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electrochem and nuclear

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. In an electrolytic cell, the electrode that acts as a source of electrons to the solution is called the ____; the chemical change that occurs at this electrode is called ____. a. anode, oxidation b. anode, reduction c. cathode, oxidation d. cathode, reduction e. Cannot answer unless we know the species being oxidized and reduced. 2. Which of the following statements about what occurs during the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is false? a. Sodium is reduced at the cathode. b. The net result is the electrolysis of water. c. Chloride is oxidized at the anode. d. Hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide are produced at the cathode. e. Sodium is a spectator ion. 3. What reaction occurs at the anode during the electrolysis of aqueous Na2SO4? a. Na+ + eNa b. 2H+ + 2eH2 c. SO42SO4 + 2ed. SO42SO2 + O2 + 2ee. 2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4e4. An aqueous copper(II) sulfate solution is electrolyzed for 45 minutes. A 3.2 ampere current is used. What mass of copper is produced? a. 0.95 g b. 1.9 g c. 2.8 g d. 4.6 g e. 5.5 g 5. How many grams of metallic nickel can be produced by the electrolysis of aqueous nickel(II) chloride, NiCl2, with a 0.350 ampere current for 5.00 hours? a. 1.19 g b. 1.92 g c. 7.66 g d. 2.76 g e. 3.83 g 6. An aqueous solution of nickel acetate is electrolyzed for 3 hours with a 1.8 ampere current. What mass of nickel is produced? a. 3.28 g b. 5.91 g c. 11.8 g d. 7.30 g e. 0.099g 7. How many liters of F2 at STP could be liberated from the electrolysis of molten NaF under a 2.16 ampere current for 60.0 minutes? a. 0.774 L b. 0.902 L c. 1.55 L d. 1.80 L e. 2.16 L 8. How many moles of chromium would be electroplated by passing a current of 5.2 amperes through a solution of Cr2(SO4)3 for 45.0 minutes? a. 0.048 mol b. 2.9 mol c. 0.15 mol d. 6.9 mol e. 0.073 mol

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9. Molten AlCl3 is electrolyzed for 5.0 hours with a current of 0.40 ampere. Metallic aluminum is produced at one electrode and chlorine gas, Cl2, is produced at the other. How many liters of Cl2 measured at STP are produced at the other electrode? a. 0.56 L b. 0.63 L c. 0.84 L d. 0.98 L e. 1.02 L 10. Oxidation occurs at the ____ in a voltaic cell and oxidation occurs at the ____ in an electrolytic cell. a. anode, anode b. cathode, cathode c. anode, cathode d. cathode, anode e. anode, salt bridge 11. Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent? a. Mg2+ b. Mg c. F2 d. Fe. H+ 12. Which of the following species is the strongest oxidizing agent? a. Sn2+ b. Sn4+ c. Br2 d. Bre. Li 13. Which of the following species is the strongest reducing agent? a. Mn2+ b. Mn c. Au+ d. H2 e. Au 14. Which of the following is the strongest reducing agent? a. K b. Ag c. Ba2+ d. F2 e. Cu 15. Which of the following is the weakest oxidizing agent? a. Cu2+ b. Zn2+ c. Fd. Na e. K+ 16. Which one of the following statements about the half-cell processes is true for the cell, Cd|Cd2+(1 M)||Cu2+(1 M)|Cu? a. Cu2+ is reduced at the anode. b. Cu2+ is reduced at the cathode. c. Cd2+ is reduced at the anode. d. Cd2+ is reduced at the cathode. e. The spontaneous reaction that occurs in this cell is not a redox reaction. 17. Which one of the following reactions is spontaneous (in the direction given) under standard electrochemical conditions? a. Pb2+ + 2IPb + I2 b. Cu2+ + Fe Cu + Fe2+ 2+ c. 2Au + Pt 2Au+ + Pt d. Mg2+ + 2BrMg + Br2 e. 2Hg + 2Cl- + 2H+ Hg2Cl2 + H2 18. Given the following standard electrode potentials: Half-Reaction O2(g) + 4H + 4e 2H2O 2CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e(COOH)2
+ -

E0 +1.23 V -0.49 V

Calculate the standard cell potential for the galvanic cell consisting of these reactions. a. 0.74 V

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b. -0.74 V c. 1.72 V d. 2.21 V e. -1.72 V Considering the corrosion of ferrous metal (containing iron) metal, which of the following statements is false? a. Iron atoms are oxidized to iron cations. b. Water is reduced in the presence of oxygen. c. Iron is oxidized in the anode region. d. Corrosion occurs spontaneously. e. Hydroxide ions formed at the anode region combine with Fe2+ formed at the cathode region to produce rust. If a copper-plated iron can is scratched, the iron beneath it corrodes more rapidly than it would without the coating. On the other hand, a galvanized iron can is not oxidized if its coating is scratched. Which statement below about these processes is false? a. Copper is less active than iron. b. Zinc is more active than iron. c. The zinc is preferentially reduced. d. Zinc is acting as a sacrificial anode. e. Copper is less easily oxidized than iron. A concentration cell is constructed by placing identical iron electrodes in two Fe2+ solutions. The potential of this cell is observed to be 0.047 V. If the more concentrated Fe2+ solution is 0.10 M, what is the concentration of the other Fe2+ solution? a. 1.5 10-2 M b. 2.8 10-5 M c. 3.5 10-4 M d. 9.2 10-2 M e. 2.6 10-3 M What is G0 per mole of dichromate ions for the reduction of dichromate ions, Cr2O72-, to Cr3+ by bromide ions, Br-, in acidic solution? (F = 96,500 J/Vmol e-) Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6Br3Br2( ) + 2Cr3+ + 7H2O( ) a. +26.3 kJ b. -145 kJ c. +145 kJ d. -26.3 kJ e. -53.6 kJ Which of the following is not a feature of the lead storage battery? a. The electrolyte is hydrochloric acid. b. Lead is oxidized at the anode. c. PbO2 is reduced at the cathode. d. Lead (II) sulfate forms during discharge and sticks to the electrodes. e. The lead storage battery is a secondary cell. Which of the following is not a feature of the Nickel - Cadmium (Nicad) Cell? a. The Nicad cell is a very common rechargeable battery. b. Nickel is oxidized at the anode. c. The Nicad cell has a limited number of recharge cycles. d. NiO2 is reduced at the cathode. e. During discharge, the solid reaction products adhere to the electrodes, allowing the cell to be recharged. Calculate the Ecell at 25C for the reaction: ClO- + Zn(s) + 2OH- + H2O Zn(OH)42- + Cl- E0 = 2.11 V

when the concentrations are [ClO-] = 0.0500 M, [Zn(OH)42-] = 0.270 M, [Cl-] = 0.150 M, and pH = 8.00. a. 1.94 V b. 1.76 V c. 1.64 V d. 1.41 V ____ 26. Which of the following metals found in commonly used voltaic cells of different types have presented environmental concerns due to their toxicity? a. cadmium b. lead c. mercury d. all of the above ____ 27. What compound is produced by the chemical reaction that occurs in a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell? a. OHb. CO2

c. H2O d. PbSO4 ____ 28. Which one of the following statements about nuclear reactions does not correctly distinguish nuclear reactions from ordinary chemical reactions? a. Particles within the nucleus are involved. b. No new elements can be produced. c. Rate of reaction is independent of the presence of a catalyst. d. Rate of reaction is independent of temperature. e. They are often accompanied by the release of enormous amounts of energy. ____ 29. The most stable nuclides, in general, have ____ numbers of neutrons and ____ numbers of protons. a. odd, even b. odd, odd c. even, even d. even, odd e. odd, equal Chapter 26 Values The following values will be useful in answer some of the questions. Masses of subatomic particles: electron 0.00055 amu speed of light = 3.00 10 8 m/s

proton 1.0073 amu 1 J = 1 kgm2/s2

neutron 1.0087 amu 1 cal = 4.18 J

____ 30. What is the binding energy of an atom having a mass deficiency of 0.4721 amu per atom? Express your answer in kJ/mol of atoms. a. 5.26 kJ/mol b. 4.25 1010 kJ/mol c. 1.42 kJ/mol d. 4.25 1020 kJ/mol e. 2.77 1011 kJ/mol ____ 31. Which isotope below has the highest nuclear binding energy per gram? (No calculations are necessary.) a. He b. O c. d. e. S Mn U

____ 32. Which statement concerning average nuclear binding energy per gram of nuclei is false? a. For nuclei with small mass numbers, it increases rapidly with increasing mass number. b. It reaches a maximum around mass number 50. c. It decreases slowly with increasing mass number for nuclei with mass numbers greater than 50. d. The nuclei with the highest binding energies (mass numbers 40 to 150) are the most stable. e. Nuclei with mass numbers greater than 210 can easily be decomposed into protons and neutrons. ____ 33. A positron has a mass number of ____, a charge of ____, and a mass equal to that of a(an) ____. a. 0, 1+, proton b. 1, 2+, proton c. 0, 1+, electron d. 1, 2+, electron e. 0, 0, proton ____ 34. Which of the following particles or rays has the greatest penetrating ability? a. beta particles b. alpha particles c. protons d. positrons e. gamma rays ____ 35. The sum of the mass numbers of the reactants must equal which of the following? a. The sum of the mass numbers of the products. b. The sum of the atomic numbers of the products. c. The sum of the atomic numbers of the reactants. d. The sum of the binding energies of the products. e. The number of nucleons which are transformed.

____ 36. If a radioisotope lies above the "band of stability," one would predict that it would decay by ____. a. alpha emission b. beta emission c. positron emission d. electron capture e. K capture ____ 37. Complete and balance the following equation. The missing term is ____. N+ H O + ____ a. b. c. d. e. n He

____ 38. The alpha emission by lead-204 results in the product isotope ____. a. Pb b. c. d. e. Tl Hg Bi Hg

____ 39. All nuclides with atomic number greater than ____ are beyond the band of stability. a. 43 b. 80 c. 86 d. 83 e. 90 ____ 40. Consider the following statements about radioactive decay. Which statement is true? a. The rates of all radioactive decays depend on temperature. b. The rate of decay follows second-order kinetics. c. About 5 half-lives must pass for any radionuclide to lose 99.9% of its radioactivity. d. Every radionuclide shows a different shape of exponential decay curve. e. The rate constant, k, is different for each radionuclide. ____ 41. The half-life of polonium-211 is 0.52 s. What is the value of the specific rate constant, k? a. 0.36 s-1 b. 0.75 s-1 c. 0.67 s-1 d. 1.50 s-1 e. 1.33 s-1 ____ 42. The half-life of Pa is 3.25 104 y. How much of an initial 10.40 microgram sample remains after 3.25 105 y? a. 0.0102 g b. 0.240 g c. 0.0240 g d. 1.02 g e. 1.04 g ____ 43. The radionuclides 238U, 235U, and 232Th cannot attain nuclear stability by only one nuclear reaction. Instead they decay in a series of disintegrations. All end with a stable isotope of the element ____. a. Ar b. Co c. Bi d. Rn e. Pb ____ 44. What is not a practical use of radionuclides? a. Radioactive dating to estimate the age of an article. b. Irradiation of some foods in order to transmutate poisonous elements into nonpoisonous elements. c. To be power sources of heart pacemakers. d. To act as radioactive tracers in medicine, in chemical research, and plant studies. e. Serves as radioactive source in smoke detectors. ____ 45. A sample of uranium ore is found to contain 6.58 mg of 238U and 1.44 mg of 206Pb. Estimate the age of the ore. The half-life of 238U is 4.51 109 years.

a. 9.87 109 yr b. 1.46 109 yr c. 1.54 1010 yr d. 6.84 1010 yr e. 1.01 109 yr ____ 46. A cyclotron cannot be used to accelerate ____. a. protons b. alpha particles c. electrons d. neutrons e. deuterons ____ 47. Which one of the components of a light water reactor listed below is described by an incorrect function? Component a. b. c. d. e. moderator fuel cooling system control rods shielding Function

slows neutrons supplies neutrons plus heat coolant for the reactor absorb some neutrons to control rate of fission prevents the absorption of beta gamma rays by the fuel and cooling system ____ 48. Which of the following is not a hazard or problem resulting from the use of nuclear reactors to produce power? a. Proper shielding precautions must be taken to protect people. b. The possibility of a "meltdown" if the cooling system fails. c. The safe handling and storage of spent fuel for hundreds of thousands of years because it contains long-lived radionuclides. d. The possibility of a nuclear explosion occurring. e. The possibility of theft for use in constructing atomic weapons. ____ 49. Which one of the following would be most likely to undergo fusion under the proper conditions? a. H b. He c. d. e. Fe Ba U

____ 50. Solar energy is generated by a ____ reaction. a. fission b. fusion c. beta emission d. electron capture e. alpha emission NOTE : A table of standard electrode potentials is necessary for many of the questions.