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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh MC LC

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Chng 1. TNG QUAN NGNH DU KH V HOT NG THM D KHAI THC.... 2 Chng 2 CNG NGH KHOAN THM D V KHAI THC .................................................. 4 2.1 Khoan ging thm d ............................................................................................................... 4 2.2 Trm xi mng........................................................................................................................... 5 2.3 Bn m va ............................................................................................................................... 5 2.4 Lp t thit b khai th c......................................................................................................... 6 2.5 Gi dng sn phm .................................................................................................................. 7 2.6 Kho st ging.......................................................................................................................... 7 2.7 Th va ..................................................................................................................................... 8 2.8 Duy tr p sut va .................................................................................................................... 9 2.9 Khai thc ................................................................................................................................ 10 Chng 3 CHT THI NGUY HI T HOT NG THM D KHAI THC DU KH V CC BIN PHP QUN L .................................................................................................. 12 3.1 Mn khoan v dung dch khoan............................................................................................. 12 3.2 Nc va:................................................................................................................................ 19 3.3 Nc thi nhim du.............................................................................................................. 20 3.4 Kh ng hnh trong lc du.................................................................................................. 24 Chng 4 KT LUN KIN NGH ............................................................................................ 27 TI LIU THAM KHO ............................................................................................................... 27

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Chng 1

Nhm 1 DH05MT

TNG QUAN NGNH DU KH V HOT NG THM D KHAI THC Qua tm kim thm d cho n nay, cc tnh ton d bo khng nh tim nng du kh Vit Nam tp trung ch yu thm lc a, tr lng kh thin nhin c kh nng nhiu hn du. Vi tr lng c thm nh, nc ta c kh nng t p ng c nhu cu v sn lng du kh trong nhng thp k u tin ca thin nin k th 3. Tng tim nng du kh ti cc b trm tch: Sng Hng, Ph Khnh, Nam Cn Sn, Cu Long, Ma lay - Th Chu, Vng T Chnh - Vng My... c xc nh tim nng v tr lng n thi im ny l t 0,9 n 1,2 t m3 du v t 2.100 n 2.800 t m3 kh. Tr lng c xc minh l gn 550 triu tn du v trn 610 t m3 kh. Tr lng kh c thm lng, ang c khai thc v sn sng pht trin trong thi gian ti vo khong 400 t m3. Vi cc bin php ng b, y mnh cng tc tm kim - thm d, khong t 40 n 60% tr lng ngun kh thin nhin ca nc ta s c pht hin n nm 2010. Hin nay, ngnh Du kh nc ta ang khai thc du kh ch yu ti 6 khu m bao gm: Bch H, Rng, i Hng, Hng Ngc, Rng ng, Bunga Kekwa - Ci Nc v chun b chnh thc a vo khai thc m kh Lan Ty - l 06.l. Cng tc pht trin cc m Rng ng, Ruby v Emeral, Lan Ty - Lan , S T en, S T Vng, Hi Thch, Rng i, Kim Long, c Qu, C Voi... ang c trin khai tch cc theo chng trnh ra, m bo duy tr v tng sn lng khai thc du kh cho nhng nm ti. D kin, m S T en (l 15-1) s c a vo khai thc trong qu 4 nm nay. Nhng pht hin v du kh mi y thm lc a min Nam nc ta rt ng phn khi, tng thm nim tin v thu ht s quan tm ca cc nh u t l: l 09-2, ging C Ng Vng - IX, kt qu th va thu c 330 tn du v 170.000m3 kh/ngy. L 16-l, ging Voi Trng-IX cho kt qu 420 tn du v 22.000m3 kh/ ngy. L 15.1, ging S T Vng 2X cho kt qu 820 tn du v ging S T en 4X cho kt qu 980 tn du/ngy. Trin khai tm kim thm d m rng cc khu m Bch H, Rng, i Hng vi cc ging R-10, 05- H-10 cho kt qu 650.000m3 kh ngy m v dng du 180 tn/ngy m; Ging R-10 khoan tng mng cho kt qu 500.000 m3 kh/ngy m v 160 tn Condensate/ngy m. Tnh chung, 2 nm u th k mi, ngnh Du kh nc ta thm d pht hin gia tng thm tr lng trn 70 triu tn du th v hng chc t m3 kh tng sn lng khai thc trong nhng nm tip theo. Nm 2006, Tng cng ty Du kh Vit Nam b tr k hoch khai thc 20,86 triu tn du th quy i (tng 1,5 triu tn so vi mc thc hin trong nm 2002). y l nm u tin nc ta khai http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT thc trn 20 triu tn du th quy i. Trong c 17,6 triu tn du th v 3,7 t m3 kh thin nhin. D kin n nm 2010, ngnh Du kh nc ta s khai thc t trn 30 n 32 triu tn du th quy i, nhm p ng cc ngnh nng lng v sn xut cng nghip ca c nc. Du kh Vit Nam ang tr thnh mt trong nhng lnh vc u t nc ngoi si ng: Nhiu tp on du kh ln ang c k hoch u t v m rng hot ng ti Vit Nam. Ngoi s hp ng thm d khai thc c Tng cng ty Du kh Vit Nam (PetroVietnam) k vi cc nh thu nc ngoi t u nm n nay, hai tp on du kh ln nht ang hot ng ti Vit Nam l BP v ConocoPhillips cng ang xc tin cc k hoch m rng hot ng. Cho n nay, cc loi sn phm du m vn l ngun nguyn liu v nhin liu khng th thiu c trong mt x hi cng nghip, phc v c lc cho vic pht trin kinh t x hi. Tuy nhin, hot ng du kh, c bit l hot ng thm d khai thc to ra nhiu loi cht thi trong c nhng cht thi thuc loi nguy hi cn c qun l cht ch trnh hoc hn ch nhng tc ng c hi ti mi trng, lm nhim mi trng bin nhim bin l vic a vo bin cc cht ho hc hoc s bin i c trng vt l, h hc ca mi trng bin. Cc cht nhim nh hng mc khc nhau ln i sng sinh vt nh: Git cht cc ng thc vt trng thnh. Gy tr ngi cc qa trnh sinh l, c bit l sinh sn. Gy hi cho s pht trin cc u trng. Lm cho vng bin khng cn thch hp cho s phc hi hoc lng ng cc c th nui. Ph v hoc thay i cu trc qun c.

nhim bin do trn du gy ra do cc dn khoan du kh trn bin cng ng lo ngi. Ring Vit Nam, hng nm sn xut khong 10 triu tn du t cc m di lng bin v lng kh ng hnh ng k. Qu trnh khai thc, vn chuyn du kh vo kho cha thng xy ra nhng s c k thut lm trn du ra bin. Nm 1982, ring m Bch H, c 5 v trn du lm tht thot 85 m3 du ra bin. Trn cc dn khoan du trn bin nc ta, hng nm thi ra lng mn khoan kh ln v ngy cng gia tng. Vic quan tm, a ra cc bin php qun l hot ng thm d v khai thc du kh sao cho vn p ng c nhu cu m khng hoc hn ch tc ng xu n mi trng l yu cu cp bch, i hi s phi hp gia nh nc v cc doanh nghip trc tip hot ng trong lnh vc ny.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Chng 2

Nhm 1 DH05MT

CNG NGH KHOAN THM D V KHAI THC Quy trnh thm d, khai thc du thng tin hnh qua cc bc sau: Khoan thm d Kt lun: kt lun c du hay khng v d on tr lng du c khai thc khng Khai thc

2.1 Khoan ging thm d Trc ht, nhm k s s dng thit b khoan v khoan xung mt su xc nh trc, su ny nm pha trn mc m ngi ta cho rng c du. Qu trnh khoan gm c 5 bc c bn: - t mi khoan, vng m, ng khoan vo l. - Ni thit b vi mt a trn v bt u khoan - Trong qu trnh khoan, bn s bn ln qua ng ra khi mi khoan v y cc mu ct ra khi l. - Ni thm ng khoan khi l cng khot su. - Khi mi khoan chm ti su nh trc, tho ng khoan, mi khoan v vng m H ct ng chng khai thc + Cn h ct ng cng nhanh cng tt, nhng vn tc th ct ng cng b hn ch ty theo p lc d m n gy ln y v thnh ging khoan. + Khi h ct ng n y, c th iu chnh thnh phn dung dch tun hon ng thi thao tc nng th ct ng chng lm cho cc dng c no thnh ging khoan hot ng. Vic tun hon dung dch dng li khi: - Dung dch khng cn nng mn khoan ln na - Lng kh t v khng thay i - Khng c hin tng mt dung dch v xm nhp ca cht lng - Ton b th tch dung dch khoan tun hon l ng nht Sau , nhanh chng trt xi mng lp v y ming khoan ngn khng cho n sp xung. Qu trnh khoan du tip tc theo cc giai on: khoan, trt ming l, ri li khoan... cho n khi thy ct cha du l ra. Mi khoan sau c a ra khi l. Ngi ta a cc thit b cm ng xung h khoan kim tra cu trc , p sut v c im ca m du. Cng ngh ging a nhnh Ging a nhnh (multilateral well) gm mt thn ging chnh vi nhiu nhnh pht trin v ko di t thn ging chnh Thn ging chnh (thng ng hoc nm ngang) c ng knh ln s c khoan n chiu su xc nh

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT - Cc ging nhnh c khoan nh hng xut pht t thn ging chnh n chiu su thit k, c th cng nm trong 1 thnh h hay trong nhng tng sn phm khc nhau Ging a nhnh c th l s kt hp gia ging khoan nh hng v ging khoan ngang - Cc va du nng - Cc va c thm thp v cc khe nt t nhin - Cc i phn lp hay nhng thnh h khng ng nht - Cc va b cch ly thnh tng ngn - Cc va v tinh 2.2 Trm xi mng Trm xi mng l t va xi mng thch hp trong khong khng hnh xuyn gia thnh ging khoan v ct ng chng mt chiu su xc nh. Trm ximng ct ng chng nhm cc mc ch sau: - Cch ly tng khai thc vi cc tng ln cn. - m bo chc chn v mt c hc ct ng chng trong thnh h. - Bo v ct ng chng khi r st, h hi do cc cht lng c trong cc tng t khoan qua. - To y kn cho cc thit b kim tra v an ton lp t u ging. C nhiu cch trm xi mng khc nhau: - Trm xi mng lt thnh ging hoc ct ng - Trm xi mng di p sut gi l trm ln cht qua cc l c thng ng - t cc nt trm xi mng ging khoan trn 2.3 Bn m va Sau khi trm xi mng ct ng chng khai thc, tng cha b ct ng chng v vnh xi mng bt kn, nn phi tin hnh bn m va. Phng php bn m va ph bin nht l dng n n to p sut C th th thit b bn m va bng cp hoc cn khoan trc khi lp t thit b lng ging khai thc, hay th sng bn m va bng cp vo trong ng khai thc, hoc gn trc tip vo u ct ng khai thc. Phng php ny cho php tin hnh khai thc nu dng chy c thit lp ngay sau qu trnh bn m va m khng phi dp ging v sau lp t thit b khai thc lng ging Vic bn m va to knh dn cho cht lu chy vo ging nhng cng c th gy nhim bn thnh h, gim thm ca t vy quanh V vy, cng tc bn m va i hi phi c thit k hp l nhm khai thc hiu qu, duy tr p sut va v tng cng h s thu hi du. Quy trnh bn m va Gm ba giai on: http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28 i tng ng dng ca ging a nhnh

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh 1. Sng bn m va c h i din tng sn phm 2. Kch n 3. Dng cht lu t va chy vo ging V tr bn m va V tr bn m va thng c xc nh nh sau:

Nhm 1 DH05MT

- Khi va cha du c tng nc y, nn m va phn trn (nc) ca i sn phm - Khi va cha du c m kh, nn m va phn gn y ca i sn phm - Khi va cha du va c m kh v tng nc y, nn m va phn gia ca i sn phm Cc thng s bn m va 1. Mt l bn 2. Chiu su xm nhp 3. ng knh l bn 4. Gc pha Phng php bn m va 1. Cc phng php ko th sng bn m va - Ko th bng cp trong ng chng - Ko th bng cp trong ng khai thc - Ko th bng ng khai thc 2. Cc phng php bn m va - c bng n - c bng tia xuyn - c bng mn (hoc bng n lm) - c bng tia thy lc - ct 2.4 Lp t thit b khai thc Sau khi hon tt cng vic bn m va, mt ct ng c ng knh nh (ct ng khai thc) s c lp vo ging lm ng ng dn du t y ging ln b mt. Gia ct ng chng v ct ng khai thc c t mt packer cho lu cht chy t thnh qua cc l bn m va v vo ng khai thc i ln b mt. Lp t u ging khai thc u ging khai thc c lp t pha trn b u ng chng. Ct ng khai thc trong ging c treo t cy thng khai thc sao cho sn phm khai thc chy theo ct ng khai thc vo cy thng khai thc. Sn phm khai thc c th c kim sot nh cc van tit lu lp trn cy thng khai thc Cy thng khai thc

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh 2.5 Gi dng sn phm Mc ch To dng sn phm t va chy vo ging Yu cu

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Khng lm nh hng xu n cc tnh cht vt l ca va, c bit vng cn y ging v mi trng xung quanh Khng ph v s phn b trng thi n nh tng i ban u ca cc lu cht trong va cng nh khng kch thch s xm nhp ca cc cht lu khng mong mun u tin cc phng php s dng cc thit b c sn trn gin khoan, hiu qu cao m bo ti a yu cu an ton lao ng Cc phng php gi dng sn phm - Thay dung dch - S dng nit lng - Phng php gaslift - S dng h bt - Kh ha ct dung dch - Bm phun tia - Dng gu mc hoc pit tng Cc yu t nh hng n gi dng sn phm - Mc hon thin ging - Dung dch khoan m va sn phm - Xi mng trm 2.6 Kho st ging Mc ch - Kho st ging trong thi gian hot ng ca ging nhm nh gi tim nng ca m (ging thm d tm kim), nh gi hiu qu kch thch va, hiu qu thay i ch vn hnh(ging ang khai thc) - Tm hiu mi lin h thu ng lc gia cc ging trong m, ng thi p sut va ca cc ging nhm a ra cc bin php thch hp duy tr p sut va v tng thm ca va - Xc nh cc thng s ca va - Phn tch v t k hoch cho cng ngh khai thc cc ging du - Tnh tr lng Cc phng php kho st ging - Kho st h p - Kho st tch p http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh - Kho st bm p - Kho st giao thoa 2.7 Th va Mc ch ca qu trnh th va Qu trnh th va nhm xc nh cc thng s sau: - H s thm - H s skin - p sut ban u - Nhit va - Bn knh va - S hin din ca t gy Quy trnh th va

Nhm 1 DH05MT

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Cc yu t nh hng ti th va - Cu to a cht - Mc ng u ca thnh h - S nhim bn thnh h trong qu trnh khoan - Mc hon thin ging - H s lu tr ca ging - Trang thit b - Kh nng ti chnh Thng tin u ra Mc tiu ngn hn: i vi dng chy hng tm - p sut va ban u - thm hu dng ca lu cht - Chiu dy va - H s skin - Bn knh nh hng Mc tiu di hn - Xc nh th tch lu cht trong va - Din tch vng tim nng - Khong cch t t gy (nu c) n ging - Hnh dng ca va - Loi bin va 2.8 Duy tr p sut va nh ngha v mt s c im

Nhm 1 DH05MT

- Cht lng v kh nm trong va chu mt p sut nht nh gi l p sut va - p sut va ban u l p sut va trc khi a vo khai thc. p sut va ban u lun t l vi su ca va v tng ng vi p sut thy tnh ca ct nc - p sut va l mt yu t quan trng khi tnh ton phng n khai thc ti u. - p sut va s quyt nh chiu v lu lng di chuyn ca cht lu trong va - Nu p sut va ln, ta c th s dng phng php khai thc t phun, nu p sut va suy gim mnh, cn c nhng bin php duy tr p sut va. - Vi cng thm ca t , p sut va hay chnh xc hn l chnh p gia va v y ging s quyt nh n phng php v lu lng khai thc Duy tr p sut va Mc ch http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh - Nng cao lu lng khai thc - Nng cao h s thu hi du Phng php Duy tr p sut va bng bm p nc Duy tr p sut va bng bm p kh

Nhm 1 DH05MT

2.9 Khai thc Phng php khai thc t phun Dng cht lu t va chy vo ging l do s chnh p gia p sut va v p sut y ging, iu i hi cn 1 nng lng di dng chnh p Phng php khai thc c hc - Gaslift - Bm li tm in chm (Electric Submersible Pumping) - Bm phun tia (Hydraulic Jet Pump) - Bm cn ht (Rod Pump) a. Phng php khai thc bng gaslift Phng php bm kh cao p (kh ng hnh, kh m) vo ging ho trn vi cht lng trong ging gim t trng v a chng ln b mt c tn chung l phng php GASLIFT Phng php khai thc gaslift lin tc Nguyn l hot ng: Kh nn c a vo ging mt cch lin tc v dng sn phm khai thc cng c a ln b mt mt cch lin tc. Kh nn c th c a vo ging theo khong khng vnh xuyn gia ct ng chng khai thc v ng khai thc (ng nng), cn hn hp sn phm khai thc theo ng khai thc ln b mt (hoc ngc li). Phm vi ng dng: p dng vi cc ging sau y - C lu lng Qkt ln - Sn phm c ct hay b ngm nc - Sn phm c cao, dng chy c to ln - C t sut kh cao ( sn lng ging c th b ) Phng php khai thc gaslift nh k Nguyn l lm vic: Da trn s vn chuyn cc nt cht lng, thng l kt hp qu trnh dch chuyn v kh ho cc nt cht lng t y ging ln b mt bng kh nn cao p din ra khng lin tc m theo mt chu k nht nh.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Kh nn t khong khng vnh xuyn i vo ng nng, qua mthay nhiu van gaslift vi mt lu lng ln duy tr vn tc i ln ca cc nt cht lng v gim thiu lng cht lng ri xung. Phm vi ng dng: p dng i vi cc ging sau: - C Pd thp nhng h s sn phm cao - H s sn phm K thp - Mc cht lng thp, ging su - C Qkt nh b. Phng php khai thc bng bm li tm in ngm Nguyn tc hot ng: Nng lng b sung di dng in nng c cung cp t b mt theo h thng cp in 3 pha lm quay ng c in gn phn di ca bm t trong ging. Nguyn l hot ng ca t hp my bm in ngm da trn s bin i cc dng nng lng trong qu trnh cht lng qua nhanh mt trc. ng c in quay lm cho cc cnh dn ca my bm quay theo, lc ly tm xut hin v xy ra qu trnh chuyn ha nng lng c vn tc ln sang dng nng lng c p sut cao. Nh vy m sn phm t y ging i vo ming my my bm v y ln b mt n h thng thu gom v x l. c. Phng php khai thc bng bm phun tia T hp my bm phun tia da trn s bin i cc dng nng lng: t p sut cao ( th nng) sang vn tc cao ( ng nng) v ngc li. Dng cht lng cng tc ( p sut cao khong 200 atm = 2940 psi ) c bm xung t ming ging theo ct ng khai thc i qua rnh dn n u phun tia d. Phng php khai thc bng bm cn ht Nguyn l hot ng: theo hai pha - Pha i ln : nng lng truyn ln mt t thng qua h thng truyn xung lc ko pittng i ln, p sut di pittng gim v lc ny do p sut ca ct cht lng ngoi vnh xuyn y vo nn van ht m, s xut hin chnh lch p sut lm cht lng khai thc t ngoi s chy vo my bm. Trong khi van y s ng li do ng sut ca ct cht lng nm trn pittng. - Pha i xung: Nng lng lc ny l do nng lng ca chnh ton b h thng cn truyn v cht lng cha trong ct ng khai thc y pittng chuyn ng n im cui cng ca xi lanh my bm. Lc ny th van ht ng v van y m.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Chng 3

Nhm 1 DH05MT

CHT THI NGUY HI T HOT NG THM D KHAI THC DU KH V CC BIN PHP QUN L 3.1 Mn khoan v dung dch khoan 3.1.1 nh ngha Mn khoan v dung dch khoan c xem l mt trong cc cht thi c kh nng gy nhim nng n v ng quan tm nht trong hot ng thm d khai thc du kh, c bit trong giai on tin hnh khoan. Mn khoan l hn hp cc mu t vn t qu trnh khoan v mt phn cn ca dung dch khoan. Dung dch khoan l dung dch c tun hon hoc bm t b mt vo cn khoan, i qua chong khoan v quay li b mt bng khong khng vnh xuyn trong cng tc khoan.Gm: Dung dch st dng trong iu kin a cht khng phc tp lm, c tc dng lm sch y l khoan, lm lnh dng c ph , lm chc thnh l khoan, trnh s lng ng mn khoan khi ngng tun hon, trnh s xm nhp ca du, kh, nc vo l khoan. Nc l dng khoan qua t tng i n nh. Khi khoan, nc l ha ln vi mn khoan to thnh dung dch t nhin (khoan qua vi, dolomit to thnh dung dch cacbonat, khi khoan qua anhydrit thch cao, dung dch sun pht). Dung dch nh tng st: nh tng du hay sn phm ca du trong dung dch st. Loi dung dch ny ngn cn cc ht mn khoan dnh nhau v hn ch vic to nt t nn ngi ta thng dng khoan trong vng d b sp l, kt mt. Dung dch ny c kh nng lm gim mn ca chong v gim cng sut quay ct cn khoan do chng bi trn tt hn cc loi ra khc. Dung dch gc du: Mi trng phn tn l du (diesel...) v cht phn tn l bitum hay cc cht hu c khc (ng vai tr cht to cu trc, n nh dung dch). Dng khoan qua vng du c p lc va thp, to iu kin thot du khi khai thc chng, loi dung dch ny c nht cao, t trng nh hn 1. Dung dch mui bo ha: Dng khoan qua cc va mui khong hay cc lp t lin kt bng cc loi mui khong c th ha tan c. Khi khoan qua loi mui no th dng dung dch bo ha l loi mui . Dung dch mui khong khng b ng bng nhit m do ngi ta dng dung dch ny khoan qua vng ng bng quanh nm. Kh nn: Dng ra l khoan vng khng c nc, vng ng bng hay vng d mt nc ra. Dng khng kh t nhin, kh thi ca ng c t trong... s tng tc c hc khoan t 2 n 5 ln so vi dng cc loi nc ra. Phng php ny b hn ch trong cc vng c nc p lc. http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Chc nng ca dung dch khoan Ra l khoan, nng mn khoan ln khi ging Gi mn khoan l lng khi ngng tun hon Lm mt, bi trn b khoan c

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Gi thnh l khoan khng b sp l, trnh mt nc ra v hin tng du-kh-nc vo l khoan Gy tc dng l ha khi ph hy t Truyn nng lng cho turbin khoan Sau khi thi, cc thnh phn tan s ho tan vo trong nc, trong khi cc cht khng tan s to huyn ph lm tng c ca nc, dn n gim khc x nh sng lm nh hng ti qu trnh quang hp ca thc vt. S sa lng mi khoan ln du s gy nn nhng bin i v thnh phn ca trm tch v tch t hydrocarbon. Trong khu vc xung quanh gin khoan, cc sinh vt nhy cm c th b nh hng nghim trng, thm ch c th b cht. Ngoi ra vic thi mn khoan v dung dch khoan cn nh hng n s tch t kim loi nng trong trm tch, trong m ca mt s loi sinh vt y. Ti cc gin khoan tm kim, thm d v khai thc du kh: theo ng quy nh nu trong Quy ch Bo v mi trng trong vic tm kim, thm d, pht trin m, khai thc, tng tr, vn chuyn, ch bin du kh v cc dch v lin quan, cn du v du thi, cc dung dch khoan thi nn du, cc cht rn cha du t cc gin khoan ngoi khi phi thu gom, vn chuyn vo t lin x l theo quy nh (tr mn khoan t ging s dng dung dch khoan nn du sau khi x l n di mc 10g du/1kg mn kh c php thi xung vng bin cch b trn 3 hi l=5,4 km). 3.1.2 X l dung dch khoan 3.1.2.1. Tch cht rn ra khi dung dch khoan: Trong qu trnh tun hon, dung dch khoan b nhim cc cht nh: mnh ct, kh, nc, lm cho cht lng dung dch b thay i. phc hi li tnh cht ban u ca dung dch khoan, ngi ta tin hnh lm sch dung dch khoan. Cn c vo iu kin c th v c im nhim bn ca dung dch m ngi ta c th s dng nhng phng php v thit b khc nhau: thy lc, c hc, ha l, a) Phng php thy lc Nguyn tc lm vic Dung dch t ming l khoan s di chuyn dc theo mng lng. Tc di chuyn ca dung

dch trong mng chm, cc ht mn ln c th lng xung.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Khi ti tm chn, do tit din b thu hp, tc dng chy tng, dung dch va p vo tm chn v cu trc dung dch yu i. Ht mn s lng xung y mng. Nguyn tc lm vic: dng cc li kim loi c kch thc mt li ph hp lc dung dch. Phng php ny p dng tch mn ca dung dch nng v mn trong dung dch nng kh tch hn dung dch thng bng phng php thy lc do lc y Archimedes. Sng rung (shale shaker): l thit b tch ht mn c s dng rt ph bin. Chuyn ng rung ca sng do ng c truyn qua h thng dy ai. Trn sng rung c h thng li lc. Kch thc mt li ty thuc tc khoan, lu lng bm v c im thnh h khoan qua. b) Phng php c hc

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh

Nhm 1 DH05MT

c) Phng php ly tm Nguyn tc lm vic: to dng chy ca dung dch dng xoy, lc li tm s tch ht mn ra khi dung dch. Phng php ny c th tch cc ht mn kch thc nh hn 0,1 mm. My tch ct my tch bn: hot ng theo nguyn tc trn. Dng dung dch c bm vo my theo ng tip tuyn vi thn my v b thu hp tit din tng vn tc dng chy xoy c. Ht mn c khi lng v kch thc ln s b tch khi dung dch.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh 3.1.2.2. Tch kh ra khi dung dch a) phng php c hc

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Kh trong dung dch khoan c th b tch bng cch cho dng dung dch chy trn mt thong v va p vo cc vch ngn. Trn gin, ngi ta dng thit b tch kh hot ng theo nguyn tc sau: Dung dch cha kh c ht vo my tch kh qua mt ng lng hnh tr bi p sut chn khng to ra do my bm hoc my thi. Cc cnh qut y gn cui ng tr tng tc cho dung dch, y dung dch va chm vi vch ngn. Kh tch ra do chuyn ng hn lon v va chm ca dung dch s c bm chn khng ht v thi ra ngoi. Dung dch sch kh ri xung v cng c bm ra khi my tch kh bng my bm ly tm chng sc kh.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh

Nhm 1 DH05MT

b) Phng php ha l: Cho vo dung dch mt s cht lm gim bn chc ca lp bo v chung quanh bt kh, lm cho cc bt kh dnh li vi nhau, ni ln trn mt thong v v ra. Bt kh kch thc cng ln th sc cng b mt cng nh, do cng km bn vng. Phng php ha l c s dng hn ch v gi thnh rt cao.

- H thng lm sch dung dch khoan khi mn khoan sau xung bin hay ch vo b, gm: + Sng rung tch mn khoan khi dung dch khoan c ha cht ph gia: + B phn tch ct khi dung dch khan. http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh + Bn phn kh kh khi dung dch khoan. 3.1.2 X l mn khoan ln dung dch khoan

Nhm 1 DH05MT

+ L in hnh tang trng x l nhit mn khoan c cha cc hp cht ha hc - Hin nay, t cc gin khoan ngoi khi ng Nam Vit Nam, cht thi c cha vo thng v c vn chuyn bng tu bin v cng Vng Tu v chuyn v im lu gi cht thi du kh ti Ni Dinh (tnh B Ra - Vng Tu) do Vietsovpetro chu trch nhim qun l. Bi thi Ni Dinh (kch thc 50m x 30 m x 8m) c thit k bng btng, cch xa khu dn c, cu trc nn a cht vng chc do khng c kh nng gy nhim tng t v nc bn di. Tuy nhin, do lu gi c cht thi dng lng st nhiu nm, hin nay bi thi ny qu y, li khng c mi che, khi tri ma chy trn gy nhim mi trng xung quanh, gy khiu kin ti a phng v b cc phng tin truyn thng i chng ph phn. Vietsovpetro c k hoch xy dng l t x l cht thi du kh cng sut 3,2 tn gi nhm x l trit cc cht thi du kh. 3.1.3. Quy nh v h thng thu gom, tho thi v x l cc dung dch khoan v mn khoan. 3.1.3.1. Quy nh v h thng thu gom v x l cc dung dch khoan v mn khoan ngn nga nhim mi trng trong khi khoan dung dch khoan v mn khoan gy ra, trn cc cng trnh khan trn bin phi c cc thit b sau: - H thng kim tra mc dung dch khoan ti cc thng cha vi tn hiu ch th mc dung dch y t trong tm nhn ca kp trng khoan. Ngi kp trng phi bit c mc dung dch khoan trong cc thng cha. - H thng kim tra thng xuyn s xut hin kh trong dung dch khoan t ging khoan ra. ng h o kh ch s xut hin kh cn t tr v tr ca kp trng. Ngi kp trng phi bit c c th hm lng ca kh . - H thng thu gom cc dung dch trn ra hoc ri vi trn mn sn khoan khu vc khan, ni pha ch dung dch v.v... (gm khay hng, mng v thng cha). - Thit b bo qun v vn chuyn cc vt liu dng lng hay dng bt, thit b pha v bo qun, dung dch ra ging khoan. - Cc my bm cha dung dch khoan phi c cc mng thot v pha thng cha Thng cha cha cc dung dch khoan ln mn khoan c ha cht ph gia, ri a ln tu ch n cc b cha v x l mn khoan trn b. Dung tch cc thng cn tng ng vi khi lng mn khoan ti a sinh ra trong sut thi gian gin khoan lm vic t hnh. - Thng cha bao b ng bt t st, xi mng, ha cht, ph gia m sau ch ln b tn dng hoc hy b 3.1.3.2. Quy nh v vic tho thi cc dung dch khoan mn khoan. Cm xung bin tt c cc dung dch khoan, mn khoan, dung dch x l ging khoan ln du hoc c ha cht c hi. http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Trong trng hp sau c th dung dch khoan hoc mn khoan xung bin: - Trong khi khoan cc lp a tng trn, nu dung dch khoan khng pha thm ha cht. - Mn khoan sau khi lm sch khi dung dch khoan v c kh c. 3.2 Nc va: 3.2.1. Ngun gc Nc va l nc t cc tng cha (va) du kh c a ln cng vi du hoc kh trong qu trnh khai thc. Trong cc cht thi lng t hot ng du kh ngoi khi, th nc va chim mt khi lng hn c. 3.2.2. Thnh phn Thnh phn nc va gm cc mui tan, hydrocarbon, kim loi, cht dit khun v cht c ch n mn... cc cht ph gia bm vo trong qu trnh x l v cc cht rn l lng. 3.2.3. Phng php x l Nc va sau khi c dn qua thit b tch du - nc cho n khi t hm lng thi cho php s c thi xung bin. Nc va c x l, trong mt s trng hp c cha hm lng tng i cao mt s ph gia tan trong nc, c bit l cht dit khun v cht c ch n mn. Cc cht ny mc d b phn hu nhanh trong h thng x l song vn c th phn no lm tng c hi ca nc va. Cc nghin cu ch ra rng nng cc cht c hi trong nc va thng thp hn ngng gy c nn nc va khng gy c tc thi; sau khi thi nc va c kh nng phn tn v pha long rt nhanh, cc nh hng gy c ln sinh vt bin l khng ng k; nh hng ln qun th sinh vt y ch c nhn thy vng nc nng ca sng. Nc va sau khi c tch ra khi dng du hoc kh c dn n thit b tch du - nc x l t hm lng thi cho php (TCVN quy nh hm lng du cn li trong nc va thi khng c ln hn 40 mg/l) trc khi thi. Vic thi nc va c thit k sao cho va tng kh nng phn tn va to iu kin thun li cho cc hp cht c tnh cn li sau khi x l c bay hi thm. Vic lm ny c th loi b c tc ng do vic thi nc va gy ra. 3.2.4. Bin php xut qun l cht thi - Gim ti ngun khi lng v c hi tng i ca cht thi sinh ra trong nc va nh mui tan, hydrocarbon, kim loi, cht dit khun v cht c ch n mn... cc cht ph gia. iu chnh cc thnh phn ph gia theo mt t l hp l nhm lm gim d lng khng cn thit trong noc v. - Ti s dng hoc ti ch ti mc ti a lng du, kh, cht ph gia c th thu li c. - p dng cng ngh sn xut hin i ti u ho qu trnh sn xut tng hiu qu tch du, gim ti a lng cht thi pht sinh giai on x b nc v. http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT - S dng cc bin php pha long c tnh ton hp l a cht thi vo mi trng theo cch lm gim ti a tc ng xu ca chng - Xc nh loi cht thi nguy hi c trong nc va m kh phn hu, c tc ng xu khi thi ra mi trng thu gom, vn chuyn n ni x l hoc tiu hu. 3.3 Nc thi nhim du 3.3.1. Ngun pht sinh Hot ng thm d khai thc: bao gm nc lm mt, nc dn, nc ra tip xc vi du. Tn tr v vn chuyn du trn bin: Thng xy ra nht l cc s c trn du do: - Tu ch du b hng, do va chm - ng ng dn du b r r gy pht tn du - Chuyn du qua li gia cc phng tin thnh thong gp s c, s xut lm du b mt, Hot ng v sinh sc ra tu du :nc thi nhim du do qu trnh v sinh, sc ra, v sinh my mc, thit b. 3.3.2. c trng nc thi nhim du. C hm lng du cao t hng chc n hng trm ppm: nc thi sinh ra khi sc ra bn cha . c trng ca loi nc thi ny l c hm lng du v cn v c cao. Trng thi ca du tu thuc vo cng ngh sc ra bn: Nu qu trnh sc ra ch dng nc th du trong nc thi ch yu dng t do v nh tng c hc. Nu qu trnh sc ra c s dng cht ty ra th ngoi 2 trng thi nu trn cn c dng nh ho hc. Nc thi nhim du t hn (khong 200ppm): cc loi nc thi nhim du cn li. Trng thi du loi nc thi ny ch yu l dng t do v nh c hc, hm lng cht rn v c cng kh cao do qu trnh di chuyn. Tm li: c tnh chung ca tt c cc loi nc thi ny l thnh phn du nhim dng phn tn, ho tan hoc nh c hc v kh nng x l chng bng phng php c hc cho hiu qu cao. 3.3.3. Phng php x l nc thi nhim du.\ 3.3.3.1 X l nc thi nhim du Nc thi nhim du trn cc gin khoan, tu thuyn c th c thu gom ri x l ti h thng phn ly tch du t TCVN l 15 mg/l trc khi thi xung bin. Vic thi c thc hin trong mt h thng kn ngn chn cc nc thi cn ln du cha c x l thi thng ra bin.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Bn cnh th nc thi nhim du cn c th thu gom li, v vn chuyn chung v t lin x l cng vi cc loi cht thi khc. Quy trnh x l nc thi nhim du:

X l s b B by du

X l cp I: API CPI,PPI Ly tm, cyclon Lc (ct, antraxit) Tuyn ni (DAF,IAF) Keo t (si, PVC, . . )

X l cp II: B sinh hc (aeroten, h sinh vt, lc sinh hc, . .) Lc than hot tnh

X l s b: i vi nc thi nhim du, vic x l s b nhm gim hm lng du xung l rt cn thit. C th s dng cc b tip nhn v iu ho nc thi lm cc b by du. Thc cht cc b by du l cc b c kh nng lu tr nc mt thi gian t 1 n 2 gi vi nc ra khi b t pha di v du ni ln trn mt. X l tch du cp I: Ti giai on ny s loi b cc cht l lng: Dng ht rn l lng c trong nc thi (ct, st, si nh) Du dng t do c ng knh t 100-200micromet Hoc cc cht nhim dng keo: Cht rn l lng nh (bn, sn phm n mn) Du dng nh c hc v nh ho hc Giai on ny gi l x l ha l bi v n kt hp s dng cc tc nhn ng t v tch bng trng lc ca cc bng cn, cn lng l lng hoc bng du. Cc cng trnh x l cp I: C th s dng cc b: API, CPI, PPI. . . . Cc b lc vi vt liu lc bng ct, antraxit: Loi b hiu qu cht rn l lng, x l hiu qu du dng t do, nh tng hoc phn tn. C kh nng x l du xung cn rt thp nhng yu cu v ra ngc hoc ti sinh vt liu lc rt phc tp.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Ch p dng cho nhng kho xng du c lng nc thi khng lin tc-cng sut thp. B tuyn ni: DAF, IAF Cc b keo t du: X l hiu qu i vi tt c cc thnh phn du ngoi tr du ho tan. Nhng khi hm lng cht rn l lng cao thng gy ra thi ra v cn phi x l s b tt. X l cp II: Nc thi sau khi qua x l cp I s cn mt hm lng du tng i thp. Ty theo cng ngh p dng m c th nc thi sau khi qua x l cp I t tiu chun thi hoc phi tip tc x l sinh hc loi nt nhng thnh phn du th cn li cc dng nh v du ho tan. Ti giai on ny s loi b cc cht ho tan c th phn r sinh hc: Cc hp cht oxi ha cc axit, aldehyte, phenol, . . . Cc hp cht lu hunh nh S2O32 Mt phn cc hydrocacbon thm, NH4 Cc cng trnh x l cp II: Cng trnh x l sinh hc: B bn hot tnh, h sinh vt, mng oxi ho hoc lc sinh hc . . .hiu qu cao khi tch du ho tan nhng hm lng du u vo phi < 40ppm. Tu theo tng trng hp m la chn cng trnh x l: H sinh vt l phng php n gin, hiu qu, r tin, vn hnh d dng nhng li tn din tch. B aeroten v lc sinh hc t tn din tch nhng gi thnh xy dng v vn hnh cao hn. Lc hp ph: S dng than hot tnh lm vt liu hp ph, tch hiu qu tt c cc dng du trong nc thi. Nhc im l chi ph xy dng cao, cn x l s b tt, than cn phi ti sinh hoc thay th v ch x l quy m nh. X l cp III: Nhm tho mn cc tiu chun cao hn v tng hm lng cacbon hu c, cht rn l lng, COD, N_NH4 hoc ti s dng n. Bao gm cc bc thc hin: Lm sch hn nc thi v loi pht pht Lm sch phenol bng lc sinh hc Gim cc cht thm v COD bng than hot tnh GAC

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh 3.3.3.2 X l s c trn du. a. Thu hi du: T chc thu hi du theo quy trnh sau:

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Khi s c trn du xy ra trn bin chng ta c th p dng cc bin php sau ng ph:

1 D bo hng lan truyn du

2 T chc thu hi v phn hy du

3 Kt thc vic thu du

5 Lp bo co yu cu n b

4 Cng tc quan trc

Phng tin vy du: ro cn, ro Phng tin thu hi du: Skimmer: Weir, olephilic, vaccuum v mechanical Cht hp ph Phao vy chn du trn: s dng cc loi bm dng kh nn c th trin khai nhanh v hiu qu thng p dng cho cc khu vc bin ln, dng chy cao. Phao thng trc: trin khai thng xuyn, gn c nh chn cc cu cng, offshore, Thit b ht du trn: S dng cho vng nc dng chy nh (di 3 hi l).

vy

b. Phn hy du S dng ha cht phn tn: Cht xc tc c cu trc phn t phn cc, lm gim sc cng b mt tip xc du_nc. Du b nh mng phn hy nhanh v lng chm dn. Phn hy du bng bin php sinh hc: http://www.ebook.edu.vn Trang 28

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT Mt s VSV nh vi khun, nm, men, to c kh nng phn hy du thnh cc hp cht n gin nh CO2, H20 v sinh khi. 3.4 Kh ng hnh trong lc du 3.4.1 nh ngha Kh ng hnh (associated gas) l kh t nhin c tm thy cng du th, c th dng ho ln vi du th hoc to thnh khng gian pha trn lp du th trong m du. Kh c thu cng vi qu trnh khai thc du. Kh nm trong m du c p sut cao nn chng ha tan mt phn trong du. Khi khai thc ln do p sut gim nn chng c tch ra thnh kh ng hnh. Kh ng hnh khi c tch khi du th l hn hp ch yu gm etan (C2H6), propan (C3H8), butan (C4H10) v pentan (C5H12). Ngoi ra cn nhng tp cht khng mong mun khc nh nc, sulfua hir (H2S), CO2, Helium (He), Nit (N2) v mt s tp cht khc.

3.4.2 Thnh phn kh ng hnh mt s m du Vit Nam (% th tch) Thnh phn kh CH4 C2H6 C3H8 http://www.ebook.edu.vn M Bch H 71,5 12,52 8,61 Trang 28 M Rng 76,54 6,98 8,25 M i Hng 77,25 9,49 3,83

Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh i-C4H10 1,75 n-C4H10 C5


+

0,78 0,94 1,49 5,02

Nhm 1 DH05MT 1,34 1,26 2,33 4,5

2,96 1,84 0,7

CO2 + H2S 3.4.3 Cc gii php x l

Trong qu kh loi kh ny l thnh phn khng mong mun v thng b t b. (Nm 1947, M, hng ngy khong 3 t feet khi kh ng hnh b t b; n nm 2002, con s ny gim 13 ln trong khi sn lng khai thc cao hn nm 1947 K c ti nm 2003, vic t b vn khi lng ln, hng ngy c n 10 -13 t feet khi trn ton th gii). Tuy nhin, vi tin b ca cng ngh, gi thnh du th v kh t nhin tng ln v cc ng dng ca kh t nhin tr nn ph bin, kh ng hnh c tn dng v tr thnh ngun nguyn liu mang li hiu qu cao. Vit Nam, du th c khai thc quy m cng nghip t nm 1986 nhng kh ng hnh vn b t b ngay ti m. Vic x l kh ng hnh vi khi lng ln cn lng my mc s m iu kin khai thc trn bin khng cho php thc hin. Gii php trit l lp t ng ng v a s kh vo b. Nm 1997, h thng x l ng hnh ca Vit Nam bt u vn hnh, hng nm a khong 1 t m vo b, cung cp kh ha lng, dung mi pha xng (condensate), kh t nhin cho cc nh my in, v.v.. Ngy nay, kh ng hnh l nguyn liu ch yu sn xut kh ha lng v dung mi pha xng; l mt phn nguyn liu cung cp cho Nh my phn m Ph M, v nhin liu cho cc nh my in dng turbine kh. Cc gii php chnh cho vic s dng kh ng hnh hin nay * Bm ngc tr li ging du thu hi sau ny khi c gii php kinh t hn ng thi duy tr p lc ging du tip tc t phun ln. * Chuyn ha thnh cc sn phm khc (v d metanol - CH3OH) d chuyn ch hn * Tch cc tp cht c kh ha lng t nhin ri chuyn xung bn cha * Chuyn ha thnh cc hp cht (v d metanol) lm nguyn liu cho cng nghip ha du * Dng pht in ngay ti m cho cc nhu cu vn hnh v c th truyn ti i xa * Vn chuyn bng ng ng ti nh my x l kh. Quy nh v vic thi kh v t b kh thp t Kh du m hoc kh thin nhin nu khng c s dng phi c t chy hon ton ti cc thp t. Cm khng c thi thng ra mi trng. V d v tr ca thp t phi c xc nh

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Nhm 1 DH05MT sao cho kh t thi ra khng nh hng ti mi trng lm vic ca cc cn b, cng nhn trn cng trnh v phi m bo an ton tuyt i. Thit b tch kh ng hnh ra khi du th trn cc gin khoan phi m bo cng sut p ng vi sn lng du khai thc mc cao nht. Khng c hm lng kh ngng t ln trong kh thi qu ln v khi t chy khng hon ton gy nhim mi trng.

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh Chng 4 KT LUN KIN NGH 4.1 Kt lun

Nhm 1 DH05MT

Vit Nam l nc tr lng du kh di do Cc loi sn phm du m vn l ngun nguyn liu v nhin liu khng th thiu, ng gp mt phn khng nh vo ngn sch quc gia.. Hot ng thm d v khai thc du kh ang ngy cng pht trin c v cng ngh ln quy m. Trong qu trnh thi ra nhiu loi cht thi nguy hi (mn khoan, dch khoan, nc va, cht thi nhim du, ) gy tc ng xu ti mi trng, trc tip chu nh hng l h sinh thi quanh khu vc thm d v khai thc. Vic y mnh cng tc qun l, kim sot nhim do hot ng khoan thm d v khai thc du kh ang ngy cng tr nn cn thit. Hin nay c nhiu phng n k thut cng nh qun l gip kim sot nhim ngnh du kh, tuy nhin t c hiu qu th cn s phi hp ca cc c quan chc nng v cc doanh nghip trc tip hot ng trong lnh vc ny. 4.2 Kin ngh - V pha c quan chc nng Trc mt, cn c ngay cc quy nh nghim ngt v vic lu tr, s dng v thi b cht thi nguy hi pht sinh trong qu trnh khoan thm d v khai thc du kh. Tng cng cng tc kim tra gim st vic tun th cc quy nh ca doanh nghip p dng thu ph mi trng i vi cc cht thi nguy hi em v t lin chn lp hoc t b. Khuyn khch v h tr thc y hng nghin cu dng cc ch phm sinh hc x l cht thi rn nhim du. Vic ng dng cng ngh sinh hc trong x l nc thi nhim du v cn du gip x l ti ch cc cht thi nhim du, chun b nhng ch phm sinh hc ph hp vi iu kin Vit Nam c th p dng trong thc t x l khc phc hu qu nhim v khi phc mi trng sau s c trn du. - V pha doanh nghip Nghim chnh chp hnh cc quy nh v x l v thi b cht thi pht sinh trong qu trnh thm d v khai thc du kh

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Cht thi nguy hi Khai thc du kh

Nhm 1 DH05MT

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