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that of Group 1 metals.

4. Magnesium is more reactive than iron and will

replace iron in a compound. If the iron corrodes, the magnesium will replace it, restoring the iron.
5. The number of oxygen atoms is not balanced

water-soluble. The cut piece with the larger surface area will expose more of the soluble chemicals to the water, and will have a greater loss of mass.

ChemLab 10 Hydrated Crystals

Pre-Lab 3. To obtain the mass of water, subtract the mass

because parentheses were not placed around the hydroxide ion.

Applying Scientific Methods 1. 2CuS(s) + 3O2(g) 0 2CuO(s) + 2SO2(g); 2. 2, 5, 4, 4, 2, 2 3. a. CuO(s) + C(s) 0 Cu(l) + CO(g); Cu2O(s)

2Cu2S(s) + 3O2(g) 0 2Cu2O(s) + 2SO2(g)

of the crucible, cover, and anhydrous MgSO4 from the mass of the crucible, cover, and hydrated MgSO4. To obtain the mass of anhydrous MgSO4, subtract the mass of the crucible and cover from the mass of the crucible, cover, and anhydrous MgSO4.
4. Divide by the molar mass. 5. Calculate the ratio of moles of water to moles

b. Sample answer: Mg(l) + CuO(s) 0 Cu(l) + MgO(s)

4. 2Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s) 0 4Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) 5. 4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) 6. synthesis 7. Na(l) + KCl(l) 0 NaCl(l) + K(g) 8. Ca(l) + 2CsCl(l) 0 CaCl2(l) + 2Cs(g)

of anhydrous MgSO4.

Mass Data and Observations of Epsom Salts

Observations of hydrated MgSO4 Mass of crucible and lid Mass of crucible, lid, and hydrated MgSO4

Shiny, translucent crystals 11.36 g 14.36 g 3.00 g 12.83 g 1.47 g 1.53 g 0.0122 mol 0.0849 mol Bright white, opaque, powdery
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CHAPTER 10
MiniLab 10 Percent Composition and Gum
Analysis 1. Mass dissolved = (initial mass) (final mass) =

Mass of hydrated MgSO4 Mass of crucible, lid, and anhydrous MgSO4 Mass of anhydrous MgSO4 Mass of water in hydrated MgSO4 Moles of anhydrous MgSO4 Moles of water in hydrated MgSO4 Observation of anhydrous MgSO4

3.11 g 2.84 g = 0.27 g dissolved sweeteners and flavorings

2. Mass dissolved = (initial mass) (final mass) =

3.11 g 2.75 g = 0.36 g dissolved sweeteners and flavorings

3. whole piece of gum: 0.27 g/3.11 g

100 = 8.7% 100 = 12%

Analyze and Conclude 1. MgSO47H2O. 2. The hydrated MgSO4 is shiny and translucent.

4. Because more sweetener dissolves when the

surface area is larger, the inference is that the sweeteners are mixed throughout the gum.
Expected Results: The gum will lose mass after

114

2. a. 10.0 g Li

5. The anhydrous MgSO4 might absorb water. Inquiry Extension

b. 367 g Mg 1 mol Mg/24.305 g Mg = 15.1 mol Mg c. 72.1 g Si d. 4.87 g F 1 mol Si/28.086 g Si = 2.57 mol Si 1 mol F/18.998 g F = 0.256 mol F 1 mol Pb/207.2 g

Answers will vary, but student experiments will likely involve measuring initial compound mass, heating, and measuring the mass again after heating. Accept all reasonable answers.

Teaching Transparency 34 Mass-toMole and Mole-to-Particles Conversions for Compounds

1. the mass of the compound, the number of

Math Skills Transparency 14 Calculating the Molar Mass of a Compound

1. carbon dioxide (CO2)

moles of atoms or ions in the compound, and the number of representative particles of the compound
2. the number of moles of the compound, the

1 mol CO2 1 mol C/1 mol CO2 C/1 mol C = 12.011 g C 1 mol CO2 2 mol O/1 mol CO2 O/1 mol O = 31.998 g O
2. mercury(I) fluoride (Hg2F2)

12.011 g 15.999 g

number of moles of atoms or ions in the compound, and the number of representative particles of the compound
3. the molar mass of the compound 4. the chemical formula of the compound
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

molar mass CO2 = 44.009 g/mol CO2 1 mol Hg2F2 2 mol Hg/1 mol Hg2F2 g Hg/1 mol Hg = 401.18 g Hg 1 mol Hg2F2 2 mol F/1 mol Hg2F2 F/1 mol F 37.996 g F
3. magnesium thiotellurite (Mg3TeS5)

200.59 18.998 g

5. a. 100.09 g CaCO3/1 mol CaCO3

b. 6.02 1023 formula units CaCO3/1 mol CaCO3 c. 3 mol atoms O/1 mol CaCO3
6. a. 1 mol C2H6/6.02

molar mass Hg2F2 = 439.18 g/mol Hg2F2 1 mol Mg3TeS5 3 mol Mg/1 mol Mg3TeS5 24.305 g Mg/1 mol Mg = 72.915 g Mg 1 mol Mg3TeS5 1 mol Te/1 mol Mg3TeS5 127.60 g Te/1 mol Te = 127.60 g Te 1 mol Mg3TeS5 5 mol S/1 mol Mg3TeS5 32.066 g S/1 mol S = 160.330 g S molar mass Mg3TeS5 = 360.85 g/mol Mg3TeS5
4. copper(II) cyanide (Cu(CN)2)

1023 molecules C2H6, 30.08 g C2H6/1 mol C2H6

b. 1 mol C2H6/6.02 1023 molecules C2H6, 2 mol atoms C/1 mol C2H6

Math Skills Transparency 13 Calculations Involving the Molar Mass of an Element

1. a. 1.00 mol Ag

= 108 g Ag b. 12.0 mol Al = 324 g Al c. 3.25 mol Cu = 207 g Cu

1 mol Cu(CN)2 1 mol Cu/1 mol Cu(CN)2 63.546 g Cu/1 mol Cu = 63.546 g Cu 1 mol Cu(CN)2 2 mol C/1 mol Cu(CN)2 12.011 g C/1 mol C = 24.022 g C 1 mol Cu(CN)2 2 mol N/1 mol Cu(CN)2 14.007 g N/1 mol N = 28.014 g N molar mass Cu(CN)2 5 115.582 g/mol Cu(CN)2

115

5. cobalt(II) orthophosphate (Co3(PO4)2)

7. false 8. true 9. b 10. d, a 11. a 12. b, c 13. d 14. c Section 10.3 Moles of Compounds 1. carbon, 1 atom; hydrogen, 4 atoms 2. carbon, 1 atom; hydrogen, 1 atom; chlorine,

1 mol Co3(PO4)2 3 mol Co/1 mol Co3(PO4)2 58.933 g Co/1 mol Co = 176.799 g Co 1 mol Co3(PO4)2 2 mol P/1 mol Co3(PO4)2 30.974 g P/1 mol P = 61.948 g P 1 mol Co3(PO4)2 8 mol O/1 mol Co3(PO4)2 15.999 g O/1 mol O = 127.992 g O molar mass Co3(PO4)2 = 366.739 g/mol Co3(PO4)2

Study Guide - Chapter 10 The Mole

Section 10.1 Measuring Matter 1. pair 2. 5 3. dozen 4. gross 5. 200 6. ream 7. 6,000,000,000 8. 0.5 mol 9. 6.02

3 atoms
3. 1 mol C; 4 mol H 4. 1 mol C; 1 mol H; 3 mol Cl 5. 6.02 6. 1.81 8. 1.20

1023 1024 1024

7. 16.05 g/mol

1023 1023

Section 10.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 1. The percent composition of a compound is the
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cu atoms

1 mol Cu
12.

percent by mass of each of the elements in a compound.

2. Divide the mass of each element in the sample

1 mol CH4 6.02 1023 molecules CH4 1 mol Xe 6.02 1023 molecules Xe 1023 molecules F2 1 mol F2

by the mass of the sample. Then multiply each quotient by 100.

3. c 4. c 5. b 6. b 7. c 8. c 9. d 10. 7.89 g K

13.

14.

6.02

Section 10.2 Mass and the Mole 1. false 2. true 3. false 4. true 5. true 6. true

1 mol K/39.10 g K = 0.202 mol K 1 mol C/12.01 g C = 0.201 mol C 1 mol O/16.00 g O = 0.606 mol O

2.42 g C 9.69 g O

0.202 mol K/0.201 mol C = 1.00 mol K/1.00 mol C = 1 mol K/1 mol C 0.201 mol C/0.201 mol C = 1.00 mol C/1.00 mol C = 1 mol C/1 mol C
Chemistry: Matter and Change

116

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 9-12 Resources

0.606 mol O/0.201 mol C = 3.01 mol O/1.00 mol C = 3 mol O/1 mol C 1 mol K : 1 mol C : 3 mol O empirical formula: KCO3 (39.10 g + 12.01 g + 48.00 g) = 99.11 g molar mass KCO3 = 99.11 g/mol KCO3 n = molar mass of molecular formula/molar mass of empirical formula = 198.22 g/mol/99.11 g/mol = 2 (KCO3)n The molecular formula of the compound is K2C2O6.
Section 10.5 The Formula for a Hydrate 1. hydrate 2. hydration 3. water molecules 4. formula unit 5. anhydrous 6. water of hydration 7. crystal structure 8. desiccants 9. cadmium sulfate monohydrate
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. b 5. f 6. e 7. a 8. molar mass 9. true 10. true 11. percent composition Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. b 2. b 3. d 4. d 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. d 9. d 10. c Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. By definition, 12.00 g of carbon-12 atoms

10. CdSO4 dot 4 H2O 11. 2.00 g FeCl2xH2O 1.27 g FeCl2 = 0.73 g H2O

1 mol xH2O/18.02 g H2O = 0.040

1.27 g FeCl2 1 mol FeCl2/126.75 g FeCl2 = 0.0100 mol FeCl2 0.040 mol H2O/0.0100 mol FeCl2 = 4 mol H2O/1 mol FeCl2 4 mol H2O: 1 mol FeCl2 FeCl2 H2O iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate

contain one mole of carbon-12 (C-12) atoms. One mole of any substance is Avogadros number of representative particles, which in this case, are C-12 atoms. Because 6.00 g of C-12 atoms make up one-half mole, 6.00 g of C-12 contain one-half Avogadros number of carbon12 atoms.
2. From the percent composition, one can find the

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 10 The Mole

Reviewing Vocabulary 1. c 2. g 3. d

whole-number mole ratio of the elements in a compound. This whole-number mole ratio determines the empirical formula of the compound. For some compounds, the empirical formula indicates the actual number of atoms or ions in a compound, so it is the compounds molecular formula. Examples include H2O and HCl. For other compounds, the molecular formula is the empirical formula multiplied by a whole number. To find the whole number, the molar mass must be known. Examples include C2H2 and C4H4, and NO and N2O2.
3. Because the formula unit contains only one

atom or ion of each element, the ranking of the

Chemistry: Matter and Change Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 9-12 Resources

117

Percent composition (%)

percent by mass of each element is the same as the ranking of the molar mass of each. Because the molar mass of hydrogen is less than that of oxygen, which is less than that of copper, the ranking of the percent by mass are H, O, and Cu. So element 1 (1.25%) is hydrogen, element 2 (19.86%) is oxygen, and element 3 (78.89%) is copper.
Thinking Critically
Quantity a Atoms in 15.0 g of neon, Ne (20.18 g/mol) Atoms in 15.0 g of hydrogen gas, H2 (2.02 g/mol) Formula units in 15.0 g of sodium bromide, NaBr (102.89 g/mol) Molecules in 15.0 g of oxygen gas, O2 (32.00 g/mol) Carbon atoms in 50.0 g of aspirin, C9H8O4 (180.17 g/mol) Hydrogen atoms in 50.0 g of methane, CH4 (16.05 g/mol) Oxygen atoms in 50.0 g calcium sulfate dihydrate, CaSO4 2H2O (172.19 g/mol) Number of Moles Number of Particles

60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Co Cl Compound 1

Graph 2

Co Cl O H Compound 2

Co Cl O H Compound 3

3. compound 1: CoCl2; compound 3: CoCl26H2O 0.743 mol 14.9 mol 4.47 8.97 1023 1024 4. CoCl22H2O, CoCl28H2O

0.146 mol 0.469 mol

8.79 2.82

1022 1023

CoCl22H2O, Graph 2 shows that the percent compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are less in compound 2 than in compound 3. Therefore, compound 2 must have less water associated with it than compound 3. Of the two chemical formulas listed, cobalt chloride dihydrate (CoCl22H2O) has less water than cobalt chloride hexahydrate.

2.50 mol

1.51

1024

CHAPTER 11
MiniLab 11 Analyze Baking Soda Stoichiometry

12.5 mol

7.53

1.74 mol

1.05

1024

wet and bubbles appeared. In time, the product dried out.

2. The two masses should be similar. 3. Assuming accepted and actual responses are

Applying Scientific Methods 1. The color of the compound is light blue when

the relative humidity is low and pink when the relative humidity is high. Temperature does not affect the color of the compound.
2. The compound might be a hydrate. The color

1.97g and 1.90g, respectively; error = 0.07g; % error = 3.55%.

4. errors from each mass measurement, weight of

moisture absorbed by crucible.

Expected Results: A mass of 3.12 g baking soda

change may indicate that the compound absorbs water vapor from the air into its crystalline structure.

118

1024

ChemLab 11 Determine the Mole Ratio

Pre-Lab 3. It is not important to use hydrated copper(II)

Teaching Transparency 35 Mass-toMass Conversions

1. 1 mol of given substance/molar mass of given

substance
2. moles of unknown substance/moles of given

sulfate rather than anhydrous copper(II) sulfate because, in this experiment, iron is the limiting reactant. As long as the number of moles of copper sulfate exceeds the number of moles of iron (ratio of Cu2+ to Fe is 1:1), either form of the compound could be used.
Data for the Reaction of Copper(II) Sulfate and Iron
Mass of empty 150-mL beaker Mass of 150-mL beaker Mass of CuSO4 5H2O Mass of iron filings Mass of 150-mL beaker and dried copper Mass of dried copper Observations
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

substance
3. molar mass of unknown substance/1 mol of

unknown substance
4. the mole ratio 5. the balanced chemical equation for the reaction 6. a. 1 mol N2/28.02 g N2, 2 mol N2O/2 mol N2

69.87 g 81.92 g 12.05 g 2.02 g 72.13 g 2.26 g

b. 1 mol N2O/44.02 g N2, 2 mol N2/2 mol N2O, 28.02 g N2/1 mol N2 c. 1 mol O2/32.00 g O2, 2 mol N2/1 mol O2, 28.02 g N2/1 mol N2 d. 1 mol O2/32.00 g O2, 2 mol N2O/1 mol O2, 44.02 g N2O/1 mol N2O

CuSO4 5H2O

Teaching Transparency 36 Limiting Reactants

1. 3 molecules N2; 6 atoms N 2. 3 molecules H2; 6 atoms H 3. 3 atoms H : 1 atom N 4. 6 atoms N

5. 6 atoms H

Numerical answers based on sample data.

1. Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) 0 Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq);

6. 1 molecule N2 and 3 molecules H2 7. N2; 2 molecules N2 8.

Reactant 1 Reactant 2 Product

2.30 g Cu
2. 2.26 g Cu; 0.0356 mol Cu; 0.0362 mol Fe;

Fe: Cu mole ratio = 1.02:1; percent yield = 98.3%

3. The ratio of Fe to Cu in the equation is 1:1,

Before reaction

After reaction

almost the same as the experimental ratio.

4. Copper was not completely dry; some copper

could have oxidized if heated too much; copper could have been lost.
Inquiry Extension 1. This ratio shows that a large volume of air goes

Math Skills Transparency 15 Determining Mole Ratios

1. 2C(s) + O2(g) 0 2CO(g)

up the chimney.
2. Automotive engineers must take into account

the size of the bag and the amounts of the reactants. Just the right amount of product must form to inflate the bag but not overinflate it.
Chemistry: Matter and Change

119

2. WO3(s) + 3H2(g) 0 W(s) + 3H2O(g)

3 mol H2/1 mol WO3 1 mol WO3/3 mol H2 1 mol WO3/1 mol W 1 mol WO3/3 mol H2O 1 mol W/1 mol WO3 1 mol W/3 mol H2 3 mol H2/1 mol W 3 mol H2/3 mol H2O 3 mol H2O/1 mol WO3 3 mol H2O/3 mol H2 3 mol H2O/1 mol W 1 mol W/3 mol H2O

33.5 g Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3/159.7 g Fe2O3 = 0.210 mol Fe2O3 Step 3. 0.210 mol Fe2O3 3 mol H2/1 mol Fe2O3 = 0.630 mol H2 Step 4. 1 mol H2 2 mol H/1 mol H2 H/1 mol H = 2.02 g H Molar mass H2 = 2.02 g/mol H2 0.630 mol H2 1.27 g H2
2. Step 1. 2CuCl(aq)

1.01 g

3. 2IrCl3(aq) + 3NaOH(aq) 0 Ir2O3(s) +

3HCl(aq) + 3NaCl(aq)

2.02 g H2/1 mol H2 =

3 mol NaOH/2 mol IrCl3 3 mol HCl/2 mol IrCl3 2 mol IrCl3/3 mol NaOH 3 mol HCl/3 mol NaOH 2 mol IrCl3/1 mol Ir2O3 3 mol HCl/1 mol Ir2O3 2 mol IrCl3/3 mol HCl 1 mol Ir2O3/3 mol HCl 2 mol IrCl3/3 mol NaCl 1 mol Ir2O3/3 mol NaCl

1 mol Ir2O3/2 mol IrCl3 3 mol NaCl/2 mol IrCl3 1 mol Ir2O3/3 mol NaOH 3 mol NaCl/3 mol NaOH 3 mol NaOH/1 mol Ir2O3 3 mol NaCl/1 mol Ir2O3 3 mol NaOH/3 mol HCl 3 mol NaCl/3 mol HCl 3 mol NaOH/3 mol NaCl 3 mol HCl/3 mol NaCl

H2S 0 Cu2S + 2HCl

Step 2. 1 mol CuCl 1 mol Cu/1 mol CuCl 63.55 g Cu/1 mol Cu = 63.55 g Cu 1 mol CuCl 1 mol Cl/1 mol CuCl 35.45 g Cl/1 mol Cl = 35.45 g Cl Molar mass CuCl = 99.00 g/mol CuCl 15.0 g CuCl 1 mol CuCl/99.00 g CuCl = 0.152 mol CuCl Step 3. 0.152 mol CuCl 1 mol Cu2S/2 mol CuCl = 0.0760 mol Cu2S Step 4. 1 mol Cu2S 2 mol Cu/1 mol Cu2S 63.55 g Cu/1 mol Cu = 127.10 g Cu 1 mol Cu2S 1 mol S/1 mol Cu2S 32.07 g S/1 mol S = 32.07 g S 0.0760 mol Cu2S 159.17 g Cu2S/1 mol Cu2S = 12.1 g Cu2S
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Math Skills Transparency 16 Using Mole Ratios

1. 2 CuO 0 2Cu + O2 2. N2 + 3H2 0 2NH3 3. 2Na + 2H2O 0 2NaOH + H2 4. HC2H3O2 + 2O2 0 2 CO2 + 2 H2O 5. 2Fe + 3S 0 Fe2S3
Problem 1 2 3 4 5 Chemical Formula of Known Substance CuO H2 NaOH HC2H3O2 Fe2S3 Chemical Formula of Unknown Substance Cu NH3 H2 CO2 Fe Mole Ratio 2 mol Cu/2 mol CuO 2 mol NH3/3 mol H2 1 mol H2/2 mol NaOH 2 mol CO2/1 mol HC2H3O2 2 mol Fe/1 mol Fe2S3

Study Guide - Chapter 11 Stoichiometry

Section 11.1 What is stoichiometry? 1. true 2. true 3. false 4. true 5. true 6. 2, 2, 64.10 7. 3, 3, 96.00 8. 2, 2, 88.02 9. 4, 4, 72.08 10. methanol and oxygen gas 11. carbon dioxide and water 12. 160.10 g
Chemistry: Matter and Change

Math Skills Transparency 17 Solving Stoichiometric Mass-to-Mass Conversion Problems

1. Step 1.

Fe2O3 0 3H2

2Fe + 3H2O

Step 2. 1 mol Fe2O3 2 mol Fe/1 mol Fe2O3 55.85 g Fe/1 mol Fe = 111.7 g Fe 1 mol Fe2O3 3 mol O/1 mol Fe2O3 16.00 g O/1 mol O = 48.00 g O Molar mass Fe2O3 = 159.7 g/mol Fe2O3

120

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 9-12 Resources

13. 160.10 g 14. They are equal. 15. A mole ratio is a ratio between the numbers of

Section 11.2 Stoichiometric Calculations 1. 4 mol NaOH/2 mol Na2O2, 2.00 2. 1 mol O2/2 mol Na2O2, .250 3. 2 mol Na2O2/4 mol NaOH, 0.500 4. 2 mol H2O/1 mol O2 4.30 5. 2 mol H2O/2 mol Na2O2 0.100 6. 1 mol O2/4 mol NaOH, 0.150 7. Step 2 8. Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s) 0 2Fe(s) + 3CO(g)

moles of any two substances in a balanced chemical equation.

16. A mole ratio is written for two substances in a

balanced chemical equation as a fraction by placing the number of moles of one substance in the numerator and the number of moles of another substance in the denominator.
17. 12 18.
1 mol Fe2O3/6 mol Na 6 mol Na/1 mol Fe2O3 6 mol Na/3 mol Na2O 6 mol Na/2 mol Fe 3 mol Na2O/6 mol Na 3 mol Na2O/1 mol Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3/3 mol Na2O 1 mol Fe2O3/2 mol Fe 2 mol Fe/6 mol Na 2 mol Fe/1 mol Fe2O3 2 mol Fe/3 mol Na2O 3 mol Na2O/2 mol Fe

150 g Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3/159.7 g Fe2O3 = 0.939 mol Fe2O3 0.939 mol Fe2O3 mol Fe 2 mol Fe/1 mol Fe2O3 = 1.88

1.88 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe/1 mol Fe = 105 g Fe

9. SF4(s) + 2H2O(l) 0 SO2(g) + 4HF(aq)

19. 6 mol Na/2 mol Fe 20. 2 mol Fe/6 mol Na 21. 6 mol Na/1 mol Fe2O3 Section 11.3 Limiting Reactants

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Amount of O2 1 molecule 4 molecules 2 molecules 1.00 mol 4.00 mol 5.00 mol 1.00 mol 0.500 mol 32.00 g 16.00 g 10.00 g

Amount of NO 2 molecules 4 molecules 8 molecules 2.00 mol 4.00 mol 7.00 mol 4.00 mol 0.200 mol 60.02 g 80.00 g 20.00 g

1. 4. 7. 10. 13. 16. 19. 22. 25.

4 molecules 2.00 mol 4.00 mol 7.00 mol 2.00 mol 0.200 mol 92.02 g 46.01 g 28.76 g

2. 5. 8. 11. 14. 17. 20. 23. 26.

O2 none NO NO O2 NO none O2 O2

3. 6. 9. 12. 15. 18. 21. 24. 27.

4 molecules NO none 2.00 mol O2 1.50 mol O2 2.00 mol NO 0.400 mol O2 none 50.12 g NO 1.24 g NO

121

18.02 g H2O/1 mol H2O =

8. limiting reactant 9. theoretical yield 10. excess reactant Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. b 2. b 3. a 4. c 5. c 6. d 7. c 8. a 9. d 10. d Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. a. 8 molecules

balanced equation mole ratio = 2 mol NO/1 mol O2 10.00 g O2 mol O2 20.00 g NO mol NO 1 mol O2/32.00 g O2 = 0.3125 1 mol NO/30.01 g NO = 0.6664

actual mole ratio = 0.6664 mol NO/0.3125 mol O2 = 2.132 mol NO/1.000 mol O2 Because the actual mole ratio of NO:O2 is larger than the balanced equation mole ratio of NO:O2, there is an excess of NO; O2 is the limiting reactant. Mass of NO used = 0.3125 mol O2 mol NO 0.6250 mol NO 18.76 g NO 0.6250 mol NO2 = 28.76 g NO2 2 mol NO/1 mol O2 = 0.6250 30.01 g NO/1 mol NO =

Mass of NO2 produced = 46.01 g NO2/1 mol NO2

b. 2 mol c. Multiply the number of moles of each substance by its molar mass to get the mass of each of the substances in the balanced equation. Compare the sum of the masses of the reactants with the sum of the masses of the products. Because the sums are equal, you have demonstrated that mass is conserved in the reaction. d. 2 mol C4H10/8 mol CO2 e. 13 mol O2/2 mol C4H10
2. 1 Write a balanced chemical equation for the

Excess NO = 20.00 g NO 18.76 g NO = 1.24 g NO

Section 11.4 Percent Yield 1. 7.42 g Ga2O3 2. correct 3. 7.00 g Ga 5. correct 6. 7.42 Ga2O3/9.37 g Ga2O3

1 mol Ga/69.72 g Ga 2 mol Ga2O3/4 mol Ga 100

4. 0.100 mol Ga

reaction. 2 Determine the number of moles of the known substance, using mass-to-mole conversion.
3. Determine the number of moles of the

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 11 Stoichiometry

Reviewing Vocabulary 1. limiting reactant 2. actual yield 3. mole ratio 4. excess reactant 5. theoretical yield 6. stoichiometry 7. percent yield

unknown substance, using mole-to-mole conversion.

4. Determine the mass of the unknown substance,

using mole-to-mass conversion.

Thinking Critically 1. 4NH3 + 5O2 0 4NO + 6H2O 2. balanced equation mole ratio =

122

1 mol NH3/17.04 g NH3 = 0.704 1 mol O2/32.00 g O2 = 0.469 mol

CHAPTER 12
MiniLab 12 Model Crystal Unit Cells
Analysis 1. The two crystal models that have all three axes

actual mole ratio = 0.469 mol O2/0.704 mol NH3 = 0.666 Because the actual mole ratio of O2 to NH3 is less than the balanced equation mole ratio of O2 to NH3, O2 is the limiting reactant. 3. 0.469 mol O2 4 mol NH3/5 mol O2 = 0.375 mol NH3 0.375 mol NH3 6.39 g NH3 0.469 mol O2 mol NO 0.375 mol NO NO 0.469 mol O2 mol H2O 0.563 mol H2O 10.1 g H2O 17.04 g NH3/1 mol NH3 = 4 mol NO/5 mol O2 = 0.375 30.01 g NO/1 mol NO = 11.3 g 6 mol H2O/5 mol O2 = 0.563 18.02 g H2O/1 mol H2O =

of equal length are cubic and rhombohedral. They differ in that the cubic model has only 90degree angles; the rhombohedral model has no 90-degree angles.
2. the tetragonal crystal model 3. The three crystal models that have three axes of

unequal length are orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic.

4. They are not perfectly uniform, as they can be

affected by external forces and conditions.

Expected Results: Students will construct the

ChemLab 12 Compare Rates of Evaporation

Pre-Lab 2. Evaporation is the process by which molecules

initial mass of NH3 reacted mass of NH3 = mass of excess NH3 12.0 g NH3 6.39 g NH3 = 5.6 g NH3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Applying Scientific Methods 1. Fire-fighting techniques stop combustion by

limiting the supply of oxygen to a fire by displacing the oxygen with a noncombustible gas, such as carbon dioxide, or by limiting the supply of fuel by having it react with materials that produce noncombustible products.
2. Rolling on the ground will eliminate oxygen

at the surface of a liquid change to a gas or a vapor. As liquid molecules acquire kinetic energy, they reach the minimum required energy to overcome the forces of attraction holding them together.
3. dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces,

hydrogen bonds; weakest: dispersion forces; strongest: hydrogen bonds.

4. Students should predict that organic liquids will

from the combustion of the fabric in your clothing.

3. These plots eliminate fuel for burning. 4. The dirt will absorb any remaining heat from

evaporate more quickly than H2O or NH3 because there are fewer forces between the particles of liquid.
5. Evaporation times can be used as rates because

5. 10, 12, 6

123