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September 05, 2011

1.4.3 Solve problems involving theoretical, experimental and theoretical yield

September 05, 2011

Percentage Yield
The amount of product that is predicted by stoichiometry is called the theoretical yield. This predicted yield, however, is not always the same as the amount of product that is actually obtained from a chemical reaction. The amount of product that is obtained in an experiment is called the actual yield. Why are actual yield and theoretical yield often different?

September 05, 2011

Calculating Percentage Yield The percentage yield of a chemical reaction compares the mass of product obtained by experiment (the actual yield) with the mass of product determined by stoichiometric calculations (the theoretical yield). Percentage yield = Actual yield x 100% Theoretical yield

September 05, 2011

Example #1: Calculating Percentage Yield 20.0 g of bromic acid, HBrO3, is reacted with excess HBr.

HBrO3(aq) + 5HBr(aq) --> 3H2O(l) + 3Br2(aq) a. What is the theoretical yield of Br2 for this reaction?

b. If 47.3 g of Br2 is produced, what is the percentage yield of Br2?

September 05, 2011

Example: Predicting Actual Yield Based on Percentage Yield The following reaction proceeds with a 70% yield. Calculate the mass of C H NO expected if 12.8 g of C H reacts with excess HNO . 6 5 2 6 6 3 C6H6(l) + HNO3(aq) --> C6H5NO2(l) + H2O(l)

September 05, 2011

Example: Finding Percentage Purity An impure sample of silver nitrate, AgNO3, has a mass 0.340 g. It is dissolved in water and then treated with excess hydrogen chloride, HCl(aq). This results in the formation of a precipitate of silver chloride, AgCl. AgNO3(aq) + HCl(aq) --> AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq) The silver chloride is filtered, and any remaining hydrogen chloride is washed away. Then the silver chloride is dried. If the mass of the dry silver is measured to be 0.213 g, what mass of silver nitrate was contained in the original (impure) sample?

September 05, 2011