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·1,

·····,·,t· 0··f· mos., ex"eh· ..' ·, ..,'.,~n,g,ersca,n b ,estlffi,at.e·ed . "':,.h..~,·,.---.- ·.I.O.·.,~ . · .. «I C·· ....... 'OS,I~.S .. ost ...,···· .'.>e •. VIa t ..IS meteth ·,·-· t Among key parameters taken into account are' exchanger geometry -., .-. " d· t' .. . rd sh ... d ..'.be ide .. ,'.~.-....-'--:". ..... - ,-. . ..... an.·.., m,ea"1'-1-1 u,r,gy, an'_, s,.e, ]-. 'lid- an".', tubeside d',eslgn 'pressures, ..SI_'e
I .'.'-' -,..
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I·_··-··

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iDI This cost-estimating method covers the fixed-tubesheet U-tube, split -ring floatin"g"',:head~ and pull-through floating-head designs, For each of 'tn,ese types, it considers various configurations, as classified, 'by the Tubular
Exchanger Manufacturers Assn, '(TEMA) (Fig~ ]) {1],. Labor and material costs are identified as 'perue':n tages of '[loud exchanger cost", based, en ac tu a], cost data, Mate ... , rial cost is divided according to the major cost eontributors: tubes, shell, channels and tubesheets, An. the parameters are modeled as a function of shell inside diameter, The cost equations include the effects of shell and, tube diameter, and tube construction (welded or seamless), wall ,gage (average or minimum tolerance), 'pitch, layout angle and length, Separate cu rves for shelland, tubeside take into account the' effect of design pressures, Relative OO'S[S of various metals and alloys are extensively tabulated, In ad:d.itio'n, to the various T'E,M'A ,con.flgurati,ons~, the' method covers shell diameters of from l'2' to 1,48 in., tube' lengths of from :8 to 36 ft, 'tube diameters of from !14to 2 '" . fC '100' 2 800 ~ "'d .. · slgn. ·p:ress.ur.es D.'lra.m, .~._:to~.",:,d :psi,g', [uues,I.:,' e- d' e,:ngu 'press;u.'T'es of from 100 to :21,500 psig',. con strulC tI 0f). of a 'Md,e r,ange of aUory.s. (also clad. c-o:ns:tru,coon)" an.d ,s'pe-, cialtj!' e'xcbangers, with. hig'h.,..f}u'x tu.bing~ A :Oowc'hart of t'he eS;limatin"g procedu.re ,is;presented in Fig~2. Th- e- r'le'_'s,'·u'I-t-'F·,0' f' t;h-' e' r.o····~t.'-e(!'t·]·'m·.·.·3.'·t'I,.'n-:g· ..' 'm", ,p,t.·'h-';·od'··- 1 r£lll'm'_,
1l..._
:.' •. ~,.~ .... , I '", ~., ~'l .

I'·

"'f excang .... tF':g-: I)', A'· a'X"'01'I'J]'P' c~'le vi ,'"TE~-'-' -·~:M···_'·A·~··-t vp' ."" .t'\o'- n."" .... · o· ,-'." ." h ,I, , n£'~ I, ~', ;figurarion 'is ,AR'I~~ h ese exch angers are generally inex .. T pensive" Besides having fewer parns" they are ~digh.d:y smaller and of simpler construction than other types. 'The tubes can. be easily cleaned mechanically. ,HoV\"''"' ever, because the tube bundle cannot be' removed, the sh e '(I'd' e can not, b creaner d in t.- is way,. Chemi ,-- ~ lsi be 1; ,_, 'h" ~ ':.' ~emical dean.. '. ibl . ~ ," In,g IS, ,pOSSl.,. e 'b.IUt some times u nsa tIS f;acto ry. '8 eca use 0 f • 'L· ··t·l·i . .".' -, , .,''...-~' . ,~. .... -h e ten " ...tne 'fl' ..'d tu ,eSI.lee." a n ex panS,lo.u. JOU1.~ in ·t·.__'. she ':11ma,y .]xe .., ',-"b ,'l.. be necessary to )l,r'f:v,e':nt igh stresses resulting from difh C." __ ." .~,"'-,'I ., .,.' ·· '. "'. ' -, rerenaar th. ~iermai 1 ex panS1.on, betwe .. .. e :t· ibes antd:.1-.,,'1111 ... ,eli.ween._"the .·,U"res ,:.,,'.. SU.fJJI, The cost of the expansion joint :ma')!'offset the p'ri,e'f ad'VaDta,ge of this type of exchanger over the others, I f corrosion, occurs, fixed-rubeeheet e'x(~'ha.ng.· rs are e difficult and expensive to maintain, R.et,u'bing may be d lu.me"cQnSum.In.,g,~ an '.', even nnpracnca ,I,,. expens[\ e ano· it·:, .. . Alth.Oll,g., bon ,.,.o. nat cove rs maty b. e l1:t··t·· d'~'a, eith' '.', . ,····h .~.onn.e... r fl· - .. - IiI... ··t , .. r lL. eo e .',..· "'111,., ~',c"-'d: h .'. rrequent en. ·d "fl'·· at covers are genera 'If ,.specmeo .W:, en f' ,....--.- ...
'c . "',:

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····-:1"·:···:

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tnbe-deaning

is expected.

in., tube-wall thicknesses, of from 10 to' 20 Birmingham Wire G;a,ge (BW'G), tube passes, of from I to 8. shell det

Ll-tnbe design
Both ends of U· shaped lubes are fastened liO a single .. tu.bes:beet in th.'e'·U..tube d,e-sign" 'This eliminates the pro~, 'l.e'.m.of d:i:f£erential thcTm,al expansion because the tubes ar,e' :fr,ee t.o expand. ,and, contract" This design, may 'be fit... ted with. any of fihe. 'TE;MA, frQ.:nt~en.d statio.nary-head. .types (Fig., I).. A'o exam.'p~.e of a TEMA co'nfiguration is, ,AE'U. U'-tube exchan,gers ar'e mod,erate in cost., - 'The 'lube bu:nd'I!e. can. be 'rem,o'Ved~ mald:ng ma,nual ('leaning' of the' s,he'u'sid:e' eas,y., Ho'-w'ever ~beca'use clea,ning th lflSI,l.!e 0' r .th·, _. tues . 1S,I ffi'leu '1-' 'IUueS:L e servIce :IS r-e__.Ie' ~ ~d"~--,_,e 'b ~ d~:' t, 1k ~d" - - ,. ~ stricu:~d to clea:n. fluids., Hig'h-p''res,su:re' 'fluids, :are ge'ner.,aUy pla.oed, on, the: tu'besid.e'"
il

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---

'pared a,gainst a.ctual purcbasoo-'p'rives,-and found to be aocur,ate to ~!:i,t'hin :+ 10% in 60'% of the cases, and t.o 'within + ]5% in the remaining 40'%~H,ow'ever" '['h.e over .. , a]~,accura.CY for au' the exchang:ers is, wi 'th in. :2"%,.

Fixed,-"tubesheet ,design
:Str,ai,gbt tulleS in, the 6xed·-tubes,:beet exc'~a,~gie~~ a~~~ ~---s-ec-·.:u-r-ea at 'both ends i'n tube.s'tu~ets we'lded, to th~e ,sh,e'U~ TEMA fro:nt,,-end .s:na.tionary-h'ea,d types A;. 'B, or N' a:nd _ ~ _J~~.r... h~ea.'d..types, :L :M, ,Of' :N can 'be 'uled, with ,this tY'pf' e_n_d. '
J,

." ..

~.oadDg·,;head d,esigns, ~ Floa.tin, g"",had, I1ea-r-en.d con:figurati,ons (Fig',. I) may'be e spUt..,-rin,g (TEM'A. type S')j' p·uU~throu.gb (TEM'A. type T), extemally,,,,,seal.ed-ulbe.sh.leet (TEMA; type W)ij' ,or ouu,llde'.

- .... ..
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56

'.

l _' -

'~'O' ~'iIJ .···E!lD~

IFixed tu besh eet i: ks II A gil statlena ry' he3id


, r . ='O-O,.u

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f = " }" .U ~:baseline')

T WID'

!~'Dng'itu di~;na~1 baffle

Pli5S Sihell!1 w]tlh

- ,.,

FIxed tu besheet IIIke stat:i onary head

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!I.i! Il!l ~ ,

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Dnl'~
-, r= '0"
.-

IPuI~1!hrou gh 11ostl ngl head


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s
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Cha n nel ~,nte-g w~th tu besh e'et ra~1


;QInIC r'emolVab,!le c(Jlij'er

t ·~5'17' 1 '." ',,' ... '


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b'll r UI t' u be '-.'l~"l1d-l~e,~


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C""" ,,,,-In,,.,-, cross "iIOW

57

_~The sp,6.t~'ring' exchanger's shell-cover idiameter is larger than the shell diameter ~ usually by about ,3~: in, In 'the pull-through design, the shell cover and. shell are ,0····['1- ,,,,LA 'e'!!!i,'ii¥il~ d iam eter, 'Wh-- ereas the· Q'I]I._" '_ ~'-'" '__ of th' .~ UI~ a aa U:J ... shell cover s,pi1t;"ing exchanger can be removed" this 'need :n.ot be' ..r the case' 'with 'the: pull-through design ~ Split-ring construction 'permits tubes to' be close to 'the' -w'-·'.-sld,e of-ihe" .shell, Iri die pull-through desi.gn." space must be p'r,oirid,ed arou nd the 'peri'ph-ery of the' floating
I.. '.

packed, (TEMA. type ·P)..'Types, IS and T' are more common than types W and Pi@A·n. lexample designation is :BES~ The' floating head eliminates the need for an, expansionjoint, Because the tube! bundle can be removed, both the shell- and, tubeside can be IClearn ed mechanically, Fio3tin,g ..head exchangers are more expensive than the

fixed-tube and 'U·.. . tube typ,es"

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The, base-cost equation


Costs; of shell-and ..tube exchangers vary according '00::. TEMA 'type;:; shell diameter; tube length, diamerer, '00"0,struction -'(,welded, or seam],ess)" gag·e~,'pitch. and layout; number of tube passes;,; shell- and tubeside ,desi:gn, pres-, sures; and materials IOf construction. Each. of these rae,.. tors is.related to ·3 baseline exchanger, which, 'is, efined in d Ta·ble I., Exchangers having small.. iameter tubes (~/4~- r l-in .. d o O."D~)are more common, and ;ge'neraUy more economical, than those having Iarge-diameter tubes ...Because tube pitch is a'. least 1.. x tube' O~:D~~ ,:25 Iarge-dlameter tubes provide 'less,surfaee area. (for a, igi'V~n.shell diame'tel") 'than small-diameter tubes ~and increase cost almost ·p{ro·po'f1tio·na,tie:Iy,. Nevertheless, tube diameters, in a few' cases" range ·u.·pto 2 in, Triangular tube patterns (SO or 60 ,die~g~) more econcmical than square, ..pitch patterns are (45 01" 90 deg.), because they' generally accommodate small surfaces in. a gi.ven shell better. Unit 'labor costs are higher than unit material costs for small-diameter exchangers ,.As shell diameter increases, howevervthe unit material cost rises :3' :·d the unit labor OJs:1declines, For this reason, exchangers oflarge shell diam ieters a.~ m .. ·,0· -'r·'\I,;!i economical ··n··· ··,·f[·2 1r-'Ol:~~ri',~" Th... .. 31 ;~,~ ,J!.J makes shell diameter a convenient parameter on which to base estimates of shell ..and..ube-exchanger costs. t Analysis of the purchase prices ofmany shell-and-tube 'h. , d uy f·· "'.'" nx d exenangers receivec ..'L. means 0.·· compeunve bid S,'UI'ing the early part of 'I9!82 resulted in the development of Eq.' (1) for estimating thecostofth~ b~lin~exc~g~r defined in Table .1: ,~
~Q.. "_ ~IL~
~ .. ~ ~ ... ( \.r '!I!ir~V_ __

bQ.

0·'.

..

_l.,

$.

Uad~!I

'~

b = [ 1 _ ;'~~D~1J

]IfT

(1)

Here, D~ = shell 1.,D.,air bundle dia,~ of akettle reboiler, .in.; p == costmultiplier for tube O~.D~., itch and, blyou:tt p

.. ----------;__. rear head (Table IVl~ .... ,1 _ d i F~ _. Values fOT cost multiplier p in Eq, (1) are listed, in Table Eq, 1(1) Ui plotte .m ;-l,U:,~ .3!as 3. function ofshell diame.. .. ~ 11 for n~onl_._· used _'tu_.be'_·_,d_iam,c'_te_·rs;, 'pitc'bes and lay-' !y_.: ter for TE_MA BE~ exchangers having ty4-;;'i;Il.,~ I:D',,7"tu])e!i~X.-I~--~~~~~~~~~~=-=~~_.I-~:":';"'::-=---::''::''''___:'---='-L.-,..----O ._ ~ h Jillt:: d l E (1) outs .. Values of,'1) not .give'D in. Table III can be approxil-in, ...l"lCI X ,~,~- ..eg·:::." .. a.y:o·ut" ,; 'q'~._~. :: . •.•. can theoreticallyI 'be '-P •. I r .. ... mated ·b·y ·me3llS 01£Eq~1(2): ·used for shell diameters as small as ,8 in, However, at shell diameters of less than 12 -in~,~double-plpeand ". fJ::~ OIl,7lS(P~12'{aJd~) (2)I~ ..

ang.-'le(Table II); f = c_-ost ultip..Her for TEMA ... m tvn,._=--e front l,r head (Table .111); and r .-' c-ast multiplier for TEMA_· .....'t,Y·.p.,:_e . ._

~ L.... 'I!...... ii.,;.~·lIM1' :muItl.tUue lexc~~~nge.r.s ·l!10r,e eeonormeal I.~J;; -E-· (-·1) a~e eq, .:..••. h- ·L""" h I .. d azai 'b - ~- --f'" ch-.,I as neen cnecsec _ aga;~nst·piu.r.!c,lase prices 10" ex': angers r3']1,mn,a."::. in. diameter from 12 [·'lS·:in". and found to be
e- e satisfactorv.

to

","yiltll;°u~ -

,r";,i,1f
'~I

"";·liilrnl!'l'i;,u:-:'E'-iD ;~",,~Q-".~_~,'U

nl'j'\Il

A-·
I"·

u....
.

Y'IIJ',d,I

ii· ~erT" ~",

~'-~i I·~
.~,
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..

H,UT EX'C'f'IANGEI1t1i ,

IN

ii: 30J}
..QI
I§,

~"-""_'~~~~~~~~--r~~~;';;';;"'~

Shein Ii,D.." ,DJ,,. hill,

40

or':·O ... deg..layou'ts.~ a ,:= O~8\51,., For a. 'U"'-'iube le- ~change , havin.ga, S,51 .. j shell ,diameter 8/4,~!"~n@tube IO~,D",~] -in ~ tube pit;ch" ,4,5 -d}eG'" tube ~a},.outJ and ,3. . I' ~.' ,,- ". ·type- .:" lront end, I, 0 (Table 11..),f ,~',,10:2 I tiIr. '1...11 d I\, .J!,,,[aJu1eIII) , I~ an:-,' = 0 9' ('~ b ,',., ,ill.' ,,",.,~a<.,,/~' IV) V'" ~,,,,. ('II'\ U ~ ,: ' .. Ol~ ,.ta, 'V',n !I,ll, l.'·1 ''1 £(2'"1 I 0 arri vie'at, a mIlt estlmate for this exchanger, this base price rm correen d b'['IY-' m "3'nl'iil" oth:'e="~' ',·.m of r'~" . ne" ters wh]c'h are now discussed. '",II

, Eq [\:1" P:j' '2')' I'


,I ,:,,- li

:!:

.' L,.... tube

'., h PltC11L"

,'" 3'0"d , a t_ at constant. ,: 0,' 415" "f' m., .;__.I:-; ... I; ,for- ,8,,-'Oif' 6·,.. eg'.. '~a:lou:lS~ = III
'I'

r=

'~f d"'tt ...I tnermar'II expansion h .. .,:hiJ:,e'(\e~nt~a~, ,,' .. ~;';- '~':"", "[ may. "0' ',.' pansion J[D~" , :-,', .,-.- I IniClrpo~':
)I'
L

AiiJ,...

"[

(~'I.z.'

IC:!'t, ':::-.'_ . ~~11L '-."

'ls_.LUI

!_

~l~l.

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l~l

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[,

orrecno ,iLo:r IbU- type .e _,,_ C!II' .:.-

·E"'" '("''')''~''b d" ~TE"M"':''-. hell ·t,·-,"'·" . ") '. '0" sh.'. [·'-.e.-..". ". "c U ,,,q,o; .1.. IS ~,as_" ..n ,L ",8.,:.,1l1 y,pe.. s en CJypes other than ~,t~,,-the"",u.~. ··pric .==- ~_ , la ed vi iI:iIi,< 'q'" ('11 ') ,~_:- .,t' be base.. .,~ ,~' e-calc E' .•J: 'm'" ,,".• , . '_:_T UI:..:,c:_, 'U 'Y US!' adiust ..... ·bl.,y- g cost-correction factor " C''· from Tab..I~ V" .,l1 r ~~:~:JUSlCU. ,": A '" .. ~!!i"..~_'_c.: ,I,[~ . '" :. S, G" I", ." For example, for a kettle reboiler ( !'EMA 'type K)I~Cs =
"0

,:c__..:,,:_u,'

'....•.

i "=!II,

-,,~· '··'F'··' ansion '~;, ", .,'.. - -:-. . .'" tb .... TWOI ~ 1.,.,y',;;,S 0, ex. ." ... "~ '. JO,IOS, ali, common: .ne d .' n d -anc . d :':,m8!e::~ d:0;>,f]uee anc I-h e 'l.. ......'1- Th :1~r,s.1!. :15 C 'Iaeaper oe IOlrV5.. r ne €: 'but r-._jt· d to !/ur~.in, expansion, For I:,,: eater thermal ex. , pansion, ,~.L - 1h... ··II..... '.,', . ype ,~., ,-.--,-"",11. [setecte..,~ me UCIIOWS ,-.,.' .ISI uSluauy ,.' "" d .. ",. ', :f'~- . C"-: (Orre.O tion ,l[or ... --;-'. - --. - ...." . JOInt, [3.:. ~ tracnon 0;r,··-ost '.'.- ..... ons ,c- ,".' xpanSUlD, __ 'base price are 'P' [ot[· d ~n Fig''''~ as a function . f shell di... -4
1

'.' "t·· UOS o"f'" ,'.' '.~ .. '-".' hs ::- ~ ian exc_'.3fl,ge.
;0,-

fixled,-tllbi!s'beet

'h"_. "h'"ieu1 O.r·'· ·' a l_' S '11' ,x,eha.'ng'f:r,., This, of' course hikes the
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d' ,~S! expected, an exIi· ,i

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.-

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ex~~lllp"'il':':e·,--:_'r-'o~':n~~~d,'" 'fl'tx~':,~d·,'~-t-u~~s·','h-,':~\at· .. -'a~' ~ e--'x'~':-.J .'" ~ ~.. .... .. chu_ ~.,.,-" .. ..vith ~,O,O'..·, in, gh'ell11 ..diam" eter at ba se price o .['"'ling,-',.i@or·' ,,,:,],ii1C,'2 A Ilan -:"de. '" -'d" !'iI,., ed '''', -. - ".= ..,.' , l .-' ld dd $~I ..-, , _U1.Ji[ ~: :_.a.nge . ,,:~,anc -.uuec -type JIQlnt 1"¥'OUI, " ,a(,:~ ,:1 ~4 .f..'2 '-, th 'b::-'-;'".'.- .'. -;.. , : UC~_.olws,y, ·e \;Y,QUl", b·, .': -. ''''-h' ll··· .. ' .',.' --, [tdl ooost t e 11 ,0 me ease prlce, an d . a 'L,..... _ , ~".. ,.y ,pnc,e , b ~c2~'g"./',c:2 It
iU-l.lul.,

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11 '" " II

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Correction. for tube 1,8II.gth


.!I!.J!".,_.:_, ,~~,
C

no ·nu-,·~'il~l] Uhlli , shon I,i_'" ones L·........... e' '.0-:- f:' th abo r c ost liI'L"';I1U' c'a:'t':, ""0;,, ~ · 1us _.. ~ll material scrapped in, cutting 'lubes [0 'r,equif'e\d '· ,ot'-h . owever, Ien'[e.l.,is, H"'" "",-'.".- lfll,e'labcor-,C'S'. "1 de __ , ....' somewnat as a.' ..:eC-r'f::_'"S_ S, - - - ,.h-'" . .. hl . ~amJel!.cer,ncre,aseS:;i 11....._ :'1 I' ,.,' o!r' il'h" e II ," --, ,,n.u,mIUCI' 0 r·· L...... sh-- eo. d'·.:".~: -,' l lucCSluse II., . ~a.rgie'r . , be S, I.Dyo.'I ", d- J!! to, .... e,· Fro)"' 'th,e' 'baseliulf! exch'mnlupir'- 'lub.__ 'a'r,~1 'f:' ~IO·":f~·nlOi . ··;;'''n .. ' ..... ai~" ... is '--'-~ '0-. ',.,( ,_~I 11.·", '1It'iFt':I.., tTl, -b··li,., '1')' r.._ leo f)i U. \,JII.,a"lC," vul_,- orrec I., ,It:,,:, JOlnl ,]'[0 1" tu b 11"lnnth JIj.;I· -.e Ie·nSiY"',s' ,. d ,,~. !'Jq~,.iii"')' I ,." tbl an 1010' c.'- ,caD 1....""" cal" cu.ntle..:' 'Via, E' ('(.;J'.'.~, ·_,ess ,J;.",. dt Joe ,:, '-, L"" ] [-=n O~inIO-' 8 g; (D" 1[2'\ .] - - - CL = [ 11.5 ~ . u. i (3)
r~ ,

" ,f::.2 . .. lon,g" ki O n a '"jfr- basis '1 . sil nn y exc 'hi ange rs are more eco . u
I ,'ill ,.

IL.·

...g

',"

:c__. ',:

'.

,;ji.'!I!-...-.

C' ..

i.

.- ',' '.

'ii'. ',.

...!'

I'
-1._

1',"

111,::-._

'-'-",

,'-,.,

.:

r-"

..

"_"_

._._'

..

'"

.!~

[~J'"

_~,

11111·

((

Ill.

,'11

.Il.

~!-.,

".

,,'

----··-'·-:-b<!;'

"~-I'

11.080; '.

20__

u; ~... ~~~~

:.f Itube. )Iength, ,L, :il, 120 ··"'t, eL, := '0,. : r ,L > :210 ftt" leL .is :n.e,gatiVie'" :indiC3tin.:g '[b:at the' 'u'n'!,llcos:t lor t~le£J{ch:an,ger-

60 -.

I I

($/ft~) is less, than for an, exchanger having 20-ft tubes; bOiwev'er~;0'0 credit should be taken for tube .1.en:gthrs longer than, 20 ft~ :>, 20 :ft, CL '=: 0", Eq, (:3) is plotted in If.L 'Fig'~5,~A~th,oug'h, the curves only extend to shell diameters of 60 in .. they are valid beyond this :~imit. " 'F;oJ" an exchanger 'with, a, ,35~in~, shell diameter and 1.:2,, .. It-long tubes, 'Cr.., ~~ O~,5,51,~via Eq (3)., .If the' e;,x:,changer base price is, S 10/f1:2', the shorter 'tubes. 'wrOu]d, 'boost the 'price' by $5",,5/£(2'.
1

,Correction for 'tube passes


Larger numbers of 'tube passes increase exchanger cost by hiki:ng labor costs ,and reducing the available heal-exchange surface, 'Exchangers can have as many' as; 20 tube pass~s.A1thou~ based on (4) j~ suggested for estimating the extra, cost for more 'than two

Umiteddata. Eq,

20

30 . She1~ dla.,

o; hrn"

40

so u

tu b' "'e oasses ~


'.'.".' '"','
p'

.·~~~··.li:ll!ll'

eN' -lli'
double tube
Here, ,NTP'
~

== ....., - 1)01100 ('N~D


;!!,~ ..... .

(4)
£'1'_. ,: .., rio " !Ioal. .. stru ·:"0-" '1IuUITec, ,ODSI £'"." ,_"",',. ,., '''~ln ..!E'!' lo'·f,·;' ."'0".'-. ._.ClOD, . I,o,r ,lDa~. ..,~' ii3J ... \', ,.. ,_IRk·
s.: '

actual number of tube pas~:u;~~,s,~ single' or 'For


'paS5IfS"

Fora 'IOIft2 bas~-?riceuch~gerwith28 tube. passes" the cost of the additional passes 'lS, 50,.7/£1 .'~

CH,rP := 0,.,.

'Co·'·IT~·· ecti
.. [I ~~

"

0·· 'iH"iI:!' 11......·· g £0",·, ·,r' _


.. ~I.. .

d'_el~ ",_;, p~,~~,ss :ur-... · ....:._.~~. go . _',


I.:

'·'·d:a ~Q

Exchanger price rises witb, .increasin.,g design pressure, For shellside design pressures higher than 1:5,0psi, caleu .. , late the cost fraction tO be' added 'via Eq, (5):::
I

b b 11 I.. "'q~':, E (1)· I'S:iISe d an carbon-steer construcuon. Alloy 1I;.1!.., f· . h- 'Ol~ \OJ'''~··~;l"" ~6' eonstrucnon am aner 'Urlte'..ice. 0" . an exe' ~an'~~ SlfTrfi'l ',,_ pr • cantly, d ep' endin "iOl on the' allov's- cost- and its, Iq.",~'u:mtity~'in .... Q' -._'":. '·"-',1' .-'~'_-'. ,_ ,iLL.· .. - h -.,' -,- some ames, ,-. ,.. '.- -, - ,-(.,.. . ~ d '..' tne exc ..anger, 'S,··,···, Ib"~",...... lac ·;h:'B'·,o,ger.. ,pa,l, u :are mane 0,f different 3UOV8, 'ma'king·" cost e~uim;ati'Da d'ifficult. .'. "'.. .'_.''. -, . l' ,.. ., . '," . - '_ '; ... .._.. " Exchanger costs consist essentiallv of labor 'p. rofir and "he c .,"~".If,· ,-. ",it_-·~,,;-'I ~ . ,."·"k', ~ .,- . own. ' ,mat~n£us. ",.' ,if; cO\S'La0,. ,ma~n~s, ,-,-IcaJl 'b ' erob ... reo, ·d·.. '-'-:-', -,~,
-'

.,..]1

'0'

':-.

_".

:-'.

",

_",,,

',_.

."

-.":

.'

I'

I'

_._.

_:.

",

. ..:..-.

I.

._::..__,.

,"_

;_.

",

I'

_'

.:..·.:··,,1-.,.: .

.. '

-,_'1,_'

:.-,_.

~,

..

'-'---1',."

c,

'--'_"

'1""1'""

'.',

',I:)

,..

.,

.,'

._,',

1_'"

I.:'·':_

.-

.....

'-,1.

'.

'"'-_,",

....

_.

._.....

-.

"·~

..:.._~__:I/:

.....

.__.... - ....

:,

_:_-.'

._ .•.

__

"_.'

..:__I.

' .... ,. ',.

·.-~,-,11"

T7"

I'"

Cps = [(P /l,50) ~ 1][O~I07 + O'i00161(D:~

vs

,=

12)] + X (5)
'.

For tubeside pressures ,greater than 150 psi, the cost fraction of 'base p'ri,ce to be added ,is'calculated via':
CPT'

=~ [(PDP'150 - 1][OJ):35 T O.,0005 6(!Ji. - :12)] (6)


1

Eq, {5) ('with ,x - [0) and Eq, (6) are plotted in ·Fig,., ,Ii Although the curves extend to ,ordy 60..in, shell diameter, they !mo, be extrapolated beyond 'tbis ,limit., ,~s Fi,g~ 6 ,Ii,blows"'the cost effect of'shellslde pressure :18 twice 'that of tubeside, up to ,2,000 p'ig" and even greater beyond '2,.000 psi,g,. Th.e X 'term in. Eq~ (5) is an adjustment factor for shellside design pr-ess;u'[,es higb,er than 2'~OOO psig.. _ 'VaJ,'uesafK' (based on limited data) are 'p~otredin Fig'~" as a function of shell diameter. 'For shellside pressures equal to, and less 'than; 2 ,(lOO 'ps'i:K"X :- O,~ . "For ,3.'0, exchanger wi,'th a SS",in~shell diameter and de- s:i,gD,ed,for a,shellside 'pre~u,~'of 4.§{1 and a, tube sid e psi pressu.re of600~p:. U,~21~~_:Wld C _'~1436'iiI1i;\,_~!!~~ Therefore, the _,.': er sr e si e 'p,ressur-e anas .:'.iI ..... ,' ·gl:~ B[J,d the tubesidepressure Sl ,,44Jft~" 'to the $I01ft:'2base cost of the' exchanger, .
j

Cl'h

. 1

30

Shren

r.n

q~'1M, C· n~"1i 1i11c'C.AL. ...

,!I:4'!!1Ii.,;i1!~,'I!!~!r,y,li'''U

'c""'t,""',n~'DiIli!'1I'I'!i.'PIt"'I' ,n,· UU~,I .iII. 'U';i"iT''Iitli'T!'

q;ij ~~;ii

~,~.-,}

:0 II¥II~

61

m
~

!i: 0"
Q:)

b:i
'

'101

1IbDli ilIl.!
g':I!

...

~ U
)(

iC!I:II

iII!Il

-" 0
.t3'

I.).

301 :210
-

601

~~

'~

"""'

.a .._
fL.]
!Ij'.:iiii..

,"'"", ....

~I

0 IV

.....,.
,iii)

,m

en,

~ ::::I,
'iIo-#' 'In'

'

'.
'0.

.....

c:

,E:
0

0..

QIi

U ~

10


=

114,

ru be galge[,~ IBW"G

ts

18,
s·p!e

. Ii

l'u be ga·g,e CIOIS t mu It'i p~ie,r de p ends 0 n of. averagle o'r mi nimu. m w,alll tQleranc'e

c ilfi,c-8 t iI 0 n
~F;i '9 g'~,

Calculate the cost. correction for t. ibe mate/rial via:

'c...... J- . ~ ~ I\Ii(M'1
~"-~j

:=:

1.)-.I.

The

'C-OS:t

correction for s,he:n materia by,:


IC---- ~ --:P:'l!i!S
('MI_ Ii 2U,.,IL .... ,-"'-',

I(~M>
~

-'_

I)'
I . ·.··.·,_,i_:.....'!I!,

The cost
. ,,"--' ~ iJI

ICO-'··I'!I'"'Ii"\-·-tli'"o- 'n° . -.- .. a I.


I, ~.
j'.-

II~.

for cha mel I mate _ '·'a:]1 m'I"'I'" fro a I:~


Ill. . ":_'I-! _'.

And
_; _.

th:

'e'-'[C:'\O'--,C_'
~!i.1I!

- C.-_'O.C-:,· .,

re-_--r ''''o~.'n'·or . f
I.

,1I!i.r,

'lui
_

I_ ,'._ _

-s-,:h--_. .. -,-

--t-· " [_.....

ate 'nl--'·~I'b,--,-y-;;
.UJ
I .

..

C- mB:: O' 0-:-.~{" 2 .. Ai lM J,

r)
,_-:I

(ru
A --,-, ,. ,.

(7)
,', 'I.... L__'~ lor a, tnangutar tube-puc h -.- attern p (':30 or 160 deg.), and a =; I~O£0',-- ,a square tube-pitch pattern (45, 0',-- 90 deg.), For a carbon-steel exchanger having a 35... shell diin" f 7{,-IO" 1 ,~ ameter an d- tuoes 0' 1-' '.' O' 'D'"In a- ,_ In" square-puc h .--"t-te- - - - .•.. of :c .. - :,(---;2 ua5e-prlce p-iI - --,m, ,. ,~ O''-, 16" 6' " I - t"hl-e- ,case- 0 a *101' .- ,t 'L.~ .-- ---.--":-:--._" ,. 'h'- ,-. .exc angie'., thiIS,_" eans th ,at the 'OO,S-'t-- coni' _ -u, b'l'-om of th e'. I ~ - Ii.__~_,e -- --.'-' trib _~n 0" •_,: -.... __. 'f"-2 " :::--~__,';:_ , tut b--mg - ,IS- ,-···10-'-_.1 -x- - 0'- 116-:-:'6--'," ~r ..:1 ~6-:61'--:'~!'.'S:-'·' - -, :"]._.ar_y,:. th - ,.'-,,- ,-:' __ l.t -~JmJ -. --1"- t_,_.e cost ,-, .. - ributiot - h - h n ~ __ ,. _ x- '0'" . ---' -''ilIff of contnbunon 0:_'r--t'._-~es-,~_eu, S'~:i 10-c:,/£:t2 "':_" 111 or -:.-~: t;2- ;, .t-h-at 0:' ... -_-, -SIS " ad tnat th--Cha --.-:- .-"',--:- 1 ... 0""'6."or '.. JO'".:::\(112 .., an. .;I,.L ..... · '0·f- th- e. _, e nanne 'I'~ -,1,_11:I-O--:\/-'-fj-2 X 0- " ---:-.- ._ 6>·I,Ci, tube -:-'b ..tut SO. eets Ui,I -I O~-·I-:f·-2' X" [0-' , 0, - -:~iI~I.'[,·" -T'h - t'OUlJ, ,mate.:.,1- -----/~:~ - '--0' At 2' . ne - .....11 .. - .'

'... ' I,

- ')_'; In Eq,. ('7:~ a

::= ~ ~I:/.-,

0"- 85- -

C'

be-

I~'",

.'~

'I

cc_

..... .'1 r· 11 ,., ~ T-h'.e·vaiue o:~, in - ('." :ts ~Culate:_ d ' 'via .~,~ (,-l. In Eq, Eq, '8') ~ ......... 'II (\8,:-J;" M.-- :~" ...:ILr-- ' .--:. t~;-:-: 0'·f 'ioU'., lng ODS. ..we~ ,'e ,or seamless].~), IS UIe lauO - _ h ;~'- ---;-; ost (-'.'-'~Id":ed . - --':_--:-" 'I' ." , I :mded bo f' retauve tO 'we:lL- c careen steerI' ' U~·S, 0_' t, ie same di name..... 1 iIo.L:: mess and cu - 'I d h (i.e., e d ter, 'W,~,11 thic 'k ~en;gt (~ for W' ..'Id-'e,-;,(ar! b ...... st -_",1 rue -'-'S';' M'----- - ~ ('Q I '--. -IJ!Un,see .• . be - ",) - '11 ,-::- id c-·.-·' ,.,...." '1'-" c'--'.q .. 1\::'':")' th roug',rh, ,~,(I,D 'w ...... '- ,,. .n " (11), M 2; is the re ative IOOS,t 0' -, plate materials to carbonsteel plate of the same dimensions, The cost ratios, M':I 1 d In i· and, M2 for 'various materials used i heat excth,an-gers
I" _'_
,ro

it- ,

,c:-

-0' .:)-.

'E--C -

-,

,m

.....

,-iO

,,_c,

'-'1

'~-'

-,

c':,

listed in, Table V I are calculated from early 1982 prices. -.. ""'.: [;-'" _.- ''- '.. '~" d - I"'mg'--: ices r Tu b" pnces . d enenc ..-' on.,~ '-k comdi ~ anrdsuch mar ,et '[nons ~ ,r-, .r. .• ' ,AT.... tactors as requirecd cut I-c,e,ns: an,d' .: uanaty 0 f.purch h-ase ~~S'
,='. _' I

J.

.• ~"

' • .:...:.

_.~'

~._._~.

.~

b.

ill

e,

jIl't

c.

'.-

,., 1'01' 'L-. .......cal- ""~~ d 11 .•. .-: Cost oo,:rrectl,ons I: 't,U,IJiC' ma(~e·ndJ,:C:'. ICwarte-_ fr,om Eq -(7) 'ro.n,,-,~'gll,er-.from ,4 t.o lO%-in 't-,,-,[e' sh,eUdma,'meteT 'p-'1JJr~q;e· :" '--' ·' is ",,,,,"Iil ·d-'.' .' - '[3n'~' of 2'0-12' in. Tihe.' ,'. -"·r"........,of'III'is-r·-,-' m 'p-1rovide' I[:o,n-' '.-' 'a'~ cC: "-'- c se:rva,ttve "smnat:· S lor :,~X!c "gers ,0' .sm~,'-: lWD,e'~eT.,s! '13 'n:ri;'th .... I'IIO-- l!.. .... ~ s ~,-_,y - ,Ku,ow.", ,g Ithe OO,Sit 11-,ta'uonsl Lips lof the ,carooln-s'tee], tu~bel',,sbc-U~ channels" ,'Dd 'lu, oots. '-'0 m[e' 'baSe [C3'rboo .., stee~ [~c'hanDPr one ca" calwbllE' [be hiahel" COlt d'ue 10 'rO'~ -'Oi .. ". ,-,other ... 'than-<ar1bon,~stee'l. !oo,nstr.:l(2io[~:_ for these ex ... __ _._ 'L.. . II~' th reJlab.ve COS- [0f [URUlger com,po,n.-nts Ij,Y mu. bP'lytD"g': ._[e' tl ,"' - tb,e OU-Jl.er ma,~,n·. ."f· iIIi,'L.=:-t ,-'-..f-- C8liuun ,sj",ee.l,~ _ - " :ii.:L,,- . -:- - t,m--~'-aJ" loLill 11J.I1IJ3 0 . -. - -1,.,_,-.j 1 •• ", '. -

'[-'0-:- ~-~.LMJII l. .',-[I!'l!"~D: u- : P-"I'"O'::---fj"-l-t l~It..·""","T" 00". ~Ind'!lJl~

",..,.11.---''III IC 6/-' eo '2' +-" $.:'11,1'(':,:2 + .. :0". 61' Co 2: + ---' nil',tJl, 00$1 e , oi!;,'l,. ----£.-.-.-"' IS" u~efeJl.,or'e,~ Jl;;U' _·It. -; . JJ;, lll: It _ '--:;0:' -.fj--co;- 2 -.- :-.2 '6-"61:: ·.(';-'2' ~T-h--:::-' ·1...·.... '1_ '. - 0', ··6::: 3" A ,/£:<2:"U;,,altn,~'b~,Iutcu ,- -. --: - ,.-...lll ~t ........ .;,}!~.: It I ,e UdJan(L- '. r-:' ·,,--"tIll
J
'!!'

-.

~-

..'

'0--: 1

jt";

4/-- -

0; •

,J

II

;0

ii!"

-:_-, - .

_ .. ,'

Ii

_-c

no).

-,-

hi 'il ,,"[~,Ii..iC.;;,

'.

'_

..

_.

,[

I.

.___

~-

'.

-.

-._

-_,._'

ti_'_'

"'::.'

..••

-----,-- _,--"'. :.lIlliDIS ---,,0 .. --- '. ]O-[Ol__ ,oonstru.cbon d'!- "..," ..tes ,t··. -as, 1-',ow-,, asc:c.10,., V-]' . e:. a_u!es 1Il0Ir'.~. , --h- .,- - .-f: b11 - V', do' ---:, - -'." . d' - .--- ,-'h -' -h'e ,.osen,rom -' - [T.,il:I.~,e'.'I' !e:pen!~ OJ_n w.~~_,e . -. ,c-o\ns,~ruc... l~-_,e.'r - . bo", IS seam~ess!or we-d- d-I .e - M- .' , .. ,-! . ~', 'T' lib-III - :----V:""I-: '--,.-h- - -II ., .. , - - - . - ·d.J -, 'L.","" f: T ,:'e .',"2~,(3.1:1'05 ~,n .,a, -Jje _, _ .Ior ,8" ' e', .~~ ca n.n!e ' ;aD.· - tuIUiiC'-' ., -- '-b' -- d'-' 'h' --.. --" - .. 5\'h ,eel , --- "- '·'..'1'_,-are-- ase·.:,0,0 - -1'1, )le -pnoe.s,., ,;'e 12ocura·cy O 'f· " '- -- mate,nau PI: - - '.': - -· __ ¥iii1JIlU,' ,[5, .. / ··d.. ·-It,,MI Ian -- M"--'',2: ,,_-l·,(- -_S, ,. ,ex,- -- l...e dll, t\n'L-- Wlul n +2;"[O=0l_ '" , '_:_, .__ uc .,,-,~,.,L.'''- _,~ 70,. [e ~ h " ... -: "'ad tal--~ _rabos ,S·,. to ulld be : 11,pd a!te·.:, n,./ ,~.'.'. fll' ~ ..
-'

'Price differences amon"g manufacturers can differ 'by' as ~-:-'AOCll rnces 0 ow-a :".,' vary ...'- ··"Ifi·c rnuc-h' as 7. 'fO. p---." ,-- -, '- ,--. 'f~)-- -.'-. - II"oy.-. turblng, '-.- .' S]'lgnll-' .- :_,[e:pe'n .. on W'"het her construcuon is we,Id ec _ Of' ~ -- .,'- d can [J.y;' d :~_.lng , ~ - ~Je- ,-f' sea m1ess, As can be seen, m Ta 'b'~ VI, th e pnce 0:' seam=,>~ 'I bo 1 b" -2' 5' ~ "L, 'd d- c ,I.ess.,car[-'-,-n,-s[ee.'J[ tUimg lS, ':-~:~ ames 'U,I,a:t 0"r-' W'~ll.: [e--_· ar .., ,,'Ii A-' D,-Slee.l, t-, ·'b-,~,n,g'"~~ W], , ma,!J.e r a, p n,c-e· In,creases~ h-' . -li. : ":.-" - --5.owbo-eVie'r" the c,ost .difFerence bet,w,een se,a ·Ie&s an,d 'welded
'. ji, ~c_"
,

,.! -

[r'

;i.~.

'

'-.

--

"

t,(-

-::-.]-

, --.

'!' -,'

,"'--,:

-- ,~.

. "-,

----,·1

M"

lI);,

,I, ':
,- I "

-i

'[iII-,- -.

--,

.'

-:-.1.-

~ -;,

'.

,'-

.r

1. -:-" "._ _ . -

'.

-.-

. -.

"C'"

.•

. 'r'!'''''.-

-'.'

I.·..

._..

~'"

(,

•...

-....

• '.,'-:-

,i

•-_ ~

it

"-

)-

'iI>

-:-c- ,-

,-cit·,

. ,~

fi,e'" --,-: . nllll'if!'rtUC-l .g;d' ,·:·r·:- ~'flbo-'-",.- n ,~t---'l,o":r-:' co11'1 I..... d .JO'Y5 ;a~f\e:so.m!el1m','1 iew,- WI'·'th a m.loFe..,:x.penslve i 1ow' ....1 ma'[le--riaJ, ratb,e'r 'th;an making 'them ientirely ,out ,of [dl"e
·I:"',.. LA..:.

,~c· P-l hi.

·~I'i'IiI01 .. ,Ib'L-,

Af"

compo-': _. .

=..'

.""

•.•

~&r~'~

f'

li LA;J..:
~I

.~._:

__ .

.... ,

I !ii3'IA.;,I~

'.'

II!

iii

, 62
.

'-... CHiDiiI ...,]- ....... T


GI,MI.,~

D'JI.'II·G-1'I!l.'IlC''I!!'1!II, ,~"i-"~~I~,'I!!

n.'fG n u 8Gf - ~'~ "'U""'U- 22~ M:<:I_ • '.,

Cost premium, for' special eases


exchangers, W,he'n exchanger shops are v'cry 'busy J lor onlv a :1:1:.~x~:,b,n,gen are purenasea, or rusth.c envery is '~, 'ewexchan ---- - - ".C h ..... ~i, d 'I'" ~ ~req1llire,d,.exchangen.prkes., will -be .higher; than w'h,en,'bought via competitive bids, Alth,ough, it is diOlrul'm: tOI generaize about the :sizeof this preminm (OOcause:i.t 'will 'vary w,ith circumstance and manufacturer), .it cannot be T-:ignored,~A. premium, of '10% of the: final estimate d IWS,t of the exchanger is suggested,
- JUl.')
I ,

. Tbis estimating method ,is based. on !C:fJW from competitive bids a Iarge mimber of shell-and-tube heat

:f~r

~EI_,-

ii'
L_ 1 ' __ '

,I'
: '~ : :,

rj.~,. ~ ••

exclfallger=pri~~ce;--->:
,-'

C', -I'

=: J\8

'~'R'~

ill)'."

_______
~U'C'''';I''I'i''ii A I' !!l;,;,I,",Q.!{!F,Ui~ •••~!!I.;,;,

(1:2)_., _ _iD.Lr_altcm31bves, 'hav~beelrL.l[j,l'l,f:uJated'~I_the'free,..on-board __


,1iioI~(J\lJ.it~~~
'ii5'ii.:tOl"!II1!rre'EI'D'l'il'iiefft

After the' exchanger base price and, all, the corrections

MIi;;;!;Y. .• ~,~'

".'If

'I'~.U""~ ~i'ii ~~~

~,~

. i"i;ilIi'2

...,

6J

'11]1

tr-,-""-~I ,,')"'J,_ _'-"':--_' __ \ ~O;,IU,." "--"-~'

,anu,ary '---'~:8~,,9;'pnoo of the narticular . ~"-.&., ,1";"'-"" 0, PI(tJ'JClJ.har can, be' estimated via Eq ~('J. S):
IL '_'

,~:',-'I!"I _

x,cllanger
'-'--'I:~'

Other 'po.ssibi~'iti:-s, the M,a:rsb,aU, & Swift, E:q'ui:pm,ent are Cost Index, the' Nelson Refinery Cost Index (or 'the materials-cost component), and the V'"S" Bureau of Labor Statistics General Purpose Machinery and :'-, uipment
Cost Index, A,EIl, estimated Ic,o,rrr-cted base-price of an,exchanger, ,E.·Ir; is escalated from the j.an'llJ,ary 198'2 dale to another date by :multi,plyi,ng it by the ratio of 'lh." values of the Fabricared Equipment oolmnpo,'oen't on. the two dates,

lV,hen exch a,ng,c'r price q lliO'13tj"ons more-curre n.-_ l:h:an, those of lobe' 'bu-e-d.ate are' readUy a''IIaUab~ej an, escaladon index specific to ,e'x,c:hanrge:rscan be del rmin,ed,," ,F:OI'r comparable exchangers, the sum of 'I,he average of (he ~,O'Ylesit. ,5.!eco.nd,-~o,,~est~ and currenr iq,u,'ot31ions d:~'vi,d,ed, by the SU,:m of cost estimates for an equal number of exchan,gerB,l'- provides iii high~y' 're~~a'ble' esaJa~,ion index, A'n. .ind.e~x, etermined lin 'this, manner should re mairn 'IIIUd, d for about six momhs, . :tdii,n,g the :a:v,c'rag'c'of )Io,~,esland
ll,

E. E>-,

E ..
e: .,

E "";-",,-.=--E ...

65

-'6'-~
•.•. 1

'n', 'til! -, - dIii' ., :-:_ co to, ,,~s'ama"nili"o.,gr ,-,·_e,ver'ed COS,_, 'T1! ,~ , '-, aethc d" ' esnmates excl,llanger--, cos'-t f-'~O." "b -,eo ,,-, -- , - ',:,•. : _,- ,'L -', '--,', -'''' " .b th '-'manu,1]lS ,m'eb -,0, facturer's shop, The cost of the exchanger delivered to ., c d' hh 1 'Ihe _P_' Iantsite depends on 'l1 di ne distance 'b between the S,,_OP' , id "m'"te sne, Mile ",,---,-,', '1-',,----:" nortatio "d tne ~.',',', an, '-'- " means of t' ran,s,por' 0 ton, ,an,' , ,""b", SlIZ,e' '.' 'L h h f' ani,d w'elgJJ,d 0:f t, e exc:_.~anger~ "', h ,'I'l;,.o,ut k nowie·1 dgle 0,'_ ,_ _ 1, 11 tnese detans, tne oeuveree d'- cost cannot 'L..... accurate'l'Y' esti;:,; "11 - L,.,J uc mated, However, increasing the' f.o.b, cost by ],-4'% P'ro~,
c

'.'C'. -, ,',

.:---,

,I,

,. S are com,pare dazai . agalnst. actual '-I p,noes, 0,f 10·, exc h.all gers d .... h nrst halt 0'" ,,',: I-'' ,~ mcuieded_' ere h..... fI 98° I cl lf, 'ptlr-ch asea d 111r1:ng the 1':' w exchangers of different TEMA types, geonletry and metall.,U'fO'\! t an d for various design cond itions The resu ('I-!IZ" " ", '0 l ' ~ th f' s:um.manze,.: d '. '''lr':ab1! 'V'],', ~ d '.' In -Jl -,I,~,e: I' mrncate that ,th estimates 0:, -e
- tt ..
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.,

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vides
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:;'!i;'p-'.-,p'I,J..-o" ·,~lt_; _:.~ate lelivered cost ....... a~ .-:"'._. Ji im Q.. _ -'r


d'
J

," ,". ", "-.r.U\ili

_I'

'.' +96f11 d,ev~aJUOI,D ~S, :~',:-'7t1',!, " is ,. [(:....: _.._'__:_ d '. Accuracv ,~. def ~,."- d·Ci ~m,..accu I;racv ......., stimate -'."1.: p.'... 'Moe e ...._.- .. --·~l· 'IS r ennec _ 'as - ~'l ... .. ' __ '")1 ,,.,.JL._ - pu,rc h ase pncejrpurcnase price 'I 00' "_~~ ··-h W.' :1i..ien I .• accu racies,- 0r- 'tt e" 1ndI,~.-,,-'ild- ua cos t esnmates '... ' JJ e ' -,', ,'_~- ,-'" -h-' ", ,·.V], .'. '1 ',', for all of the exchangers fall within ± 15,'%"the overall
0; ,', 'II!I ...•• ' -

all the individual exchangers fall within ±.lS'%, with '60% within '+ I.0 %,~ of actual purchase prices, The average'
,i
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"A, simple example that :iU-u;stra(,e~ the method is 'pre.. , sented in, the worksheet shown in Fig ~10",The prob em is, t0-' es.ma~f th,e f' ,.0,.,.. co,s t" 01.'f , ',la, 'pu,'1-'1J:- t-'h- -'," h .:f1-- ',~' itin h d . 1 -', -. ' -' b ,-"'-" _- .. ,-, ,'" 1 ,rong"" _.JJa ng-,:,ea._,; - --d. D TE'M,A-"[ype A-···'~I. ,. exeshan"g-er pure hasec tn ,_eoem b . "T---:eer ]-'98"'2 ~~ , Tlhl,e'" S' 'ng" '1,e''. sh - e-;I1.1 di ".llm- e· ;,~,T" is 46- 1'0' N-_-' '0' - m- "'I~nal t.ub e,-'I, ,-_·.·1· ,.' -, 1 ,i::: ,c. a,n,i.' s '.c.:'_-, .. -- area ,"', q 9: 0",5) f--·2 T- -h- 'e- tus - ... }e,ngul lS JJ,-U 11t - - d 8,Ufl.a.ce IS, ,- " '-' -'1- -,n~-,.. , D" '." wei .Id'_,e. ,-.-,-, '-0' ~t-'-'~'-, ... -, ,,',m,""t':I "a. .mlrum,um wa-"'B' ..' "·d co. _,,-fU,ICuon, - h ,. .... - ... , .... ' '-'.' " ". , ' ,",-, : arle "'- 0''--,-'
'U- ", ,,',,-, ,.',
,i

cos,'[ estimate fo-r. aU of the exchangers purchased for a P'lioject willbe more accurate, because positive and nega ... -.. d' '". ~ _. o ter dd nve r evianons wnt cancer11 eac h at h out w,h aen ac e d together ~Thus, the total purchase price of all 108 ex..
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I,

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ch j'" ,':;-' -'"., ,~ , ,a ... ,,lIJ,,, 0' '6'··:"]- -' -,--- '~-[~",:" c,. ,a.n,g~ers.lo '-T:I"-c:I-b·· 'II.,e V·····.··'1l'1IS . "1-',. ~.... 5-' ml_llon, ,,'-- d the ·esuI 3"n". , .... ['t-. :d' --~'_'""',_'0-"(:-- I!; '$ '-,', :_-",_:: '(I matwf; price- o th .e t", eal lS,." ,1- 0 4'-' 6:::,0 --'i'1I'l-,-"", -,',_ .an over-all 0 ._ ,~"mlL[On,
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accu,ra,cy of ~ ] ",4%,.

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B""W-'G-'- arran.ge:· In, a '111" ". ". "-d' "sq,ua:re' - '-'. d '" - - .Jl '14rln~ f,ota.te., ,,' 'b d .. P(ltc:h an.'d" In I.our :passes'ii S-'h e,_",·an" d' tU'_f:Sl_'"dlle'=_les[gn pres-, " ,('" -_:. D' ~ ,It 0' , " "'d "I." su res ,are ,~". ,a~n- '4--:J. . p~u'lg, r-espec -'b,vel,),~ :-T-b'"e 'g", ,e.u,~,hC ,.a.n-' - !:!IO' ",,".-," ,--' ,-- ,,.,.' --;-h-" :u--·' - "--,-'" nels, an,d tubes:heets, ,are canst-ruel,ed of ,3,04 stainless s[«,If.

,gage 0,f
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Referen,ceJI
, :I. ~t3lldilrds

MaF!IJJU:fa-ctu~er~ Aun .. T:.urytrJWDal N ~Y.,


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of "Fu,1u.daili E':l(citanger' :Man~rE1ilCturer~, MSU.~('Tubular .EMrh.at.l_:get'

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~t, Uf~hil~_G,:P~j' P .. .~enll~ru and~._,t.yih·~·lU.lic' ~esi~, ,of bairpin ~W1d. fi1,lned,~bund]e elOCba~g'~~~!i ,C~ Eng", ,M.a,,. 16, 19\83" ,P. 62'.

-!b.Q~' ,0' S···.··.·''' iIi·rid,' _]"'11~, ,~,_ ·.. ...,~,ir::, _.K q'R'K·· Th,efH~d.ala are' entered. into P'atrt l of the worksh,leet .. "I·-"P":",,~,-t'I'I ·th,·,,-· 'b-"""'I,~rn,~,-"·,-:··,,..a, b, ]5 ,[lrSI, Cd.lC,U ad~_ YJ3,·E'-:"q_.~,.-'('-'1): -,,1I·--1'···'--d'~":·" ' ,n . ar ,." ,e.~b pr~,!l;".I,","" ~, ·I-,t;:'-t and Ta'b,['fsi II" I] I :and IV" N'exrL~iin ,ord,er~,ar'e' calcula'ted.:: 111 .. .. oint c,or ' 5h .Ie'll: ..type CO'ITectl.on' C" (T-'a,I"e 'vol ; e'x,panslO'nj ,.',5 •.... '-b1 :...• .-,- - t-~;, \'i 'ti . " '1-, mh-,-- - '" '.' +.·;o--~ -.'L , i, -..., ... recU,on'Jl ...x ('F,'" 1'.-.~4"-lj"-U,'b..e;-...en'i5~ c-orr-e.cu ..fI.;.C:',' vIa. Eq.""'- ,(,0,)-..." · ... "g' .:J, '", _'ti""'" F~ to,'b'-' ,,', ' cor,rlec_=!on,:~, ~.NTP' ".",- E···· -:r',~ S"lei SJ,-e-pres'$ure' J_e"'pass lila, -qi JlI" "-h-tl''''d~'-''' ',-'-, ,,-,-,-,.', '"' ,~~- d'·' 7 .. ' c,or.n3ctl'~n,Cp:s, vIa ,Eq,., (.0) an~, F1.,g~.~; tulJ.es.de-pressu-r,e, ,(,-:, - , ' " "F ",.-.""." c-· Via, 'L'---'-m'" .-,-:- ,i,_.-]._ 'tr,--':'- . -: .~; .. corree,don"PT; ",~." . - _,~ '6:)'1~ [-,U,il.JC_ ,a.~er.la, correcy,on,,;<_ 'C":" 'ml' _ " E ('8--'-) w:i't~, y =~, '1~'6" :·:ftom E (''"') S"I,ell ~ma1terbu, ~ 0"" ,iJ'~-'j1 f ".... 11 Vl3 ,'-lJ,~.:, ~:ql!'I':; 'h ~1
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. ,. ,. ded b y,'-:' t-'h ,,:::ni'!It- ,- ':'0•' 'B_ ':.e, '!iio'-:r' • R-:: 'iIio'" , ",,' -", d-' ,. ·,, '.-- ,'t", - "-:to' " -I'-~ c: «S"'" '" Ri,ll.t,eI' 0,'f '-'F1 . -, .-:D,gE.neers. ,an". C-',o'.os, rue. ,',. rS't '"n,c~ '.'···o~ .• ,I,uor E,,.,- "-,_",'" ,-', -:" -) ,t: ".-.-,'1 -, '~'f-' t,..,': !artlclle,!, C··,·:I",,[ n-'./~v.....l or, h'-", ,-,'-",,-,~'",I evailuatlon 0 fUllS ,-,' -.~ iUl . IS en,urn
,

e "-'

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"p.1I"'"Arl~ "']I1t-iO' ;'01. - .I,~'" OiU· ..

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'-' ,-, --,', .- ~,- . --~, - \_:7, corr-ect!,?n, -C"'".nu~,VIa. E" q" (-,€'iii!)'.. C'h--'" - -1: '- '.. '"'31,'cor:~e~~llo,n, ,a:_":n,e~~~~'~,li.e'~~I_, - ,- ,.~-,-" ~ •') ·.·e's, Cf.PU'; 'Via, E q.. (-"10' tu, b h ,eet..:matena. 1 CO ITe c UOll , C',f.rItf, 'v:ia"
'f;' ." 1.'" ;
,i Ii

'Next~l h,e ,esti.mal'e'ofth,e' f.,o,.:b,., pri(·e'~ based o·n.jan:uary t 1982 plrices~, E h,,. is, calcula.ted via Eq,; (1,3)~ Bieca-use t'h,e .D-fc,em,'1Jef vaJ.ue of th,eFa'brica'ted Eq'uip,:m,ent ,co,m:po,','-,', .. ",:if-· ih' -, 'C "' p----:J,-,-.[- ....~" .. "d' ", ... ,,in::: ..... nL\i, nenJL 0'. ',-:,e_-. o,E' ,,I,an IC"·'n,~t- I-"n-" I_X e-'' - 'W":il'c; ,!:),', ..5-.---esseoLJ.dJJ'1 __~ ~94"
:i.ts Ja'nu,ary

r ,'-'. '-< -it,':" lOfle',S0.lng correCt.-lons


-,·",-.1 ,-, ,'--,'
c_,

" ,",- , ,'-,,'---~'--,"-- 'b-~':-" E" -,' :("1'",1, .;, -",d': ,Ie 'b" '.. ga,ge'-,' correc-,,_Iun ' I rom ~-q4'' .. 1")' '" 3.n·
ru-' I' 'C,-" """
, , '" '.__-

"

'E"

"dd~,d' ~O :--- ''"''--'' ",+,aLr.eU],en, a·· ..._e.·, '•. '. arnve ,all;....T"
'''~I'' --. ·c'--:' _",

(--' q,,_,]-

2·····)'

,!,

A""11]- '~, ,'e f:h,.,Jj,

escala.tion index" E,bJI :istake'n, m 'be' ] .. Th,erefore~, the Decem:ber 1982' current ..:p,rice es", ti:m;a,te,. ,Ec., is,-' 131 ,OOO~

1982 "alD'e-'me'

In,deed~1an eva]u.3,t.iO!D of a large' :num'be'f' of co:mpeltitive . 'b- ';,d'i:1m' I":-.Pre'- ;v'.-,p,d-" ",m..:_fi"I-·v~'-~- 'm-'' 3--:-'0-'u--1f:···'lIct'~'" 1'~lr' ·e·;_/r~ ~'''~'''cu. ·d·~;,,£':f7j1;!i1'.';..· 'I ..-..,J "_ .lIJLL, r le'nccs 'be'tw'lee.o ,~owes'tand 'hi,ghest q,u'otoo, pri,Ge-s of from l,fi% to as m'u,ch, as 60% ..... } in some cases even ' ... ~ Thus, it is important to alw,2I1Ys J)e a,ware that oost ,esb... ,m_ates are '001., 'that-estimat,es", -,. .. . Es,tDna,tes Idierived by m,earu of-,the met:bod,-p:re,sented
... ,1&.: ~,~ ill .'-'''' . IL _' ~.".'

.H,owev... regar,dless of the, ,ana],yU.caJl a,pproac'll take'n,} ~r, ,an,d th,I~'If!'vel 'of id,e,lja:i1sinoorporated-into, al, .,meth·OO. e·x, .. ,cba]l"ger pric-e estima.t~~,'based, on iL:m1ay v-ary ~,~,~'ly,~~ .. _ ,cause of the many fact-Ol"S d:lR'l. affect e'xchan,ger co,S U;
J
4

,Accuracy of e·stimaies An. :alttem',)J't was m-ade t,o include in this estima'tin,g. :m,ethod ~asman,;" co.s,t.'Vari3.b~!es,as ~ssj'ble; tn ma,ke' it as, act u,rnte' as! poss,i.bll,e~ but yet keep it sim,pi-c::' I~ll'n:d q:uJck~__
~.

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f.'",'

'0-' "'r"

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£'·'00- - , , ... ..:.. ,,~.,

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, -_._.

'.. <_..:M

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1-

67
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