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790585

Practical Design of Minimum Induced Loss Propellers
E. Eugene Larrabee
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge,

MA

PROPELLER AERODYNAMICS IS CONVENIENTLY divided into regiemes of steady flow and acoustic phenomena. In what follows I will examine the steady airloads on the propeller from the standpoint of determining the geometry corresponding to minimum induced loss loading, or determinirig the airloads corresponding to an arbitrary geometry. In his companion paper George Succi will examine the acoustic pressure field produced by these rotating airloads, and the associated problem of reducing its audible intensity with acceptable penalties in efficiency. We are particularly interested in the design of quieter propellers of goad efficiency which can be turned at the same shalt speed as existing propellers so that they may be available as a retrofit option for the general aviation fleet. The methods to be discussed in these two papers are already in use in a research program at M~I.T., funded in Feb. 1978 by the Environmental Protecti9n Agency and the NASA and monitored .by George Greene of the NASA Langley Research Center. The program includes the construction and testing of 1/4 scale model propellers in an acoustic

wind tunnel and the fabrication of a flight rated propeller for comparative testing with production propellers. The experimental data so far obtained support the theoretical analysis to be presented in the two papers. PROPELLER PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY

Traditional "steady state" propeller aerodynamic analysis incorporates a lifting line theory with induced velocities supplied by helically convoluted trailing vortex sheets. The essentials of this theory were published in 1919 by Betz and pranctt](lrbut its connection with Glauert's radially graded momentum theory(2) remains unappreciated, perhaps because Glauert did not survive to read the proofs of his article(3) on propellers for Durand's "Aerodynamic Theory"; I therefore give a brief accOUnt. MOTION OF THE VORTEX WAKE Fig. 1 shows the vortex wakes shed by wings and prope-lers. In both cases the trailing vortex system gives rise to *Nurnbers in parentheses designate References at end of paper.

An efficient procedure, which may be adapted to pocket calculators, has been developed to determine the geome~ry of minimum induced loss propellers matched 1:co specified operatlng point a characteriz~d by disc loading, advance ratio, ana numbeit'of blade.s. Consistent

procedures are described to account for the effects of arbitrary geometry, off design point operation,and propelierbody interaction. These procedures are utilized by George Succi in a companion paper on the design of quiet propellers.

2053 0096-736X/80f8803-2053$02.50
Copyright © 1980 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

e . In both cases. The value of this factor may be used to show the unity of the bound circulation -. The helical vortex filaments. it is evident that the helicoidal vortex surfaces cannot move as rigid bodies (as Glauert said(3)1. as shown in Fig. move perpendicular to themselves because their fluid particles are convected by the vorticity fields of adjacent filaments. Ws cos CPs . 1 .3). ws' If we were unaware of the filament angular velocity.x radfus. averaged about the circumference of axially concentric slipstream tubes. we woii Ld suppose the filament had only an axial "displacement velocity" given by v' ~ ws/cos CPs. . These minimum induced loss loadings give rise to particularly simple distributions of the induced velocities along the lifting lines and near the trailing vortex sheets -.Designing a propeller of minimum induced loss is analogous to determining the planform and twist distribution of a wing which will develop an elliptic span loading for a specified span. since ¢s varies with slipstream radius from a value of 900 at the axis to a minimum value at its outer edge. "'s~~ \ \J Fig. If. w is identical to the local slipstream velocity.---41. LARRABEE The idea of a radially constant displacement velocity raises conceptual difficulties which Fig. or the Goldstein loading(4) (mor~ exactly). WS S"I1"¢ :r\~ . which are caused by the vortex wakes. we were unaware of the filament angular velocity.· s' f\-l / ~. The problem is to determine the induced velocities. PROPELLER DESIGN FOR MINIMUM INDUCED LOSS . 3 is intended to resolve. which mak~ up the individual helicoidal vortex sheets. v:e. and which act to change the airfoil angles of attack Fig. 4. instead of its actual velocity.an elliptic span loading for the wing~ and the Betz-Prandtl radial loading (approximately). even though they may appear to do so. E. in lifting line theories. however.loci for the pz ope Ll. and constant "d±splac:ement. v'. The actual velocity of the filament particles. also. and has an axial component w$ cos ¢s' and a swirl component Ws Sln ¢s' where ¢s is the filament helix angle. 2 explains the concept of displacement velocity. ty' r Fig.trailing vorticity relations of Goldstein(4) and the radially graded momentum relations of Glauert(2. moreover. F. Although the displacement velocity of the individual tralling vortex filaments is constant. the axial velocity increment in the developed slipstream near the vortex sheets is v' cos2 CPs and the swirl component is v' sin ¢s cos ¢s. Ws ~ w sin ¢s/rs' where rs is the he Li. In between the vortex sheets.constant downwash for the wing. are considered to change only the section angles of attack. are lesq than the sheet velocities by a factor F. The approximate value of F was supplied by Prandtl(l) from an analogy with the flow about an infinite array of semi-infinite plates..A helical vortex filament in the slipstream moves perpendicular to itself with the local slipstream velo-· city. the axial and swirl components of the slipstream velocity.Comparative trailing vortex systems for wing and propeller. dynamic pressure.2054 induced velocities at the airfoil sections which. which are substantially parallel to the one shown.. ws' we would suppose it moved axially with the displacement velocity. there is a certain variation of circulation along the lifting lines which minimizes the kinetic energy loss in the wakes -. for the propeller. total lift. 2 . w(y) or w{r).

respectively.. w at tne radio ri. Ws sin ¢s == v' sin rp "oos rp (2) . because the axial velocity of their particles is v' cos2 ¢s and the swirl velocity is vI cos ¢s sin ¢~s~.LOSS PROPELLERS B=3 2055 f = 71-(X/5) Fig. The first step. If the bound circulation on each of the B blades at the radius r is f. Goldstein's results may be interpreted as confirming the BetzPrandtl approximation whenever the vortex sheet spacing is less than the propeller radius The light loading approximation consistent with the relations sin ¢ :." Prdm/tf . 5 . 5. rll and the corresponding velocities relative to the fuselage Fig. was taken from the analytic flow about an array of semi-infinite plates moving with velocity v. If the propeller is "lightly loaded" rs and ~s can be set equal to rand ¢.Radial circulation distribution for lightly loaded propellers of minimum induced loss according to the analytic approximation of Betz and Prandtl. is to find an expression for the radial circulation distribution for minimum induced loss. the radius and helix angle at the blade element. For a minimum induced loss propeller..Fig.' ~ x'd (19/9) Goldstein. and specified airfoil section properties. By analogy with the plate solution. 3 . The sheets cannot move as rigid bodies. (/929) 8Qr DelL u. 4 .v" . __ The inset diagrams show the i!hee4:llelQ:c±t:ie wi" . I is also (3 ) . the average axial and swirl velocities in an annulus of slipstream of radius r are taken as a fraction F of the sheet velocity v' cos ¢ spanwise lift coefficient distribution. .?". and according to Goldstein's numerical calculations which account for vortex sheet curvature. however.. this can be set equal to the cjrculation around a slipstream tube of radius r which is tangent to the vortices tr~iled at radius r~ G = . ear o o -_- f ~AX f F". ~..1~ cos ¢ where x rlr!V (5 ) I 11 + x --2 (4) . shed by a propeller of minimum Lnduce d loss. as stated by Glauert.Motion of helicoidal vortex sheets with radially constant displacement velocity.Prandtl's v~rtex swaeing facto.. as shown in Fig.2'lTV.

dT c finally. The problem is to relate the induced velocity.A) and the radial distribution of airfoil D/L ratio. (12) and (13) in (14). a' 1 is a minimum cos CPs sin Q Fig. It is seen that Goldstein's results confirm the Betz-Pr"andtl approximation whenever the vortex sheets are nearly flat and closely spaced. 6. 6 .2 DILlE.t't' ( 13) ~LD (dT) dr L x ! From this .s.Goldstein's method of calculating the displacement velocity for a specified disc loading.dT dr (14 ) (10 ) induced loss 2 (VI 2" 1 Substituting Eqs. (3) and (4) in (1) and rearranging yields the desired circulation distribution. II and 12' which depend only on the radial circulation function G(B. If the blade elements had no profile drag. x + 1 . again): dD sin dr . the more exact radial circulation distribution obtained by Goldstein in his doctoral dissertation(4). however. E. . Fig. are coefficients of a quadratic equation for the displacement velocity radio. G (6) E.2056 substituting Egs. 5 also shows. (16) (I - 1 (v'/V)] 2" x2 + 1 - 2 ~2 x· . at the blade element to the propeller disc loading by taking advantage of the constant displacement velocity condition. for comparison. in terms of the thrust coefficient Tc Since the blade elements do have drag. Two integrals. VjllR ~) R . OIL) whence: (dT) x 2 +1 v2 G[~] V dr L 21Tr p (12) dE. LARRABEE F '" 2 cos -1 e -f IT (7 ) paraof blades f B "2 A ::. 6 shows the velocity vector diagram at a typical blade element. and expressing the result as the radial gradient of a thrust coefficient T ¢s} - r 1 (11) 2T c pV 2 lTR 2 (lS) (-"'-'-) V we obtain. we account for it as follows (Fig. (8) (9 ) Fig. G( 1 G(l x E.a')Br dr L and since this propeller. (2). 4 t. their thrust contribution would be given by Joukowsky's law: (dT) ~ p n r(l . w.

t. at each of the radial stations.dt. The blade angle...Innthe calculation of the displacement velocity ratio. (19).--) (-1--. ~.The efficiency each b Lade element is given by n or tan (~) tan (rjl of + 1 This method of calculating ~ for a specified thrust loading is due to Goldstein(4).r -a (25a) is or. at each radial station is found from the relation s == ¢ + a (26) 11 (20) where a is the angle ponding to the blade efficient. V fl n e TJ o (29) c T W sin 4l 1 (23) 2 11 + x Substituting Eqs. B. 6) tan -1 [("() + (1 A "2 1 r. A similar procedure can .D/L)t.dt. since the displacement velocity radially constant (Fig.. (19) once two integrals. W. Alternatively one can find the efficiency by evaluating the integrals in the expression . t. T. 11 and 12. we write Joukowky's Law once more: + E) (1 1 . and air density.. The specified thrust. t.)] (25b) Old timers called the half displacement velocity ratio the "propeller slip". These qepend only on the values of G and the estimated values of the section D/L ratios at each of the radial stations. have been numerically evaluated.=. propeller shaft speed ~. Design . once a number of blades.be developed for a specified torque loading. w.v' =V (18) Determination of the Displacement Velocity in. the specified flight speed V. . is small and at right angles to the relative velocity. The "planform function. (16). Determination of the Blade Planform To find the blade chord to tip radius ratio. Determination of the Blade Angle The helix angle ~ is given by the relation rjl == tan -1 V 1+a [ (. P. (27b) and dT/d. 1 2 The efficiency of the propeller a whole is given by as (22) Since the induced velocity. (23) and and rearranging yields (6) in (22) where the integral is evaluated numerically with n given by Eq.: . clR.LOSS PROPELLERS where 2057 r t. yield a thrust coefficient. x 0 G(l 2 [1 0 .D/L)t./A) (17) = 41T B AG /1 +x 2 (24) 1:." given by the right hand side of Eq. given fiy Eq.. 4 [1 G(l . has been calculated and ci has been chosen. and propeller radius R yield the evaluation of the circulation function G (for Goldstein) at several blade stations. Td. from which the displacement velocity ratio can be calculated by Eq. and R (also x == t. )] . has been decided upon.a' +a) (27a) n where tan tan ¢ (4) + E) (27b) = (28) dL dr == p wr == :2 pw cc Q. of attack corressection lift co- 12 x 2 x (21) The Efficiency . (24) can be readily solved for clR at each of the stations for which G is kriown : once I. S.

is neglected.Example of minimum induced loss propeller design. J rp. Certain practical design considerations. and the same is presumed for the propeller theory. which deals with the performance of arbitrary propellers (including off design point operation of minimum induced loss propellers).f848 ". 10. Fig.4) leads to the blade planform. Typical radial variations of G.g. This "propeller like" lifting line wing theory. 8 summa-rizes the results of similar calculations for I. B. propeller-fuselage (or nacelle) interference. the gains in induced efficiency due to increasing the number of blades are almost matched by the losses in profile efficiency.3(0. cJ25 . however. and 4 blade propellers designed to the same disc loading and advance ratio~ It will be noted that. Short of numerical methods for "prescribed" or "free" vortex wakes(6). 9. z 12~9144m". which./".) f.Ib~) r s ») .::======2 I 11 (2yIb) G~ (30) that is. shown in Fig.l = tJ. will discuss these considerations in an appropriate context.. R. the effect of the radial velocity.!-. finally. The one given in the next section is computationally efficient. and Fig. in this example. k' V = p= lJ. v. in combination with the specified radial variation of lift coefficient (here taken radially constant at 0.t.3 r.M"/. there is no propeller (or "rotor") equivalent of Glauert's integral which relates the induced angle anywhere along a wing lifting line to the circulation everywhere. K LARRABEE nearly elliptic span loading. T ~8':'.gn process just outlined has been given in some detail so that the reader 'can adapt it to his own pocket calculator.2058 V(dT/dr)dr R(dQ/dr)dr Comment on the Design Process The desl.l104TI r.?4<) = tJ.. )( ~ 2'~cJ() S3. corresponding to the specified blade number and advance ratio. 3._ = a 084-093 o '7 = 03536 ainduced "'" '4 --. ill 4. The presence of the engine-bearing body alters the flow field at the pr6peller as shown in Fig. 7 shows the calculations for a two blade propeller. approximately.l-. gives surprisingly good results for arbitrary wings with. about 30 seconds when supplied with appropriate design point values.of V. 7. It also plots developed and projected views of the blade plan form and the blade angle variation with radius.and 8.>'/#') 09~ 4. Performance of Arbitrary Propellers I will deal with arbitrary propellers by a radially graded momentum theory which gives back the Betz-Prandtl circulation dis_ribution when given the design conditions and the geometry as calculated in sections 1-3. ~ f. The momentum theory is analogous to a lifting line wing theory in which the induced angle at each spanwise location is given by I (c/b) E. The half displacement velocity ratio may be thought of as the propeller "slip" .All piston engine airplanes are propeller driven.212.) are shown. R. AERODYNAMICS OF AN ARBITRARY PROPELLER-BODY COMBINATION .1. on the local circulation. Hewitt Phillips at NASA LRC has written an HP 9820 program(5) which designs propellers by these equations in. i2/2. Figs. P and T together with appropriate airfoil section properties. The increase of axial momentum of the air passing through the propeller disc is set equal to the axial air load: f '. and in the limit. and (c/R) (ce/I:. The specified thrust coefficient leads to a value of the displacement velocity. have been neglected in the preceding presentation to simplify the mathematics. The blade angle is the sum of the helix angle ¢ and the blade angle of attack a.. the local induced velocity depends mostly on the nearby boundcirculation. e.. Fig.. The "principle of radial independence" of propeller blade elements is a common defect of all traditional propeller performance calculation methods. The next section.64m/5ec (/76 A'/. 60S r~ i9:'!P6'6 o I. show application of the simple theory to the design process. OOt3 :'-/"'1.. and the dimensions of the engine and its cowling are relativley large compared to the propeller. The local axial component of body flow field velocity through the propeller disc at radius r i~ u. r a. 7 . 2..

(34) L.< !-flr(f- a')___. The boxed... errors may be anticipated in radially graded momentum theories for propellers when the calculated circulation distribution departs from that for minimum induced loss (2 r)v 2 (u + a)2 Fa(axial momentum increase) )2nr C (31) .Radially graded momentum theory for arbitrary propellers operating in a body flow fie~d. 8 .. 10 . expressions for the aX1al (a) and sW1rl (a') components of the induced velocity follow from the expressions for slipstream axial and swirl momentum changes due to the axial and torque loads at each radius./"~l:.LOSS PROPELLERS 2059 ~ = 0. .~ 2nr y (axial load) /c~d u = = u/V (32) c2 cos ~ ._""u rt~ ~(-" . The equations are con~eniently solved by iteration of a untll the two expressions for ~ agree In the same way the increase in swirl momentum is set equal to the torque component of the air load: {2 r)V(u + a)2F ra' (swirl momentum) Sln ~ 1 dQ r dr 2 P V2(~)2 (B 2 nr C)2nr C (35) (torque x load) ..I.asp ...Comparison of a propeller-like wing theory (in which the induced a~gle of attack is assumed proportional to the local span loading instead of being a fUnction of the entire span loading) with Glauert's wlng theory.Examples of minimum induced loss propellers of 1. All have nearly the same total solidity. permits it to L. and 4 blades designed to the same flight condition.193986 . thereby increasing the profile drag and reducing the profile efficiency Fig. 3.Cd sin ~ as Bc 2nr (31) (33) the SOlidity ".1 ~ 0 ?r547f Fig. i - ~ T .. Similar.) = a Cy/4F sin 2rp a/1f-a) = o'Cy/4F <.. but the associated reduction of chord reduces the blade Reynolds number. crcy 1 'i' .. (!.Tmj cr and rearranging be written as: a u+a = Eq. Increasing the number of blades increases the induced efficiency.--tiL. 2.h F (31a) Fig.'_ dT dr where and C y Defining 2 P V2(~)2(BC S1n .iJ iJiliAl mcme. ::::_-_L--T... 9 . 1 4" Sln 2 .

(30) written for the propeller-like wing theory.a and values of the C and C coefficients from the airfoil se~tion pfoperties ct distance + (X/R) 2 [Koning behind 1 disc propeller = c£(a). and a' are integrated nume~ica!ly along the radius to give values of the gross thrust coefficient acting on the propeller itself. by assuming a likely blade angle of attack. o d i.. c£ sin ¢ + cd cos ¢ (37) d Cp Equations (31a) and (35a) together are the counterpart of Eq. with F in the numerator. Equations Ximilar to these equations appear in Glauert's article(3) incorrectly. ¢..at then 1 . which yields a value of the helix angle ctr 4 (1c~sa¢ 'r (40) 1:: a C x 4 (41) The net thrust of the propellerbody combination is found by subtracting the buoyant drag of the body in the propeller pressure field from the gross thrust. Cy. a. The net thrust of the propeller-body combination must account for the buoyancy drag of the body in the axially varying propeller pressure field '------ .. oC and OCx' approaches zero.'¢al is a suitably small number. since E.<w' = .R~' (T( . 11 .lue for the helix angle ¢ a =tan-l(~ + r 1 . Cd = cd(ct) and Eqs. McKinnon-Wood left them. as follows: 1 11 I'lp dA (42) CD q dX dX Amax a buoyancy where A X body cross' section along area axis distance the body "X!R /1 1 (7) (43) ¢a ""S . In practice the equations may be solved at each of several radii.n "" (T)[1cos a'f IjJ coefficient P -:: 3 aC Y 1:: 3 (39) a' "4 sin ¢ cos 1 oC x and the power ¢ 1 F (35a) Cp x = pn3D5 4 (2:_) /1 0 dC di.r- and the process is iterated with new values of ct until I <Pa . C .I)/Cp . LARRABEE (fir) (1 . Figure 11 shows how the converged values of C . ¢. (33) and (37)..J("". they give the axial (a) and swirl (a') components of the induced velocity at each blade element. = (e!1<') (rT/ ~O) 1 d CT --g dt..":i C"''''bl".2060 but. .~-~ --- . These values give another va. (06U"Y""y J 71rrud of prop"tfer- b. 7 (~L!~. E. allows the induced velocity to be finite even though the local loading.a' where C V U +a) tan ¢ sin ¢ cos ¢ d CT (36) d~ 9 . LT -. and a' have been obtained at several radii. 7.. S. Equations (31a) and (35a) are then solved for the corresponding values of a and a'.a' u a) AY ~ x . which approaches zero at the blade tips.?. it becomes possible to calculate the power consumption and gross thrust of a propeller running in a body flow field..P di. The factor F.".t.' just as his widow and R. J (38) Fig.After the converged values of Cx.

/ 0.ropeller performance in the vicinity of the minimum body.ed in isolation and near a representative fuselage.25. it needi the fuselage presence to develop a proper lift coefficient distribution. I I ~ "0.h -. because dA/dX tends to be infinite at the nose of practical fuselage and nacelle bodies.f05~-~- I ! / / /"'-Civ< . This propeller has been tested in the presence of a "minimum body" and in the presence of a practical fuselage body with a known flow field. (42).. and the presence of the fuselage is necessary to achieve satisfactory loading at an advance ratio A = 0.. and 0. SOME RESULTS OF THE ARBITRARY PROPELLER THEORY .25 are given for the isolated propeller and for the propeller-fuselage combination.3 (). which represents model p. which gives trouble not only with the buoyancy drag integral but also with the modeling of the near body flow field by discrete singularity representations.LOSS PROPELLERS 2061 1. facilitate computation. non-axisymmetric flow. -. the many factors swept under the rug include slipstream contraction (or fuselage produced expansion).105. 6CD = u) wlth buoyancy u advance ratio v/nD = TfA.. O..Some typical results of the radially graded propeller momentum theory for a model propeller ope r'at.. and the associated radial variation of at the propeller disc presents certain difficulties. -.5 .5 S~'/R 0 0 I V!nD .. 0. and the applicability of airfoil section data when there is radial boundary layer development and a radial Mach number gradients. The generally low efficiencies reflect the high profile drags associated with low Reynolds number operation Note that I1X x-X propeller (44} and that (45) c Dbuoyancy 1 It should be pointed out that the evaluation of Eqs.25 x 106 NECESSITY FOR EXPERIMENT . 12 .2.! -: if ~ 0. I ~ () 1 ~ 0.. .15.5 \~"-~-". f\<rT~ . The propeller in question is "depitched" over its inner radii to fit a certain fuselage flow field.isolated propeller (u = 1. The radial lift coefficient distributions for advance ratios A = 0.The method of section D has been applied to predict the performance of a 1/4 scale model of a McCauley propeller suitable for a Cessna 172 airplane. this figure also shows the similar performance of the propeller in the presence of the fuselage body.6 Fig. ---. It is seen that when a propeller is "depitched" at the inner radii to Hfit" a fuselage flow field (as this one is). '.\_ -.05 l' 0.Z 0. In order that these lumps under the rug not trip us up. 0. a -" ~.4 a. The rather low efficiencies reflect the anticipated high profile drags of the blade elements operated at Reynolds numbers of about 0. 0.-.1 1 c.The theory outlined in sections A through C rests upon a series of plausible assumptions chosen to.25 f / 0 0 I I 0.5 1"--. -. we have . (45). vortex sheet roll up. Figure 12 shows the calculated variation of CT' CP' and n ~ (~/nD)CT/Cp of the./ /' V 'T 0.

Larrabee. Glauert. 2085.·s pedal driven Chrysalis biplane (Soaring magazine. . of the Royal Society (A) 123. IV of "Aerodynamic Theory. Sidney: "On the Vortex Theory of Screw Propellers. I.and on Aerovironment's pedal driven Gossamer Albatross cross channel monoplane. Goldstein. P ." AIAA Paper 76-367. 2. W.Albert: "Schraubenpropeller mit geringstem Energieverlust. The design procedures outlined in this paper. so that the power coeffiCient." Div." which is available in the NASA Conference Proceedings. . LARRABEE 1." Proc.A Review of Airscrew Theory for Helicopters. 7." also at Goettingen. No. 1979. Highly efficient propellers designed by these methods were used on M. Ludwig: appendix for the above. Herman: Article on "Airplane Propellers. is given by: c 2P 4. pps.: "Influence of the Prbpeller on Other Parts of the Airplane Structure. Windmills and Engines. + }ZI. Reprinted 1927 in "Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydrodynamik und Aerodynamik. which may be used to determine the geometry of a minimum induced loss propeller sized to produce a given thrust. Foley. Two additional integrals must be evaluated numerically. J 2 2rlG~ [1 + (D/L)x][x2/x2+ o lJd~ 3.: 4PcJ 2 --zJl -lJ 5. M. "Propeller Design for Motorsoarers.l." to be published in the Hewli tt Packard "Keyboard" ma.e Present . These ideas are more fully developed in a subsequent paper of mine.given shaft power. I'1illiamM.:Z 6. 440. and the propeller efficiency may be written as c n ~p T -1~l. Hewitt: "A Program to Design Propellers." and Prandtl. 1919. Eugene. IV of "Aerodynamic Theory. Vol. REFERENCES Betz." pp 169-360. Goettinger Nachrichten. E. 36-41) . pps 285-303 (volume I).2 c Jlt.gazine. Herman: "The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew TheorYi" Cambridge University Press~ 1926.2062 constructed a quarter scale test rig to turn experimental propellers in the presence of realistic fuselage geometries.T. Glauert. The corresponding expression for the displacement velocity in terms of the specified pOHer absorption is l. Propellers. Vol. lL 2J 2 [i1 + Ill. Koning. Also photo offset editions by Durand Reprinting Committee and Dover.: "From daVinci to t." Div." pp 365-367.1. ADDENDUM E. C.h. Springer Verlag. 43. can be reworked to determine the geometry of a minimum induced loss propeller sized to absorb a . E. 1929. 1934. [see (3) above 1. Vol. Oct. and Phillips.