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Bolzano-Weierstrass

1 ( ). R S S

(limit point) .
> 0, S ( , + ) : .

1 (Bolzano-Weierstrass ( )). S

S .
() S S a1 b1 . S a1 = b1 .
, S I1 I1 = [a1 , b1 ] , ,
I1 S .

(1)

n In = [an , bn ] , In+1
.
In = [an ,

an + bn
],
2

In+ = [

an + bn
, bn ]
2


In+ S In+1 = In+ ,
In+ S In S In+1 = In ,
In+ S In S In+1 = In .
1, n In = [an , bn ] . (1) In
, , 2. n ,
T1. In+1 In ,
T2. In S ,
bn a n
,
T3. bn+1 an+1 =
2
b1 a1
.
T4. bn+1 an+1 =
2n
[T1] , ( 78) ,
.

In .

(2)

n=1

: S .
( ) [T4]

b1 a1
=0
2n
, , N .
lim

bN aN =

b1 a 1
<.
2N 1

1 . , .
2 .
1

(3)

N 3.

<

(bN aN )

aN + bN

aN

bN

<

aN +

+ .

( by (3))

( aN bN by (2))
( by (3))

,
< aN bN < + .
,
IN ( , + ).

(4)

[T2] (4) , ( , + ) S .
, S .

3 .