad Iqbal. [20] (2009) 10 Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Iqbal were both of Indian origin, but their Islamic thought contains major differences. Examine these differences. [20] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Islam, Judaism And Christianity

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Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity. As a monotheistic faith that originated in the Middle East, Islam holds many beliefs and practices in common with Judaism and Christianity. Judaism, Islam and Christianity are collectively known as "Abrahamic religions" because they trace their history to the covenant God made with Abraham in the Hebrew Bible. The Prophet Muhammad met both Jews and Christians during his lifetime, and Islam has come into frequent contact with both of its fellow monotheistic faiths throughout most of its history. The three prophets are directly descended from the two sons of Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac. Muhammad is a descendant of the eldest son, Ishmael. Moses and Jesus descended from Isaac. Abraham established a settlement, which today is the city of Makkah and built the Kabah towards which all Muslims turn when they pray. Furthermore, throughout the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, the links between these religions are affirmed: Say: We believe in God, and in that which has been sent down on us and that sent down on Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and their descendants, and that which was given to Moses and Jesus, and was given to all the prophets, from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them; and we surrender ourselves to God alone. (Qur'an 2:136) Christians and Jews hold a special place in Islam. They are called the People of the Book (Ahl al-Kitab), since the original Torah and Gospel were also divinely revealed and they shared in the prophetic tradition. True Islamic states have always shown their religious minorities tolerance and respect and those communities flourished under Islamic rule. God says: "...Those who believe (in the message of Islam), and the Jews, the Sabaeans, and the Christians - all those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and act righteously - no fear shall come upon them..." (Qur'an 5:69) The following charts will enlighten us more in detail the differences and similarities among the three religions known as the three universal religions. Comparison of Origins and History Islam date founded place founded founder 622 CE Saudi Arabia Muhammad Judaism unknown Palestine Christianity c. 33 CE Palestine

Moses or Abraham Jesus Hebrew Aramaic, Greek Within 60 years, churches in Palestine, Turkey, Greece and Rome Catholic/Orthodox, 1054 CE; Catholic/Protestant, 1500s CE

original language(s) Arabic

early expansion

within 12 years, entire little expansion; Arabia; within 100 mostly confined to years, the Atlantic to Palestine China Shia/Sunni, c. 650 CE Reform/Orthodox, 1800s CE

major splits

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Islamic Studies Comparison of Statistics and Basics Islam adherents called current adherents current size rank Muslims 1.3 billion 2nd largest Judaism Jews 14 million 12th largest East, Israel, USA Tawraat Europe,

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Christianity Christians 2 billion largest Europe, North and South America, rapid growth in Africa Injeel (Jewish Bible + New Testament)

Middle major concentration Southeast Asia sacred text other authority religious law clergy house of worship written Qur'an

Hadith Sharia imams mosque

church fathers, church Talmud (tafsir of councils, papal decrees the Tawraat) (Catholic only) Halakhah rabbis synagogue Saturday separate Canon Law priests, ministers, pastors, bishops church, chapel, cathedral Sunday separate

main day of worship Friday church and state integrated

Comparison of Religious Beliefs Islam type of theism ultimate reality names of God other beings spiritual strict monotheism one God Allah (Arabic for God) angels, demons, jinn Judaism strict monotheism one God Yahweh, Elohim angels demons and Christianity Trinitarian monotheism one God Yahweh, the Holy Trinity angels and demons saints, church fathers Son of God, God incarnate, saviour of the world virgin birth by death by crucifixion

revered humans

prophets, imams prophets (especially in Shia) true prophet of God, whose message has false prophet been corrupted virgin birth normal birth

identity of Jesus birth of Jesus death of Jesus Mr Pahary

did not die, but death ascended into heaven crucifixion Page 169

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second coming of Affirmed Jesus divine revelation

through Prophets, through Prophets and through Muhammad, recorded in Jesus (as God Himself), recorded in Qur'an Tawraat recorded in Bible inspired, literal word of God, inerrant in views vary original languages equal ability good or evil to do inspired, some believe inerrant in original languages

view of sacred text

human nature

two equal "original sin" inherited impulses, one from Adam - tendency good and one bad towards evil

means of salvation

correct belief, faith, good correct belief, good belief in God, good deeds, sacraments deeds, Five Pillars deeds (some Protestants emphasize faith alone) and divine revelation predestination, and forgiveness forms of grace views vary: either heaven or no eternal heaven afterlife views vary: either eternal Hell, eternal hell, temporary reincarnation, or purgatory (Catholicism) no afterlife Islam and Christianity are Judaism is a true religion, false but with incomplete interpretations and revelation. Islam is a extensions of false religion. Judaism. various

God's role salvation good afterlife

in Predestination forgiveness eternal paradise

bad afterlife

eternal hell

Jews and Christians are respected as view of fellow "People of the Book," Abrahamic religions but they have wrong beliefs and only partial revelation.

Additional Material For Past Questions Comparing Judaism, Islam, and Christianity Judaism, Islam, and Christianity make up the three largest religions in the world. These top three religions have many similarities and differences. Among their major similarities is their common regard for historical and religious figure named Abraham. Two other major similarities are their belief in monotheism and Jerusalem as a holy city. While these similarities are significant, they also have many differences. Their differences include: their view of Jesus Christ, religious texts, and how they approach God in prayer. If all three Mr Pahary Page 170

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religions hold steadfast to their core religious beliefs, then reconciliation and unity among them will never take place. However even in their disagreements, they do have similarities. One important similarity among all three religions is the importance they place on the historical figure Abraham. In Islam the life and faithfulness of Abraham is celebrated in a variety of ways. In the five pillars of Islam, the fifth one called pilgrimage or hajj is used as a remembrance of Abrahams willingness to sacrifice his own son to obey God. Another way that Islam recognizes his importance is through the Feast of Sacrifice. On the tenth day of pilgrimage month the head of each Islamic household is to kill an animal and provide a feast. As Abraham plays an important role in the faith of the Islamic people, he is equally revered in Judaism. He is seen as the father of the Jewish faith, he is also known as the patriarch of the Jewish people. It is believed that Abraham established a covenant with God after being obedient in his willingness to sacrifice his son. The importance of Abraham is also seen in the tradition of circumcision. Genesis traces the ritual back to a commandment of God to Abraham (Genesis 17:10, 11) In the Old Testament God told Abraham that he would be the father of a great nation, which Judaism considers to be Israel. Christianity also has a high regard for Abraham. He is spoken highly in both the Old and New Testaments. The New Testament evangelists and early church of Christianity recognized Abraham for his covenant with God. Jesus Christ, the founder of Christianity, speaks of Abraham and the importance of his early covenant. With Christianity recognizing the Old Testament, Abraham and his importance to the establishment of the Jewish people and the coming of Jesus, sets the basis for his acceptance and high regard with in Christianity itself. The importance of Abraham in all three religions steams from a common thread of Abrahams obedience to God. All three religions share sacred religious texts of Abraham. While it seems that their foundations are very similar, their views on Jesus Christ are not. All three religions have a different view of who Jesus Christ was. In Christianity Jesus is the messiah that is talked about in the Old Testament. Christians believe that Jesus fulfilled the requirements and prophecies that the prophets spoke about. One of their key reasons for believing this is their belief in his resurrection from the dead. Jesus played a significant role in establishing Christianity and training his followers to share his message. This led to the writing of the New Testament and its importance in the Christian faith. Tensions between Christianity and Judaism arose over their differing views of who Jesus Christ was. Judaism didnt accept Jesus as the messiah theyd been waiting for. They believe that a messiah is still to come and that Jesus was simply an educated Jewish rabbi. While Judaism rejects anything divine about Jesus, Islam sees him as a prophet. He is seen as a great teacher, but not the son of God as Christians see him. However, according to Islamic belief Jesus was born of a Virgin and preformed great miracles. Islam teaches that Allah sent Jesus to the earth to reveal to them new scriptures. They now believe that through human error some of this scripture has been tainted by human error. One such error is how he died. While Christians maintain that he died on a cross for their sins, Muslims believe he was alive when God called him to heaven. The life and death of Jesus remains a differing point among the three religions. Christians believe that Jesus came as the son of God and died on the cross and rose again for their sins. Jews believe that Jesus was a great rabbi, but nothing more. While Islam agrees with Christianity in the virgin birth and miracles, they only see him as prophet. Even with this disagreement all three religions are monotheistic. Islam, Christianity, and Judaism are all monotheistic religions that believe in a single God. While Christianity is actually a form of Trinitarian Monotheism, it can still be considered monotheistic. Some would argue that Christians believe in three separate Gods; however Christians would rebuttal with an established belief that all three members of the trinity make up a single God. Trinitarian Monotheism is the view that there is only one God, but within Mr Pahary Page 171

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this one God are three distinct yet equal personsGod the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit. Only biblical Christianity affirms Trinitarian Monotheism. Islam believes in one God without regard for the trinity. The most basic belief of Islam is that there is only one God, who is called Allah Judaism also holds the belief of one God who is almighty and everlasting. Islam goes a bit farther and proclaims that the God of the Christians and Jews is Allah, there is only one God, who is called Allah, the same God worshiped by Jews and Christians. While Judaism and Christianity would disagree with this statement, they would also disagree on the importance of different religious texts. While there are some common religious texts between the three religions, they disagree on divine inspiration and importance. Christians believe that the Bible is the word of God. There is common belief within Christianity in the inerrancy of both the Old and New Testaments. The holy book of Islam is the Quran. The Quran is believed to be the very word of God and was not subject to human interpretation errors. Quran is the word of God: It is eternal, absolute, and irrevocable. While the Christians admit that they believe the Bible to be written by humans with inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Since Muslims believe so firmly in the Quran, they take great efforts to memorizes as much of the text as possible. Christians also believe in Bible memorization, however not to the extent of Muslims. The holy text for Judaism is the Torah. Like Muslims, Jews go to great efforts to memorize as much of their holy texts as possible. The high emphasis on memorization shows not only their dedication, but also their reverence for the text itself. Even with some common religious texts, the three religions remain divided in their agreement on each texts validity. However, they all agree on Jerusalem as being a historical and religious site for each of their religions. Jerusalem has a rich religious and historical background that is important to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. For Muslims, Jerusalem was the first place they were instructed to pray toward, it was later changed to Mecca. The Prophet Muhammad instructed followers of Islam to embark on journeys to three temples, one of which is the one located in Jerusalem. It is reported that the Prophet Muhammad said, "There are only three mosques to which you should embark on a journey: the sacred mosque (Mecca, Saudi Arabia), this mosque of mine (Madinah, Saudi Arabia), and the mosque of Al-Aqsa (Jerusalem)." Jerusalem is also significant to Muslims because it is believed to be the place where the Prophet Muhammad acceded into the heavens. For Christians Jerusalem is also an important religious place. They believe that it is the place where Jesus completed his earthly ministry and was crucified. Thus Jerusalem is the stage on which God's plan of salvation was put into effect. Jerusalems significance goes back to the foundations of Judaism. Judaism considers Jerusalem to be a holy and sacred land. Jews believe in praying toward the city and mentioning the city often in their prayers. Jerusalem was proclaimed a religious capital by King Solomon and was the location of the main Jewish temple. Jerusalem remains equally important to all three religions to this day. Prayer is also very important, but different in each of the three religions. All three religions believe in prayer as a way to communicate with God; however they differ in how they should approach Him in prayer. In Islam, prayer is one of the Five Pillars of faith. Muslims are told to pray five times a day toward Mecca. During their prayer time, male and females are separated and each person must wash themselves to cleanse themselves of any impurities. Prayer plays an import role in the life of Jews also. Jews are supposed to pray three times a day; morning, afternoon, and evening. They believe that the more they pray, the closer they get to God. Some Jews use prayer books or prewritten prayers, while others simply speak to God from their heart. This is a similarity with Christianity. Some Christians have prewritten prayers while others believe they should simply pray what is on their heart. Most Christians do not have a set number of times to pray during the day, but Mr Pahary Page 172

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they also believe that prayer draws them closer to God. While all religions believe that God will hear their prayers, each one has different way that they teach their followers to approach God. Even with the different ways of approaching God, the ritual of prayer remains established in all three religions. The three religions have some universal themes that are shared among them. One of these is the belief of an afterlife. Each religion believes that a person dies once and then enters a spiritual place. Although they differ on where people go after death, the belief of eternity is a common thread between them. They also believe that God is all powerful. In each religion they consider God to be omnipresent, in other words, all knowing and all seeing, present at every place all at once. All three also have meeting places set aside in their communities where they can go to worship and pray, for Muslim they go to a mosque, Christians to a church, and Jews to a synagogue. They believe in fellowshipping together and have close ties with other members of their religion. This and other similarities may not be enough to bring the three religions together. There are ways that the three major religions of the world can be reconciled, however the possibility is unlikely. In order for Islam, Christianity, and Judaism to come together, they would each have to give up some of their core beliefs. For instance, Judaism and Christianity could not come together unless they resolve who Jesus Christ was. This would require Jews to accept him as the messiah, or Christians to deny him as the messiah. For Islam and Christianity to unite they would have to address both Jesus Christ and the Prophet Muhammad and their place in religious unity. The very core of each religion would have to compromise their beliefs to accept that another group is correct. This does not seem to ever happen because of the intense belief that each religion believes theirs is the only correct one. It seems that their significant differences will forever outweigh any of their similarities. Islam, Christianity, and Judaism remain the world three most popular religions. They have many similarities and differences among their beliefs and practices. All three religions started with the same historical figure of Abraham, but later branched off into varying beliefs of who God is and how he has communicated with humanity. While all three religions believe in the power of prayer, they differ in how to approach God. Christians believe they need a mediator, Jesus Christ, while Jews and Muslims approach prayer in a more structured way. There major differences on the importance religious texts entrenches their separation to a point that may be unbridgeable. They can never reconcile their faiths among each other if they hold to their core beliefs outlined in their individual religious texts. Quranic teachings on faiths other than Islam 1. People of the book concealed the truth: O People of the Scripture! Why confound ye truth with falsehood and knowingly conceal the truth? 2. Knowledge of Allah: And if thou were to ask them: Who created the heavens and the earth, and constrained the sun and the moon (to their appointed work)? they would say: Allah. How then are they turned away? (29: 61) 3. Sabioun: 17. Lo! those who believe (this Revelation), and those who are Jews, and the Sabaeans and the Christians and the Magians and the idolaters. Lo! Allah will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection. Lo! Allah is Witness over all things. (22: 17) 4. Polytheism: 109. So be not thou in doubt concerning that which these (folk) worship. They worship only as their fathers worshipped aforetime. Lo! We shall pay them their whole due unabated.(11: 109) Mr Pahary Page 173

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5. Idol worshipping: And they have chosen (other) gods beside Allah that they may be a power for them. Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and become opponents unto them. (19:81-82) 6. Hanif: Say: Allah speaks truth. So follow the religion of Abraham, the upright. He was not of the idolaters. (3:95) 7. Allah will judge between them: 113. And the Jews say the Christians follow nothing (true), and the Christians say the Jews follow nothing (true); yet both are readers of the Scripture. Even thus speak those who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they differ 8. Falsification: The Holy Quran informs us that the Jews and Christians have corrupted their scriptures by mixing the original revelation with human interpolations and interpretations until the former could not be distinguished from the latter. 9. Followers and Hypocrites towards Jesus: Then when Jesus came to know of their disbelief, he said: "Who will be my helpers in Allah's Cause?" The disciples said: "We are the helpers of Allah; we believe in Allah, and bear witness that we are Muslims (we submit to Allah)."Our Lord! We believe in what You have sent down, and we follow the Messenger (Jesus); so write us down among those who bear witness (to the truth, La ilaha ill Allah - none has the right to be worshipped but Allah). And they (disbelievers) plotted (to kill Jesus), and Allah planned too. And Allah is the Best of the planners. (3:52-54) 10. Followers and Hypocrites towards Musah: "And We brought the Children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: "O Msa (Moses)! Make for us an ilhan (a god) as they have liha (gods)." He said: "Verily, you are a people who know not. (7: 138) Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 11 Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion (Surah 109.6) To what extent does the Quran accept the value of faiths other than Islam? [20] (2004) 11 What are the main teachings of the Quran regarding the relationship between Muslims and the People of the Book? [20] (2005) 12 With specific references, discuss the main Quranic teachings on faiths other than Islam. [20] (2006) 11 (a) With reference to any country you know, describe the relationships between Muslims and people of other faiths. [12] (b) How far do these relationships reflect the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah? [8] (2008) 11 Unto you is your religion, and unto me my religion. (Surah 109:6) Explain this statement, showing how the Quran treats Jews and Christians. [20] (2009)

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Islamic Studies Women In Islam

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The status of woman in Islam constitutes no problem. The attitude of the Qur'an and the early Muslims bear witness to the fact that woman is, at least, as vital to life as man himself, and that she is not inferior to him nor is she one of the lower species. Islam has given woman rights and privileges which she has never enjoyed under other religious or constitutional systems. The rights and responsibilities of a woman are equal to those of a man but they are not necessarily identical with them. Equality and sameness are two quite different things. This difference is understandable because man and woman are not identical but they are created equals. With this distinction in mind, there is no problem. It is almost impossible to find even two identical men or women. The status of woman in Islam is something unique, something novel, and something that has no similarity in any other system. If we look to the Eastern Communist world or to the democratic nations, we find that woman is not really in a happy position. Her status is not enviable. She has to work so hard to live, and sometimes she may be doing the same job that a man does but her wage is less than his. She enjoys a kind of liberty which in some cases amounts to libertinism. To get to where she is nowadays, woman struggled hard for decades and centuries. To gain the right of learning and the freedom of work and earning, she had to offer painful sacrifices and give up many of her natural rights. To establish her status as a human possessing a soul, she paid heavily. Yet in spite of all these costly sacrifices and painful struggles, she has not acquired what Islam has established by a Divine decree for the Muslim woman. Women during Pre Islamic Arabia Women had no right No dignity No say in the family They were sacrificed in the name of Arabs gods Only the rich had power Only These rich Women had status They had rights and duties though during PIA But when the prophet (s.a.w) came, everyone had the same rights in the sight of Allah They are upraised in Islam They can merge as long as they are following the Shariah

Daughters in Islam In pre Islamic Arabia they were killed "For what crime was thou murdered?" [Qur'an 81:8,9] "Kill not your children for fear of want. We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Verily, to kill them is a great sin. [Qur'an 17:31] "Fatimah," he would say, "is a part of my being; whosoever annoys her annoys me" (hadith) "When you bring anything for your children for distribution, begin with the girls first because the girls love their parents more than the boys." (hadith)

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Islamic Studies Wife in Islam

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"The women have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable." [Qur'an 2:228] The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: "A woman is the queen of her house. "He created for you mates from among yourselves that you might find solace in them and he ordained between you love and mercy," [Qur'an 30:21] The Prophet said: "The most perfect of believers in faith is the best of them in morals and the best of you are those who are kindest to your wives." He said: "O my people, you have certain rights over your wives and so have your wives over you .... They are Allah's trust in your hand. See that you treat them with all kindness." "And if you fear that you will not deal fairly towards the orphans, marry of the women who seem good to you, two or three or four, and if you fear that you cannot do justice between them, then (marry) only one. Thus it is more likely that ye will not do injustice" [Qur'an 4:3] Mother in Islam "Your Lord has commanded that you shall worship none but Him and goodness to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age in your life, say not to them a word of contempt, nor repel them, but address them in terms of honour. And make yourself submissively gentle to them with compassion and say: O my Lord bestow on them compassion even as they cherished me in my childhood." [Qur'an 17 2324] The Prophet replied: "No, not even a fraction of the pain she suffered at the time you were born. Holy Prophet said: "One who looks at the face of his mother with sentiments of reverence and love once, is rewarded as if he has performed the Pilgrimage." The people asked him, what if he looked twice, to which he replied: "It is as if he had performed two Pilgrimages, and thrice, as if he had performed three Pilgrimages and so on. "And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and their ornaments except what (must ordinary) appear thereof, that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or those whom their right hands possess, or the male servants not having need (of women), or small children who have not attained knowledge of what is hidden of women; and let them not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden embellishment." [Qur'an 24:31] "O wives of the Prophet, you are not like any other women; if you fear Allah, be not soft in speech lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire; and speak a speech that is just. And stay quietly in your houses and do not make a dazzling display like that of the former times of ignorance; and establish regular prayer, and give regular charity and obey Allah and His Apostle. Allah only desires to remove all abomination from you, O people of the household, and to purify you a (thorough) purifying." [Qur'an 33:32,33] "There is no blame on them (the women) (if they appear unveiled) before their fathers, nor their sons, nor their brothers, nor their brothers' sons, nor their sisters' Mr Pahary Page 176

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sons, nor their own women, nor of what their right hand's possess. And fear Allah; surely Allah is a witness of all things," [Qur'an 33:55] " "O Prophet tell your wives and your daughters and the believing women that they cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad). This will be more proper, that they should be known as such and not molested. And Allah is oftForgiving and most-Merciful." [Qur'an 33:59] Status of Women in Islam 1. Woman is recognized by Islam as a full and equal partner of man in the procreation of humankind. He is the father; she is the mother, and both are essential for life. 2. She is equal to man in bearing personal and common responsibilities and in receiving rewards for her deeds. She is acknowledged as an independent personality, in possession of human qualities and worthy of spiritual aspirations. 3. She is equal to man in the pursuit of education and knowledge. When Islam enjoins the seeking of knowledge upon Muslims, it makes no distinction between man and woman. 4. She is entitled to freedom of expression as much as man is. Her sound opinions are taken into consideration and cannot be disregarded just because she happen to belong to the female sex. 5. Historical records show that women participated in public life with the early Muslims, especially in times of emergencies. Women used to accompany the Muslim armies engaged in battles to nurse the wounded, prepare supplies, and serve the warriors, and so on. They were not shut behind iron bars or considered worthless creatures and deprived of souls. 6. Islam grants woman equal rights to contract, to enterprise, to earn and possess independently. Her life, her property, her honour are as sacred as those of man. If she commits any offense, her penalty is no less or more than of man's in a similar case. 7. Islam does not state these rights in a statistical form and then relax. It has taken all measures to safeguard them and put them into practice as integral articles of Faith. It never tolerates those who are inclined to prejudice against woman or discrimination between man and woman. 8. Apart from recognition of woman as an independent human being acknowledged as equally essential for the survival of humanity, Islam has given her a share of inheritance. 9. In some instances of bearing witness to certain civil contracts, two men are required or one man and two women. Again, this is no indication of the woman being inferior to man. It is a measure of securing the rights of the contracting parties, because woman as a rule is not as experienced in practical life as man. This lack of experience may cause a loss to any party in a given contract. So the Law requires that at least two women should bear witness with one man. If a woman of the witness forgets something, the other one would remind her. Or if she makes an error, due to lack of experience, the other would help to correct her. This is a precautionary measure to guarantee honest transactions and proper dealings between people. In fact, it gives woman a role to play in civil life and helps to establish justice. 10. Woman enjoys certain privileges of which man is deprived. She is exempt from some religious duties, i.e., prayers and fasting, in her regular periods and at times of confinement. She is exempt from all financial liabilities. 11. The standing of woman in prayers behind man does not indicate in any sense that she is inferior to him. Woman, as already mentioned, is exempt from attending congregational prayers which are obligatory on man. But if she does attend she Mr Pahary Page 177

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stands in separate lines made up of women exclusively. This is a regulation of discipline in prayers, and not a classification of importance. 12. The Muslim woman is always associated with an old tradition known as the "veil". It is Islamic that the woman should beautify herself with the veil of honour, dignity, chastity, purity and integrity. She should refrain from all deeds and gestures that might stir the passions of people other than her legitimate husband or cause evil suspicion of her morality. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 11 Some people say that the teachings of the Quran about women are not properly put into practice in many places today. How far do you agree or disagree with what these people say? [20] (2003) 12 (a) Outline the teachings of Islam about the place of women, [12] And (b) show how this teaching is put into practice among Muslims in a country you know. [8] (2004) 11 Give reasons to agree or disagree with the view that the proper place for a Muslim woman is in the home. [20] (2006) 11 Outline the teachings of Islam about the place of women, and show how these teachings are put into practice among Muslims in a country you know. [20] (2007) 12 According to the Prophet: Paradise lies at the feet of mothers. Explain the importance of this statement in a Muslims understanding of the place of women in society. [20] (2008) 12 When it comes to women, Muslims only pay lip-service to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. Discuss, giving reasons as to why you agree or disagree with this claim. [20] (2009) 11 (a) Outline the main teachings of the Quran about women. [10] (b) How far can these teachings be reconciled with the position of women in present day societies? [10] (2010)

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Islamic Studies Muslim Minorities

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Minorities are sometimes considered as those left behind after the non-Muslim occupation of Muslim lands. These modern jurists presume that eventually minority Muslims will have to migrate back to Muslim countries. In the meantime, they must protect their religious and cultural identity by isolating themselves from their host societies. Preservation of faith and strict obedience to the laws of Islam are the foremost duties of all Muslims, including those living as minorities. It is thus our duty to help Muslim minorities. It is our responsibility to come to their help and demand and to try to put the Shariah into practice Problems facing Muslims 1. Problems of discrimination (due to media Muslims as terrorists and violent) 2. Islam considered as stagnant religion (western as modern) 3. Problems to put Shariah into practice 4. Prejudice against Islam 5. Violence against Muslims 6. Physical and Psychological Problems 7. Dress 8. Education 9. Marriage 10. Divorce 11. Will and Inheritance 12. Place of cult 13. Food 14. Abortion legalised in Mauritius Discrimination Citizenship In many countries throughout Europe, Muslims encounter difficulties in obtaining citizenship. This is especially problematic in Germany, the United Kingdom and Employment In Greece, members of the Muslim minority from Thrace are commonly discriminated against as they are confined to low level, low paying jobs. They encounter difficulties obtaining licenses to operate businesses. In Serbia and Montenegro, Muslims and ethnic Albanians are frequently fired from their jobs based on religion and ethnicity. Similar difficulties are encountered by Chechens and other Muslim minorities in Russia. Military In Bulgaria, Mulims are not allowed to participate in regular military units; rather, they are assigned to maintenance and construction. In Greece, Muslims are prevented from advancing in rank in the military. Repression due to fears of Islamic extremism or political Islam

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In France, mass arrests and deportation of thousands of illegal immigrants from Northern Africa are justified based on fears of terrorist attacks, similar to those which have already occurred in Paris over the past several years. In the Czech Republic, a town council denied the permit for the building of a mosque, arguing that it would become a center for terrorism. In Uzbekistan, where the majority of inhabitants are Muslim, the government suppresses groups that oppose state appointed religious authorities. Muslim leaders have been detained and harassed for acts perceived as insubordination. As a result of such allegations, three mosques have been closed and the "disappearance" of several Muslim leaders has been reported. Recent political events in Turkey highlight the conflict between popular support for the political involvement of Islamic political parties (namely Refah) and the militarys fanatic commitment to maintaining the secular nature of the state. The government, in addition to having a known record of human rights violations against dissidents of all types, interferes with proselytizing and activism if there are political overtones. The crackdown on Islamic education in secondary schools further reflects government control over the ability of individuals to study their religion; the hope is that by reducing the amount of time students spend learning about Islam, they will decrease the popularity of and enthusiasm for religious activism. The Ministry of Defense forced a Turkish judge into retirement due to his religious convictions, claiming that he demonstrated "unlawful fundamentalist opinions." Women as specific targets Muslim women who choose to wear a head-covering (referred to as hijab) in addition to overall modest attire are frequently subject to attacks, discrimination and other forms of abuse and harassment. They become an easy target for right-wing extremists, government officials and even feminist groups. Hijab seems to provoke reactions in many people who feel it is symbolic of other issues. To the Muslim women, it is an expression of modesty and for some it reflects a particular devotion to the faith. To others, it represents oppression and foreign-ness. For others, it simply serves as a useful way to target the "other" and to use women as a means to carry out suppression, discrimination and violence against Muslims. Lack of understanding regarding the purpose of hijab led the French government to claim that the "ostentatious" wearing of the headscarf violated laws in place prohibiting proselytizing in schools. Due to negative public attention, the Administrative Court, in 1995, modified the law, instead prohibiting the wearing of "ostentatious political and religious symbols" in school, thus leaving the decision to the discretion of school officials. As a reaction to such hostility, families chose to keep their daughters home instead of subjecting them to harassment by school authorities. Women who wear hijab in Turkey are prevented from obtaining post-graduate degrees and from advancing in the workplace. Similar forms of discrimination exist throughout Europe and are mainly reported anecdotally. Frequently, Muslim women are singled out at airports as they are treated as suspects. Human rights groups have not focused specifically on the problems faced by Muslim women who, compared to their male counterparts, may be even less likely to report harassment and discrimination. The persecution of Muslims is the result of deep-seated hatred and prejudice that must be addressed. While it may be expressed most violently by extremist elements, the participation Mr Pahary Page 180

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of governments to lesser degrees confirms that the racism permeates all levels of society. Recognition of this fact is the key to addressing the grievances and resolving conflict. Conflict that is generated elsewhere with repercussions on European soil, reinforce stereotyping and paranoia that is used to justify widespread acts of intolerance and repression. The media also contributes negatively by perpetuating stereotypical negative portrayals of Islam and Muslims. This is clearly evident in the American entertainment industry which continues to produce movies, such as Executive Decision and True Lies, that are broadcast around the world, further solidifying the publics perception of Muslims and Middle Easterners as terrorist and uncivilized. No positive images are offered to counter the effect, thus adding to the publics general ignorance about Islam and intolerance for those who are different. In France, over 500 hate crimes were reported in 1996. Similar incidents have been reported, although not as widespread, in the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Bulgaria and the Czech Republic, the victims of hate crimes which often includes murder, are members of the Romani population, many of whom are Muslim. Discrimination by government institutions against these minorities can be interpreted as a form of endorsement of similarly motivated prejudice, only expressed in a more extreme fashion. In the war in Chechnya, while both sides committed atrocities, Russian troops carried out a disproportionate amount of violence against non-combatants including indiscriminate killings, extrajudicial executions of civilians, torture, rape and hostage-taking. Further traumatisation of Bosnian Muslims continues, particularly among refugees, who are being forcibly repatriated from countries like Germany even when conditions in Bosnia-Hercegovina are not favorable for resettlement. How to react? Furthermore, the Quran says, "Do not disagree:" do not "tanaaza`u" that is a strong word in Arabic. It is different from "Ikhtikaf disagreement." Tanaaza`u" is saying, do not have conflict with one another. So what must be done is to: 1. Eliminate all bridges among the different Islamic parties. Eliminate all differences in Aqeedah but work for the common people and Muslims 2. Create a solidarity and trust as a pillar. Help all Muslims whether poor or better-off 3. Work together as one unit. Try to come in partnership with Muslims businessmen. 4. Spread Islam in the best way wisdom. Dont force anyone to enter Islam. Talk politely. 5. Keep the traditional Islam intact. Let Islamic customs and traditions be part of ones private and public life. 6. Abide by the law of Allah for blessings. Follow the Shariah for one own betterment. 7. Make the formation of the future generation through your kids. Pass on the Islamic concepts to the offsprings. Dont merge with European and western cultures. 8. Inculcate Sabr in ones heart. To have patience in times of physical and psychological persecutions. 9. Migration to a Muslim country. Search for another friendly land to live Islam. Rights of Muslims Mr Pahary Page 181

Islamic Studies 1. Security of Life and Property 2. Protection of Honour (defamation) 3. Private life 4. Freedom of Religion, Speech, Organisation 5. Protest against Tyranny 6. Protection of Religious Statements

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Muslims living as minorities have also endeavored to develop Islamic jurisprudence that applies to minority living, fiqh al-aqalliyyat. The American Muslim community has seen remarkable growth - from one congregation in the mid-1920s to more than 2,000 organizations of all functional types by the end of the twentieth century. American Muslims today are experiencing life as part of an increasingly globalized system. All indications suggest a growing momentum among Muslims in favor of integration into Americas civic and political life The American Muslim community is unique in its diversity. Thirty-six percent of American Muslims were born in the United States, while 64 percent were born in 80 different countries around the world. No other country has such a rich diversity of Muslims. The American Muslim community is thus a microcosm of the Muslim world. It includes all religious schools of thought, intellectual trends, political ideologies and Islamic movements. Muslims migration to Europe has a direct relationship to the colonial period. In UK most Muslim immigrants tend to be from Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, all areas that were former British colonies. Moroccans and Algerians drifted to France (they are about six to 10 million Muslims now in France). Turks went to Germany (most of Germany's one and a half million Muslims are Turks). The Netherlands has about half a million Muslims who are mostly from Surinam. In Portugal most Muslims are from the former colonies in India or southern France; in Spain they are from Morocco or Algeria. In Italy, where there are estimated to be about 200,000 Muslims, they are mostly from Libya. There are some interesting differences between the USA and Europe which help us to better understand the phenomenon of Islam in the West. In America the Muslim community is largely composed of middle class doctors, engineers, academics. This gives the community a greater social confidence and a positive sense of belonging. In Europe, by and large, the community is largely working class or even the underclass. Many live in ghetto-like neighborhoods where feelings of alienation run very high. The freedom offered in the West has to be appropriately harnessed by Muslims. Muslims must use this freedom to explore new ideas and effectively respond to the vigorous challenges to their deeply held beliefs. While speaking out against perceived affront to their religion they must uphold the right of others to offend even as they seek innovative ways to uphold their right to defend. This, of course, entails an unequivocal commitment to the rule of law. Citizens have the right to protest unfair treatment; and when they believe the law is unjust, they should work to change such the law. Thus the promising engagement lies in civic participation and political mobilization. Random violence can never be justified. From an analytical standpoint, violence is an indication of social tensions reaching a crisis level. Dialogue and civic engagement can prevent any such tipping points. Those who seek positive change must focus their diplomatic energies at inducing informed changes in perceptions and policies. Todays Muslim youth in the West have grown up being preached ideas of plurality, equality and freedom. When such ideas are not applied towards their own empowerment it can lead to disillusionment and in the worst cases irrational violence. If the aspiration of todays Muslim youth are to be harnessed properly it can lead to immense Mr Pahary Page 182

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symbiosis between the West and the Muslim world promoting a new era of enlightenment and irreversibly steering the world away from an apocalyptic clash of civilizations. For example, on being questioned by his brothers how a person whom they had pushed into the well could come to rise to such great heights, Hazrat Yusuf offers this explanation from the Qur'an (12:90): "Behold, he that is righteous and patient - never will God suffer the reward to be lost, of those who do good." Muslim minorities living in non-Muslim countries cannot manage to ignore the realities of the situation as prevailing in their countries. They will have to determine their attitude after giving the most careful thought to all the aspects of the problem and with this dictum of the Shariah as their guiding principle. Muslims living under non-Muslim systems are, as such, required to make every possible effort for the recognition of this principle by their governments. The attitude Muslim minorities must take is: You talk and you listen. You take, but you also give. You respect first and then you gain respect and attain credibility and dignity. There cannot absolutely cannot be any discussion of minority problems with only one side present. Dialogue is the essence even of Dawah. It needs above all moral courage of the highest Islamic order, especially in present times when religious and political polarization has reached lethal proportions Secular Laws not reflecting Islamic Laws 1. Law of marriage, that is, civil marriage v/s Nikah 2. Law of divorce that is the right of the husband to divorce the wife. But according to secular law, the husband has to go through court procedures. 3. Law of inheritance that is the share being divided into 3 parts, one for the girl and two for the boy. However through secular law it is half equal. 4. Law of 4 marriages that is only the first one is accepted. The three other wives are considered as concubines. 5. The ethical law of the beard where in certain fields, it is prohibited to have a beard but in Islam it is Haram to shave the beard. Past Papers Questions Syllabus 9013 12 In your country or another country you know, what major (a) problems and (b) opportunities face present-day Muslims as they try to live by the teachings of Islam? [20] (2003) 12 With reference to any country you know where Muslims live as a minority, discuss the major problems they face in their attempt to implement Islamic values in everyday life. [20] (2005) 10 With reference to any country you know where Muslims are in a minority, discuss: (a) the major problems they face [8] and Mr Pahary Page 183

Islamic Studies (b) the opportunities they have in living their lives as Muslims. [12] (2007)

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12 What are the main challenges that face Muslims who live as minority communities in wider societies? (Focus your answer on one or two countries that you know.) [20] (2010)

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