3.2K views

Uploaded by IamSteelman

save

You are on page 1of 10

**Practical Design of Minimum Induced Loss Propellers
**

E. Eugene Larrabee

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge,

MA

PROPELLER AERODYNAMICS IS CONVENIENTLY divided into regiemes of steady flow and acoustic phenomena. In what follows I will examine the steady airloads on the propeller from the standpoint of determining the geometry corresponding to minimum induced loss loading, or determinirig the airloads corresponding to an arbitrary geometry. In his companion paper George Succi will examine the acoustic pressure field produced by these rotating airloads, and the associated problem of reducing its audible intensity with acceptable penalties in efficiency. We are particularly interested in the design of quieter propellers of goad efficiency which can be turned at the same shalt speed as existing propellers so that they may be available as a retrofit option for the general aviation fleet. The methods to be discussed in these two papers are already in use in a research program at M~I.T., funded in Feb. 1978 by the Environmental Protecti9n Agency and the NASA and monitored .by George Greene of the NASA Langley Research Center. The program includes the construction and testing of 1/4 scale model propellers in an acoustic

wind tunnel and the fabrication of a flight rated propeller for comparative testing with production propellers. The experimental data so far obtained support the theoretical analysis to be presented in the two papers. PROPELLER PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY

Traditional "steady state" propeller aerodynamic analysis incorporates a lifting line theory with induced velocities supplied by helically convoluted trailing vortex sheets. The essentials of this theory were published in 1919 by Betz and pranctt](lrbut its connection with Glauert's radially graded momentum theory(2) remains unappreciated, perhaps because Glauert did not survive to read the proofs of his article(3) on propellers for Durand's "Aerodynamic Theory"; I therefore give a brief accOUnt. MOTION OF THE VORTEX WAKE Fig. 1 shows the vortex wakes shed by wings and prope-lers. In both cases the trailing vortex system gives rise to *Nurnbers in parentheses designate References at end of paper.

An efficient procedure, which may be adapted to pocket calculators, has been developed to determine the geome~ry of minimum induced loss propellers matched 1:co specified operatlng point a characteriz~d by disc loading, advance ratio, ana numbeit'of blade.s. Consistent

procedures are described to account for the effects of arbitrary geometry, off design point operation,and propelierbody interaction. These procedures are utilized by George Succi in a companion paper on the design of quiet propellers.

**2053 0096-736X/80f8803-2053$02.50
**

Copyright © 1980 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

The approximate value of F was supplied by Prandtl(l) from an analogy with the flow about an infinite array of semi-infinite plates.. ws' If we were unaware of the filament angular velocity.constant downwash for the wing. we woii Ld suppose the filament had only an axial "displacement velocity" given by v' ~ ws/cos CPs. the axial velocity increment in the developed slipstream near the vortex sheets is v' cos2 CPs and the swirl component is v' sin ¢s cos ¢s.trailing vorticity relations of Goldstein(4) and the radially graded momentum relations of Glauert(2. The actual velocity of the filament particles.. since ¢s varies with slipstream radius from a value of 900 at the axis to a minimum value at its outer edge. and which act to change the airfoil angles of attack Fig. These minimum induced loss loadings give rise to particularly simple distributions of the induced velocities along the lifting lines and near the trailing vortex sheets -. even though they may appear to do so. In both cases. total lift.A helical vortex filament in the slipstream moves perpendicular to itself with the local slipstream velo-· city. 2 . for the propeller. 2 explains the concept of displacement velocity. . and constant "d±splac:ement. which are caused by the vortex wakes.an elliptic span loading for the wing~ and the Betz-Prandtl radial loading (approximately).3). and has an axial component w$ cos ¢s' and a swirl component Ws Sln ¢s' where ¢s is the filament helix angle.x radfus. as shown in Fig. instead of its actual velocity. 1 . In between the vortex sheets. move perpendicular to themselves because their fluid particles are convected by the vorticity fields of adjacent filaments.e . 4.loci for the pz ope Ll.Designing a propeller of minimum induced loss is analogous to determining the planform and twist distribution of a wing which will develop an elliptic span loading for a specified span. 3 is intended to resolve. v:e. E.2054 induced velocities at the airfoil sections which.Comparative trailing vortex systems for wing and propeller.---41. ty' r Fig. F. or the Goldstein loading(4) (mor~ exactly). The helical vortex filaments. are considered to change only the section angles of attack. there is a certain variation of circulation along the lifting lines which minimizes the kinetic energy loss in the wakes -. PROPELLER DESIGN FOR MINIMUM INDUCED LOSS . also. dynamic pressure. w is identical to the local slipstream velocity. however. the axial and swirl components of the slipstream velocity. moreover. "'s~~ \ \J Fig. averaged about the circumference of axially concentric slipstream tubes. WS S"I1"¢ :r\~ . LARRABEE The idea of a radially constant displacement velocity raises conceptual difficulties which Fig. are lesq than the sheet velocities by a factor F. Ws ~ w sin ¢s/rs' where rs is the he Li. w(y) or w{r). ws' we would suppose it moved axially with the displacement velocity. which are substantially parallel to the one shown. The problem is to determine the induced velocities. Ws cos CPs . it is evident that the helicoidal vortex surfaces cannot move as rigid bodies (as Glauert said(3)1. which mak~ up the individual helicoidal vortex sheets. we were unaware of the filament angular velocity.· s' f\-l / ~. in lifting line theories. Although the displacement velocity of the individual tralling vortex filaments is constant. If. v'. The value of this factor may be used to show the unity of the bound circulation -.

Prandtl's v~rtex swaeing facto. ~. ear o o -_- f ~AX f F". and according to Goldstein's numerical calculations which account for vortex sheet curvature.' ~ x'd (19/9) Goldstein. The sheets cannot move as rigid bodies.. If the propeller is "lightly loaded" rs and ~s can be set equal to rand ¢. If the bound circulation on each of the B blades at the radius r is f. Ws sin ¢s == v' sin rp "oos rp (2) ." Prdm/tf .Fig. and specified airfoil section properties. For a minimum induced loss propeller. 3 . as stated by Glauert. the average axial and swirl velocities in an annulus of slipstream of radius r are taken as a fraction F of the sheet velocity v' cos ¢ spanwise lift coefficient distribution. By analogy with the plate solution. is to find an expression for the radial circulation distribution for minimum induced loss. respectively.v" . (/929) 8Qr DelL u.. __ The inset diagrams show the i!hee4:llelQ:c±t:ie wi" .LOSS PROPELLERS B=3 2055 f = 71-(X/5) Fig.Motion of helicoidal vortex sheets with radially constant displacement velocity. the radius and helix angle at the blade element. 5.. was taken from the analytic flow about an array of semi-infinite plates moving with velocity v. as shown in Fig. . w at tne radio ri.1~ cos ¢ where x rlr!V (5 ) I 11 + x --2 (4) . Goldstein's results may be interpreted as confirming the BetzPrandtl approximation whenever the vortex sheet spacing is less than the propeller radius The light loading approximation consistent with the relations sin ¢ :. The first step. 4 .?". however. rll and the corresponding velocities relative to the fuselage Fig. I is also (3 ) .2'lTV.. this can be set equal to the cjrculation around a slipstream tube of radius r which is tangent to the vortices tr~iled at radius r~ G = . because the axial velocity of their particles is v' cos2 ¢s and the swirl velocity is vI cos ¢s sin ¢~s~.Radial circulation distribution for lightly loaded propellers of minimum induced loss according to the analytic approximation of Betz and Prandtl.. shed by a propeller of minimum Lnduce d loss. 5 .

we account for it as follows (Fig.Goldstein's method of calculating the displacement velocity for a specified disc loading. OIL) whence: (dT) x 2 +1 v2 G[~] V dr L 21Tr p (12) dE. are coefficients of a quadratic equation for the displacement velocity radio. It is seen that Goldstein's results confirm the Betz-Pr"andtl approximation whenever the vortex sheets are nearly flat and closely spaced. their thrust contribution would be given by Joukowsky's law: (dT) ~ p n r(l . 6 shows the velocity vector diagram at a typical blade element. . II and 12' which depend only on the radial circulation function G(B. 6. The problem is to relate the induced velocity. If the blade elements had no profile drag.dT dr (14 ) (10 ) induced loss 2 (VI 2" 1 Substituting Eqs. Two integrals. 4 t. E. G( 1 G(l x E. w. 5 also shows.2 DILlE. LARRABEE F '" 2 cos -1 e -f IT (7 ) paraof blades f B "2 A ::. dT c finally. VjllR ~) R . Fig.s. and expressing the result as the radial gradient of a thrust coefficient T ¢s} - r 1 (11) 2T c pV 2 lTR 2 (lS) (-"'-'-) V we obtain. however.t't' ( 13) ~LD (dT) dr L x ! From this . x + 1 . (8) (9 ) Fig. (3) and (4) in (1) and rearranging yields the desired circulation distribution. (12) and (13) in (14). for comparison. again): dD sin dr . G (6) E. (2). a' 1 is a minimum cos CPs sin Q Fig. 6 . at the blade element to the propeller disc loading by taking advantage of the constant displacement velocity condition. the more exact radial circulation distribution obtained by Goldstein in his doctoral dissertation(4).a')Br dr L and since this propeller.A) and the radial distribution of airfoil D/L ratio. (16) (I - 1 (v'/V)] 2" x2 + 1 - 2 ~2 x· . in terms of the thrust coefficient Tc Since the blade elements do have drag.2056 substituting Egs.

. ~.r -a (25a) is or. (16). has been decided upon. and air density. given fiy Eq. since the displacement velocity radially constant (Fig. once a number of blades.. S.. t. (19) once two integrals. (19). has been calculated and ci has been chosen. from which the displacement velocity ratio can be calculated by Eq. P.The efficiency each b Lade element is given by n or tan (~) tan (rjl of + 1 This method of calculating ~ for a specified thrust loading is due to Goldstein(4). clR. V fl n e TJ o (29) c T W sin 4l 1 (23) 2 11 + x Substituting Eqs. Td. x 0 G(l 2 [1 0 . Design .LOSS PROPELLERS where 2057 r t. These qepend only on the values of G and the estimated values of the section D/L ratios at each of the radial stations. of attack corressection lift co- 12 x 2 x (21) The Efficiency . T. t. propeller shaft speed ~. (27b) and dT/d. The "planform function.. W.D/L)t. A similar procedure can .=. w. B. the specified flight speed V. 11 and 12. (24) can be readily solved for clR at each of the stations for which G is kriown : once I. we write Joukowky's Law once more: + E) (1 1 .. 6) tan -1 [("() + (1 A "2 1 r.dt. have been numerically evaluated. 1 2 The efficiency of the propeller a whole is given by as (22) Since the induced velocity.: . Determination of the Blade Angle The helix angle ~ is given by the relation rjl == tan -1 V 1+a [ (. and propeller radius R yield the evaluation of the circulation function G (for Goldstein) at several blade stations. Determination of the Blade Planform To find the blade chord to tip radius ratio.a' +a) (27a) n where tan tan ¢ (4) + E) (27b) = (28) dL dr == p wr == :2 pw cc Q.dt. (23) and and rearranging yields (6) in (22) where the integral is evaluated numerically with n given by Eq.)] (25b) Old timers called the half displacement velocity ratio the "propeller slip". at each radial station is found from the relation s == ¢ + a (26) 11 (20) where a is the angle ponding to the blade efficient. )] . Alternatively one can find the efficiency by evaluating the integrals in the expression ." given by the right hand side of Eq. The blade angle. The specified thrust. t.--) (-1--./A) (17) = 41T B AG /1 +x 2 (24) 1:. at each of the radial stations. and R (also x == t. 4 [1 G(l . is small and at right angles to the relative velocity..D/L)t.v' =V (18) Determination of the Displacement Velocity in.be developed for a specified torque loading.Innthe calculation of the displacement velocity ratio. yield a thrust coefficient.

)( ~ 2'~cJ() S3. e. approximately.1. T ~8':'. there is no propeller (or "rotor") equivalent of Glauert's integral which relates the induced angle anywhere along a wing lifting line to the circulation everywhere.f848 ".4) leads to the blade planform. B.212. v.Ib~) r s ») ....::======2 I 11 (2yIb) G~ (30) that is.>'/#') 09~ 4. R. P and T together with appropriate airfoil section properties. 7 shows the calculations for a two blade propeller. finally.. 10.g. Typical radial variations of G. 60S r~ i9:'!P6'6 o I. the gains in induced efficiency due to increasing the number of blades are almost matched by the losses in profile efficiency. OOt3 :'-/"'1. gives surprisingly good results for arbitrary wings with. on the local circulation.l104TI r. and 4 blade propellers designed to the same disc loading and advance ratio~ It will be noted that.) f._ = a 084-093 o '7 = 03536 ainduced "'" '4 --.?4<) = tJ. It also plots developed and projected views of the blade plan form and the blade angle variation with radius.gn process just outlined has been given in some detail so that the reader 'can adapt it to his own pocket calculator. 9.M"/./". Certain practical design considerations. the effect of the radial velocity. however. will discuss these considerations in an appropriate context. in combination with the specified radial variation of lift coefficient (here taken radially constant at 0. z 12~9144m". cJ25 . propeller-fuselage (or nacelle) interference.3 r.l-.l = tJ.2058 V(dT/dr)dr R(dQ/dr)dr Comment on the Design Process The desl. which.t. 7 . The one given in the next section is computationally efficient. corresponding to the specified blade number and advance ratio. 8 summa-rizes the results of similar calculations for I. The local axial component of body flow field velocity through the propeller disc at radius r i~ u. K LARRABEE nearly elliptic span loading.. Performance of Arbitrary Propellers I will deal with arbitrary propellers by a radially graded momentum theory which gives back the Betz-Prandtl circulation dis_ribution when given the design conditions and the geometry as calculated in sections 1-3. and the same is presumed for the propeller theory. The presence of the engine-bearing body alters the flow field at the pr6peller as shown in Fig. and in the limit. The momentum theory is analogous to a lifting line wing theory in which the induced angle at each spanwise location is given by I (c/b) E. is neglected. about 30 seconds when supplied with appropriate design point values. The specified thrust coefficient leads to a value of the displacement velocity. This "propeller like" lifting line wing theory. show application of the simple theory to the design process. 2.!-. Short of numerical methods for "prescribed" or "free" vortex wakes(6).3(0. The blade angle is the sum of the helix angle ¢ and the blade angle of attack a. Figs. in this example. and the dimensions of the engine and its cowling are relativley large compared to the propeller..Example of minimum induced loss propeller design. R. J rp. Hewitt Phillips at NASA LRC has written an HP 9820 program(5) which designs propellers by these equations in. shown in Fig.of V. The half displacement velocity ratio may be thought of as the propeller "slip" . The next section. 3. k' V = p= lJ.All piston engine airplanes are propeller driven.) are shown. The increase of axial momentum of the air passing through the propeller disc is set equal to the axial air load: f '. and (c/R) (ce/I:. the local induced velocity depends mostly on the nearby boundcirculation.64m/5ec (/76 A'/. AERODYNAMICS OF AN ARBITRARY PROPELLER-BODY COMBINATION . ill 4. which deals with the performance of arbitrary propellers (including off design point operation of minimum induced loss propellers). 7.. have been neglected in the preceding presentation to simplify the mathematics. The "principle of radial independence" of propeller blade elements is a common defect of all traditional propeller performance calculation methods. and Fig. r a.and 8. ~ f. i2/2. Fig. Fig.

::::_-_L--T._""u rt~ ~(-" .. The equations are con~eniently solved by iteration of a untll the two expressions for ~ agree In the same way the increase in swirl momentum is set equal to the torque component of the air load: {2 r)V(u + a)2F ra' (swirl momentum) Sln ~ 1 dQ r dr 2 P V2(~)2 (B 2 nr C)2nr C (35) (torque x load) . (34) L.... errors may be anticipated in radially graded momentum theories for propellers when the calculated circulation distribution departs from that for minimum induced loss (2 r)v 2 (u + a)2 Fa(axial momentum increase) )2nr C (31) . i - ~ T . expressions for the aX1al (a) and sW1rl (a') components of the induced velocity follow from the expressions for slipstream axial and swirl momentum changes due to the axial and torque loads at each radius. 2... The boxed.Radially graded momentum theory for arbitrary propellers operating in a body flow fie~d.. crcy 1 'i' ./"~l:.. 1 4" Sln 2 .h F (31a) Fig. and 4 blades designed to the same flight condition.iJ iJiliAl mcme. 8 . but the associated reduction of chord reduces the blade Reynolds number.Cd sin ~ as Bc 2nr (31) (33) the SOlidity ". All have nearly the same total solidity. permits it to L. . 10 . thereby increasing the profile drag and reducing the profile efficiency Fig.Tmj cr and rearranging be written as: a u+a = Eq. 3..I.asp .LOSS PROPELLERS 2059 ~ = 0.'_ dT dr where and C y Defining 2 P V2(~)2(BC S1n .193986 .Examples of minimum induced loss propellers of 1.) = a Cy/4F sin 2rp a/1f-a) = o'Cy/4F <. 9 .< !-flr(f- a')___.~ 2nr y (axial load) /c~d u = = u/V (32) c2 cos ~ . (!. Similar.Comparison of a propeller-like wing theory (in which the induced a~gle of attack is assumed proportional to the local span loading instead of being a fUnction of the entire span loading) with Glauert's wlng theory. Increasing the number of blades increases the induced efficiency..1 ~ 0 ?r547f Fig.--tiL..

. ¢.2060 but.R~' (T( . The factor F. (06U"Y""y J 71rrud of prop"tfer- b. Equations Ximilar to these equations appear in Glauert's article(3) incorrectly. J (38) Fig. by assuming a likely blade angle of attack.. ¢.. 7 (~L!~.'¢al is a suitably small number.t. Figure 11 shows how the converged values of C .r- and the process is iterated with new values of ct until I <Pa . oC and OCx' approaches zero. o d i.I)/Cp .<w' = . it becomes possible to calculate the power consumption and gross thrust of a propeller running in a body flow field. Equations (31a) and (35a) are then solved for the corresponding values of a and a'. LT -. C . a.a and values of the C and C coefficients from the airfoil se~tion pfoperties ct distance + (X/R) 2 [Koning behind 1 disc propeller = c£(a). These values give another va. S. (30) written for the propeller-like wing theory. and a' have been obtained at several radii.lue for the helix angle ¢ a =tan-l(~ + r 1 .?. (33) and (37). The net thrust of the propeller-body combination must account for the buoyancy drag of the body in the axially varying propeller pressure field '------ . with F in the numerator. LARRABEE (fir) (1 . allows the induced velocity to be finite even though the local loading.After the converged values of Cx. which yields a value of the helix angle ctr 4 (1c~sa¢ 'r (40) 1:: a C x 4 (41) The net thrust of the propellerbody combination is found by subtracting the buoyant drag of the body in the propeller pressure field from the gross thrust.at then 1 . = (e!1<') (rT/ ~O) 1 d CT --g dt. E.n "" (T)[1cos a'f IjJ coefficient P -:: 3 aC Y 1:: 3 (39) a' "4 sin ¢ cos 1 oC x and the power ¢ 1 F (35a) Cp x = pn3D5 4 (2:_) /1 0 dC di. . they give the axial (a) and swirl (a') components of the induced velocity at each blade element.. which approaches zero at the blade tips. Cd = cd(ct) and Eqs. since E.":i C"''''bl". c£ sin ¢ + cd cos ¢ (37) d Cp Equations (31a) and (35a) together are the counterpart of Eq. In practice the equations may be solved at each of several radii.J("".~-~ --- .a' u a) AY ~ x .' just as his widow and R. and a' are integrated nume~ica!ly along the radius to give values of the gross thrust coefficient acting on the propeller itself.".a' where C V U +a) tan ¢ sin ¢ cos ¢ d CT (36) d~ 9 . 11 . as follows: 1 11 I'lp dA (42) CD q dX dX Amax a buoyancy where A X body cross' section along area axis distance the body "X!R /1 1 (7) (43) ¢a ""S ..P di.. Cy.. 7. McKinnon-Wood left them.

and the presence of the fuselage is necessary to achieve satisfactory loading at an advance ratio A = 0.f05~-~- I ! / / /"'-Civ< .05 l' 0.3 (). '.1 1 c..-. ---. SOME RESULTS OF THE ARBITRARY PROPELLER THEORY . vortex sheet roll up..\_ -.25 x 106 NECESSITY FOR EXPERIMENT .15./ 0. (42). and the applicability of airfoil section data when there is radial boundary layer development and a radial Mach number gradients.! -: if ~ 0. 0.The method of section D has been applied to predict the performance of a 1/4 scale model of a McCauley propeller suitable for a Cessna 172 airplane. a -" ~. -.LOSS PROPELLERS 2061 1. we have .2. facilitate computation. The rather low efficiencies reflect the anticipated high profile drags of the blade elements operated at Reynolds numbers of about 0.105. non-axisymmetric flow. I I ~ "0. which gives trouble not only with the buoyancy drag integral but also with the modeling of the near body flow field by discrete singularity representations. 0.ed in isolation and near a representative fuselage.5 1"--. -.25 f / 0 0 I I 0. Figure 12 shows the calculated variation of CT' CP' and n ~ (~/nD)CT/Cp of the.. I ~ () 1 ~ 0. This propeller has been tested in the presence of a "minimum body" and in the presence of a practical fuselage body with a known flow field. 12 .Some typical results of the radially graded propeller momentum theory for a model propeller ope r'at.4 a. this figure also shows the similar performance of the propeller in the presence of the fuselage body.5 S~'/R 0 0 I V!nD .. (45). and the associated radial variation of at the propeller disc presents certain difficulties. The propeller in question is "depitched" over its inner radii to fit a certain fuselage flow field. which represents model p. . O. and 0.Z 0. The generally low efficiencies reflect the high profile drags associated with low Reynolds number operation Note that I1X x-X propeller (44} and that (45) c Dbuoyancy 1 It should be pointed out that the evaluation of Eqs.5 .25.5 \~"-~-".h -.ropeller performance in the vicinity of the minimum body.. it needi the fuselage presence to develop a proper lift coefficient distribution. It is seen that when a propeller is "depitched" at the inner radii to Hfit" a fuselage flow field (as this one is).The theory outlined in sections A through C rests upon a series of plausible assumptions chosen to. The radial lift coefficient distributions for advance ratios A = 0.isolated propeller (u = 1. In order that these lumps under the rug not trip us up. 6CD = u) wlth buoyancy u advance ratio v/nD = TfA..6 Fig.. 0. because dA/dX tends to be infinite at the nose of practical fuselage and nacelle bodies. the many factors swept under the rug include slipstream contraction (or fuselage produced expansion)./ /' V 'T 0.25 are given for the isolated propeller and for the propeller-fuselage combination. -. f\<rT~ .

and Phillips. "Propeller Design for Motorsoarers.: 4PcJ 2 --zJl -lJ 5. Windmills and Engines. and the propeller efficiency may be written as c n ~p T -1~l. Springer Verlag.h. M. Vol. Larrabee. + }ZI." pp 169-360. Eugene. I. 43. Hewitt: "A Program to Design Propellers.Albert: "Schraubenpropeller mit geringstem Energieverlust. The corresponding expression for the displacement velocity in terms of the specified pOHer absorption is l. E. pps.l.: "From daVinci to t. Reprinted 1927 in "Vier Abhandlungen zur Hydrodynamik und Aerodynamik.·s pedal driven Chrysalis biplane (Soaring magazine. pps 285-303 (volume I).: "Influence of the Prbpeller on Other Parts of the Airplane Structure. Two additional integrals must be evaluated numerically." Div. Also photo offset editions by Durand Reprinting Committee and Dover. so that the power coeffiCient. ADDENDUM E. Vol. 2085. Sidney: "On the Vortex Theory of Screw Propellers. 2." also at Goettingen. Vol. Oct. Foley.1." which is available in the NASA Conference Proceedings. Herman: Article on "Airplane Propellers. E. 440. These ideas are more fully developed in a subsequent paper of mine.:Z 6. Goettinger Nachrichten. 1929.T. REFERENCES Betz. 1919. can be reworked to determine the geometry of a minimum induced loss propeller sized to absorb a . The design procedures outlined in this paper." Proc.A Review of Airscrew Theory for Helicopters. Highly efficient propellers designed by these methods were used on M." and Prandtl. LARRABEE 1.2062 constructed a quarter scale test rig to turn experimental propellers in the presence of realistic fuselage geometries." AIAA Paper 76-367. Glauert. P . which may be used to determine the geometry of a minimum induced loss propeller sized to produce a given thrust. 1934.gazine.and on Aerovironment's pedal driven Gossamer Albatross cross channel monoplane. No.given shaft power. is given by: c 2P 4." to be published in the Hewli tt Packard "Keyboard" ma. 1979. W. [see (3) above 1. Propellers. I'1illiamM." pp 365-367.2 c Jlt. lL 2J 2 [i1 + Ill. Glauert. 7. Koning. . IV of "Aerodynamic Theory. of the Royal Society (A) 123.e Present . J 2 2rlG~ [1 + (D/L)x][x2/x2+ o lJd~ 3. Goldstein. Ludwig: appendix for the above. C. 36-41) . . IV of "Aerodynamic Theory." Div. Herman: "The Elements of Aerofoil and Airscrew TheorYi" Cambridge University Press~ 1926.

- PROPELLER DESIGNUploaded byBambang Teguh Setiawan
- The Aerodynamics of PropellersUploaded byShmuel Yonatan Hayoun
- PropellersUploaded byHaris Stavrou
- Propeller design calculationUploaded byDave Carter
- Helicopter Preliminary DesignUploaded byNausheen Basha
- Propeller Design Workshop Part IUploaded byJasoos Parrier
- Propeller DesignUploaded byAnenas Balan
- Calculation of Thrust in a Ducted Fan Assembly for HovercarftUploaded byAndrew Whipple
- Computational fluid dynamicsUploaded bykevinmuri
- propellerUploaded bykharisabdullah
- Design of Optimum PropellerUploaded bykarol8037
- PropellerUploaded byPavlos Tsitswnis
- 124464300 Leishman Principles of Helicopter AerodynamicsUploaded byMartino Ermacora
- M17 PropellersUploaded bykls070376
- Propeller Design Workshop Part IIUploaded byKhalida Bekrentchir
- Amphibious Surveillance Hovercraft,Major Project,Final Year,Btech-EC,2011-12Uploaded bySaurabh Srivastava
- HovercraftUploaded byPrem Sharma
- 89877 Propeller Design CalculationUploaded byshani5573
- Computational Fluid DynamicsUploaded byFlorica Balog
- Light Airplane Design -L. PazmanyUploaded bysetnaidutse
- Propeller Blade Section Profile using Wageningen B-screw seriesUploaded byShifatMahmudRumman
- Ducted Fan DesignUploaded byZiyad
- (1983)Composite Aircraft DesignUploaded bylandingx
- Ducted Fan ThesisVTOhanian2011Uploaded bypest619
- Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) User GuideUploaded by12654789
- Calculation Sheet of Propeller Fiting According to Abs RuleUploaded bymaninder_khasria
- Strength of Marine Propeller BladesUploaded byLijo Thoams
- GA AirfoilsUploaded byAndrey Kuzhilny
- Propeller HandbookUploaded byJorge Hernandez
- Propeller NoiseUploaded byNicholas H. Wu