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I. SOCIOLOGY The science of society & the social interaction taking place among individuals in a social group.

. Focuses on all kinds of social interaction & social acts, social relationships, social organization & social processes. concerned with the recurrent & repetitive forms of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values, norms & social institution which make up the social order. Various areas of concern of sociology: a. Social organization involves the study of social groups, social institutions, ethnic relations, social stratification, social mobility & bureaucracy. b. Social psychology studies human nature & personality as the product of group life. c. Social change & social disorganization concerned with the change in culture & social relations & the attendant disruption that may occur. d. Population analyzes popn no., composition, change, & quality as they are influenced by the social, economic & political orders. e. Human ecology deal w/ the human behavior of a given popn in relation to its envt. f. Sociology theory & methods includes theory building & testing the applicability of the principles of grp life as the bases for the prediction & control of the individuals social envt. g. Applied sociology makes use if the findings of pure sociological research on the various aspects & problems of daily life. Patterns of behavior required for a sociologist 1. Empirical observation knowledge must be obtained through direct experience or observation & testing must be used in the study of social phenomena. 2. Critical spirit does not only determine whether an idea or information in interesting or pertinent but makes skillful judgment as to its truth. 3. Objectivity one should describe the subject of the study which has been observed, independent of ones beliefs, values and personal loyalties. the ability to give an account of things as they are not as they ought to be. 4. Ethical neutrality quality of being value-free Sociological imagination C. Right Wills a quality of mind a capacity to understand the interplay of man & society the ability to understand the relationship bet. ones life as an individual & the social forces the influence it.

II. ANTHROPOLOGY science of humanity & its society scientific study of humanity, the similarities & diversities of culture & attempts to present an integrated picture of mankind studies the bio, social & cultural devt of mankind & seeks answers to why people are different & how they are similar Unifying themes 1. Universalism all peoples are fully & equally human whether they belong to indigenous groups. 2. Integration looks at all societies as an integrated part of a large world system. 3. Adaptation study how humans are affected by the surroundings or environment & what adjustments they make 4. Holism means getting the whole picture of a phenomenon & the application of knowledge fr different fields in order to understand an aspect of behavior. Various fields of anthropology a. Biological or physical anthropology categories: Evolutionary: seeks to understand how & why humans evolve Biological variation or diversity within the species b. Sociocultural anthropology focuses on the origin & history of human societies & culture in societies that can be directly studies. c. Archaeology concerned w/ the extinct societies; studies & reconstructs the cultural events of the past since the devt of culture through the material remains left by the people. 2 fields: prehistoric archaeology studies societies that did not leave written records historical archaeology studies societies w/ written records. d. Ethnology concentrates on the diverse cultures of the presents Ethnography fieldwork conducted through direct interaction w/ the people concerned e. Linguistics the study of human language, its complex systems of symbols and its devt Subfields:

Descriptive linguistics concerned w/ how languages are constructed & how its parts such as sounds & grammar are interrelated to form systems of communication. Historical linguistics focuses on how languages grow and change Sociolinguistics centers on the relationship bet. language and social factors Psycholinguistics analyzes the ways in which language affects our behavior, beliefs, values and thinking. f. Applied anthropology focused on the application of the ideas & information gathered for the solution of specific problems in order to achieve practical ends. The Relationship Between Sociology and Anthropology Similarities: Both are recent arrivals in the academic scene associated w/ the process of colonization In subject matter, there is no precise boundary Both study everyday occurrences Attempt to understand the way of live of various subcultural groups Both are also interested in the study of social issues, rapid popn growth, environmental degradation, urban poverty & popn Differences: Emphasis: S: On society & social process A: Culture Beginnings: S: Started w/ the study of primitive or non-literate group A: Started as the study of problems besetting w/ societies after the Industial & French Revolution Methodology: S: Sampling & sample survey A: study society as a unit/holistically

Source: Society and Culture : Introduction to Sociology and Anthropology Panopio Rolda