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MATERI 1

TENSES
Tenses merupakan perubahan kata kerja dalam kalimat Bahasa Inggris yang menyatakan perbedaan waktu dan sifat kegiatan atau kejadian. Untuk dapat mengetahui dan memahami bentuk, perbedaan bentuk, dan kegunaan tenses, yang perlu dipahami terlebih dahulu adalah :

1. Pembagian Tenses
Tenses secara garis besar dibagi menjadi empat bagian yaitu present, past , future, dan past future. Masingmasing bagian itu dibagi lagi menjadi empat yaitu simple, continues, perfect, dan perfect continues. Maka seluruh jenis tenses jumlahnya ada 16. Perhatikan bagan di bawah ini: Present
Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues simple present tense present continues tense present perfet tense present perfect continues tense simple past tense past continues tense past perfet tense past perfect continues tense simple future tense future continues tense future perfet tense future perfect continues tense

Past

Tenses Future

Past Future

Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues

simple past future tense past future continues tense past future perfet tense past future perfect continues tense

2. Perbedaan rumus
Pertama, perhatikan terlebih dahulu pola dasar yang membedakan antara simple, continues, perfect, dan perfect continues. Ciri-ciri yang menjadi pembeda tersebut adalah sebagai berikut : Simple selalu memiliki Verb (V1/V2), tidak ada to be ataupun to have Continues selalu memiliki be (is, am, are, was, were) dan V-ing Perfect selalu memiliki unsur to have (have, has, had) Perfect continues tense selalu memiliki unsur to have (have, has, had) + been + V-ing

Setelah mengetahui perbedaan antara 4 bentuk di atas, perlu diketahui bagian mana yang akan berubah jika dipengaruhi bentuk present, past, future dan past future, yaitu sebagai berikut Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues S+V S + be + V-ing S + have + V3 S + have + been + V-ing

a. Present Ciri dari present yaitu : kata kerja dalam bentuk pertama, maka semua kata yang digaris bawahi di atas harus dalam bentuk pertama. Khusus untuk bentuk present ini, jika subjek berupa orang ketiga tunggal, Verb pada bentuk simple tense ditambah s/-es dan have pada bentuk perfect dan perfect continues tense berubah menjadi has b. Past Ciri pada past yaitu kata kerja pada bentuk kedua , maka semua kata yang digaris bawahi harus dalam bentuk kedua c. Future Ciri dari future yaitu : memiliki modal will (be1going to) atau shall. Maka modal tersebut diletakkan sebelum kata yang digaris bawahi tersebut. Perlu diingat bahwa modal selalu diikuti bentuk pertama d. Past future Ciri dari past future yaitu : memiliki modal would (be1going to) atau should . Maka modal tersebut diletakkan sebelum kata yang digaris bawahi

Maka rumus dari ke-16 tenses tersebut adalah sebagai berikut :

Present

Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues

S + V1`(+ -s/-es) S + be1 (is, am, are) + V-ing S + have (has) + V3 S + have (has) + been + V-ing S + V2 S + be2(was,were) + V-ing S + had + V3 S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V-ing S + will/shall + have + V3 S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing

Past

Tenses Future

Past Future

Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues

S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + V-ing S + would/should + have + V3 S + would/should + have + been + V-ing

3. Pengertian dan fungsi


Simple
~ menyatakan kebiasaan ~ menyatakan hal yang terjadi berulang-ulang ~ menyatakan kebenaran umum Continues ~ menyatakan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung

1. Present Masa sekarang 2. Past Masa lampau 3. Future Masa depan 4. Past future Akan terjadi di masa lampau

Perfect ~ menyatakan kejadian yang telah selesai

Perfect Continues ~ menyatakan kejadian yang telah dimulai dan masih berlangsung

Setelah memahami jenis, perbedaan bentuk, dan kegunaan di atas, perlu diperhatikan hal-hal penting yang merupakan kunci dalam menyelesaikan soal yang berkaitan dengan tenses. Hal-hal tersebut antara lain:

1. keterangan waktu
Beberapa soal yang berhubungan dengan tenses dapat diselesaikan dengan melihat keterangan waktu yang digunakan dalam soal tersebut, yaitu antara lain Present Past Future Past Future Simple Usually, regularly, Yesterday, last, Tomorrow, the day The following day, sometimes, never, this morning, after tomorrow, the next day, the often, everyday, before, ago, just next, this coming every, week, once now morning habitally, a week, frequently Continues Now, at this At the moment, at At this time At oclock the moment, right now, the time, at tomorrow, at following day, at today, this year oclock yesterday oclock tomorrow that time the next day perfect Since, for, For, since , by , By next , by the By the following , Perfect continues already, just, yet, all before , after , end of , by then, by the end of last the day, ever, never for Catatan: Keterangan waktu antara bentuk perfect dan perfect continues tense umumnya sama, sehingga untuk membedakannya (dalam menyelesaikan soal) perlu diperhatikan konteks kalimat yang menyatakan fungsi, yaitu apakah kejadian tersebut telah selesai atau masih berlangsung Keterangan waktu perfect dan perfect continues pada present dan past hampir sama. Untuk membedakannya perlu diketahui keterangan waktu lain yang menyatakan apakah kalimat tersebut menggunakan bentuk present atau past

Penggunaan present continues tense juga bisa ditandai oleh adanya kalimat perintah seperti Look! Listen ! dan hear !

2. Konjungsi
Jika kalimat soal merupakan gabungan dari klausa-klausa dengan tenses yang berbeda, maka konjungsi yang terdapat dalam soal itu dapat dijadikan ciri untuk menentukan bentuk tenses yang diminta oleh soal. Dalam hal ini perlu diketahui bahwa jika dua klausa memiliki tenses seimbang (present-present atau past-past) dapat digabung dengan while, when, before, dan after. Sementara since digunakan untuk menggabungkan present perfect dengan simple past. Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan pola penggabungan klausa dengan menggunakan konjungsi-konjungsi tersebut While Rumus : Simple + while + continues

Dari rumus tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa jika klausa pertama berbentuk simple tense (baik present maupun past), klausa kedua harus berupa continues tense dengan syarat antara klausa pertama dan kedua tersebut harus seimbang yaitu present-present atau past-past Contoh : ~ He waits for a long time while she is taking a bath ~ She moved while I was going out of town When Rumus : Simple + when + simple/continues/perfect/perfect continues Atau simple/continues/perfect/perfect continues + when + simple Contoh : ~ Anton is surprised when I say that ~ Ardan had just finished his lunch when we chatted Before dan after Rumus :

perfect/perfect continues + before + simple/continues

simple/continues + after + perfect/perfect continues

Since Rumus :

Present perfect/perfect continues + since + simple past

Contoh : ~ She was lived in Jakarta since he entered the university ~ Dony has been standing outside since his girl friend slam the door 3. Konteks kalimat sebelum atau sesudahnya Langkah ini berlaku jika soal terdiri dari dua kalimat yang umumnya beruoa percakapan. Maka tenses yang dinyatakan harus sesuai dengan tenses pada kalimat lain dalam soal tersebut

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. This man ____ five years ago A. dies B. died C. is dying D. has died E. had died Pembahasan This man _____ five years ago Dalam pilihan jawaban hanya terdapat bentuk future perfect continues sementara bentuk future perfect tidak ada Jawaban : B

Keterangan waktu simple past tense Jawaban : B 2. She ___ here for 2 years by the end of this this week A. has been living B. will have been living C. has lived D. would have been living E. will be living Pembahasan : She ___ here for 2 years by the end of this this week

3. Where is Puzzy? Look ! She ____ on the pillow. A. sleeps B. is sleeping C. slept D. has slept E. would sleep Penyelesaian : Look ! She ____ on the pillow

Ciri penggunaan present continues tense Jawaban : B

Keterangan waktu future perfect Atau future perfect continues 4. Vina : When did you get the letter ? Fani : Yesterday. My family ___ when the postman arrived A. have lunch

Penyelesaian : tenses harus sesuai dengan where are you simple present tense

B. will have lunch C. were having lunch D. will have had lunch E. have been having lunch Penyelesaian : My familu ___ when the postman arrived ________ + when + simple past tense Past tense Jawaban : C 5. Nindy : when did you get this cassette? Lia : Yesterday. When I ____ home, a boy asked me to give it to you A. walk B. walked C. walking D. was walked E. has been walking Penyelesaian : When I ____ home, a boy asked me to give it to you (susun balik pola klausa dengan konjungsi when ) a boy asked me to give it to you when I ___ home simple past tense + when + _____

Jawaban : C 9. A: Can you pick me up at around 2.00 pm tomorrow ? B : Im sorry I cant, I ____ then A. am teaching B. will be teaching C. have been teaching D. have taught E. will teach Penyelesaian : Tenses harus sesuai dengan Can you pick me up at around 2.00 pm tomorrow? keterangan waktu untuk future continues tense Penyelesaian : B 10. I thanked her for what she ____ A. does B. has done C. will do D. had done E. would be done Penyelesaian Tidak ada keterangan waktu maupun konjungsi merupakan ciri tenses tertentu. Maka tenses menyesuaikan kata kerja sebelumnya I thanked her for what she ____ past tense Jawaban : D

past tense Jawaban : B 6. Anton dan Doni have been friends since they ___ elementary school A. were entering D. will have entered B. have entered E. had entered C. entered

Aplikasi soal 2
1. What a beautiful voice. She is a talented singer. She _____ since she was a child A. sang B. sings C. is singing D. had been singing E. has been singing 2. A : I think were going to be here for a while B. : But we ___ in line for almost an hour A. are standing B. have stood C. stand D. were standing E. have been standing 3. A : I think were going to be here for a while B. : But we ___ in line for almost an hour A. are standing B. have stood C. stand D. were standing E. have been standing 4. By the end of this week, I ___ from Malaysia A. am back B. have been back C. would be back D. may be back E. will have been back 5. The maid had been ironing when I came It means when I came _____. A. the maid was still ironing B. the maid didnt iron anymore C. the maid had finished ironing D. the maid would iron E. the maid stopped ironing 6. Do you often go to restaurants ? No, it quite a long time since I went to a restaurant with my friends. A. has been B. would be C. is being D. was

E. had been
7. Atik : When will your sister her study ? Mirna : I hope she ___ by July next year A. will have graduated B. has graduated C. will graduated D. is going to graduated E. intends to graduated 8. Ridwan : When are the children going to see the rice-field ? Willy : In June, after the harvest time Ridwan : Are they ? So, by the time they get there, the farmers ___ all the crops A. harvest B. harvested C. has harvested D. had harvested E. will have harvested 9. Dont you think the bus driver is speeding? Yes, Im afraid he ____ the lives of the passengers A. endangered B. will endanger C. would have endangered D. endangers E. would endanger 10. Hadi looks very tired, he ____ for hours now A. drove B. had driven C. was driving D. had been driving E. has been driving 11. Harry : We receive a large donation from individual donors and bequests Irma : I hope you distribute the money as soon as possible Harry : Dont worry. We ___ all the money by the end of this month A. distribute B. will distributed C. have distributed D. will have distributed E. will have been distributed

12. Understanding a joke isan intellectual achieve ment, yet reflective thought ____ humor A. to destroy B. to be destroyed by C. destroys D. destroying E. has destroyed 13. Andi : I didnt see your sister . where she is? Roy : Shes studying in Australia Andi : Oh, how long has she been there? Roy : _____ A. last year B. a year ago C. since last year D. by next year E. yesterday 14. Asfi had just watered the flowers when Ihsan came . From this sentence we may conclude that A. Ihsan didnt see Asfi watering the flowers B. Ihsan came at the time Asfi was watering the flowers C. Ihsan was watching Asfi watering the flowers D. Ihsan would come when Asfi finished watering the flowers E. Ihsan had come before Asfi watered the flowers 15. Because the allocated time is not enough to finish this project, we are still working on it now. As a matter of fact we ____ on it for four days A. are working B. work C. have been working D. worked E. had worked 16. James : Why didnt you answer my call? Peter : Sorry ______. A. I was feeding my cattle B. I had fed all my cattle C. I have fed my cattle D. Ill feed my cattle E. I fed my cattle 17. Susan : I went to your house at 7 p.m last night But you werent home. Where were you?

Rufy : Oh . I _____ for a new dictionary at the book store then. A. look B. looked C. will look D. was looking E. have looked 18. You are supposed to be here ten minutes ago . Where were you ? I _______ a place to park A. am looking B. looked C. have looking D. look E. was looking 19. The maid had been ironing when I came. It means when I came ________. A. the maid was still ironing B. the maid didnt iron anymore C. the maid had finished ironing D. the maid would iron E. the maid stopped ironing 20. Nuki : What was your sister doing when you arrived home last night? Rendra : She _____ in the kitchen A. cooks B. is cooking C. has cooked D. has been cooking E. was cooking

Kunci jawaban aplikasi soal 2


1. She is a talented singer merupakan bentuk nominal Simple present tense sehingga menunjukkan waktu sekarang . Since menunjukkan bentuk perfect tense atau perfect continues tense. Maka jawaban yang tepat berbentuk Present perfect Continues tense Jawaban : E 2. For almost an hour merupakan keterangan waktu bentuk Perfect tense atau Perfect Continues Tense sementara itu kalimat : I think were going to be here for a while ( Aku piker kita akan di sini untuk beberapa saat ) menunjukkan bahwa pada saat berbicara A dan B sedang berada di sini (here). Maka bentuk tenses yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat adalah Perfect continues tense Jawaban : E 3. For almost an hour merupakan keterangan waktu bentuk Perfect tense atau Perfect Continues Tense sementara itu kalimat : I think were going to be here for a while ( Aku piker kita akan di sini untuk beberapa saat ) menunjukkan bahwa pada saat berbicara A dan B sedang berada di sini (here). Maka bentuk tenses yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat adalah Perfect continues tense Jawaban : E 4. By the end of merupakan keterangan waktu Untuk Future perfect tense atau future perfect conti nues tense. Hanya ada satu jawaban yang mengandung unsur future (will), sehingga jelas bahwa jawaban itulah yang tepat. Jawaban : E 5. had been ironing menggunakan bentuk past perfect Continues tense yang menyatakan sesuatu yang telah terjadi atau telah dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih terjadi pada saat peristiwa lain di waktu lampau terjadi Maka pada saat aku datang ( I came) pembantu itu masih menyetrika. Jawaban : A 6. Do you often go to restaurants? (Apakah kamu sering pergi ke restoran-restoran?) Pertanyaan tersebut menunjukkan bentuk present

dan telah diketahui bahwa since menun jukkan bentuk Perfect Tense atau Perfect Continues Tense Maka jelaslah bahwa bentuk tenses yang tepat adalah Present perfect tense atau present perfect continues tense Jawaban : A Jelas bahwa by July next year juga menunjukkan bentuk Future perfect tense atau Perfect Continues tense yang memiliki unsur utama will + have. Jawaban : A When are the children going to see the rice field? menggunakan Perfect Tense ( are going to adalah bentuk lain dari will ). Selain petunjuk tersebut diketahui pula bahwa by the time menunkukkan bentuk Future Perfect Tense atau Future perfect Continues Tense. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah jawaban yang memiliki unsur will+ have Jawaban : E Dont you think the bus driver is speeding? Berupa Present Tense (pembicaraan terjadi di masa sekarang). Im afraid he _____ the lives of passengers Kata afraid yang merupakan ungkapan kekhawatiran mengindikasikan bahwa peristiwa (membahayakan) belum terjadi saar pembicaraan berlangsung Kalimat yang belum terjad pada saat Present adalah future Jawaban : B For hours now menunjukkan bentuk Present Perfect tense atau Present Perfect Continues Tense Jawaban yang tepat adalah yang berbentuk Present Perfect Tense Jawaban : D

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11. Jelas bahwa by the end of this month menunjukkan bentuk Future Perfect tense atau Future perfect Continues Tense yang memiliki unsur utama will + have (Jawaban yang mungkin D atau E ). I hope you distribute the money as soon as possible (aku harap kamu mendistribusikan uang itu secepat nya) Dont worry ( Jangan khawatir ) Percakapan ini menunjukkan bahwa proses distri busi diharapkan sudah selesai by the end of this month. Maka tenses yang tepat adalah Future

Perfect Tense Jawaban : D 12. Understanding a joke isan intellectual achieve ment, yet reflective thought ____ humor . Kalimat tersebut terdiri dari dua klausa yang dihubungkan oleh kata hubung yet. Klausa pertama berbentuk Simple Present Tense. Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah destroys. Jawaban : C 13. how long has she been there? Present perfect Tense. Keterangan waktu yang sesuai digunakan untuk Tenses ini adalah Since last year Jawaban : C 14. Had just watered merupakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense yang berfungsi untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang telah terjadi pada saat peristiwa lain terjadi di masa lampau . Maka Adfi had just watered the flowers when Ihsan came berarti Asfi telah selesai menyiram bunga ketika Ihsan datang Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah Ihsan didnt see Asfi watering the flowers. (Ihsan tidak melihat Asfi menyi ram bunga) Jawaban : A 15. For four days menunjukkan bentuk Perfect tense atau Perfect continues tense. We are still working on it now berarti kami masih sedang mengerjakannya sekarang . Maka jawaban yang tepat menggunakan Perfect Continues Tense Jawaban : C 16. Why didnt you answer my call ? (kenapa kamu tidak menjawab teleponku?) Didnt menunjukkan bentuk past, sehingga opsi C dan D sudah pasti salah Kejadian yang tepat adalah kejadian yang sedang terjadi pada saat James menelepon. Tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau adalah Past Continues tense ( S +was,were + Ving) Jawaban : A 17. Where were you ? Simple Past tense Then adalah keterangan waktu yang digunakan untuk Past Continues tense S + was/were + Ving Jawaban : D 18. Terdapat dua petunjuk dalam soal ini :

- Ten minutes ago - Where were you ? Kedua petunjuk tersebut menunjukkan bentuk Simple Past Tense sehingga jawabanny apasti juga dalam bentuk Simple Past Tense ( S + V2 ) Jawaban : B 19. Had been ironing menggunakan bentuk Past Perfect Tense yang menyatakan sesuatu yang telah terjadi atau telah dimulai pada masa lalu dan masih terjadi pada saat peristiwa lain di waktu lampau ter jadi. Maka pada saat aku datang ( I came ) pemban tu tersebut masih menyetrika Jawaban : A 20. What was your sister doing when you arrived home last night ? ( Apa yang sedang dilakukan sau dara perempuanmu ketika kamu tiba di rumah tadi malam). Was + doing Past Continues Tense Pertanyaan menggunakan Past Continues Tense sehingga jawaban yang tepat juga berbenrtuk Past Continues Tense Jawaban : E

MATERI II

PASSIVE VOICE

Passive voice merupakan kalimat yang subjeknya dikenai tindakan atau perbuatan . Pola dasar kalimat pasif : to be + V3 Langkah-langkah penyelesaian soal yang berkaitan dengan passive voice adalah :

1. Menentukan rumus yang tepat untuk kalimat pasif tersebut


Dalam menyelesaikan soal passive voice, harus diketahui terlebih dahulu bentuk kalimat pasif yang diminta oleh soal tersebut. Kadang soal meminta ketepatan tenses pada sebuah kalimat pasif, namun kadang soal hanya meminta bentuk pasif tertentu (yang merupakan bagian dari suatu kalimat) tanpa begitu memperhatikan tenses keseluruhan kalimat.

a. Rumus kalimat tenses berdasarkan tensesnya Telah disebutkan di atas bahwa pola dasar kalmat pasif adalah to be + V3. Pola dasar kalimat ini dapat mengalami modifikasi dipengaruhi oleh bentu tenses. Untuk memahami pola-pola kalimat pasif berdasar tensesnya, yang perlu diingat adalah : Simple rumus dasar pasif tidak mendapatkan tambahan Continues pola dasar pasif mendapat tambahan being Perfect pola dasar dengan tambahan to have sehingga to be dalam bentuk ketiga ( been ) Perfect Continues pola pasif perfect mendapat tambahan being

Maka bentuk formulanya : Simple to be + V3 Continues to be + being + V3 Perfect have + been + V3 Perfect Conttinues have + been +being + V3 Pada dasarnya unsur yang digaris bawahi pada bentuk formula di atas merupakan pembeda pola pasif antara bentuk simple, continues, perfect, dan perfect continues Sementara itu, ciri yang membedakan pola berdasar pambagian waktu present, past, future dan past future sama dengan ciri umum tenses, yaitu : 1. pada present, kata kerja/kata bantu dalam bentuk pertama 2. pada past, kata kerja/kata bantu dalam bentuk kedua 3. future memiliki modal will/shall 4. past future memiliki modal would

Maka keseluruhan pola kalimat pasif berdasar tensesnya adalah sebagai berikut : Present
Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues S + be1(is ,am, are ) + V3 S + be1 (is, am, are) + being + V3 S + have/has+been+ V3 S + have/has + been + being + V3 S + be2(was,were) + V3 S + be2(was,were) + being + V3 S + had +been + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be+ V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will/shall + have +been + V3 S + will/shall + have + been + being + V3

Past

Tenses Future

Past Future

Simple Continues Perfect Perfect continues

S + would/should +be + V3 S + would/should + be + being + V3 S + would/should + have +been + V3 S + would/should + have + been + being + V3

a. Rumus kalimat pasif yang memiliki modal atau modal perfect Pola kalimat pasif yang menggunakan modal pada intinya sama dengan pola future dan past future,yaitu : S + modal + be + V3 S + modal + have + been +V3

Contoh : - Kalimat aktif : They can help us if we want - Kalimat pasif : we can be helped (by them) if we want - Kalimat aktif : You must have cheated me in the game - Kalimat pasif : I must have been cheated (by you) in the game b. Bentuk pasif dari to infinitive dan gerund Pola kalimat pasif dari bentuk to infinitive sama dengan pola pasif untuk gerund, yaitu : to + be + V3 Contoh : - Kalimat aktif : He continues to mock her - Kalimat pasif : she continues to be mocked (by him) - Kalimat aktif : she advice me taking the job - Kalimat pasif : she advices the job to be taken (by me)

c. Rumus kalimat yang pasif yang berbentuk pertanyaan Pola kalimat pasif untuk bentuk introgative atau pertanyaan menyesuaikan bentuk pertanyaannya. Perlu diingat bahwa dalam kalimat pertanyaan dikenal dengan istilah yes-no question, yaitu : pertanyaan yang jawabannya yes atau no dan wh-question, yaitu : pertanyaan ynag jawabannya berupa informasi. Yes-no question menggunakan modal dan kata bantu sebagai kata Tanya, sedangkan wh-question menggunakan question word seperti who, which, when, why, where, whom, what, which dan how. Terdapat 2 pola kalimat pasif yang berbeda untuk bentuk yes-no question, yaitu : 1. Jika kalimat tersebut tidak memiliki modal 2. Jika kalimat tersebut memiliki modal Sementara itu untuk bentuk wh-question terdapat 3 pola kalimat pasif yang berbeda,yaitu : 1. Jika kalimat tersebut tidak memiliki modal 2. Jika kalimat tersebut memiliki modal 3. Jika yang ditanyakan adalah subjek kalimat tersebut Perhatikan bagan berikut untuk membedakan pola-pola tersebut To be + S + V3 ? Yes-no question Modal + S be + V3 ? Pola pasif WH-question + tobe + S + V3 ? Wh-question Wh-question + modal + S + be + V3 ? Wh-question + to be/modal be + V3 ?

1. Menentukan subjek kalimat pasif


Langkah selanjutnya adalah menentukan subjek untuk kalimat pasif, sehingga diketahui apakah subjek itu tunggal atau jamak. Hal ini penting untuk menentukan to be yang akan digunakan dalam bentuk pasif. Perhatikan cara menentukan subjek kalimat pasif di bawah ini a. Objek pada sebuah kalimat aktif akan menjadi subjek jika kalimat tersebut diubah ke dalam bentuk pasif Contoh : Kalimat aktif : Ronaldo kicked the ball strongly Kalimat pasif : The ball was kicked strongly by Ronaldo b. Jika kalimat aktif memiliki dua objek ( objek langsung dan objek tak langsung), maka objek langsung akan menjadi subjek untuk kalimat pasifnya. Contoh : Kalimat aktif : The girl gives him everything Kalimat pasif : he is given everything by thr girl c. Jika kalimat aktifnya menggunakan subjek berupa people, everyone, dan everybody yang diikuti that clause, maka subjek kalimat pasifnya berupa impersonal it Contoh : Kalimat aktif : People say that the young lady is an idol Kalimat pasif :It is said that the young lady is an idol

Aplikasi soal 1
1. Mella : Why do you prefer Surya Department Store to others? Noni : Because the items ___ in reasonable price A. is sold B. are sold C. was sold D. were sold E. had been sold Penyelesaian : Why do you prefer

Penyelesaian : By the time you come, the house ___ blue Future perfect/ future perfect continues Tanpa menentukan subjek, sudah bisa diketahui jawaban yang tepat : will have been painted Jawaban C X : Was there any trouble at the demonstration? Y : Yes, about 20 people ___ arrested A. are being D. were B. have been E. are C. will be Penyelesaian :

4.

Menunjukkan simple present the items ___ in reasonable price. subjek jamak Rumus passive untuk simple present dengan subjek jamak adalah : S + are + V3 Jawaban : B 2. The thief ___ by the police at his victims house last night. A. is caught D. is catching B. was caught E. had been caught C. caught Penyelesaian : The thief ___ by last night Subjek tunggal simple past

Was there any trouble menunjukkan simple past about 20 people ___ arrested subjek : jamak 5. Jawaban : D Nothing ___ since we left A. has been changed D. was changed B. is changed E. would be changed C. will be changed Penyelesaian : Nothing ___ since we left Simple past

Rumus passive untuk simple past dengan subjek tunggal adalah : S + was + V3 Jawaban : B 3. By the time you come, the house ___ blue A. will to be painted B. will be painted C. will have been painted D. will have been painting E. would be painted

menggabungkan present perfect dengan simple past Kalimat pasif yang diminta dalam bentuk present perfect Jawaban : A 6. He never locks the door. The passive form of the sentence is ____ A. the door are never locked B. the door was not locked

C. he is locked by door D. the door is locked by him E. the door is never locked Penyelesaian : He never locks the door simple present subjek kalimat pasif tunggal

9.

The student were disturbed by the noise of the tractor . Means ____ A. the noise of the tractor was disturbed B. the noise of the tractor were disturbed C. the noise of the tractor disturbed the students D. the noise of the tractor was being disturbed E. the noise of the tractor is disturbed Penyelesaian : The student Pasif Simple Past Subjek kalimat pasif = objek kalimat aktif Subjek kalimat aktifnya yaitu : the noise of the tractor . Sehingga kalimat aktif dari soal di atas : The noise of the tractor disturbed the students Jawaban : C were disturbed

Rumus kalimat pasif : S + is + V3 Catatan : adverb never tidak boleh dihilangkan Jawaban : E 7. How old is the mosque? Well, it ___ in 1870. A. built D. had built B. to be built E. had been built C. was built Penyelesaian : it ___ in 1870 subjek : tunggal Jawaban : C 8. The author had died before his book ___ A. has been published B. had been published C. would be published D. was being published Penyelesaian : The author had died before his book ___ past perfect subjek tunggal menghubungkan perfect dengan simple/continues (tenses sejajar) Rumus passive untuk simple past dengan subjek tunggal adalah : S + was + V3 Jawaban : E simple past tense

10. The regulation of our dormitory does not allow dinner ___ before sunset the fasting month A. to serve D. is served B. to be served E. is serving C. to be serving Penyelesaian : allow diikuti to infinitive Bentuk pasif to infinitive : to + be + V3 Jawaban : B

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. Jupiters four moons ___ through a telescope by Galileo. A. were first viewed B. first viewed C. had been first viewed D. were being first viewed E. first being viewed 2. Can I borrow your car? Sorry, you cant. It ___ by my brother A. being repaired B. to be repaired C. was repaired D. hed been repaired E. is being repaired 3. I saw him stealing money. The passive form is ___ A. I saw him to be stolen B. He was seen stealing money C. The money was stolen and I saw him D. I was seen to steal money E. He and the money were seen 4. The Amazon valley is extremely important to the ecology of the earth. Forty percent of the worlds oxygen ___ there A. are being produced B. are produced C. is being produced D. is produced E. was produced 5. Father cut the trees. The passive form is ___ A. the trees are to be cut B. the trees are cut C. the trees were cut D. the trees would be cut E. the trees had been cut 6. Im sure you love the dog offered to you by the veterinarian yesterday

Yes, I regret I refused it, but when I went back to him, it ___ A. had been taken B. had taken C. had to have taken D. had to be taken E. had to take 7. Did you get the cheap second-hand computer advertised in the newspaper? No luck, It ___ when I called them. A. had been sold B. has been sold C. is being sold D. were sold E. is sold Its very cold, the door needs closing. It means that A. The door will close the cold B. Its too clod to close the door C. the door need to be closed because its very cold D. the door has been closed since it is very cold E. It is very cold because the door is closed Komodos ___ to be descendant from dinosaurus A. they believe B. to believe C. believed D. to be believed E. are believed

8.

9.

10. A wooden bridge ___ here next month A. is going to build B. is to build C. is building D. will be built E. is built 11. A : is my car ready ? B. : Im sorry. ____ because we didnt get the spare parts until today A. we have fixed it B. is still fixing C. still being fixing

D. we still fixed it E. is still being fixed 12. Why are you crying? My wallet ___ A. to be stolen B. be stolen C. being stolen D. was stolen E. has been stealing 13. The floor ___ since yesterday A. has not swept B. not be sweeping C. has not been swept D. not sweeping E. not being swept 14. Someone had advised me to see a psychologist The passive form ____ A. I have seen a psychologist B. I am advised to see a psychologist C. I have advised someone to see a psychologist D. someone has been advised to see a psychologist E. I have been advised to see psychologist 15. What is going to happen to children who have become orphan due to tsunami disaster ? Dont worry. They ____ A. will take care of B. will have been taken care of C. will have taken care of D. will be taken care of E. will be taking care of 16. When did the accident happen? When the goods ___ from the truck. A. were unloading B. were being unloading C. being loaded D. they were unloading

17. Why do those people panic? Their semi-permanent houses ____ A. demolished B. are demolished C. to be demolished D. to demolished E. are being demolished 18. Other norms, however, ____ to the individual A. are applied B. applies C. applied D. apply E. applying 19. Your shoes are wet. They ____ A. need to be drying B. need drying C. should need being dried D. need to be dried E. will need be dried 20. Have you been informed about the exact number of victims of the airplane crash? Yes, ____ to the head quarters of Garuda? A. they are faxed B. has faxed C. the victims fax D. it has been faxed E. we fax it 21. Why cant I find the file on the annual report in the computer? Because it ___ in the hard disk. A. was not saving B. not saved C. did not save D. not being saved E. was not saved 22. I havent got the report on the seminar held last last week Im sure it ___ on your desk yesterday.

A .put B. being put C. was putting D. was put E. putting 23. Hasnt Anita submitted her report yet? I dont think so. It ____ A. be printing B. is printing C. being printing D. to be printed E. being printed 24. I need the report immediately, so why dont you use tour laptop computer? I cant. The battery ____ . A. is charging B. to be charged C. is to charged D. is being charged E. charged 25. Arman was not given a present by his parents. It means that ___ A. Arman didnt give a present to his parents B. Arman gave a present to his parents C. Armans parents didnt give him a present D. Arman didnt give them a present E. Armans parents were not given a present

Maka rumus passive voice nya : were + V3 were viewed Catatan : first merupakan keterangan yang bisa bisa diletakkan antara to be dan V3 tanpa merubah pola kalimat pasif Jawaban : A 2. It ____by my brother - Subjek kalimat di atas adalah it tunggal - Penggunaan modal present can menunjukkan present tense Jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola present adalah is being repaired Jawaban : E I saw him stealing money Simple Past Tense Pola pasif Simple Past Tense : was +V3 was seen Maka bentuk kalimat pasifnya : He was seen stealing money ( stealing merupakan keterangan yang posisinya tidak perlu berubah) Jawaban : B The Amazon valley is extremely important to the ecology of the earth. Forty percent of the worlds oxygen _____there - Subjek kalimt di atas adalah Forty percent of the worlds oxygen tunggal ( karena oksigen tidak dapat dihitung ) - Kalimat pertama menunjukkan Simple Present Tense Maka rumus passive voice nya : is + V3 is pro duct Jawaban : D Father cut the trees. Kata kerja cut merupakan irregular verb . Bentuk pertama kedua dan ketiga nya sama. Kata cut dalam kalimat ini adalah kata kerja bentuk kedua, maka kalimat ini dalam bentuk Simple Past Tense. Hal ini bisa diketahui dari subjek nya. Father adalah orang ketiga tunggal, sehingga jika bentuk waktu kalimat ini simple present maka cut harus ditambah s menjadi cuts

3.

4.

Kunci jawaban aplikasi soal 2


1. Jupiters four moons ____ through s telescope 5. by Galileo. Penggunaan kata by ( oleh ) menunjukkan bahwa kalimat ini pasif. Dalam menyelesaikan soal passive voice, yang paling perlu diperhatikan adalah subjek kalimat dan tenses. - Subjek kalimat di atas adalah Jupiter,s four moons adalah jamak

Karena tensesnya Simple Pasr maka bentuk passifnya : S + was/were + V3 Subjek kalimat passif adalah objek dari kalimat aktifnya Maka kalimat pasifnya : the trees were cut Jawaban : C 6. When I went back to him, it ____ - Subjek kalimat di atas adalah it tunggal - Jika when + simple past tense, maka kalimat sebelumnya atau kalimat yang mengikutinya bisa berupa simple past, past continues atau past perfect Bila dilihat dari pilihan jawabannya, maka tenses yang mungkin digunakan adalah Past Perfect. Maka rumus passive voicenya : had + been + V3 had been taken Jawaban : A 7.

- next month future tense Rumus passive voice nya : will/ is going to +be + V3 will be built Jawaban : D 11. Dari percakapan diketahui bahwa mobil belum siap dan masih sedang dalam keadaan diperbaiki. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah bentuk pasif yang meng gunakan Present Continues Tense Jawaban : E 12. Subjek kalimat ( wallet ) tidak mungkin melakukan kegiatan aktif, sehingga kalmat pasti dalam bentuk pasif. Satu-satunya jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola kalimat adalah : was stolen Jawaban : D

8.

9.

10.

13. The floor ___ since yesterday It ___ when I called them. - Subjek kalimat the floor adalah tunggal - Subjek kalimat di atas adalah It tunggal - Since merupakan keterangan waktu yang menciri - Seperti pada soal no.4, tenses dari kalimat bersub Rumus : have/has + been + V3. Pola negatifnya : jek it bisa bertenses simple past, past ciontinues, atau have/has + not + been + v3 past perfect Jawaban : D Berdasarkan bentuk tenses, jawaban yang mungkin 14. Someone had advised me to see a psychologist adalah jawaban A dan D tapi karen subjeknya tunggal present perfect tense jawaban yang lebih tepat adalah had been sold Subjek kalimat pasifnya adalah objek pada kalimat jawaban : A aktif : me I . Pola yang tepat adalah : I have been advised Its very cold. the door needs closing. It means ____ Jawaban : E Seperti telah diketahui kata need yang diikuti gerund bisa 15. What is going to happen to children who bermakna pasif. Bentuk need + gerund ini memiliki arti have become orphan due to tsunami disaster ? yang sama dengan need+ to be + V3. Maka kalimat yang Dont worry. They ____ memiliki maksud yang sama dengan kalimat soal adalah : - Subjek kalimat di atas ( they ) yang merupakan The door need to be closed because its very cold objek Jawaban : C - is going to dalam pertanyaan memiliki makna dengan will Komodos ___ to be descendant from dinosaurus Rumus : will + be + V3 will be taken care of - Subjek kalimat di atas jamak Jawaban : D Kalimat tersebut menyatakan pernyataan umum 16. When did the accident happen? sehingga tenses nya Simple present When the goods ___ from the truck. Rumus passive voice nya : are + V3 was believed - Kata did dalam pertanyaan menunjukkan Jawaban : E Past Tense. Jika simple + when tenses kalimat A wooden bridge ____ here next month ini bisa bertenses simple past, past continues - Subjek tunggal atau past perfect

- Subjek kalimat di atas ( the goods ) jamak Jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola kalimat pasif bertenses past adalah were being unloaded Jawaban : E 17. Why do those people panic? Their semi-permanent houses ____ - Their semi-permanent houses adalah jamak Kata bantu do Simple present tense are demolished Jawaban : B

- yesterday Simple Past Tense Pola pasif yang tepat : was + V3 was put Jawaban : D 23. Subjek it menggantikan report ( tidak bisa melaku kan kegiatan aktif) sehingga kalimatnya pasti pasif Jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola kalimat pasif adalah is being printed Jawaban : E 24. I cant. The battery ____ . The battery sebagai subjek tidak dapat melakukan kegiatan aktif maka harus berbentuk pasif. Jawaban yang paling tepat adalah is + being + charged I cant menunjukkan simple present . Jawaban : D 25. Arman was not given a present by his parents. menunjukkan pasif simple tense. Bentuk aktif dari kalimat tersebut : Armans parents didnt give him a present Jawaban : C

Pola pasif yang tepat : are + V3

18. Other norms, however, ____ to the individual ( Norma-norma lain bagaimanapun juga, ____ kepada individual ) Konteks kalimat mengindikasikan bahwa kalimat ini pasif. Jawaban yang memenuhi pola pasif adalah A Jawaban : A 19. Your shoes are wet. They ____ Subjek they menggantikan shoes tidak mungkin mela kukan kegiatan aktif. Berarti kalimat haris pasif. Kata need yang diikuti gerund bisa bermakna pasif. Jawaban : B 20. Have you been informed about the exact numbe of victims of the airplane crash? Frase yang digarisbawahi akan menjadi subjek untuk kalimat pasif. Kata yang menjadi inti frase tersebut adalah victims (jamak). Dari sini bisa dilihat bahwa jawa ban yang benar adalah they are faxed Jawaban : B 21. Because it ___ in the hard disk. Subjek it menunjuk pada file on the annual report maka tidak mungkin melakukan kegiatan aktif save. maka jawaban merupakan bentuk kalimat pasif Jawaban : E 22. Im sure it ___ on your desk yesterday. - it (tunggal)

MATERI III

CONDITIONAL & SUBJUNCTIVE


Pada dasarnya kalimat conditional dan subjunctive sama-sama menyatakan pengandaian. Kalimat conditional memiliki dua klausa yaitu main clause dan if clause. Sementara subjunctive memiliki beberapa bentuk berbeda dimana kata-kata yang bisa digunakan antara lain : wish, as if/as though, if only, dan would rather. Soal-soal yang berhubungan dengan conditional sentence maupun subjunctive umumnya hanya menanyakan kelengkapan bentuk kalimat sesuai pola ataupun menanyakan fakta ataupun kenyataan dari pengandaian. Maka dari itu untuk menyelesaikan soal-soal tersebut, harus diketahui pola kalimat dan pola faktanya. Di bawah ini adalah tabel hubungan tenses antara bentukdan fakta conditional dan subjunctive

Bentuk conditional tenses Tipe Rumus I If + simple present tense, future tenses II If + simple past tense, past future tense III If + past perfect tense, past future tense
Catatan: -

Fakta Future Present Past

klausa-klausa pada fakta biasanya dihubungkan oleh konjungsi because and so. Susunan if clause dan main clause tidak mempengaruhi arti, namun mempengaruhi penggunaan konjungsi tersebut. Contoh : Conditional : if I had told him , he would not go there fakta : I did not tell him, so he went there Because I did not tell him, he went there

Conditional sentence tanpa if bisa digunakan untuk tipe kedua dan ketiga, pola if clause nya menjadi : Tipe II : were + S + Complement Tipe III : had + S + V3

Bentuk subjunctive:
Tipe Present Rumus S + wish + (that) + S + V2 S + V1 + as if/as though + S + had + v2 If only + S + V2 I would rather + S + V2 S + wish + (that) + S +had + V3 S + V2 + as if/as though + S + V3 If only + S +had + V3 I would rather + S + had + V3 Fakta Present

Past

Past

Hal yang perlu diperhatikan : 1. Fakta dari conditional dan subjunctive berlawanan dengan pengandaiannya, jika pengandaian positif maka faktanya negative dan sebaliknya 2. Untuk conditional sentence tipe II dan subjunctive tipe present, tidak digunakan kata bantu was, walaupun subjeknya tunggal. Kata bantu yang dipakai hanya were

Aplikasi soal 1
1. If I had come to the music festival, I would have met Ria Angelina there. This sentence means ____ A. I didnt come to the music festival but Ria Angelina there B. I had come to the music festival in oorder meet Ria Angelina there C. I didnt come to the music festival so I didnt meet Ria Angelina D. I come to the music festival but I didnt meet Ria Angelina there E. I didnt come to the festival and Ria Angelina was there Penyelesaian : If I had come , I would have met
conditional sentence tipe II Fakta berlawanan (-)

had come did not me would have met did not meet

Jawaban : C 2. Had he handed in the application, he ___ last week A. would be allowed to join the interview B. was being allowed to join the interview test C. would have been allowed to join me interview test D. we will have been allowed to koin me interview test E. he was allowed to join the interview test Penyelesaian : Had he handed in the application
Inversi conditional sentence tipe II

Pola lengkapnya : had + S + V3, S + would + have + V3

3. They did nit have good seats because they came late A. if they came early, they would have good seats B. If they had come early, they would have had good seats C. they would have had good seats if they had not come late D. they would not have good seats if they had come E. they would not have good seats if they did not come late Penyelesaian : because they came late
fakta dalam past maka conditionalnya tipe III menunjukkan bahwa kalimat ini merupakan fakta dari if clause

Penyelesaian : I shall be very angry


pola main clause conditional tipe I

Pola if clause conditional tipe I : if + present tense Jawaban : B 6. I am sorry I dont know the answer, but I really wish I ____ A. know B. knew C. have known D. will know E. had known Penyelesaian : I am sorry I dont know the answer
Fakta dalam present, maka subjunctivenya tipe present

Bentuk conditional dari kalimat di atas adalah : If they had not come late = if they had come early They did not have good seats Bentuk conditionalnya : they would have had good seats Jawaban : B 4. I always have a lot of work to do in the evening if ____ the TV serials more often A. I had more time, I can watch B. I had more time, I could watch C. I have more time, I could watched D. I have more time, I could have watch E. I have more time, I could watch Penyelesaian : I always have a lot of work to do in the evening 8.
fakta dalam present maka conditionalnya tipe II

7.

Jawaban : B Aziz wish he ____ to Ikranegaras play i-on the 30th of November last year A. had gone B. went C. has gone D. were going Penyelesaian : on the 30th of November last year
keterangan waktu past subjunctive tipe past

Jawaban : B 5. If you ___ I shall be very angry A. werent go B. dont go C. hadnt not been going D. havent been going E. didnt go

Jawaban : A If only his son had studied harder means ___ A. his son did not study harder B. his son had studied harder C. his son has studied harder D. his son will ot study harder E. his son never study harder Penyelesaian : If only his son had studied Fakta Past tense

subjunctive tipe past

Jawaban : A 9. Bona : Can you help me to answer this question Tony? Tony : I would rather you answered it yourself. It means that Bona ___ the question A. answers B. answered C. has answered D. did not answer E. does not answer Penyelesaian : I would rather you answered it youself subjunctive tipe present fakta dalam present tense Jawaban : E 10. I cant do the sums alone, I really need my brothers help. I wish he ___ here now A. is D. are B. be E. were C. was Penyelesaian : I wish he ___ here now keterangan waktu present subjunctive tipe present Jawaban : E 5. 3.

medicine D. although she didnt visit the doctor, she was given the medicine E. she didnt visit the doctor because the doctor had already given the medicine 2. Had he flown to Madura, instead of taking the train he would have seen the bull race. We may conclude that ____ A. the bull race was cancelled B. he came in timefor the bull race C. bull races frightened him D. he found the bull race exciting E. he was not present at the bull race For the past few year last decade the rate of crime has been high due ti the increase in the rate of un employement. Today people wish that today the local government ___ first priority to the solution of this problem A. gives D. should give B. would give E. had given C. will give The music next door is very loud . I wish someone turned it down. The underlined sentence means ____ A. I will turn the music down B. Someone turns the music down C. I ask someone to turn the music down D. I feel annoyed with the music E. someone asks me to turn the music down If Angga had been chosen to play football instead of going to Puncak with his friends on their motor bikes, he would not have got that terrible accident. From the above sentence we may conclude the now Angga is ____ A. enjoying the holiday B. hospitalized C. very tired D. still at the football field E. In Puncak

4.

Aplikasi soal 2
1. X : Has she already got the medicine? Y : If she had visited the doctor, she would have been given medicine. From the dialogue above we know that ___ A. the doctor visited her and gave her medicine B. she visited the doctor, so she was given C. she didnt visit the doctor so she wasnt given

6. I wish you ___ to stay at homebecause Im sure you would have enjoyed the concert very much A. didnt have B. hadnt had C. hadnt D. dont have E. havent had 7. I am sorry I can not go to the airport to see your mother off. I wish I ___ to work overtime tonight A. wouldnt have B. havent had C. wont have D. hadnt had E. dont have 8. What would you do if you were a millionare? ____ a trip around the world. A. I will be B. I would have taken C. I would take D. Me took E. I took 9. She went to the black board as if she know how to solve the problem.The underlined words mean ___ A. she actually couldnt solve the problem B. she ought to know how to solve the problem C. she definitely knew how to solve the problem D. she should know how to solve the problem E. she succeeded in solving the problem 10. Had he mentioned why he didnt come to my party, I would not have been so upset, means ____ A. he came to my party,therefore, I was not upset B. since he comes to my party, he didnexplain any thing C. he comes to my party, otherwise, I would have been very upset D. although he comes to my party, I was upset

E. I was upset because he didnt explain why he didnt come to my party 11. A : do you think it was Danu broke Vindis bike? B : ___ Im sure he would have told you A. If he broke it B. unless he had broke it C. because he had broke it D. unless he broke it E. if he had broke it 12. Im planning to go to a party tonight, but its raining very hard now. I wish ____ A. it stops B. it will C. it would stop D. it has stopped E. it has stopped 13. I wish someone anserwered my call. Its been raining for about five minutes. The underlined word mean ___ A. someone will answer the phone B. someone had answer my call C. the phone has stopped ringing D. nobody answer the phone E. I would answer my phone 14. If I hadnt booked in advance, I would have had difficulties in getting good accommodation at a reasonable price. The sentence means ___ A. it was to difficult to get a room although I had a reservation B. I found a room in advance but it wasnt comfort able C. the room I got was good but rather expensive D. I was lucky to get a good room without reservation E. I got a room and I didnt have to pay much 15. My little sister screamed No one hit her

The combined sentence using as if is ____ A. my little sister screamed as if someone hi her B. someone screamed as if my little sister hit him C. my little sister screamed as if no one hit her D. someone screamed as if my little sister hit her E. my little sister screamed as if someone had hit her 16. Is Andrew still sick? Yes. I wish he ___ here now to spend the holiday with me. . A. will be B. is C. were D. would be E. have been 17. If they had known the flood was coming, they wouldnt have stayed in their house means ___ A. they know that the flood was coming, therefore they stayed in their house B. they decided to stay in their house although the flood was coming C they couldnt stay in their house because they knew that the flood was coming D. they didnt know that the flood was coming, therefore, they stayed in their house E. they didnt want to stay in their house because they knew that the flood was coming 18. Dick is not so clever. Its hard for him to understands Maths. Though studies hard he cant do the exercise he often says to himself. I wish I understood math lesson better. The underlined sentence means that he is sorry he ___ A. doesnt know it well B. doesnt want to know Maths C. doesnt like studying Maths D. wishes to understand E. understands Maths better

19. A : Why dont you try to find a job in with tire money you earn , you can buy things you need B : If I worked in a factory. I wouldnt have time to study. What does the underlined sentencs means ? A. B works hard in a factory B. A allows B to work in a factory C. B didnt work in afactory D. B worked in a factory E. B doesnt work in a factory 20. Tanto didnt pass the examination because he didnt study his lesson seriously. He ___ if he had wanted the succeed. A. could have studied hard B. had suidied hard C. might studied hard D. should have studied hard E. has studied hard 21. I am very afraid of meeting my girls parents since they are well known as stubborn people. But I really wish they ____ my marriage proposal A. will accept B. would have accepted C. are going to accept D. were accepting E. would accept 22. ____ he would have been eaten half of the cake. A. if he is hungry B. were he hungry C. If only he was hungry D. had he been hungry E. If he would be hungry 23. What if your father asks you about the scratch on his new car? I ____ that its my fault. A. simply told him B. are simply teliing him C. will simply tell him D. would simply tell him

E. would simply have told him 24. Do you know that Tanto had withdrawn his money from the bank just before it liquidated? Oh, yes, otherwise he ____ a great deal. A. lost B. would lose C. had lost D. has lost E. would have lost 25. I am sure he is not the man in charge of the sales department. But now, he ____ . A. acts as if he is the sales manager B. is acting as if he would be the sales manager C. would have acted as if he had been the sales man D. would act as if he was the sales manager E. acts as if he were the sales manager

dengan wish). Pengandaian ini bermakna : aku ber harap seseorang mengecilkannya. Hal ini mengindi kasikan bahwa suara musik itu mengganggu. maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : I feel annoyed with the music next door Jawaban : D 5. If Angga had been chosen to play football instead of going to Puncak with his friends on their motor bikes, he would not have got that terrible accident (conditional tipe III). Fakta past tense : Angga was not chosen to play football, so he got that terrible accident. Fakta menyatakan bahwa Angga mengala mi kecelakaan . Maka kesimpulan yang tepat bahwa Angga berada di rumah sakit Jawaban : B I wish you ___ to stay at homebecause Im sure you would have enjoyed the concert very much ( fakta dalam past future tense) Maka kalimat pengandaiannya menggunakan bentuk past subjunctive. Pola kalimatnya dengan wish : wish + S +had + V3 I wish you hadnt had Jawaban : B

6.

Kunci jawaban soal aplikasi 2


1. If she had visited the doctor, she she would have been given medicine (conditional tipe III). Fakta past tense : she didnt visit the doctor, 7. so she was not given medicine. Jawaban : C 2. Had he flown to Madura instead of taking the train, he would have seen the bull race (inversi conditional sentence tipe III tanpa if) 8. We may conclude that ___ Fakta past tense : He didnt flow to Madura, so he didnt see the bull race Jawaban yang palinh sesuai dengan fakta tersebut ialah : he was not present at the bull race Jawaban : E 9. 3. peole wish that today the local government ___ first prority to the solution of this problem (present subjunctive dengan wish) Pola lengkapnya : S + wish + (that) + S + V2. maka jawaban yang sesuai pola adalah : would give jawaban : B 4. I wish someone turned it down (present subjunctive

I wish I ___ to work overtime tonight (mengguna kan present subjunctive) : wish + S + V2 I wish I wouldnt have Jawaban : A What would you do if you were a millionare? ____ a trip around the world. Pertanyaan dalam bentuk conditional sentence tipe II, maka jawaban juga dalam bentuk tersebut. Jawaban : C She went to the black board as if she know how to solve the problem. ( bentuk past subjunctive dengan as if ). Faktanya dalam bentuk past tense dab berupa kalimat negative : she doesnt know how to solve the problem. Jawaban yang meiliki makna yang sama dengan fakta tersebut : she actually couldntsolve the problem Jawaban : A

10. Had he mentioned why he didnt come to my party, I would not have been so upset ( bentuk inversi dari conditional tipe III). Fakta past tense : he didnt mention why he didnt come to my party, so I was upset kalimat ini bermakna sama dengan I was upset because he didnt explain why he didnt come to my party. Jawaban : E 11. ___ Im sure he would have told you would have told bentuk conditional sentence tipe III. Pola lengkapnya : if ( S + had + V3 ), ( S + would + have + V3). Maka if calusenya seharusnya if he had broken it Jawaban : E 12. Im planning to go to a party tonight, but its rain ing very hard now. I wish ____ (present subjunc tive dengan wish). Pola lengkapnya : S + wish + (that) + S + V2. maka jawaban yang sesuai pola adalah : it would stop) Jawaban : C 13. I wish someone anserwered my call (menggunakan kata kerja bentuk kedua) bentuk present sub junctive dengan wish) . Fakta nya dalam bentuk pre sent tense dan berupa kalimat negative : someone doesnt answer my call atau nobody answers my call Jawaban: D 14. If I hadnt booked in advance, I would have had difficulties in getting good accommodation at a reasonable price ( bentuk inversi dari conditional tipe III ). Fakta past tense : I booked in advance, so I didnt have difficulties in getting good acommoda tion at a reasonable price. Jawaban : E 15. Pola past subjunctive dengan menggunakan as if/ as though: S + V2 + as if/as though + S + had + V3 My liitle sister screamed as if someone had hit her Jawaban : E 16. I wish he ___ here now to spend the holiday with me ( menggunakan present subjunc tive) : wish + S + V2 I wish he were here now. ( to be yang dipakai dalam present subjunctive

hanya were) 17. Jawaban : C If they had known the flood was coming, they wouldnt have stayed in their house (bentuk in versi dari conditional tipe III). Fakta past tense They didnt know the flood was coming, so they stayed in their house Jawaban : D I wish I understood math lesson better ( present subjunctive ). Fakta dalam bentuk present tense dan dalam bentuk kalimat negative : I dont understand Math lesson better. Ini berarti Dick doesnt know Math well Jawaban : A If I worked in a factory. I wouldnt have time to study (conditional sentence tipe II ). Fakta present tense : I dont work in a factory. I have time to study B doesnt work in a factory Jawaban : E He ___ if he had wanted the succeed if clause conditional sentence tipe III. Pola main clausenya : S + would + have + V3 ( dimana would have bisa diganti dengan modal perfect lain ). Maka kemungki nan jawabannya adalah pilihan jaawaban A atau D kalimat yang dimaksudkan manyatakan saran, maka jawaban yang lebih tepat adalah : should have studied hard Jawaban : D I am very afraid of meeting my girls parents since they are well known as stubborn people ( fakta dalam bentuk present tense ). Maka kalimat peng andaiannya menggunakan bentuk present subjuncti ve. Pola kalimatnya dengan wish : wish + S + V2 I wish they would accept my marriage proposal Jawaban : E ____ he would have been eaten half of the cake (conditional sentence tipe III ). Pola lengkapnya : if ( S + had + V3 ), ( S +would + have + V3). Maka kata jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola if clausenya adalah : if he had been hungry Jawaban : D What if your father asks you about the scratch on his new car? (conditional sentence tipe I)

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

Pola lengkapnya : if + (S + V1 + -s/-es), ( S + will + V1 ). Maka kata jawaban yang sesuai dengan pola main clausenya adalah : I will tell Catatan : kata simply merupakan keterangan yang bisa diletakkan di antara modal dan kata kerja utamanya. Jawaban : C 24. Tanto had withdrawn his money from the bank just before it liquidated? Oh, yes, otherwise he ____ a great deal conditional sentence karena Otherwise ( jika tidak ) bisa digunakan untuk meng gantikan if. Maka jawaban yang paling benar adalah would have lost Jawaban : E 25. I am sure he is not the man in charge of the sales department. ( fakta dalam bentuk present tense ) Maka kalimat pengandaiannya menggunakan ben tuk present subjunctive dengan as if. Pola kalimat nya : S + V1 + as if/as though + S + V2. sehingga ben tuk kalimatnya : he acts as if he were man in charge of the sales department jawaban : E

MATERI IV INFINITIVE, GERUND & PARTICIPLE


Infinitive adalah bentuk dasar kata kerja yang tidak mengacu pada tenses atau subject Gerund merupakan kata kerja dalam bentuk V-ing yang dikatabendakan atau memiliki fungsi sebagai kata benda Participle adalah bentuk kata kerja berupa V-ing atau V3 yang digunakan dalam bentuk-bentuk tenses atau digunakan sebagai kata sifat atau adjective
To infinitive 1. Berfungsi sebagai subjek Contoh : To finish in is not easy 2. Berfungsi sebagai keterangan penjelas a. Sebagai penjelas kata benda Contoh : there are many places to go b. Sebagai penjelas kata sifat Contoh : Im glad to see you c. Sebagai penjelas kata kerja Contoh : we attack them to survive

Infinitive
3. 4.

d. Sebagai penjelas kata Tanya Contoh : I dont know where to start Digunakan dengan pola : too + adjective + to infinitive Contoh : it is too hard to understand Digunakan bersama kata enough dengan pola : a. adjective/adverb + enough + to infinitive Contoh : the cake is delicious enough to eat b. enough + noun + to infinitive Contoh : I have enough money to buy these shoes

Bare infinitive ( infinitive tanpa to ) 1. Digunakan setelah modal 2. Digunakan setelah kata kerja persepsi atau kata keja yang berhubungan dengan panca indra dengan pola S+V+O 3. setelah kata kerja causative active have, let, make 4. Digunakan setelah kata need not, dare not, would rather, dan had better

Beberapa kata kerja diikuit oleh to infinitive dengan pola : verb + to + infinitive atau verb + noun/pronoun + to infinitive. Beberapa kata kerja tersebut antara lain : hope plan intend decide promise agree offer refuse seem appear pretend ask expect would like want need tell invite require remind advise permit order warn

PENGGUNAAN GERUND 1. Sebagai subjek Contoh : Dancing is a very interesting acitivity 2. Sebagai objek a. Objek kata kerja Contoh :when will you start cooking ? b. Objek preposisi Contoh : Im afraid of making you angry 3. Sebagai komplemen Contoh : all we need to do is doing something better 4. Sabagai penjelas kata benda Contoh : - swimming suit - living cost 5. Sebagai noun head ( kata benda ynag dijelaskan ) Contoh : - Global warming - General cleaning 6. Sebagai possessive noun yang diletakkan setelah possessive pronoun Contoh : - His understanding - their feeling 7. Diletakkan setelah kata no sebagai larangan Contoh : - No smoking - No sitting Beberapa kata kerja tertentu diikuti oleh gerund dengan pola : verb + gerund atau verb + noun/pronoun + gerund. Beberapa kata kerja tersebut antara lain : admit delay resist advice recall keep risk mention enjoy avoid mind regret tolerate finish forget consider remember understand complete suggest deny stop miss practice Catatan : Preposisi to tidak diikuti oleh gerund akan tetapi tetap diikuti oleh infiniteive.Namun perlu diketahui bahwa ada beberapa frase preposisi to yang harus selalu diikuti oleh gerund. beberapa frase tersebut diantaranya : To look forward to (menanti-nanti) to take to ( menyukai) To be used to ( terbiasa ) to be averse ( terbiasa) To be accostumed to (terbiasa) to be object to ( keberatan) Beberapa kata kerja bisa diikuti oleh to infinitive dan gerund tanpa perbedaan makna, misalnya : allow attempt begin bother cease continue deserve fear hate intend like love neglect omit permit prefer recommend start

Selain itu ada pula kata-kata yang bila diikuti to infinitive bermakna belum berlangsung, sedangkan bila diikuti gerund bermakna sudah berlangsung come forget go on mean regret remember stop try
Present participle : kata kerja bentuk ing yang menunjuk pada kegiatan yang bersifat aktif Penggunaan : 1. sebagai bagian pembentuk continues Contoh : He is studying at this moment 2. Sebagai adjective yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan kata benda noun dengan makna aktif Contoh : Mocking face memiliki arti yang sama dengan face which mocks 3. Digunakan setelah kata kerja persepsi dengan pola : S + V + O + Present participle ( jika objeknya aktif ) Contoh : I hear him talking on the phone Participle Past participle : kata kerja bentuk V3 yang menunjuk pada kagiatan yang bersifat pasif Penggunaan : 1. Sebagai komponen pembentuk kalimat pasif 2. Sebagai adjective yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan kata benda (noun) dengan makna pasif Contoh : Injured boy memiliki arti yang sama dengan boy who is injured 3. Digunakan setelah kata kerja persepsi ( kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan panca indera ) dengan pola S + V + O +Past participle ( jika objeknya pasif ) Contoh : I saw Sita took by a car

Baik aktif maupun past ,participle juga bisa digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat bersubjek sama yang terjadi secara berurutan atau bersamaan serta kalimat yang memiliki hubungan sebab-akibat 1. Present participle digunakan untuk menggantikan subjek dengan kata kerja aktif dengan pola : Pola kalimat verbal : ( V-ing + O ), ( S + P ) simple dan continues ( having + V3 + O ), ( S + P ) Pola kalimat nominal : perfect

( being + complement ), ( S + P) ( having + been + complement), ( S + P )

2. Past participle digunakan untuk menggantikan subjek dengan kata kerja pasif Pola kalimat: ( V3 + by ), ( S + P ) (being + V3 + by ) , ( S + P ) simple dan continues ( having + been + V3 + by ), (S + P ) perfect

Catatan : 1. Persamaan dan perbedaan present participle dengan gerund : Persamaan : sama-sama berbentuk V-ing dan sama-sama bisa digunakan sebagai adjective untuk menjelaskan kata benda. Perbedaan : Jika digunakan sebagai adjective, present participle menunjukkan kegiatan sementara, gerung menunjukkan fungsi atau kegunaan Contoh : - The swimming girl is my friend ( gadis ynag sedang berenang itu temanku ) - The swimming pool is very large ( kolam renang itu sangat besar) gerund 2. participle

Persamaan dan perbedaan present participle dengan bare infinitive Persamaan : sama-sama digunnakan setelah kata kerja persepsi dengan makna aktif Perbedaan : kata kerja persepsi yang diikui=ti bare infinitive menunjukkan peristiwa secara lengkap sedangkan y diikuti present participle menunjukkan sebagian dari peristiwa saja Contoh : - I saw them walking together ( aku melihat mereka berjalan bersama ) hanya melihat peristiwa saat mereka berjalan - I saw them walk together ( aku melihat mereka berjalan bersama) melihat kejadian secara lengkap

Aplikasi soal 1
1. ___ by not more than 40 families, Kampung Naga is an unique village in West Java A. inhabit B. to inhabit C. inhabited D. inhabitant E. inhabiting Penyelesaian : ___ by not more than 40 families menunjukkan adanya makna pasif, sehingga jawaban yang paling tepat adalah yang berupa past participle Jawaban: C 2. We always avoid ___ to the zoo on Sundays because it is too crowded A. going B. go C. we go D. to go E. to be going Penyelesaian : We always avoid ____ to the zoo diikuti gerund Jawaban : A 3. She went out and slammed the door It means : she went out ___ A. to slam the door B. having slammed the door C. slamming the door D. to have slammed E. the door slammed penyelesaian : She went out and slammed the door Dua hal dilakukan berurutan dan bermakna pasif

Bisa digabungkan dengan mengubah salah satu kata kerja ke bentuk present participle Jawaban : C 4. ____ clothes can often be very time consuming A. they buy B. to be buying C. in buying D. man buys E. buying Penyelesaian : ____ clothes can often be very time consuming predikat bentuk subjek belum lengkap , dilengkapi dengan bentuk gerund Jawaban : E 6. The young man ___ by this institute are all univer sity graduates A. employ D. employing B. employed E. be employer C. to employ penyelesaian : The young man ___ by this institute are all menunjukkan adanya makna pasif Jawaban yang paling sesuai untuk melengkapi kalimat tersebut adalah ynag berupa past participle atau V3 Jawaban : B 7. Mrs. Darmawan required the children ____ off their muddy shoes before they came into her house. A. taking B. take C. to take D. took E. to be taking Penyelesaian : Mrs. Darmawan required the children diikuti to infinitive Jawaban : C

8. I heard him ___ the door very carefully in order not to wake the others A. is unlocking D. unlock B. unlocked E. he unlock C. when unlocking Penyelesaian : I heard him ___ the door kata kerja persepsi bisa diikuti present participle ( V-ing) atau bare infinitive Jawaban : D 9. Being lost, the tourist stopped ____ at his map for the place they wanted to visit A. looking B. to look C. looked D. he looked E. was looking Penyelesaian : stop + gerund berhenti dalam melakukan sesuatu + to infinitive berhenti untuk melakukan hal lain

Dalam soal : turis tersesat sehingga turis itu berhenti untuk melihat peta Jawaban : B 10. Where is Prabu? Oh, I completely forgot ___ him. A. to invite B. not inviting C. invite D. not to invite E. inviting Penyelesaian :

forget + gerund lupa telah melakukan sesuatu + to infinitive lupa belum melakukan sesuatu

where is Prabu? mengindikasikan bahwa Prabu tidak terlibat dalam pesta karena penyelenggara pesta lupa belum mengundangnya Jawaban : A

B. there is cooperation between the government and related education centers C. the establishment of cooperation between government and related education centers has been realized D. cooperation between the government and related aducation centers has been established E. It is necessary to establish cooperation between government and related education centers 5. What should the government do to create political stability? A. law enforcement should work effectively B. the effective work of law enforcement C.working to make law enforcement effective D. to make law enforcement work effectively E. enforcing the law to enforcement 6. Have you told your problem to supervisor ? No he was too busy ___ to me yesterday. A. talk B. for talking C. talking D. he didnt talk E. to talk 7. Not earning enough to support her children after her husbands death ___ A. the woman decided to work in Saudi Arabia B. a better-paid job is definitely required C. her children need to be trained to work D. special training is required to improve her skills E. her children should be input to orphanage 8. What have people recently found in Wonoboyo? _____ A. they hide a treasure B. hiding a treasure C. the treasure was hidden D.A treasure, hiding E. a hidden treasure 9. After the students had completed the test, they

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. Impressed by the performance of the new student ___ A. he became a chairman of the class B. the class needed him as a chairman C. a chairman of the class was appointed D. the teacher appointed him as a chairman of the class E. the class had a new energetic chairman 2. Being members of a team in a debate contest, you all supposed ___ emotional responses to the oppsite team A. dont give B. you are not giving C. not giving D. that you dont give E. not to give 3. Your hand writing Is almost impossible ___ A. my reading it B. to read C. for reading it D. be read E. reading 4. Interested in developing tourism in Indonesia ___ A. the government cooperates with related education centers

handed in their paper and left the room. We can also say : __ the test, the students handed in their paper and left the room. A. completing B. to have complete C. completed D. having completed E. to have completed 10. His father insisted in ___ medicine because he thinks it will enable his son to help many people A. his studying B. he is to study C. having studied D. that he studies E. he is studying 11. Thomas Edison is generally considered ___ one of the most productive of all invitors. A. to be B. to have been C. being D. who was E. to being 12. They watched the soldiers ___ down the streets A. marched B. marching C. to march D. be marching E. are marching 13. Soekarno, ___ one of the strongest Indonesian President, served from 1945-1965 A. was condidered B. considering C. considered D. is considered 14. The progress of this class needs ___ A. to be evaluated B. evaluated C. to evaluate

D. in evaluating E. be evaluated 15. What does this song remind you of? ___ with my first date. A. I dance B. to dance C. dancing D. to be dancing E. dance 16. From the inception of this long and distinguished career, Frank Lloyd Wright was concerned with how ___ architecture with topography A. integrating B. to integrate C. did he integrate D. integrated E. to be integrating 17. Many people in Sidoarjo are looking forward to ___ a good solution to the mud problem A. witness B. witnessed C. being witnesses D. be witnessing E. have witnessed 18. ___taking over the leadership of this project is what made it succeed. A. her B. she C. she is D. her having 19. In Biology, a cell is defined as the smallest unit of life ___ all the components required for independent existence A. contains B. is contained C. it contains D. containing E. to be containing

20. These norms are the___ ways of behavior in the society based on the shared values of that society A. expecting B. expected C. expect D. expects E. expectancy 21. All new student at the university are required ___ an English proficiency test A. taking B. having to take C. take D. will take E. to take 22. The police ___ the robbery are looking for three men. A. are investigating B. they investigate C. investigating D. investigated E. investigate 23. Completed in 1980, the G Hall is the oldest building now ___ in our campus A. it stands B. has stood C. stood D standing 24. Sibling confrontations containing the seeds of unrequited hostility can serve ___ familial diffi culties lasting for years. A the creation of B. to create C. creating D. that creates E. create 1.

Kunci Jawaban aplikasi soal 2


Impressed by the performance of the new student ___ ( terkesan oleh penampilan siswa baru ___ ) Subjek untuk kalimat selanjutnya adalah subjek yang terkesan oleh penampilan siswa baru; kejadian kedua merupakan peristiwa yang berurutan dengan peristiwa pertama Jawaban : D Being members of a team in a debate contest, you all supposed ___ emotional responses to the oppsite team. Supposed merupakan kata kerja yang diikuti to infinitive, bentuk negative untuk to to infinitive adalah : not + to infinitive. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : not to give Jawaban : E Your hand writing Is almost impossible ___ Kalimat ini membutuhkan to infinitive untuk menjelaskan kata sifat (modifier if an adjective ). Maka jawaban yang tepat : to read Jawaban : B Interested in developing tourism in Indonesia ____ ( tertarik pada pengembangan pariwisata di Indonesia ). Soal ini menggunakan past participle untuk menggabungkan dua peristiwa yang terjadi secara berurutan. Syarat penggabungan ini adalah subjek kedua kalimat tersebut harus sama. Maka subjek kalimat kedua dalam soal ini harus sama dengan subjek yang tertarik pada pengembangan pariwisata di Indonesia. Subjek yang paing sesuai dengan konteks kaimat pada soal tersebut adalah government Jawaban : A What should the government do to create political stability? Bentuk lengkap jawaban untuk pertanyaan tersebut : what the government should do is Kalimat jawaban ini membutuhkan complement yang bisa berupa gerund . Kemungkinan jawaban nya adalah pilihan jawaban C atau D. Akan tetapi enforcing the law to work effective kurang tepat

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

karena bare infinitive tidak bisa digunakan untuk menjelaskan kata kerja. Kalimat tersebut seharus nya : enforcing the law to work effectively. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : working to make law enforcement effective Jawaban : C No he was too busy ___ to me yesterday To infinitive bisa digunakan bersama kata too dengan pola too + adjective + to infinitive Jawaban : E Not earning enough to support her children after her husbands death ( tidak menghasilkan cukup uang untuk menyokong anaknya setelah suaminya meninggal ) . Subjek yang tepat untuk kalimat selanjutnya adalah the woman Jawaban : A Kata tanya what meminta jawaban yang berupa kata atau frase kata benda. Pilihan jawaban yang merupakan frase kata benda adalah : A hidden treasure (harta karun yang tersembunyi) Jawaban : E After the students had completed the test, they handed in their paper and left the room Untuk menggabungkan dua peristiwa (aktif) yang terjadi berurutan dan memiliki subjek yang sama digunakan present participle. Maka kaimat di atas bisa berbentuk Having completed they handed in their paper and left the room Jawaban : D His father insisted in ___ medicine because he thinks it will enable his son to help many people (ayahnya menuntut ___ obat karena dia piker itu akan memungkinkan anaknya membantu banyak orang) On termasuk preposisi sehingga diikuti oleh gerund. Maka jawaban yang mungkin adalah his studying Jawaban : A Thomas Edison is generally considered ___ one of the most productive of all invitors. Consider merupakan kata kerja yang diikuti oleh bentuk gerund . Maka jawaban yang tepat ialah being Jawaban : C

12. They watched the soldiers ___ down the streets Kata watch adalah salah satu kata kerja yang berhu Bungan dengan panca indera). Kata kerja ini bisa diikuti oleh bare infinitive ataupun active participle maka kemungkinan jawabannya adalah march atau marching Jawaban : B 13. Soekarno, ___ one of the strongest Indonesian President, served from 1945-1965. Bentuk lain dari kalimat ini yaitu : ____ one of the strongest Indonesian President , Soekarno served from 1945 to 1965. Seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, past participle bisa digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua peristiwa yang terjadi secara berurutan past participle tersebut menggantikan subjek kaimat pasif. Maka jawaban yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat ini harus berupa past participe Jawaban : C 14. The progress of this class needs ___ . Dilihat dari subjeknya (progress kelas) kalimta ini merupakan kalimat pasif. Need adalah kata kerja yang seharusnya diikuti oleh to infinitive bantuk pasif dari to infinitive adalah to + be + V3 Jawaban :A 15. What does this song remind you of? . Bentuk respons lengkap untuk kalimat Tanya di atas adalah this song reminds me of ___ with my first date Preposisi of selalu diikuti bentuk gerund. Maka jawabannya : dancing Jawaban : C 16. From the inception of this long and distinguished career, Frank Lloyd Wright was concerned with how ___ architecture with topography How diikuti to inifinitive maka jawaban yang tepat adalah to integrate Jawaban : B 17. Many people in Sidoarjo are looking forward to ___ a good solution to the mud problem Looking forward to merupakan frase yang selalu diikuti oeh gerund. Maka jawaban ynag tepat adalah : being witnessed Jawaban : C

18. Taking adalah bentuk gerund. Sperti halnya kata benda , gerund juga bisa mengikuti possessive pronoun Jawaban : A 19. In Biology, a cell is defined as the smallest unit of life ___ all the components required for independent existence (Dalam Biologi, sebuah sel di definisikan sebagai unti hidup terkecil ____) as the smallest unit of life ___ all the components required for independent merupakan preposition phrase. Sebuah frase tidak memiliki subjek dan predikat. Kata yang tepat untuk diletakkna setelah the smallest unit of life adalah ynag berupa present participle yang berfungsi sebagai modifier Jawaban : D 20. These norms are the___ ways of behavior in the society based on the shared values of that society. Untuk melengkapi kalimat ini diper lukan kata yang berfungsu sebagai adjective untuk menjelaskan kata ways. Untuk ini bisa digunakan kata kerja participle karena ways dalam kalimat ini adalah halyang pasif. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah expected . Ingat bahwa expected ways memiliki arti yang sama dengan ways which is expected Jawaban : B 21. Kata require merupakan kata kerja ynag selalu diikuti bentuk to infinitive, maka jawaban yang tepat adalah to take Jawaban : E 22. The police ___ the robbery are looking merupakan subjek ( berupa frase kata benda). Kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi frase tersebut adalah present participle sehingga frase tersebut menjadi The police investigating the robbery ( polisi yang menginvestigasi perampokan ) Jawaban : C 23. Completed in 1980, the G Hall is the oldest building now ___ in our campus Kalimat ini membutuhkan kata penjelas untuk the oldest building . Kata yang tepat adalah standing yang berupa present/active participle dan memiliki makna yang sama dengan which stands

Jawaban : D 24. To infinitibe bisa berfungsi sebagai penjelas kata kerja (modifier of the verb ) . Kata serve dalam soal yang berupa kata kerja dapat diikuti oleh to create sebagai penjelas Jawaban : B

MATERI V

CONCORD
Concord atau agreement adalah penyesuaian unsur-unsur sejenis dalam kalimat. Penyesuaian tersebut misalnya antara bentuk tenses dengan keterangan waktu seperti yang telah dibahas dalam bab tenses. Penyesuaian lainnya adalah seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh table-tabel di bawah ini Soal yang berhubungan dengan dengan concord biasanya meminta unsur yang sesuai dengan kalimat. Maka untuk dapay menyelesaikan soal-soal tersebut, perhatikan aturan aturan concord berikut : 1. Kesesuaian antara subjek dengan kata bantu dan kata kerja Predikat Kata bantu To do To have (present) (present) Do Have Does Has

Subjek To be I He She It We You They Am,was Is Was Are Were

Kata kerja (present) V1 V1 + -s/-es

Tunggal

Jamak

Do

Have

V1

2. Kesesuaian antara kata ganti orang Personal pronoun Objective Possessive Possessive dependent independent
Me Us You My Our your Mine Ours Yours

Nominative
Kata ganti orang pertama Kata ganti orang kedua Kata ganti orang ketiga Tunggal Jamak Tunggal Jamak Tunggal I We You

Reflexive
Mysef Ourselves Yourself Yourselves Himself Herself itself themselves

Jamak

He She It They

Him Her It Them

His Her Its Their

His Hers Its Theirs

3. Kesesuaian kata benda dengan atributnya Contable noun ( kata benda bisa dihitung a/an, the, every, each, all of, one, this, that The, some, many, few, a lot of, all of, one/two/three , these, those Uncountable noun (kata benda tidak bisa dihitung The, all of, some, much, little, a lot of , this , that

Tunggal Jamak

Kata benda jamak ynag dianggap tunggal: a). b). c). d). e). f). g). kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung Everybody, everyone, nobody, nothing, anyone ( tetap bisa menggunakan kata ganti jamak) Benda jamak yang diawali either of dan neither of b Ukuran jaraj, waktu, dan ruang Judul buku, cerita, film, lagu, puisi, dsb Beberapa kata yang merupakan kesatuan, misalnya coffee with sugar ( tidak berlak untuk coffe and sugar). kata benda yang diawali the number of

Kata benda yang dianggap jamak: a). b). c). d). benda-benda yang umumnya selalu berpasangan, misalnya jeans, glasses, scissors, shoes, pajamas, dsb kata benda yang disatukan oleh both of dan both and kata benda yang diawali a number of kata benda ynag dihubungkan dengan either or , neither nor dan not only but also

Kata benda yang bisa bermakna tunggal maupun jamak : a). Other bisa bermakna tunggal atatupun jamak, seperti pada tabel berikut Tunggal Menyatakan satu hal lain yang belum jelas Menyatakan satu hal lain yang sudah jelas Menyatakan beberapa atau kumpulan hal lain yang belum jelas Menyatakan beberapa atau kumpulan hal lain yang belum jelas

Another/another The other/the other Others/other

Jamak

The others/the other

b). Kumpulan atau kelompok orang yang berkedudukan sama, misalnya family, staff, group, crew, couple yang mengaku pada kesatuan kelompok bermakna tunggal sementara ynag mengaku pada anggota kelompok bermakna jamak

Catatan: Dalam soal concord, noun yang ditanyakan predikatnya adalah noun head (kata benda inti) Perlu diperhatikan bahwa Kata benda atau frase kata benda yang diawali preposisi klausa yang diawali oleh that atatu relative pronoun frase yang diapit oleh dua koma bukan merupakan kata benda inti (hanya merupakan penjelas)

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. A taxi driver who witnessed the accident took my injured brother to the hospital and then ___ my parents A. call B. called C. calling D. to call E. was calling Penyelesaian : who witnessed the accident kalimat tersebut merupakan pernyataan umum sehingga tenses nya : present Tobe untuk subjek tunggal pada tenses present adalah : is Jawaban : A 3. Potatoes, now a major cource of food worldwide, ____ to Europe by the Spanish in the 16th century A. were brought B. had been brought C. were being brought D. brought E. had brought Penyelesaian : now a major source of food worldwide menjelaskan pottatoes jamak terdapat kata by menunjukkan bahwa kalimat tersebut pasif, maka predikatnya pasif 16th century menunjukkan bahwa tensesnya past Jawaban : A A number of students ___ complaining about the test. A. is D. being B. are E. been C. be Penyelesaian : A number of students

hanya merupakan penjelas subjek

A taxi driver took and then V menghubungkan verb yang bentuknya sejajar Jawaban : B 2. These are just a few of the many norms that every member of the society ___ expected to follow A. is D. were B. was E. be C. are Penyelesaian To be yang diminta adalah tobe untuk that clause every member that of the society ____ expected to follow konjungsi subjek (tunggal)

4.

Jamak Jawaban : B

5. There is evidence that vitamin C prevents heart disease, speeds wound healing, and ___ A. cures gum disease B. gum disease can be cured C. curing gum disease D. it cures gum disease E. the cure ig gum disease Penyelesaian : prevents heart disease speeds wound healing kata hubung and menghubungkan unsur yang sejajar maka jawaban dari pertanyaan di atas juga harus berupa verb simple present yang lengkap dengan objeknya Jawaban: A 6. The committee has begun ___ meeting A. her D. its B. his E. they C. ours Penyelesaian : The committee has begun ___ meeting 9. mengacu pada keseluruhan kelompok maka dianggap tunggal Jadi untuk kesetaraan pronoun, kata ganti yang di digunakan adalah its Jawaban : D 7. As soon as the news of the killing of the innocent prisoner spread out, people ran through the streets breaking windows, setting fire to cars, and A. the destruction was on everything in their path B. the destroying of everything was in their path C. destroying everything intheir path D. everything in their path was in destruction verb simple present dan objeknya 8.

E. everything in their path was destructed Penyelesaian : breaking windows V-ing + O setting fire Kata hubung and menghubungkan unsur yang sejajar . Maka jawaban dari pertanyaan di atas juga harus berupa V-ing dan objek Jawaban : C Ecologist are trying to preserve our environment for future generation by purifying the air and __ A. forest are replanted B. have forest replanted C. replant forest D. they replan forest E.replanting forests Penyelesaian : by purifying the air ( Gerund ( V-ing ) + O ) and (menghubungkan unsur sejajar ) Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah yaitu replanting forests Jawaban : E have you checked where most of the seminar participants come from? Oh,yes, two-thirds of them ___ from various parts of Java. A. are coming D. to come B. comes E. come C. they come Penyelesaian : two-thirds of them tunggal

Kesetaraan tenses participants come from simple present

Jawaban : B 10. ASEAN trade minister ___ the possibility of developing economic cooperation before they attended the summit meeting last month A. discuss B. discussed C. had discussed D. were discussing E. would discuss Penyelesaian : before they attended the summit meeting last month 5. before + simple past tense Untuk kesetaraan bentuk tenses, klausa sbelumnya harus dalam bentuk past perfect tense Jawaban : C

A. were gradually inroduced B. gradually introduced C.were gradually introducing D. to be gradually introduced E. they were gradually introduced 4. There were fierce protests from parents of the students of the internasional School because of of ___ suddenly increase to school fee A. them B. it C. theirs D. its E. their The number of illiterate people in our country ___ drastically A. to decrease B. decrease C. has decreased D. they decreased E. it decreases In the next poetry reading contest, each of the contestants ___ expexted to be more critical and more accurate in pronounciation A. is D. to be B. are E. being C. they are 7. People are concerned about the depletion of energy sources. However, they should not forget another important thing. You mean ___ our environment? A. to protect B. it is protecting C. they protect D. having to ptotect E. protected Feng Shui is a system of law considered to govern spatial arrangement and ___ the flow of energy, and whose favorable or unfavorable effects are

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. Neither of these schools ___ for our pilot project A. meets the requirements B. it meets the requirements C. the meet the requirements D. meeting the requirements E. meet the requirements 2. Some people like reading history books, ___ prefer reading novels A. the other B. others C. the others D. other E. another

6.

8. 3. As European artists began flocking to Bali in the 1930s, western influences ___ into Balinese arts

taken into account when setting and desgning buildings A. orientation in its relation of B. orientation to the relationship of C. orientation relating to D. orientation in relation to 9. In fact once the plane has taken off and ___ altitude, your cell phone will not work A. approached cruising B. is approaching cruised C. is cruising approached D. cruished approaching E. is approaching cruishing 10. ___ remarkable achievement in music, Indra Lesmana in appointed to be the judge for the Indonesian Idol 2004 A. his B. by his C. it was his D. for his 11. The hardest thing most mountaineers are facing during their climbing expedition ___ they have difficulty breathing dure to the lack if oxygen in the air A. that is B. which is C. it is D. is that E. that it is 12. Sitis sister and brother have got scholarship to study aboard ___ are studying economies A. one of them B. both of them C. the three of them D. siti and her sister E. siti and her brother 13. I like playing billiards. Billiards ___ an interesting game.

A. is B. are C. were D. had been E. have been 14. The candidates for the governor ___ people to vote for them visited villages A. asking B. to ask C. asked D. ask E. they asked 15. In many ways, riding a bicycle is similar to A. the driving of a motorcycle B. when you drive a motorcycle C. driving a motorcycle D. when driving a motorcycle 16. About ten percent of the earths land area, or nearly 5,8 million square miles ___ by glacial ice A. are recovered B. has covered C. to be covered D. had covered E. is covered 17. So far of this term, the students in the writing class have learned how to write thesis statement, ___ and summarize their conclusions. A. their materials organization B. the organizing of the materials C. organize their materials D. the organization of the materials E. how their materials are organize 18. What makes you sad about the current reform movement in Indonesia? ____ bad effect on Indonesia economy. A. it B. peoples C. its

D. their E. one 19. The importance of the laser lies in the great number of benefits ___ in the field of medicine A. is expected B. expected C. it expected D. expecting E. to expect 20. A number of students ___ complaining about the test A. is D. being B. are E. been C. be 21. The financial reports states that the petty cash has been used for reimbursing transportation costs and ___ computers A. upgrading B. it is to upgrade C. to upgrade D. we upgrade E. we need upgrade 22. For example, in a certain culture all persons are expected to be quite in a library, obyey the traffic signals, eat with knife, fork and spoon, ___ during the playing of the national Anthem and pay the c Subjek yang dibutuhkan adalah subjek yang A. standing B. to stand C. stand D. stood E. stands 23. The office building , as well as several houses ____ completely damaged by the bombs explo sion A. was D. were B. they were E. to be C. it was

24. These tourists, ___ are Japanese, were among the crowd participating in the dangdut dance A. there are many B. many of them C. whose many D. many of whom E. they who 25. The increase in the sales of new cars ___ not expected to make traffic jams worse A. is B. are C. be D. being E. to be

Kunci Jawaban Aplikasi Soal 2


1. Neither of these schools ___ for our pilot project kata yang diawali oleh neither of selalu singular karena subjeknya tunggal maka predikat yang tepat adalah : meets the requirements Jawaban : A Kalimat ini membutuhkan subjek jamak. Diantara pilihan jawaban, yang bermakna jamak adalah others dan the others Some people like reading history books, ___ prefer reading novels ( sebagian orang suka mem baca buku sejarah, ___ lebih suka buku novel) sudah jelas menunjuk pada sebagian lain yang lebih suka membaca novel. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : the others Jawaban : C Main clause kalimat : western influences ___ into Balinese arts. Main clause tersebut telah memiliki subjek, sehingga yang dibutuhkan adalah predikat Predikat yang tepat adalah : were gradually intro duced Jawaban : A

2.

3.

4. There were fierce protests from parents of the students of the internasional School because of of ___ suddenly increase to school fee Yang mengalami suddenly increase to school fee adalah the internasional School. Maka yang diper lukan untuk mengisi soal ini adalah kata ganti milik ( possessive pronoun ) untuk the internasional School ( tunggal ) Jadi possessive pronoun nya ada lah its Jawaban : D 5. The number of illiterate people in our country ___ drastically . Lata benda yang diawali the number of ( tunggal ) . Pilihan jawaban yang merupakan pre 10. dikat untuk orang ketiga tunggal adalah jawaban C Jawaban : C 6. In the next poetry reading contest, each of the contestants ___ expexted to be more critical and more accurate in pronounciation Each tunggal .Maka to be ynag tepat adalah is Jawaban : A 7. People are concerned about the depletion of 11. energy sources. However, they should not forget another important thing You mean ___ our environment? You mean pada kalimat tersebut merupakan penegasan untuk another important thing ( hal penting yang lain ) kata benda. Maka untuk melengkapi kalimat tersebut juga dibutuh kan unsur yang berupa kata benda atau pengganti kata benda seperti gerund atau to infinitive sehingga 12. jawaban yang mungkin adalah protecting atau to protect Jawaban : A 8. ___ the flow of energy relation of dan relationship of harus diikuti oleh dua kata benda. Orientation in relation to diartikan orien 13. tasi dalam hubungannya dengan ). Penjelas yang tepat untuk kata the flow adalah orientation relating to `(orientasi yang berhubungan dengan ) Jawaban : C 14. 9. In fact once the plane has taken off and ___ altitude, your cell phone will not work ( pada kenyataan

nya, ketika pesawat lepas landas dan ___ ketinggian telepon selulermu tidak berfungsi) Bentuk kata kerja untuk melengkapi kalimat ini harus setara dengan kata taken . Maka jawaban yang mungkin adalah : Jawaban A : approached cruising ( mendekati meluncur ), dan Jawaban D : cruised approaching ( meluncur mendekati ) Jawaban yang sesuai dengan konteks kalimat ada lah jawaban D Jawaban : D ___ remarkable achievement in music, Indra Lesmana in appointed to be the judge for the Indonesian Idol 2004 ( ____ prestasi luar biasa dalam music, Indra Lesman ditunjuk untuk menjadi juri untuk Indonesian Idol 2004) Kalimat tersebut menunjukkan hubungan sebab akibat. Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah for his dimana for berarti karena Jawaban : D The hardest thing most mountaineers are facing during their climbing expedition ___ they have difficulty breathing dure to the lack if oxygen in the air Bagian kalimat yang digaris bawahi di atas merupakan sati kesatuan subjek dengan kata thing sebagai kata benda inti. Kalimat di atas memerlukan predikat Jawaban : D Sitis sister and brother have got scholarship to study aboard ___ are studying economies Yang bisa menggantikan Sitis sister and brother dengan tepat adalah : both of them ( mereka berdua ) Jawaban : B Billiards merupakan uncountable noun sehingga dianggap tunggal. Maka to be yang paling tepat adalah is Jawaban : A The candidates for the governor ___ people to vote for them visited villages Kata kerja dari kalimat di atas adalah visited

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Maka subjek dari kalimat tersebut adalah sebuah frase kata benda, yaitu The candidates for the go vernor ___ people to vote for them. Untuk meleng kapi frase ini dibutuhkan participle untuk menjelas kan kata governor. Participle yang tepat adalah present participle yang memberikan makna aktif kepada governor tersebut. Jadi frase tersebut leng kapnya : The candidates for the governor asking people to vote for them ( kandidat gubernur yang meminta orang-orang untuk memilihnya) jawaban : A In many ways, riding a bicycle is similar to Bentuk yang sesuai dengan riding a bicycle ada lah driving a motorcycle Jawaban : C About ten percent of the earths land area, or near ly 5,8 million square miles ___ by glacial ice karena kata benda diawali oleh kata ten percent maka dianggap tunggal, jadi predikat yang tepat adalah kata kerja untuk orang ketiga tunggal Kata by menunjukkan bahwa kalimat tersebut pasif Jawaban : E So far of this term, the students in the writing class have learned how to write thesis statement, ___ and summarize their conclusions Yang harus diperhatikan dalam menyelesaikan soal ini adlah kesesuaian dan konsistensi kata kerja yang dihubungkan oleh kojungsi and. write and summarize merupakan kata kerj abentuk pertama, maka bentuk kata kerja yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat yang tersebut adalah organize Jawaban : C What makes you sad about the current reform movement in Indonesia? ____ bad effect on Indonesia economy Yang diperlukan untuk mengisi soal ini adalah kata ganti milik ( possessive pronoun ) untuk the current reform movement in Indonesia. Kata benda intinya yaitu movement tunggal. Jadi possessive pronoun nya adalah its Jawaban : C The importance of the laser lies in the great number of benefits ___ in the field of medicine

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

Bagian kalimat yang digaris bawahi adlah subjek kalimat. Inti dari subjek tersebut yaitu the import ance . Kalimat tersebut berupa pernyataan umum sehingga tidal bertenses lampau atau past. Maka predikat yang tepat adalah is expected Jawaban : A A number of students ___ complaining about the test. Kata benda yang diawali a number of jamak . To be yang tepat adalah are Jawaban : B The financial reports states that the petty cash has been used for reimbursing transportation costs and ___ computers Bentuk yang sesuai dengan reimbursing transpor tation adalah upgrading computers Jawaban : A For example, in a certain culture all persons are expected to be quite in a library, obey the traffic signals, eat with knife, fork and spoon, ___ during the playing of the national Anthem and pay the bills.. Yang harus diperhatikan dalam menyeseuai kan soal ini adalah konsistensi dan kesesuaian kata kerja yang dihubungkan oleh konjungsi and . Katakata yang digarisbawahinberupa kata kerja bentuk pertama , maka jawaban ynag tepat untuk meleng kapi kalimat tersebut juga harus berupa kata kerja benruk pertama Jawaban : C The office building , as well as several houses ____ completely damaged by the bombs explosion as well as memiliki makna dan fungsi yang sama dengan and . Kata benda yang digabungkan oleh as well as atau and menjadi jamak. Karena subjek nya jamak, maka to be yang tepat untuk meleng kapi predikat adalah were Jawaban : A These tourists, ___ are Japanese, were among the crowd participating in the dangdut dance Subjek kalimat di atas adalah the tourists. Klausa yang diapit oleh dua koma hanya merupakan klausa penjelas yang menjelaskan subjek. Jawaban yang tepat adalah many of whom Jawaban : A

25. Jika sebuah kata benda diikuti preposition phrase maka kata benda tersebut merupakan kata benda inti sehingga kata benda itulah yang disesuaikan dengan predikat. The increase in the sales of new cars ___ not expected to make traffic jams worse The increase tunggal . Maka to be yang tepat adalah is Jawaban : A

MATERI VI

ELLIPSIS
Ellipsis merupakan pemendekan gabungan dua kalimat atau lebih dengan cara menghilangkan bagian dari kalimat yang memiliki persamaan arti. Sehingga tidak terjadi pengulangan kata dalam satu kalimat Bentuk kalimat ellip Pemendekan kalimat atau ellipsis ini dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa cara, antara lain dengan menggunakan kata hubung seperti di bawah ini

1). So/too
So dan too dipakai untuk memendekkan dua kalimat positif dimana dua subjek melakukan hal yang sama ( sama-sama melakukan sesuatu ) Pola kalimatnya adalah sebagai berikut : Kalimat ( + ), and ( so + aux + S ) kalimat ( + ), and ( S + aux + too)

2). Either / neither


Either/neither penggunaannya sama dengan so dan too hanya saja dipakai untuk kalimat negative ( subjek sama-sama tidak melakukan sesuatu ). Polanya adalah sebagai berikut Kalimat ( - ), and ( neither + aux + S ) Kalimat ( + ), and ( S + aux + not + )

3). and, or, but, nor ( dan, atau, tapi juga tidak )
and, or, but, nor digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua unsur yang kedudukannya setara, di mana polanya adalah sebagai berikut : + and/or/but/nor +

4). but, whereas, while


But, whereas, while digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat yang bertentangan, yang satu negative dan yang satu positif. Polanya : Kalimat ( - ) + but, whereas + while + S + aux Kalimat ( + ) + but, whereas + while + S + aux + not Selain and, ot, but, nor, dua unsur setara juga dapat digabungkan dengan: both and not only but also either or neither nor whether or

Hal yang paling penting dalam membentuk kalimat ellip dan menyelesaikan soal ellipsis : 1. Menyamakan tenses ( kata bantu harus sama )

2. Menyamakan kata bantu dengan subjeknya 3. Menyesuaikan dengan pola ellipsis sesuai dengan kata hubung yang digunakan

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. We dont have to return the book tomorrow,but he ___ A. has D. does B. did E. had C. do Penyelesaian : We dont have . but he ___ present does Jawaban : D Parliament members were troubled not only by the present political condition ____ A. but the current social-economic condition is also bad B. and so is the current social economic condition C. besides the current social-economic condition is bad D. but also by the current social economic condition E. as well as the current social economic condition Penyelesaian : not only by the present political condition adverb of manner diawali by not only selalu berpasangan dengan but also untuk menggabungkan dua unsur setara. Maka sesuai bagan di atas, unsur di belakang but also juga harus berupa adverb of manner Jawaban : D ____ Neither does she A. I also sew my clothes B. she cannot sew her own clothes c. not do I sew my own clothes D. I dont sew my own clothes E. Does dhe sew her own clothes Penyelesaian : neither does she kalimat negative present Jawaban yang pasti menggunakan kata bantu nega tif bentuk pertama ( dont/doesnt ) Jawaban : D

4.

Jawaban : D 2. I saw her this morning. ____ A. so had I D. I did so B. so I did E. so do I C. so did I Penyelesaian : I saw her this morning past kata bantu did 5.

berdasar rumus ( S + P ), and ( so + aux + S ) jawaban yang tepat adalah so did I Jawaban : C 3. Advertisement both influence peoples spending habits ____ A. their standard of living is also raised B. but also the raising of their standard of living C. they can raise their standard of living too D. and raise their standard of living E. as well as they raise in their standard of living Penyelesaian : Advertisement both both and

6. Tom didnt go to school yesterday, and ___ A. so didnt I B. nor I didnt C. I neither did D. I didnt either E. I didnt too Penyelesaian : Tom didnt go to school yesterday past ( negative ) kata banti : die

9.

Maka unsur setelah and harus berupa frase kata benda Jawaban : D I think that my brother will be interested in reading this novel, but ___ A. so will my brother B. my father wont C. so does my father D. my father is not E. my brother will be Penyelesaian: my brother will be interested ,but

Berdasar pola neither/either, bentuk elipsisnya adalah neither did I atau I didnt either Jawaban : D 7. Tono : My brother has just bought a motorcycle. Parto : What a coincidence! ____ A. my brither has too B. also my brother C. so does my brother D. my brother does too E. my brother also did penyelesaian : My brother has just bought a motorcycle kata bantu Berdasar pola Kalimat ( + ), and ( so + aux + S ) atau kalimat ( + ), and ( S + aux + too), maka kali mat kedua dalam soal adalah so has my brother atau my brother has too Jawaban : A 8. Hanny became thh=e focus of attention when she wore a colorful dress and ___ at my birthday party A. her behavior is foolish B. was a fool C, behaved foolishly D. her foolishness E. her foolish behavior Penyelesaian : a colorful dress frase kata benda and menggabungkan unsur setara

kata bantu sesuai pola Kalimat ( + ), and ( S + aux + not + ) jawaban yang tepat adalah my father wont Jawaban : B 10. Sarah didnt plan anything for that weekend, and __ A. Santo did not either B. Santo did not C. nither didnt Santo D. nor Santo did E. so did Santo Penyelesaian : Sarah didnt plan anything for that weekend kalimat negative kata bantu did Berdasar pola either/neither , bentuk ellipsis nya adalah neither did Santo atauSanto didnt either Jawaban : A

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. We all were happy to knpw him winning the competition,____ A. but Yulia was not B. and also Yulia C. and so Yulia did D. and neither did Yulia E. but Yulia did not

2. Budi : I like that film very much Rahmat : ____ I have seen it three times A. so am I B. I am too C. so do I D I dont either E. Neither do I 3. The successful athletes got medals, and money means they got ___ medals but also money A.not only B. as well as C. instead of D. no more E. not even 4. Everyone laughed at his jokes,___ A. but the techer not B. and also the teacher C. and so the teacher did D. and either did the teacher E. but the teacher did not 5. Dian agreed the plan to spend our weekend at the beach, ____ A. neither was I B. but Im not C, so am I D. while I didnt E. I didnt either 6. he never read English newspaper and ___ A. so did I B. neither do I C. neither did I D. I dont either E. so do I 7. Sue : I didnt enjoy the moviw last night Bob : neither did I from the dialogue we know that ___ A. Both Su eand Bob didnt enjoy the movie last night

B. Not only Sue but also Bob enjoyed the last night C. Bob enjoyed the movie last night but Sue didnt D. Bob enjoyed the movie last night and so did Sue E. either Sue and Bob enjoyed the movie last night 8. I think that my mother will be interested in reading his novel, but ____ A. so will my father B. my father wont C. so does my father D. my father is not E. my father will be Tari was punished by the teacher not only because she forgot to bring her book ____ A. and she didnt do her homework also B. but she didnt do her homework either C. but also not for doing her homework D. as well as she didnt do her homework E. but also because she didnt do her homework

9.

10. If you are able to do that job ____ A. so do I B. so am I C. so will I D. so much I E. so can I 11. Bob : I wont come to the meeting tomorrow What about you? Janet : Well Im afraid _____ A. so will I B. I will too C. neither do I D. I wont either E. I dont either 12. Yesteday, I told her to take a rest. _____ A. So had I D. So I didnt B. So I did E. I did so C. So did I

13. Alex : This evening I have a lot of work to do I wont be able to play tennis Anwar: Neither will I From the sentences above we conclude that ____ a. alex plays tennis B.Anwar plays tennis C. Both of them plays tennis D. Both of them wont play tennis E. not only alex but also Anwar play tennis 14. They have worked hard to prevent excessive government spending, protect invorenment and, _______ A. provide quality education B. the provision of quality edication C. providing quality education D. quality education is provided E. for providing quality education 15. Hamdi : Do you agree with system of direct presidential education Burhan : members of the parliament object to the system and I do,too From the dialogue we can conclude that Burhan _____ with the system A. supports B. disagrees C. approves D. accepts E. denies 16. His shop was burnt down ___ his car that was parked nearby A. and either did B. also was C. but neither was D so did E. and so was 17. I heard that the thieves managed to take your electronics. Well, not only the electronics ____

A. as well as my precious jewelry B. but they took my precious jewelry too C. and also my precious jewelry D. but also my precious jewelry E. and they took my precious jewelry 18. Because of the rain, the tescher couldnt come on time, and ___ A. I neither could B. neither did I C. also I could not D. I couldnt either E. so I didnt 19. Father can hardky read without his spectacles and ___ A. neither cant mother B. mother cant either C. mother cant too D. mother was too E. so is mother 20. the higher rate of pollution un this area is caused by the increasing number of cars as well as by ___ A. the smoke from factories are emitted B. the factories emit smoke C. the smoke wihich factories emitted D. the factory smoke is emitted E. the emission of the smoke from factories 21. He did not pass his oral examination because he was either nervous ____ A. or he didnt porpose himself well B. and did not prepare well C. also the preparation was not good D. or not well prepare E. but he was not was not well prepared 22. The workers are demanding not only in raise in salary, but also ___ A. they want a longer annual leave B. to have a longer annual leave C. a longer annual leave they asked

D. in getting a longer annual leave E. a longer annual leave 23. The camping ground where we camped last weekend neither had a facility for rock climbing practice ___ A. the water was also dirty B. nor did it have clean water C. there wasno clean water D. we could also not find clean water E. and the water was dirty too 24. I dont think Amir knows anything about computer. But he ___. He took a computer course last year. A. knows B. does C. know D. do E. is 25. X : Last holiday I went to a very interesting place. Y : _______ A. so had I B. So I did C. so did I D. so I didnt E. I did so

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Everyone laughed at his jokes simple past tense sehingga kata banti did. Pola ellipsis yang tepat untuk kalimat di atas adalah : kalimat ( + ) + but + S + aux + not. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : but the teacher didnt Jawaban : E Dian agreed the plan to spend our weekend at the beach kalimat positif dengan kata bantu did. Jawaban yang tepat adalah : while I didnt Jawaban : D he never read English newspaper and never menunjukkan bahwa kalimat ini negatif sedangkan kata kerja read tanpa tambahan s menunjukkan bahwa tenses kalimat adalah simple past tense kata bantu adalah did. Pola ellipsis yang sesuai untuk kalimat ini adalah : ( S + P ), and neither + aux + S ) atau ( S + P ), and ( S + aux +not + either ). Maka bentuk jawaban yang tepat adalah netither did I atau I didnt either Jawaban : C Neither did I menunjukkan bahwa Bon setuju dengan Sue yang tidak suka film itu. Ini berarti ke duanya sama-sama tidak suka Jawaban : A my mother will be interested in reading his novel but ___. Kalimat tersebut merupakan kalimat positif dengan kata bantu will. Sesuai pola Kalimat ( + ) + but + S+ aux. Jawaban yang benar adalah : but my father will not Jawaban : B Tari was punished by the teacher not only because she forgot to bring her book ____ Kata sambugn not only selalu berpasangan dengan but also. Not only pada soal diikuti oleh klausa ad verb yang menerangkan alasan maka but also juga harus diikuti clause yang meenunjukkan adverb of reason Jawaban : C If you are able to do that job ___ are able to adalah bentuk lain dari modal can. Maka karena kalimat pada soal tersebut positif, kemungki nan jawabannya adalah so can I atau I can too Jawaban : E

Kunci Jawaban Aplikasi Soal 2


1. We all were happy to knpw him winning the 9. competition kalimat positif dengan kata bantu were ( kata bantu untuk Yulia : was ) Maka jawaban yang benar adalah : but Yulia was not Jawaban : A 2. I like that film very much kata bantu do, maka jawaban yang benar adalah so do I atau I do too Jawaban : C 3. they got ___ medals but also money 10. Kata hubung but also selalu berpasangan dengan not only. Gabungan not only but also memiliki makna sama dengan and Jawaban : A

11. I wont come to the meeting tomorrow kata bantu will karena wont merupakan kependekan dari will not . Karena kalimat ini negative, maka jawaban yang benar adalah : neither will I atau 19. I wont either Jawaban : D 12. Yesteday, I told her to take a rest kata bantu did. Karena kalimat ini positif, maka jawaban yang tepat adalah so did I atau I did too Jawaban : C 13. Neither will I yang bermakna aku juga tidak diucapkan oleh Anwar untuk menganggapi kalimat 20. Alex : I wont be able to play tennis ( aku tidak akan bisa bermain tenis ). Maka dapat disimpulkan behwa keduanya tidak dapat nermain tenis. Kalimat yang tepat untuk menyatakan kesimpulan ini adalah both of them wont play tennis Jawaban : D 14. They have worked hard to prevent excessive 21. government spending, protect invorenment and, _______ Seperti telaj diketahui bahwa kata hubung and digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua unsur setara. Pola jawaban yang setara dengan to prevent excessive spending dan protect invorenment adalah provide 22. quality education Jawaban : A 15. members of the parliament object to the system and I do,too ( anggota parlemen menolak system itu,dan aku juga) Kalimat elip tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Burhan juga tidak setuju ( disagree ) 23. Jawaban : B 16. His shop was burnt down ___ . Kalimat elip yang tepat untuk kalimat ini adalah so was his car that was parked nearby atau his car that was parked nearby was too Jawaban : E 17. not only the electronics ____ Kata sambung not only selalu berpasangan dengan but also. Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah : but also my precious jewelry 24. Jawaban : D 18. Because of the rain, the tescher couldnt come on time, and ___ . Kalimat di atas berupa kalimat negative

dengan kata bantu could. Maka jawaban yang benar adalah neither could I atau I couldnt either Jawaban : D Father can hardky read without his spectacles and ___ Kalimat ini tampak positif, tapi sebenarnya negative Sama halnya dengan kata never, kata hardly me nunjukkan bahwa kalimat ini negative. Maka kalimat ellip yang tepat untuk kalimat di atas adalah neither can mother atau mother can either Jawaban : B the higher rate of pollution un this area is caused by the increasing number of cars as well as by ___ as well as sama dengan kata hubung and digunakan untuk menghubungkan dua unsur yang setara. Pola yang setara dengan the increasing number of cars adalah the emission of the smoke from factories Jawaban : E he was either nervous ____. Kata sambung either selalu berpasangan sengan or. Kata sambung terse but menggabungkan dua unsur setara. Karena ner vous adalah adjective, maka jawaban yang tepat adalah or not well prepared Jawaban : D The workers are demanding not only in raise in salary, but also ___ a raise in salary adalah frase kata benda. Maka kata yang mengikuti but also juga harus berupa kata benda atau frase kata benda,yaitu: a longer annual leave Jawaban : E The camping ground where we camped last week end neither had a facility for rock climbing practice ___ kata sambung neither selalu berpasangan dengan nor. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : Nor did it have clean water Jawaban : B I dont think Amir knows anything about computer. But he ___ Pola ellipsis yang tepat untuk kalimat di atas adalah

Kalimat ( - ) + but + S + Aux. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : but he does 25. Last holiday I went to a very interesting place dengan kata bantu did. Karena kalimat ini positif maka jawaban yang tepat adalah so did I atau I did too Jawaban : C

MATERI VII

DIRECT INDIRECT SPEECH


Direct speech atau kalimat langsung yaitu kalimat yang diucapkan secara langsung yang dalam penulisannya mengunakan quotation mark atau tanda petik. Sebaliknya indirect speech atau kalimat tak langsung yaitu kalimat yang tidak diucapkan secara langsung dan dalam penulisannya tidak menggunakan tanda petik. Dalam direct indirect speech dikenal reporting speech ( melaporkan ) dan reported speech ( dilaporkan ) Reporting speech She said, She said Reported speech Im tired She was tired

Jika sebuah kalimat langsung yang diubah ke bentuk tak langsung akan terjadi bebrerapa perubahan. Perubahanperubahan tersebut antara lain: Perubahan Perubahan pronoun tenses V V V v Perubahan penghubung Perubahan susunan Perubahan adverb V v

Kalimat affirmative Kalimat interrogative Kalimat perintah Kalimat larangan

v V v

maka dalam menyesuaikan soal yangberhubungan dengan direct indirect sentence, pertama-tama harus dianalisis dulu perubahan-perubahan yang mungkin terjadi pada reported speech, seperti di bawah ini

1. Perubahan pronoun
Perubahan pronoun pada reported speech ini tidak dipengaruhi bentuk tenses reporting speech. Perubahannya mengikuti pronoun pada reporting speech. Miaslnya : Jaka said to Rani,I have something for you Jaka said to Rani that he had something for her

2. Perubahan tenses
Perubahan ini janya terjadi jika reporting speech dalam bentuk past tense Direct Simple Present Tense Present Continues Tense Present Perfect Tense Present Perfect Continues Tense Simple Past Tense Indirect Simple Past Tense Past Continues Tense Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Continues Tense Simple Perfect Tense

Past Continues Tense Simple Future Tense Future Continues Tense Future Perfect Tense Future Perfect Continues Tense Past Future Tense Past Future Continues Tense

Past Perfect Continues Tense Past Future Tense Past Future Continues Tense Past Future Perfect Tense Past Future Perfect Tense Past Perfect Future Tense Past Perfect Future Continues Tense

3. Perubahan Adverb
Seperti halnya perubahan tenses, perubahan adverb juga hanya terjadi jika reporting speech dalam bentuk past tense Direct Now Today Tomorrow Yesterday ago Last Next Indirect Then, at that time That day The next day, the day after, the following day The day before before The..before Theafter, the following

4. Perubahan bentuk penghubung


Perubahan bentuk penghubung pada kalimat interrogative, perintah dan larangan tidak dipengaruhi oleh bentuk tenses pada reporting speech Bentuk kalimat Kalimat interrogative Kalimat perintah Kalimat larangan Penghubung If/whether/question word To Not to

5. Perubahan susunan kalimat Perubahan susunan kalimat terjadi pada kalimat interrogative yang berubah bentuk menjadi affirmative yes no question if/whether + S + predikat WH question WH question + S + V

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. Setiawan told me, I will return your bicycle as soon as I come home today. A. Setiawan told me that I would return his bicycle as soon as I come home that day B. Setiawan told me that he would return my bicycle as soon as he came home that day C. Setiawan told me that he will return my bicycle as soon as he comes home that day D. Setiawan told me that he woud have returned my bicycle as soon as he had come home that day E. Setiawan told me that I would return my bicycle as soon as he come home that day Penyelesaian : Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb I setiawan ( he ) Your my Future past future (will would, come came Today that day

Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb

you

Mary ( she, her ) past perfect had come)

past (did come Why -

3.

Maka kalimat indirect-nya : The teacher asked why she had come late Jawaban : B Eti asked Andi,Will you come to my party next Saturday? Eti asked Andi ____ A. if he would ould come to my party the following Saturday B. whether he would come to her party next Saturday C. whether she would come to his party the follow ing Saturday D. if he would come to her party the following Satur day E. whether would he come to her party the follow ing Saturday

Penyelesaian :

Maka kalimat indirect nya : Setiawan told me that he would return my bicycle as soon as he came home that day Jawaban : B 2. The teacher asked : Why did you come late, Mary? The teacher asked wahy ___ A. she comes late B. she had come late C. had she come late D. she came late e. did she come late Penyelesaian : Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi :

Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb

my Etis ( her ) You andi ( he ) Future past future (will would ) if/whether Modal + S S + modal next Sunday Sunday following

Maka kalimat indirect-nya : Eti asked Andi if he would come to her party the following Saturday Jawaban : D

4. Dont make noise children,she said In other words we say ___ A. she told the children dont make noise B. She said the children didnt make noise C. she didnt say the children should make noise D. she told the children no to make noise E. she didnt say the children to make noise Penyelesaian : Analisis perubahan- perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb Not to -

6.

Go away and dont come here anymore,means: A. he told to go away and never come there anymore B. He said I must go away and not come there anymore C. he asked me to go away and never come there anymore D. he ordered me to go away and asked me not to come there anymore E. he told me to go away and never go there

Penyelesaian : Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb To dan not to -

Maka kalimat indirect nya : she told the children not to make noise Jawaban : D 5. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ A. that I opened his mouth B. If I opened my mouth C. whether I open my mouth D. to open my mouth E. opened my mouth Penyelesaian: Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb to -

Kalimat indirect-nya : he ordered me to go away and asked me not to come there anymore Jawaban : D 7. The girl begged the robber ___ A. dont take my money B. not taking her money C. not to take her money D. didnt take her money E. hed better not take her money Penyelesaian Maka perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi pada bentuk penghubung The girl begged the robber berarti memohon bermakna sama dengan perintah atau larangan

Maka kalimat indirect nya : the doctor told me to open my mouth Jawaban : D

jawaban diawali to to atau not to Jawaban : C

8. Abet : Sisca, are you busy? It means A. Abet wanted to know whether Sisca is busy B. Abet wanted to know that Sisca is busy C. Abet wanted to know that Sisca busy D. Abet wanted to know if Sisca was busy E. Abet wanted to know if Sisca has been busy Penyelesaian : Analisis perubaha- perubahan yang terjadi: Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb you Sisca (she) present past (are was/where ) If/whether Aux + S S + aux -

Kalimat indirect-nya : Mother wanted to know if/whether I had had my breakfast Jawaban : B 10. Yono said,I wish I were the winner.It means A. Yono wished that he is the winner B. Yono wished that had been the winner C. Yono wished that he could be the winner D. Yono wished if he were the winner E. Yono wished if he is the winner Penyelesaian: Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses I Yono ( he) present past (wish wished ) present subjunctive subjunctive (were had been ) -

past

Kalimat indirect-nya : Abet wanted to know if Sisca is busy Jawaban : D 9. Mother : Ta, have you had your breakfast Ita : Not yet ,Mom Father : What did your mother ask you, Ita ? Ita : Oh, she wanted to know whether ___ A. I had my breakfast B. I had had my breakfast C. You had your breakfast D. I have had my breakfast E. Youu had had your breakfast Penyelesaian : Kalimat langsung yang sebenarnya adalah : Mother wanted to know Ta, have you had your breakfast? Analisis perubahan-perubahan yang terjadi : Pronoun Tenses Penghubung Susunan Adverb you Ita present perfect past perfect (have had had had ) If/whether have + S S +had 2. 1.

Penghubung Susunan Adverb

Kalimat indirect-nya : Yono wished that he had been the winner jawaban : B

Aplikasi Soal 2
Jane said to me,I was in the concert yesterday jane said to me that ____ A. she was in the concert yesterday B. she had been in the concert the day before C. I had been in the concert the day before D. she had been in the concert yesterday E. I was in the concert the day before Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ___A. whether I wanted meatballs or fried chicken B. whether I want meatballs or fried chicken

C. that I wanted meatballs or fried chicken D. that I want meatballs or fried chicken E. if I want meatballs or fried chicken 3. The teacher asked Sita,Why did you make mistakes? the teacher wondered ___ A. why she made many mistakes B. why she had many mistakes C. why did she made many mistakes D. why had she made many mistakes E. why has she made many mistakes 4. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : what did the teacher want to know Fergie? Fergie : She wanted to know ___ A. if Mary was absent B. why Mary was absent C. why was Mary absent D. that Mary had been absent E. why Mary had been absent 5. Ive been working here for ten years, Fini told It means A. Fini told that she had worked there for ten years B. Fini told that she had been working here for ten C. Fini told that she had been working there for ten years D. Fini told that she has been working there for ten years E. Fini told that she had worked here for ten years 6. Marlin : Christ, where are you staying? Christ : At Sahid Hotel Marlin asked Christ ____ A. where he stays B. where he was staying C. where did he stay D. where does he stay E. where had he stayed 7. Stephan said to me,Do you close the windows

at night? The indirect form is : Stephan asked me ____ at night A. that closed the windows B. if I closed the windows C. whether you closed the windows D. when I closed the windows E. that you closed the windows 8. Ive been writing letters.Sean answered. we can also say ___ A. Sean answered that he had been writing letters B. Sean answered that he has been writing letters C. Sean answered that he wrote letters D. Sean answered that he has writing letters E. Sean answered he has been writing letters Mother ; Dont be so noisy, Herman. The baby is sleeping herman : Okay, mom Rudi : What did your mother just tell you Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping A. I wasnt so noisy B. not to be so noisy C. dont be so noisy D. I am very noisy E. to be not so noisy

9.

10. My father said : Dont waste your money on ciga rettes This means : A. My father advised me not to waste my money on cigarettes B. My father told me that he didnt waste my ney on cigarettes C. My father asked me if I had wasted my money on cigarettes D. My father allowed me to waste my money on cigarettes E. My father said that I didnt waste my money on cogarettes

11. Mr Smith said to me Can I find you a hotel? This sentence means: A. Mr Smith asked me if he colud help me to find a hotel B. Mr Smith asked me to find a hotel for you C. I told him to find a hotel for him D. I wondered if Mr Smoth could find a hotel E. Mr Smith wanted to know if I could help him ti find a hotel 12. A : I have pain in my throat. what would you recommend? B : Id adviseyou anymore ____ A. not to smoke B. not smoke C. did not smoke D.will not smoke E. are not smoke 13. The foreman said : Finish your task and do it well! means ___ A. the foreman asked to finish his task and to do it well B. The foreman ordered me to finish my task and to do it well C. the foreman asked me to finish my task and do it well D. The foreman told me to finish his task and do it well E. The foreman told me finish your task and do it well 14. Mother : Clean your room, Siska! Siska : Yes,mom Vinda : What did your mother tell you,Siska? Siska : She told me ____ A. clean my room B. to clean my room C. to clean your room D. cleaned my room E. clean your room 15. Father : Have you done your homework?

Ali : Yes,father. Rudi : What did your father say, Ali? Ali : he asked me whether I ___ my homework A. had done B. have done C. hadnt done D. havent done E. have been doing 16. He asked me whether he ___ my car to go to the party. A. can borrow B. might borrow C. ought to borrow D. may borrow E. would borrow 17. Why is he searching every drawer? Lets ask him ___ A. what is he looking for B. is he looking for something C. if he looks for something D. what he is looking for E. that he is looking for 18. have you offered your guest something to drink? Yes I have . I have asked her ___ shed like coffee or tea. A. what B. that C. which D. whether E. why 19. Do you borrow this book from the library?asked Deni. Deni wanted to know whether I ____ that book from the library A. borrow B. borrowed C. will borrow D. have borrowed E. am going to borrowed

20. Stephen : Sandra, are you going to let me go without you? It means : A, Stephen asked whether Sandra is going to let him go without her B. Stephen asked Sandra to let him go without me C. Stpehen told Sandra that she was going to let him go without her D. Stephen asked Sandra if she was going to let him go without her E. Stephen asked if she was going to let Sandra go without him

5.

dengan tenses Simple Past. Maka reported senten ce nya menjadi past perfect tense dengan pola : Wh question + S + had +V3 why Mary had been absent Jawaban : E Ive been working here for ten years, Fini told reporting speech past tense. Tenses reported speech berubah dari present perfect continues tense menjadi past perfect continues tense I had been working . Adverb here menjadi there Maka jawaban yang benar : Fini told that she had been working there for three years Jawaban : C Marlin asked Christ past tense. Christ, where are you staying ? WH-question dengan tenses present continues. Maka repoted sentence nya manjadi past continues dengan kata hubung where Jadi jawabannya : where Christ was staying Jawaban : B Stephan said to me,Do you close the windows at night? Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech : - pronoun, yaitu you menjadi I - Simple present tense menjadi Simple Past tense - Kata sambung if/whether Maka kalimat tak langsungnya : Stephen asked me if I closed the windows at night Jawaban : B Ive been writing letters.Sean answered Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech : - pronoun, yaitu I menjadi Sean - present perfect tense menjadi past perfect tense Maka kalimat tak langsung nya Sean answered that he had been writing letters Jawaban : B Dont be so noisy kalimat larangan. Kata larangan diganti dengan not + to infinitive dan tidak terjadi perubahan waktu. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : not to be so noisy My father said past tense . Maka tanses indi rect speech berubah. Dont waste your money on cigaterettes larangan. Maka kata larangan diganti dengan not + to infinitive . your diganti my

Kunci Jawaban Aplikasi Soal 2

6.

1. Jane said to me,I was in the concert yesterday Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech: -pronoun, yaitu I menjadi Jane (she) - Simple past tense menjadi past perfect tense was menjadi had been 7. - yesterday menjadi the day before Maka kalimat tak langsung nya : Jane said to me (that she had been in the concert tha day before Jawaban : B 2. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech: - pronoun yaitu you menjadi I - Simple present tense menjadi simple past tense - Kata sambung if/whether 8. Maka kalImat tak langsung nya: Mother asked me whether I wanted meatballs or fried chicken Jawaban : A 3. The teacher asked Sita past tense . maka tenses indirect speech berubah . Why did you make mistakes? WH question dengan tenses Simple Past. You mengacu pada Sita. Maka reported senten 9. ce nya menjadi past perfect tense dengan pola : Wh question + S + had + V3 Why Sita had made many mistakes Jawaban : B 10. 4. She wanted to know past tense . Maka tenses indirect speech nya berubah . Why was Mary absent yesterday? WH question

Jawaban : A 11. Mr Smith said to me Can I find you a hotel? yes/no question. Pola reported sentence nya menjadi : if/whether + S + predikat If/whether he could fine me a hotel Jawaban : A 12. Seoerti halnya perintah dan larangan, advice juga merupakan suruhan atau larangan sehingga untuk menghubungkan reporting speech dengan reported speech pada kalimat tak langsung juga digunakan to atau not to Jawaban : A 13. The foreman said : Finish your task and do it well! merupakan perintah. Kata perintah diganti dengan to infinitive dan tidak terjadi perubahan waktu Pronoun your berubah menjadi my . Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah : The foreman asked me too finish my task and do it well Jawaban : C 14. Clean your room, Siska! merupakan perintah Maka penghubungnya to . Maka Siska mengulang perkataan Ibunya dengan mengatakan : she told me to clean my room Jawaban : B 15. Kalimat terakhir Ali sama dengan : Father asked me Have you done your homework? Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech adalah: - pronoun,yaitu you menjadi I dan your menjadi my - present perfect tense menjadi past perfect tense sehingga have done menjadi had done - kata sambung if/whether Maka kalimat indirect nya : Father asked me if/whe ther I had done my homework jawaban : A 16. He asked me whether he ___ my car to go to the party ( dia bertanya padaku apakah ____ mobilku untik pergi ke pesta ) Reporting speech berupapast tense meka tenses pada reported speech kalimat indirect tidak mungkin present. Kemungkinan jawabannya adalah berupa modal past (might atau would). jawaban ynag sesuai dengan konteks kalimat di atas adalah might yang menunjukkan permintaan izin

Jawaban : B 17. Lets ask him, Why is he searching every drawer? - Tidak terjadi perubahan tenses karena reporting speech present - kata sambung why Maka kalimat tak langsungnya : Lets ask him why he is searching every drawer. Kalimat tak langsung ini memiliki makna yang sama dengan : Lets ask him what is he looking for Jawaban : A 18. I have asked her ___ shed like coffee or tea bentuk indirect yang berupa question. Kata hubung yang tepat adalah : if atau whether Jawaban : D 19. Do you borrow this book from the library?asked Deni Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech: - pronoun, yaitu you menjadi I - Simpple present tense menjadi Simple past tense - this menjadi that - Kata sambung if/whether Maka kalimat tak langsungnya : Deni wanted to know whether I borrowed that book in the library Jawaban : B 20. Stephen : Sandra, are you going to let me go without you? Perubahan yang terjadi pada reported speech: - pronoun, yaitu you menjadi Sandra ( she/her ) dan me menjadi Stephen ( him) - Simple Future tense menjadi Simple Past Future Tense are going to menjadi was going to - Kata sambung if/whether Kalimat tak langsungnya Stephen asked if/whether Sadra was going to let him go without her Jawaban : D

MATERI VIII

RELATIVE PRONOUN
Relative pronoun merupakan kata ganti penghubung yang menunjuk pada orang tau benda ynag dibicarakan dalam kalimat. Relative pronoun antara lain: a. Who Who menjelaskan orang (person) dengan makna aktif sehingga dalam adjective clause, who merupakan pengganti subjek b. Whom Whom menjelaskan orang (person) yang bermakna pasif sehingga dalam adjective clause, whom merupakan pangganti objek c. which Which menjelaskan benda bukan orang baik yang bermakna aktif maupun pasif d. Whose Whose menggunakan kata ganti milik my, your, our, their, her, his dan its Soal ynag berhubungan dengan relative pronoun biasanya hanya meminta relative pronoun yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat soal. Untuk menyelesaikan soal seperti ini, perhatikan trik di bawah ini: 1. Jika diikuti predikat baik berupa kata kerja maupun kata bantu, maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah who atau which Contoh: He thanks the boy who gives him money person verb It is the cat which steals the meat non-person verb 2. Jika diikutioleh pronoun atau subjek ( berupa noun ) yang predikatnya transitif ( membutuhkan objek ) tetapi onjeknya tidak ada maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whom atau which Contoh : That was the man whom she saw the day before person S V (verb transitive saw tidak diikuti objek) The nice dress which she bought is now torn non-person S V (verb transitive bought tidak diikuti objek ) 3. Jika dikuti oleh noun dan predikat yang sudah lengkap objek maupun complement ( tidak membutuhkan objek) maka realitve pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Contoh: That is the man whose son kicked my cat noun predicate

That is the young lady whose voice is very beautiful noun predicate tidak membutuhkan objek

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. Eko : Which is your mother, Lily? Lily : There she is, the one ___ is coming here A. who D. whose B. whom E. where C. which Penyelesaian : There she is the one ____ is coming here person diikuti kata bantu This is the latest news ____ we received non-person S V verb transitif (tapi tidak diikuti objek Maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah which Jawaban : E To whom are you going to dedicate your book? To those ____ patience and support have enabled me to write this book. A. of which D. whose B. whom E. who their C. to whom Penyelesaian : To those ___ patience and support ( noun ) have enabled me ( predikat lengkap dengan objek ) Karena diikuti oleh noun dan predikat yang sudah lengkap dengan objek nya, maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Jawaban : D Teenager delinquency ___ people are now complai ning, has become a popular topic discuss among psychologists Penyelesaian : about the kidnapping of the richest businessman in town

Hanya merupakan frase penjelas untuk the latest news a few minutes keterangan waktu inti kalimat pada soal tersebut

Maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah who Jawaban : A 2. X : Look, isnt that our friens Siska ? Y : Which one ? X : There, rhe one ____ hat is black and red A. who D. which B. whom E. that C. whose Penyelesaian: the one ____ hat is black and red noun predikat dengan complement Maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Jawaban : C 3. This is the latest news about the kidnapping of the richest businessman in town ___ we received a few minutes ago A. whom D. whose B. of which E. which C. where

4.

5.

A. whom that B in which C. whom

D. about which E. which

Penyelesaian : Teenager delinquency non-person Relative pronoun yang digunakan pasti which Jawaban : E 6. I heard that Lolas marriage has been arranged by her family. really? So she is marrying a man ___ she hardly knows. A. whom B. to whom C. whose D. that is E. which Penyelesaian : a man ___ she hardly knows person S V verb transitif tapi tidak diikuti objek Relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whom Jawaban : A 7. Dian is a clever student. She wants to be a mathema tics teacher. These sentences can be combined into: Dian ____ is a clever student,wants to be a math tea cher A. who D. that B. whose E. which C. that Penyelesaian : Dian , ____ is a clever student person kata bantu Relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah who Jawaban : A 8. The students book were left in the classroom. He came here this morning to take them

we can say : The students ____ book were left in the classroom came here this morning to take them A. which D. that B. whose E. who C. whom Penyelesaian : The student ____ books were left noun predikat pasif (tidak membutuhkan objek) Karena diikuti oleh kata benda books dan tidak membutuhkan objek maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Jawaban : B A firend of mine ___ father is the manager of a company helped me to get a job A. whose D. who B. whom E. that C. which Penyelesaian : A firend of mine ___ father is the manager of a company noun complement Karena diikuti oleh kata benda father dan diikuti complement maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Jawaban : A 10. Mary introduced me to her former lecturer __ She married aftershe had graduated A. of whom B. whose C. of which D.whom E. who Penyelesaian :

9.

her former lecturer ____ she married S V person Jawaban : D verb transitif (tapi tidak diikuti objek )

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. What is pediatrician? Oh, its a doctor ___ specialization is treating the children. A. whom D. that B. which E. whose C. who 2. The singing contest participants, only five of ___ will be selected to enter the grand final are now waiting for the Jurys decision. A. whom D. which B. whose E. these C. them 3. the boy __ present the paper is sitiing in front of the class A.whom will B. whose C. who will D. which will E. to whom 4. Dony really hate the man ____ car hit him last week A. whom D. which B. whose E. these C. them 5. The man is an engineer. His wife had a birthday party yesterday. The best combination of the two sentence is ____ 9. A. the wife who is an engineer had a birthday party yesterday B. the wife who had a birthday party yesterday is an engineer 6. C. the man who had a birthday party yesterday is an engineer D. the man whose wife is an engineer had a birthday party E. The man whose wife had a birthday party yesterday is an negineer Look at the woman! She is the lecturer ____ Fandy adores A. whom D. which B. whose E. these C. them Surya picks the letter ____ lays on the table A.whom D. which B. whose E. these C. them The man is buying five books . I saw him in the bar yesterday. The best combination is __ A. The man which I saw in the bar buys five books B. I saw the man which buying the books yesterday in the bar C. The man whom I saw in the bar yesterday is buy ing five books D. The man who I saw yesterday buying five books E. I saw the man which in the bar yesterday Is buying five books I love the man ___ face is handsome A. whose D. that B. which E. whom C. who

7.

8.

10. Susi stays in the house ___ her father opened the barbershop one year ago A. which D. and B. in which E. whose C. on which 11. A : Do you know the woman speaking with the professor? B : Yes, she is our new lecturer ___ A. which also can speak English well B. with whom she will help the professor C. whose her daughter is a famous surgeon in this town D. who is also an assistant of te minister of wo man affairs E. whom also working as a consultant I a foreign company 12. I have to see Mira ___ brother will be my senior in campus A. whom D. that B. which E. these C. who 3. 13. Students card is the identity card ___ students have to show before entering the library A. whom D. which B. whose E. these C. this 4. 14. Tari : Why do you admire Mother Theresa so much? Susi : Dont you know that she was the woman A. that she didnt recognize me B. who dedicated her life to the poor C. whom the governor met at the party D. of which house was veru expensive E. whose farmland is owned by her father 15. Mary introduced me to her former lecturer ___ She married after she had graduated A. of whom B. whose

C. of which D. whom E. who

Kunci Jawaban Aplikasi Soal 2


1. Relative pronoun yang sesuai untuk melengkapi kalimat ini adalah yang menggantikan kata milik yaitu whose. Sehingga kalimatnya menjadi : Its a doctor specialization is treating children ( itu adalah dokter yang spesialisasinya merawat anak ) Jawaban : E The singing contest participants, only five of ___ will be selected to enter the grand final are now waiting for the Jurys decision. Relative pronoun yang diikuti oleh predikat dan berfungsi untuk menjelaskan orang atau person adalah who Namun jika sebelum relative pronoun itu terdapat sebuah preposisi, who tidak bisa digunakan, sehing ga yang digunakan adalah whom Jawaban ; A the boy __ present the paper is sitiing in front of the class Relative pronoun yang diikuti olah kata kerja dan berfungsi untuk menjelaskan orang atau person adalah who Jawaban : C Dony really hate the man ____ car hit him last week . Menjelaskan theman (person) dan diikuti oleh noun dan predikat yang sudah lengkap dengan objek. Maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whose Jawaban : B The man is an engineer. His wife had a birthday yesterday. Relative pronoun yang berfungsi sebagai kata ganti milik adalah whose maka jawaban yang mungkin adalah jawaban D atau E. Gabungan kalimat yang sesuai dengan penyusunannya adalah E Jawaban : E

2.

5.

6. She is the lecturer ____ Fandy adores menjelaskan She dan diikuti oleh subjek yang predikatnya transitif tetapi objeknya tidak ada. Maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whom Jawaban : A 7. Surya picks the letter ____ lays on the table menjelaskan the letter (non person ). Maka relative pronoun yang tepat adalah which Jawaban : D 8. The man is buying five books . I saw him in the bar yesterday. Relaitve pronoun yang berfungsi sebagai pengganti objek adalah whom . Maka jawaban yang tepat ada lah The man whom I saw in the bar yesterday is buy ing five books Jawaban : C 9. I love the man ___ face is handsome Diikuti oleh noun dengan predikat maka relative pronoun yang tepat adalah whose Jawaban : A 10. Susi stays in the house ___ her father opened the barbershop one year ago ( Susi tinggal di rumah ____ ayahnya membuka tempat potong rambut satu tahun yang lalu) menjelaskan rumah yang ditinggali olah Susi. Relative pronoun yang mungkin digunakan adalah which . Tetapi yang sesuai dengan konteks kalimat adalah in which yang berarti sama dengan where Jawaban : B 11. she is our new lecturer ___ menjelaskan she (person) maka bisa diikuti who whom atau whos. Penggunaan relative pronoun ter sebut yang tepat adalah pilihan jawaban D dimana who diikuti kata bantu is Jawaban : D 12. I have to see Mira ___ brother will be y senior in campus Relative pronoun yang diikuti oleh noun dan complement (tidak membutuhkan objek) adalah whose Jawaban : E 13. Students card is the identity card ___ students have to menjelaskan identity card (non person)

Maka relative pronoun yang tepat adalah which Jawaban : D 14. she was the woman ____ menjelaskan she (person) maka bisa diikuti who,whom atau whose. Penggunaan relative pronoun yang tepat terdapat pada pilihan jawaban B di mana who diikuti kata kerja Jawaban : B 15. Mary introduced me to her former lecturer ___ She married after she had graduated menjelaskan her former lecturer (person). Karena diikuti oleh subjek (berupa noun) yang predikatnya transitif (membutuhkan objek) tetapi objeknya tidak ada maka relative pronoun yang digunakan adalah whom Jawaban : D

MATERI IX DERIVATIVES
Derivative (kata jadian ) yaitu kata yang mengalami perubahan jenis karena mendapat imbuhan tertentu yang disebut derivatonal affix. Dalam menyelesaikan soal-soal derivatives, langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan adalah : 1. Menentukan jenis kata apa yang diminta oleh soal 2. Menentukan bantuk kata jadian yang tepat ( sesuai dengan jenis kata yang diminta ) Cara menentukan jenis kata dan bentuk kata tersebut adalah sebagai berikut : 1. Menentukan jenis kata Jenis kata yang tepat untuk menyelesaikan soal-soal derivatives dapat diketahui dari posisinya : - jika jenis kata yang ditanyakan adalah kata sebelum cerb/tobe/modal, maka kata yang ditanyakan tersebut adalah noun jika jenis kata yang ditanyakan adalah kata setelah verb maka ada dua kemungkinan : jika kata kerja tersebut membutuhkan objek, maka kata kerja tersebut diikuti oleh noun, namun bila kata kerja tersebut tidak membutuhkan objek kata tersebut diikuti oleh adverb - Determiner dan preposisi (selain to) selalu diikuti oleh noun atau unsur yang berkedudukan sebagai noun, seperti noun phrase dengan pola seperti di atas. Maka noun phrase tersebut bisa berupa adjective +noun, noun + noun (di mana noun pertama berfungsi untuk menjelaskan noun kedua ) atau adverb + adjective + noun - Preposisi to, modal, dan kata bantu negative (dont, didnt) selalu diikuti V1 sementara tobe dan linking verb selalu diikuti oleh adjective/V-ing/V3 . Namun karena adverb merupakan kata yang sangat fleksibel, maka ia bisa terletak di antara kata bantu dan kata kerja utama - Have, has, dan had hanya diikuti oleh bentuk V3 atau tobe bentuk ke-3 yaitu been Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan pola berikut : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Noun verb transitif verb intrnsitif determiner/preposisi determiner/preposisi determiner/preposisi determiner/preposisi modal/to/dont/didnt modal/to/dont/didnt tobe/linking verb tobe/linking verb have/has/had + verb + tobe (is,am,are,was,were) /modal + noun + adverb + adjective + noun + noun + noun + noun + adverb + adjective + noun + V1 + adverb + V1 + adjective/V-ing /V3 + adverb + adjective/V-ing /V3 + V3/been

1. Menentukan bentuk kata jadian ( derivatives ) a. Noun Bentuk noun derivatives umumnya mendapatkan imbuhan : -ment, -ance, -ence, -ion, -tion, -ation, -t, -th, -er, -or, -ure, -ture, -ature, -y, -ary, -ery, -ist, -ant, -ent, -ism, -ness, -ty, - ity, -ship, -hood Contoh : improvement, allowance, evaluation, complaint, conductor, betrayal, departure, recovery, marriage, tourist, capitalism, happiness, popularity, leadership, childhood b. Verb kata yang mendapat awalan en- atau mendapat akhiran en, -ze/-ize, -fy/-ify adalah kata kerja jadian Contoh : enjoy, endanger, blacken, symbolize, simplify c. adjective Adjective derivatives berupa kata yang mendapat akhiran y, -less, -ful, -ic, -tic, -etic , -atic, -able, -ible, -en, -ane, -ant, -al, -ual, -ial, -ical, -ous, -ive, -tive, -ative, -ary, -tory Contoh : cloudly, careless, successful, heroic, responsible, wooden, classical, dangerous, imaginative, introducy d. Adverb Kata keterangan bentuka dibentuk oleh kata sifat yang mendapat akhiran ly Contoh : slowly, successfully, carelessly, luckily Catatan: - beberapa kata benda dan kata kerja memiliki perbedaan khusus, yaitu dalam pelafalan sementara bentuknya hampir sama . Kata-kata tersebut antara lain: noun diakhiri s atau z verb diakhiri d applause applaud success succeed offense offend defense defend pretense pretend process proceed noun diakhiri f verb diakhiri v belief believe relief relieve proof prove ingat bahwa kata kerja bisa mengalami penambahan ed pada saat participle, dan penambahan ing pada present participle Dalam pilihan jawaban bisa saja terdapat lebih ari satu bentuk derivatives yang bntuk dan jenis katanya sesuai dengan permintaan soal. Dalam kasus seperti ini harus ditentukan derivatives yang memiliki makna yang sesuai dengan konteks kalimat

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. They obey their teachers ____ to look up the new words in the dictionary A. instructed B. instructive C. instruction D. instructing E. instruct Penyelesaian : Teachers + _____ determiner + noun instruction jawaban : C 2. he has made a important ___ in science A, discover D. discovery B. discoverer E. didcovered C. discovering Penyelesaian : preposisi An + important + + _____ ideology determiner + adjective discoverer (penemu ) noun 5. Jawaban : A Ryan is studying ____ A. geographic B. geographical C. geographically D. geographers E. geography Penyelesaian : Geographers menunjuk pada orang sementara geography menunjuk pada bidang ilmu. Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah geography + adjective + noun 4. Penyelesaian : Dont + kata bantu negative judging judged Jawaban : A Nafi reads many books of western ___ A. ideology B. ideologist C. ideologue D. ideological E. ideologically Penyelesaian : of + western + _____

_____ kata kerja bentuk pertama judge bisa mendapat tambahan ing dan -ed

discovery (temuan)

Yang sesuai untuk kalimat he has made a important science adalah temuan Jawaban : E 3. Dont ___ a book by its cover! A. judge B. judgement C. judging D. judger E. judged

studying determiner

+ ______ + noun

A. differ B. diffferental C. difference Penyelesaian : look + very

D. differently E. different

geographers Jawaban : E

geography

____

linking verb + adverb + adjective different Jawaban : E 9. The story is only aimed to ___ A. entertain D. entertainment B. entertainably E. entertainable C. entertaination

6. The manager thinks Ratu is a very ____ secretary because she always does her work well A. reliable B. reliance C. reliability D. rely E. reliably Penyelesaian : a + very + ____ + secretary det + adv + adj reliable Jawaban : A 7. The companys new product was ____ advertised on TV A. nation D. nationalize B. national E. nationalization C. nationally Penyelesaian : a + tobe + + noun

Penyelesaian : Kata to selalu diikuti kata kerja bentuk pertama Yang merupakan kata kerja bentuk pertama : entertain Jawaban : A 10. The hall has been __ decorated for the opening A. beautiful D. beautify B. beauty E. beautified C. beautifully Penyelesaian : kata yang bisa diletakkan di antara kata kerja bantu dan kata kerja utama adalah adverb yang ditandai dengan akhiran -ly jawaban : C

____

+ advertised V3

adverb + nationally

Jawaban : C 8. Sean and Stephen are brothers, but they look very ____

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. He is a ____ of stamps A. collection B. collector C. collectioner D. collectionist E. collective 2. As international trade has become more complex ____ systems have to be improved A. communicated B. communicant C. communicative D. communicatively E. communication 3. Are you invited to the party? Yes, there is the ____ card A. invited B. invitation C. inviting D. invite E. invitational 4. Rika look after her sick aunt without complaining We appreciate her ___ A. patient B. patience C. patiently D. patients E. impatient 5. The ___ of his football team makes him proud A. popularity B. popularization C. popularly D. popularness E. popular 6. Tina was sorry for ___ pushing Mrs. Linda A. accident

B. accidental C. accidentally D.accidence E. accidents 7. As soon as he saw advertisement offering a job that he is interested in, he immediately sent an ___ letter A. apply D. applicate B. applicant E. applying C. application His statements and arguments are ___ A. influence D. influent B. influential E. influenced C. influentially They dimiss the worker, but they never told me about the ___ a. dismissment B. dismissly C. dismission D. dismissal E. dismissive

8.

9.

10. It is ___ thaht he doesnt know anything about physics A. evident B. evidently C. evidence D. evidently E. evidential 11. The child has many talents to ___ A. explore D. exploratory B. explorative E. exploratively C. exploration 12. the ___ of driver caused the accident A. careless D. carefully B. careful E. carelessly C. carelessness

13. People are wondering about his ___ behavior A. strange D. estrange B. strangely E. estrangement C. stranger 14. I dont know the ___ of this river A. deep D. deepness B. deepen E. depth C. deeply 15. An actor has to use his ___ to play his role well A. image B. imagine C. imaginary D. imagination E. imaginative 16. Wow! Its cool! Its very ____ A. unbelief B. unbelievably C. unbelievable D. unbeliever E. unblelieveative 17. I asked the man how I could get to the station He gave me very clear ___ A. directly B. directing C. directors D. directness E. directions 18. The ____ artificial sweeteners include acesuflame potassium, aspartame, sucralose and saccharin A. approve B. approval C. approving D. approved E. approvingly 19. The bigger they are, the more powerful the ___ A. attract B. attraction

C. attracting D. attractive E. attracted 20. Although the couple has been married fo five years theya are still ___ A. childness B. childhood C. childish D. childless E. childbirth 21. The doctor gained immediate ___ for his great disco very A. recognition B. recognize C. recognizing D. recognizable E. recognized 22. The teacher should be ____ at all the time A. tolerant D. tolerate B. tolerable E. tolerably C. tolerance 23. My uncle ___ advised me to take English lessons A. strength B. strong C. strengthening D. strongly E. strengthened 24. The children seemed tobe___ in watching the A. interesting D. interestedly B. interest E. interestingly C. interested 25. Careless dumping of __ waste into Ciliwung River has caused serious water polution A. industry D. industrialized B. industrialist E. industrialize C.industrial

Kunci jawaban Soal 2


1.

Determiner the harus dikuti kata benda. Bentuk

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

kata benda yang tepat adalah dismissal He is a ____ of stamps Jawaban : D Determiner a menunjukkan bahwa kalimat mem 10. It is ___ that the doesnt know anything about butuhkan kata benda dan he merupakan kata ganti physics. Kalimat tersebut membutuhkan comple orang. Maka kata yang sesuai adalah collector ment yang berupa kata benda . Maka jawaban Jawaban : b Yang tepat adalah evidence As international trade has become more complex Jawaban : C ____ systems have to be improved 11. The child has many talents to ___ Untuk menjelaskan kata benda ( system) dibutuhto selalu diikuti oleh kata kerja bentuk pertama kan kata sifat. Bentuk kata sifat yang sesuai adalah (bare infinitve). Bentuk kata kerja yang tepat ada communicative lah explore Jawaban : C Jawaban : C Yes, there is the ____ card 12. the ___ of driver caused the accident Bentuk kata benda yang tepat untuk kata invite Kalimat meminta kata benda ( ditandai dengan adalah invitation adanya determiner the ). Bentuk kata benda yang Jawaban : B tepat adalah carelessness Her merupakan kata ganti milik selalu diikuti oleh Jawaban : C kata benda.Maka jawaban yang tepat : patience 13. Di antara kata milik (his ) dan kata benda (behavior) Jawaban : B dibutuhkan penjelas kata benda. Kata yang tepat The ___ of his football team makes him proud untuk melengkapi kalimat ini adalah berupa kata Bentuk kata benda yang tepat untuk kata popular sifat. Maka jawaban yang benar adalah strange adalah popularity Jawaban : C Jawaban : B 14. I dont know the ___ of this river Tina was sorry for ___ pushing Mrs. Linda Bentuk kata benda yang tepat untuk deep adalah Kata yang tepat untuk diletakkan di antara prepo depth sisi dan gerund pada kalimat ini adalah verb of Jawaban : E manner 15. An actor has to use his ___ to play his role well Jawaban : C (seorang actor harus menggunakan ____nya untuk Kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat harus memainkan perannya dengan baik). his juga merumenjelaskan kata benda. Seperti yang dijelaskan pakan kata ganti milik selalu diikuti kata benda. sebuah noun yang berkedudukan sebagai classifying Image dan imagination sama-sama berupa kata benbisa berdiri diantara determiner dan noun lain dengan da, nama kata benda yang sesuai dengan konteks fungsi untuk menjelaskan noun utama. Classfying yang kalmat adalah imagination tepat unutk kalimat ini adalah application Jawaban : D Jawaban : C 16. Wow! Its cool! Its very ____ His statements and arguments are ____ Kata bantu is dan adverb very menunjukkan bahwa Kata bantu are menunjukkan bahwa kalimat ini meminta kalimat ini meminta sebuah adjective. Bentuk adjecsebuah adjective. bentuk adjective yang tepat adalah tive yang tepat adalah unbelievable influential Jawaban : c Jawaban : B 17. He gave me very clear ___ They dimiss the worker, but they never told me Jenia kata yang dibutuhkan untuk melengkapi about the ___ kalimat ini adalah noun yang dijelaskan oleh kata

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

sifat ( clear ). Maka bentuk yang tepat adalah : direcmelengkapi kalimat ini, yang lebih tepat untuk tions digunakan adalah past participle karena diikuti Jawaban : E oleh preposisi in The ____ artificial sweeteners include acesuflame Jawaban : C potassium, aspartame, sucralose and saccharin 25. Jenis kata yang sesuai untuk diletakkan di antara Yang dibutuhkan dalam kalimat ini adalah penjelas preposisi (of) dan kata benda (waste) adalah kata adjective (artificial ). Jawaban yang sesuai dengan sifat. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah industrial konteks kalimat adalah past participle ( approved = Jawaban : C yang dapat diterima ). Ingat bahwa participle bisa berfungsi sebagai adjective Jawaban : D The bigger they are, the more powerful the ___ the adalah determiner. Jenis kata yang mengikuti determiner adalah noun. di antara pilihan jawaban yang berupa noun adalah : attraction Jawaban : B Although the couple has been married fo five years theya are still ___ ( walaupun pasangan telah menikah selama lima tahun, mereka masih___) Kata benda yang sesuai untuk melengkapi kalimat di atas adalah childless ( tidak memiliki anak ) Jawaban : D The doctor gained immediate ___ for his great disco very. Kata sifat immediate dalam kalimat di atas seha rusnya menjelaskan sebuah kata benda. Maka jawa ban yang tepat adalah : recognition Jawaban : A The teacher should be ____ at all the time ( guru harus ____ di setiap waktu ) be berkemungkinan diikuti oleh participle atau adjective. Dalam pilihan jawaban terdapat dua adjective, yaitu, tolerant ( memiliki toleransi )dan tolerable (dapat ditoleransi ) . Jawaban yang sesuai dengan kon teks kalimat adalah tolerant Jawaban : A My uncle ___ advised me to take English lessons Jenis kata untuk menjelaskan kata kerja adalah adverb Maka kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat adalah strongly Jawaban : D The children seemed to be ___ in watching the program Kalimat ini membutuhkan adjective. Perhatikan bahwa kata kerja participle bisa berfungsu sebagai adjective. Dalam

MATERI X

CAUSATIVE
Causative merupakan kalimat yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan bahwa seseorang menyuruh orang lain untuk melakukan sesuatu tindakan atau perbuatan Dalam menyelesaikan soal causative, hal pokok yang harus diketahui adalah: 1. Causative word (kata kerja causative) digolongkan dalam dua golongan, yaitu : a. Golongan have meliputi have, let, make b. Golongan get meliputi get, ask, tell 2. Berdasarkan objeknya, causative dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu : a. Active causative Active causative adalah kalimat causative yang objeknya aktif. Pola antara active causative yang menggunakan have dan yang menggunakan get berbeda, seperti di bawah ini: S + have + Object aktif + V1 Pola S + get + Object Aktif + to + V1 Berdasar pola di atas, jelas bahwa jika causative word adalah golongan have maka kata kerja setelah objek adalah V1, sementara jika causative word adalah golongan get, kata kerja setelah objek adalah to V1 3. Passive causative Passive causative adalah kalimat causative yang objeknya pasif. Untuk passive hanya ada satu pola, yaitu: S + have/get + Oject pasif + V3 Maka jika suatu kalimat causative merupakan passive causative baik dengan causative golongan have maupun golongan get, kata kerja setelah objek pasti adalah V3 Sementara itu, untuk membedakan apakah kalimat causative dalam soal merupakan causative active atau passive, perlu diperhatikan bahwa : Verb bentuk pertama pada aktif causative bisa diikuti objek, sementara verb bentuk ketiga pada pasif causative tidak diikuti objek Contoh: I have my sister water my plants active causative V1 Objek I have my plants watered (by my sister ) V3 passive causative

Aplikasi Soal 1
1. As I found out that not all the workshop partici pants knew about todays schedule, I got my secretary ___ it right away A. distributing B. distributed C. she distributeas D. to distribute E .in distributing Penyelesaian : I got my secretary _____ it

3.

Why dont you ____ your secretary do it? A. ask B. tell C. get D. have E. had

Penyelesaian : Why dont you _____ your secretary do it? present have 4. Jawaban : D Mr.Udin : I didnt attend the meeting last night Mr. Ali : yes, the village-head ___ together to build the bridge A. had villagers work B. villagers had worked C. had to work for villagers D. villagers had work E. had villagers ask to work together Penyelesaian : the village- head ____ O aktif V1

merupakan objek dari verb yang me nunjukkan bahwa my secretary meru pakan objek aktif active causative dengan causative word : get Jadi jawaban yang tepat adalah yang berupa to infinitive Jawaban : D 2. As I was talking to a client when my phone rang I had ___ A. to answer B. answering the call C. asked to answer the call D. answered the call E. my secretary answer the call Penyelesaian : I had _____

had + O aktif + V1

had + O pasif + V3

had + villager + work Jawaban : A 5. My radio is broken, I will get someone ____ it A. repaired D. has to repair B. to repair E. is repairing C. has repaired Penyelesaian : I will get someone _____ it objek aktif objek dari V Sesuai dengan rumus causative get, maka jawaban yang tepatadalah yang berapa to infinitive Jawaban : B

hanya meminta bentuk cau sative yang sesuai pola causa tive have

O aktif + V1

O pasif + V3 Jawaban : E

6. I dont know hot to arrange these flowers, Id rather ___ A,. do it B. have to do it C. have it done D. it has been done E. have done it Penyelesaian : Id rather _____ have + O aktif + V1 have+O pasif + V3

C. mother asks an interior decorator to design the living-room D. the interior decorator asked mother he could design the living-room E. mother has designed the living-room as the interior decorator requested Penyelesaian : Mother has an interior decorator design sama dengan Mother gets an interior decorator to design

have + it + done Jawaban : C 7. Ria : Well have to steam rice for dinner Yanto : Why? Whats happened with the rice cooker? Ria : It is broken Yanto : ____ then A. well get it repaired B. well have repaired it C. well get someone repaired it D. well have someone repaired it E. well have it to repair Penyelesaian : Pola-pola causative antara lain: Aktif : S + have + Object aktif + V1 S + get + Object Aktif + to + V1 Pasif : S + have/get + Oject pasif + V3 Jawaban yang sesuai dengan salah satu pola ter sebut adalah : well get repaired Jawaban : A 8. Mother has an interior decorator design the living -room means that ___ A. mother has to design the living-room B. the living-room has already been designed by an interior decorator

causative word gets bisa digantikan oleh tells atau asks 9. he has the homework done. Means ___ A. He has done his homework B. he has to do his homework C. he is doing his homework D. his homework is done by someone else E. someone ask him to do his homework Penyelesaian : He has the homework done (have+ O pasif + V3 )

causative (pasif ) menyuruh/tidak melakukan sendiri

Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah his homework is done by someone else (pekerjaan rumahnya dikerja kan oleh orang lain) Jawban : D 10. Can you send this letter for me? Im in a hurry. Dont worry, I will have Tina ___ for you. A. fax D. faxes B. faxed E. to fax C. will fax

penyelesaian : I will have Tina ___ it objek aktif objek dari V 5.

Sesuai dengan rumus causative have maka jawaban yang tepat adalah yang berupa V1 (tanpa to) Jawaban : A 6.

C. check D. checks Effendis car is out of order. he asked the driver to repair it. You can say ___ A. Effendi had repaired his car B. his driver asked to repair the car C. his driver asked Effendi to repair the car D. Effendi by himself repaired the car E. Effendi had his car repaired As he hates shopping, he always has __ A. someone had done it B. done it for somenone C. been asked to do it D. somenone do it E. to do it for someone

Aplikasi Soal 2
1. My little brother had scattered all his toys on my bed, I had him ___ the bed before night fell A. clear B. to clear C. cleared D. be clearing E. to be clean 2. What are the workmen doing in your garden? Oh, I ____ A. am having a gazebo B.am bulding a gazebo C. have built a gazebo D. have to built a gazebo E. have been building a gazebo 3. Jane had her fathe contact his lawyer. This mean that ___ A. Jane and her father are contacting his lawyer B. Jane asked her father to contact his lawyer C. the lawyer contacted Janes father D. Janes father was contacted by the lawyer E. Jane is contacting her fathers lawyer

7.

The fact that he was oput into prison for something he had not done made his wife __ A. cry B. to be crying C. cried D. to cry E. crying Now that she was grown up, my niece has her old dresses lengthened. This mean that ___ A. My niece has lengthened her old dresses B. my niece asks someone to lengthen her old dress es C. my niece has to lengthen her old dresses D. my niece has been told to lengthen her old dress es E. my niece has been asked by someone to lengthen her old dresses this cake is delicious, is it home-made? You know it isnt __ A. I baked it my self B. Lucy asked me to bake it C. It was I who baked it D. I had Lucy baked it E. I had to bake it

8.

9.

4. I fixed the light in the bathroom yesterday, but it went out again today Why dont you have an electrian ____ it A. checking. B. checked

10. Niluh : I saw Sofyan come by bus this morning. Where is his car? Andi : His car is out of order so he asked the me canic to repair it From the dialogue we conclude that ___ A. Sofyan had repared his car B. Sofyan had his car repaired C. the mechanic asked to repair the car D. the mechanic asked Sofyan to repair his car E. the mecanis and Sofyan repaired the car 11. What a nuisance! This is the second time that my cell phone isnt working. Have you taken it to the service center ___? A. they will check it for you B. to have it checked C. they have to check it D. you should check it E. to have to check it 12. the curtains of my room need washing. Well, go to the laundry and ___ A. wash them B. they are washed C.it should wash them D. have them washed E. make them wash 13. Shifa : Its difficult for m e to solve the mathema tic problem. I cant do it myself Radita : Lets solve it together, Ill have my brother ___- us if we cant do it A. help B. to help C. helps D. helped E. helping 14. We are going on a long trip, so we must____ A. have checked the car B. heve had the car checked C. to have the car checked D. have the car checked

E. had the car checked 15. Is your new car? No, I ___ at my brothers garage. A. had only painted B. only had it painted C. had to paint it only D. have the car checked E. had the car checked 16. What about the babry? Oh..dont worry, I have ___ A. someone looked after B. someone look after it C. someone to look after it D. it looks after E.. it looked after someone 17. This English text on Biology is too difficult for me to read. Well, youd better ___ A. translate B. have it translate C. have to translated it D. have translate it E. to translate it 18. Antis wedding dress is really beautiful! I heard that she had her sister design it. This implies that Antis sister ___ A. is going to get married B. has a beautiful wedding dress C. is a very good designer D. has a beautiful sisters E. is having the wedding dress designed 19. The manager needs the financial data for tomorrows meeting. All right, ___ immediately. A. Ill have processed them B. I want to processed them C. Ill have them processed D. I have already processed them

E. Ill have processed them 20. Nanny : Are you going to have this shoes ___ or shall I throw them away? Bossy : Be patient. I have asked Deddy to bring them to the cobbler A. mend B. be mended C. mended D. being mended E. to be mended

do it Jawaban : D 7. The fact that he was oput into prison for something. he had not done made his wife __ Pola penggunaan make/made untuk caisative aktif sama dengan pola untuk have, yaitu objeknya diikuti V1 ( infinitive tanpa to) Jawaban : A my niece has her old dresses lengthened Kalimat di atas merupakan bentuk causative pasif Maka diartikan : keponakanku menyuruh bahu lamanya dipanjangkan. Jadi kalimat tersebut memi liki makna yang sama dengan keponakanku menyu ruh seseotang untuk memanjangkan baju lamanya ( my niece asks someone to lengthen her old dress es) Jawaban : C this cake is delicious, is it home-made? You know it isnt __ Bukan buatan sendiri berarti bukan aku yang mem buatnya . Karena itu jawaban yang tepat adalah yang berbentuk causative : I had Lucy baked it Jawaban : D he asked the mechanic to repair it causative aktif berarti : dia menyuruh mekanik memperbaiki nya . Makna kalimat ini sama dengan : he had his car repaired Jawaban : D Jawaban yang paling tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat introgatif dalam soal tersebut adalah to have it checked Jawaban : B go to the laundry and ___ jika seseorang membawa cucidan ke laundry, tidak mungkin ia mencucinya sendiri. Inilah yang menun jukkan pemakaian causative pada kalimat ini. Pilihan jawaban yang sesuai dengn rumus causative adalah have them washed Jawaban : D Ill have my brother ____ .Unutk melengkapi kalimat active causative dengan have seperti di atas yang dibutuhkan adalah V1 (bare infinitive)

8.

Kunci Jawaban Aplikasi Soal 2


1. I had him ___ the bed before night fell Kata yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat di atas adalah kata kerja bentuk pertama, yaitu : clear Jawaban : A What are the workmen doing in your garden? 9. Oh, I ____ Jawaban yang tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat di atas adalah pilihan jawaban A Jawaban : A Jane had her fathe contact his lawyer ( Jane meminta Ayahnya menghubungi pangacara 10. nya). dari pernyataan ini diketahui bahwa yang meng hubungi pengacara adalah ayah Jane, dan kalimat yang maknanya sama dengan kalimat tersebut adalah Jane asked her father to contact his lawyer Jawaban : B 11. Kata yang paling tepat untuk melengkapi kalimat ter sebut adalah yang dalam bentuk V1 (bare infinitive) Jawaban : D Effendis car is out of order. he asked the driver 12. to repair it ( mobil effendi rusak. Ia meminta sopir memperbaikinya) Klaimat yang memiliki makna yang sama dengan pernyataan di atas adalah : Effendi had his car repaired Jawaban : E As he hates shopping, he always has __ Karena dia benci shopping di apasti menyuruh 13. orang lain untuk melakukannya (menggunakan bentuk causative) Jawaban yang tepat adalah someone

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Jawaban : A 20. Are you going to have this shoes ___ 14. Pilihan jawaban yang sesuai dengan rumus causa Bentuk causative ini pasti pasif karena objek this tive adalah pilhan jawaban D dan E. karena causative shoes tidak mungkin menjadi objek aktif. Jawaban verb (have) mengikuti modal must maka harus dalam yang tepat untuk melengkapi bentuk passive bentuk pertama. sehingga jawaban yang tepat adalah causative have di atas adalah kata kerja bentuk have the car checked ke-3 yaitu mended Jawaban : D Jawaban : C 15. Pilihan jawaban yang sesuai rumus causative adalah had it painted Jawaban : D 16. Satu-satunya pilihan jawaban yang sesuai dengan rumus causative dengan have dan sesuai dengan knoteks kalimat adalah pilhan jawaban C Jawaban : C 17. This English text on Biology is too difficult for me to read. ( teks bahasa inggris dalam Biology ini ter lalu sulit untuk kubaca) Well, youd better ___ (baik, sebaiknya kamu ____ ) karena terlalu sulit untuknya, maka tidak mungkin dikerjakan sendiri sehingga jawaban yang tepat hars berupa causative sentence Jawaban : B 18. Antis wedding dress is really beautiful! (gaun per nikahan Anti sangat cantik) I heard that she had her sister design it. ( aku dengar dia menyuruh saudara perempuannya un tuk mendesainnya) dari percakapan diketahui bahwa gaun pernikahan yang didesain oleh saudara perempuan Anti sangat cantik. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa saudara pe rempuan Anti adalah deswainer yang bagus ( a very good designer) Jawaban : C 19. The manager needs the financial data for tomorrows meeting. (manajer membutuhkan data euangan untuk rapat besok) All right, ___ immediately. (baiklah ____ secepat nya) Jawaban yang sesuai dengan klaimta di atas adalah Ill have them processed Jawaban : C