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English Phonetics UNIT 1 A.

Theory # Organs of speech: inwards INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONETICS

Fig 1. Organs of Speech Lips (upper and lower) / nasal cavity (khoang mi) teeth (upper and lower) alveolar ridge (chn rng) toungue (tip, blade, front, back or root) / hard palate (ngc cng) soft palate (ngc mm) uvula (li g) pharynx (glottis hu / hng) epiglottis (np thanh qun) larynx (thanh qun) vocal folds (vocal cords - dy thanh) trachea (kh qun) / oesophagus (thc qun) ( lungs). 1. Define Phonetics and Phonology? - Phonetics is the study of speech sounds which are utilized by all human languages to represent the meaning. It concerned with the describing the speech sounds which occur in the languages of the world. - Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language. Phonology deals with how these speech sounds are organised into systems for individual language. 2. What are the stages of speech chain during human communication in sounds? Stages of speech chain are the steps in which the sounds are produced and used for communication. These stages of speaker differ from those of listener. hoanguyen 1

English Phonetics - Speaker: 3 stages + Psychological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain throught the 5 senses of human. It is the process of thinking and choosing what to say. + Physiological stage: idea is transmitted to the brain and then to the mouth through nervous system. + Physical stage: the process of producing and articulating the sounds. The mouth works to speak out the sounds. - Listener: such stages are simplier. Nervous system carries the sounds from the ears up to the brain. The brain will analyse the sounds. 3. What is the difference between pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism and ingressive airstream mechanism? What airstream mechanism do English sounds belong to? The difference between these two mechanism is the direction of the airstream. In pulmonic egressive mechanism, the airstream move outwards from the lung to the trachea (windpipe kh qun) to pharynx (hng) and to the mouth, but the airstream in pulmonic ingressive mechanism move inwards from the outside. English sound belong to the pulmonic egresive airstream mechanism and this mechasnism is also used in almost languages in the world. 4. What is voiced, voiceless sound? In what way(s) are voiced sounds different from voiceless ones? - Voiced sounds are the sounds produced by the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords. In a voiced sound, the rapid opening and closing of vocal cords is a kind of vibration. - Voiceless sound are the sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely between them and there is no vibration. Voiced and voiceless sounds can be distinguished according to the following criteria: Criteria State of the vocal cords The airstream from the lungs Vibration Voiced sound Rapid opening and closing Voiceless sound Are drawn apart

Being obstructed by the vocal Passes out freely cords Made by the rapid opening and There is no vibration closing of the vocal cords

5. What is the difference between articulatory phonetics and acoustic phonetics? Articulatory phonetics studies the physical processes involved in speech production while acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of speech sounds (linguistically relevant acoustic properties). Articulatory phonetics examines: The airstream mechanism: where the air used in speech starts from, and which direction it is travelling in

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English Phonetics The state of the vocal cords: wherether or not the vocal cords are vibrating, which determines voicing The state of the velum: whether it is raised or lowered, which determines whether the sound is oral or nasal The place and manner of articulation: the horizontal and vertical positions of the tongue and lips

Acoustic phonetics studies the specific and measurable effects on the air involved in the production of the speech sound. 6. What is the difference between a vowel and a consonant in the English language? Give example to illustrate? Definition: - Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation. - Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the oral tract (organs of speech) unobstructed. Differences: vowel and consonant can be distinguished according to the following criteria: Criteria Airstream Nasal or oral Vowel Consonant

Escapes freely from the oral Being obstructed on the way tract out from the lungs All vowels are oral sounds as Consonants may be nasal the velum is raised while the when the velum is lowered or sounds are produced oral when the velum is raised Eg. /i:/, /u:/, / :/, / :/, / Eg. /m/, /n/, / / (nasal); /p/, :/; / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, / /d/, /k/, / /(oral) /

7. Classify English speech sounds? English speech sounds can be classified according to the following criteria: voicing, state of the velum, state of the vocal cords - According to voicing criteria, English speech sounds can be divided into: voiced and voiceless sounds. Eg. Voiced sounds such as: /b/, /v/, /d/, / /, /z/, / /, / / Voiceless sounds such as: /p/, /f/, /t/, /k/, /s/, / /, / / - According to the state of the velum, there are nasal and oral sounds. Eg. Nasal sounds: /m/, /n/, / / Oral sounds: /b/, /v/, /d/, / /, / /, / / (consonants), or / /, / /, / /, / /, / / (vowels) - According to the state of the vocal cords, there are vowel and consonant. Eg. Vowels: /i:/, /u:/, / :/, / :/, / :/; / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, / /, / / Consonants: /b/, /v/, /d/, / /, /z/, / /, / /, /p/, /f/, /t/, /k/, /s/, / /, / / hoanguyen 3

English Phonetics

B. Practice 1. Fill in the blanks in the following passage There are three principal airstream mechanisms: the pulmonic airstream mechanism, the velaric airstream mechanism and the glottalic airstream mechanism. In normal utterances in all languages of the world, the airstream is always flowing outwards if the pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is involved. Stops made with this mechanism are called plosives (tc). The only mechanism that is used in some languages to produce some sounds with inward going air and some sounds with outward going air is the glottalic airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism acting ingressively are called implosives (ng). Stops made with this mechanism acting egressively are called ejectives (bt). The mechanism which is used in the language to produce sounds only with inward going air is the velaric airstream mechanism. Stops made with this mechanism are called clicks. UNIT 2 # Definitions: Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation. Voiced sounds are sounds produced by the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords. In a voiced sound, the rapid opening and closing of the vocal cords is a kind of vibration. Voiceless sounds are sounds made with vocal cords drawn apart so that the air can pass out freely and there is no vibration. Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel. Eg. bat Lenis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy. They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel. Place of articulation Manner of articulation State of the velum (nasal or oral) Position of the vocal cords (voiced or voiceless) Force of articulation / degree of muscular tension (fortis or lenis) CONSONANTS

# Criteria to classify English consonants: -

!!! To descript an English consonant we should descript the following aspects: Voicing place of articulation manner of articulation ( place of velum force of articulation) Eg. p: voiceless bilabial plosive ( oral fortis) Place Manner Plosive Fricative Bilabial Labio- Dental Alveolar Retro dental flex p b f v t s d z Platoalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal

k h

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English Phonetics Approximant Lateral Affricate Nasal m n Table 1. English Consonants (Voiceless sounds are on the left) A. Theory 1. Classify all the English plosives, providing the words containing the sounds. English plosives are classified according to the following 3 criteria: - According to the place of articulation: there are 3 types + Bilabial plosive: /p/, /b/ + Alveolar plosive: /t/, /d/ + Velar plosive: /k/, / / + Voiced plosive: /p/, /t/, /k/ + Voiceless plosive: /b/, /d/, / / - According to force of articulation: + Fortis plosive: /b/, /d/, / / + Lenis plosive: /p/, /t/, /k/ eg. big, boy, date, dog, go, gap eg. pet, pay, tape, talk, key, kitchen eg. pet, pay, big, boy eg. tape, talk, date, dog eg. key, kitchen, go, gap eg. pet, pay, tape, talk, key, kitchen eg. big, boy, date, dog, go, gap w l t d r j

- According to position of the vocal cords: voiced and voiceless

2. List the bilabial consonants. For each bilabial, provide one word containing it. There are 4 bilabial consonants in the English language: p, b, w, m - Bilabial plosive: /p/, /b/ - Bilabial approximant: /w/ - Bilabial nasal: /m/ eg. pet, pay, big, boy eg. wait, watch eg. mother, meet

3. What is the distinctive feature that makes /p/ and /b/ different sounds? /p/ and /b/ are bilabial plosive consonants, but the distinctive feature that makes them different sounds is the voicing. /p/ is a voiceless consonant while /b/ is a voiced one. We can realize such difference when these sounds are articulated by touching the Adams apple. When /b/ is articulated, there is a vibration, but there is no such vibration when /p/ is pronounced. 4. According to what are English consonants classified? Give examples English consonants are classified according to 5 criteria: According to place of articulation: - Bilabial: p, b, w, m eg. pay, boy, wait, man

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English Phonetics - Labiodental: f, v - Dental: - Alveolar: t, d, s, z, l, n - Retroflex: r - Palato-avleolar: , , t , d - Palatal: j - Velar: k, , - Glottal: h - Plosive: p, b, t, d, k, , - Fricative: f, v, , , s, z, , , h - Approximant: w, r, j - Lateral: l - Affricate: t , d - Nasal: m, n, According to State of the velum: - Nasal: m, n, - Oral: p, b, t, d, k, , f, v, , , s, z, eg. main, nation, thing, king , , w, r, j, l, t , d , h, eg. figure, velar eg. think, this eg. toy, date, size, zoo, long, name eg. run, ray eg. shine, ship, measure, closure, watch, catch, fridge, jane eg. yet, yes, yellow eg. key, dog, king, thing eg. house, home eg. pay, boy, toy, date, key, dog eg. five, van, think, this, sun, zoo, shine, measure, hot eg. wait, run, you eg. long, later eg. watch, catch, fridge, jane eg. main, nation, thing, king

According to manner of articulation:

According to State of the vocal cords: - Voiced sounds: b, d, , v, , z, , w, r, j, l, d , m, n, - Voiceless sounds: p, t, k, f, , s, , h, t According to Force of articulation: - Fortis consonants: voiceless sounds - Lenis consonants: voiced sounds 5. What are the differences between a plosive and an affricate in English? Criteria Airstream Plosive The airstream is stoped in the oral or nasal cavity by the as the lips contact or the soft palate raises forming a velic closure Affricate The tongue comes up to make a contact with the alveolar ridge to form a stop closure and this contact is then slacken (loosen) to make a fricative. The combination between plosive and fricative

Number of Plosive manners involved

6. What is the distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative? The distinction between an alveolar plosive and an alveolar fricative is the airstream: in alveolar plosive, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off, then the airstream is hoanguyen 6

English Phonetics completely obstructed while in an alveolar fricative, the close approximation of two articulators caused the airstream partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced. 7. Classify the English fricatives according to the criteria for classification of the sounds. Give the words containing these consonants. English fricatives can be classified according to the following criteria: - Accroding to the Place of articulation: + Labiodental fricative: f, v + Dental fricative: , + Alveolar fricative: s, z + Glottal fricative: h - According to the State of the vocal cords: + Voiced sounds: v, , z, + Voiceless sounds: f, + Fortis: f, + Lenis: v, , s, , z, ,h , s, , h - According to the Force of articulation: eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot eg. van, this, zoo, measure eg. van, this, zoo, measure eg. fan, think, sun, shine, hot eg. fingure, fan, vapour, van eg. think, this eg. sun, single, zoo, zero eg. horse, house, hat

+ Palato-avleolar fricative: , eg. shine, measure

8. What are fortis consonants and what are lenis ones? - Fortis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively strong energy. They are voiceless sounds and usually shorten the preceeding vowel. Eg. bat - Lenis are consonants which are tend to be articulated with relatively weak energy. They are voiced sounds and usually lengthen the preceeding vowel. 9. What is the main difference in articulation between a velar plosive and a bilabial plosive? Bilabial plosive is formed by the contact between the two lips while velar plosive is formed by the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate (the soft palate is raised to make velar closure). 10. State basic difference between fortis consonants and its lenis counterparts? Criteria Force of articulation Voicing Proceeding vowel Fortis Relatively strong energy Voiceless Shorten Lenis Relatively weak energy Voiced Lengthen

B. Practice: 1. Describe the consonant in the word skinflint: hoanguyen /skinflint/ 7

English Phonetics s k n f l t voiceless voiceless voiced voiceless voiced voiceless alveolar velar alveolar labiodental alveolar alveolar fricative plosive nasal fricative lateral plosive (oral (oral (oral (oral (oral fortis) fortis) (lenis) fortis) lenis) fortis)

2. Underline: a. The words that begin with a bilabial consonant mat knot fat zip pie sigh race rave rain pill nut we knee got cat nip guy shy sat lot that lip shy tie bat cot mat sip rat hot chat tip pat pot vat dip high lie b. The words begin with a velar consonant c. The words begin with a labiodental consonant d. The words begin with a alveolar consonant e. The words begin with a detal consonant thight thy thigh thy f. The words begin with palato-alveolar consonant g. The words end with a fricative wreath bush bring breathe bang rouge ray rang lip lull you rose rough

h. The words end with a nasal dumb deaf lit bar one edge limb rob run ooze crab one dog hide laugh back i. The words end with a stop (plosive) j. The word begin with a lateral k. The words that begin with a approximant l. The words end with an affricate much back

3. Write the symbol that corresponds to the following phonetic descriptions. Give an English word that contains this sound a. voiced bilabial plosive b. voiceless alveolar fricative hoanguyen b s eg. big, ball, ban eg. seven, sun, son 8

English Phonetics c. voiceless labiodental fricative d. voiceless palato-alveolar affricate e. voiceless palato-alveolar fricative f. voiced labiodental fricative g. voiced velar plosive v f t eg. fan, finger, farm eg. chain, watch eg. shine, ship eg. vapour, vanish eg. games, dog,

UNIT 3

ENGLISH VOWELS

Note: - vowel with the mark : means long vowel, and also tense vowel - beside four round vowels (u:, the rests are unround vowels. # Definitions: Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the vocal tract unobstructed. Monothong is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced without changing of the position of the organ of speech throughout the duration of the vowel articulation. Dipthong is a complex sound consisting of two vowel elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of dipthong, the position of organ of speech starts in the position of one vowel and glides gradually to the other one. , :, , :), there are three neutral vowel ( , :, ) and

Description of English vowel: Monothong: Height Position Shape Length Degree (of articulation). Diphthong: Height + Pisition (1st vowel) glides to Height + Position (2nd vowel). A. Theory 1. What is monophthong / diphthong?

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English Phonetics - Monophthong: is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced wothout changing of the position of the organ of speech throughtout the duration of the vowel articulation. - Diphthong: is a complex vowel sound consisiting of two elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of the diphthong, the position of the organ of speech starts in the position of the first vowel and glides to gradually to the other one. 2. What are the differences between a monophthong and a diphthong? Give example - Monophthong: is a pure vowel sound which is pronounced without changing in the position of the organ of speech throughout the duration of vowel articualtion. - Diphthong: is a complex vowel sound consisting of two elements pronounced so as to form a single syllable. In the pronunciation of the diphthong, the position of the organ of speech starts in the position of the first vowel and glides gradually to the other one. The differences of monophthong and diphthong lie in the number of vowel element and the position of the organ of speech during the articulation: Criteria Number of vowel element: Position of organ of speech One Unchange Monophthong Two Glides gradually from the position of the first vowel to the other. Diphthong

Eg.

Hat /h t/ - is a monothong, Nation /ne n/ - is a diphthong a low front vowel. consisiting of and , mid front glides to high front.

3. How are English monophthong classified? Give example a. Definition b. Classification English monophthong can be classified according to the followings criteria: Position of the tongue: front, central and back vowels Front vowels: the front of the tongue raises towards the hard palate :, , , Central vowels: the centre of the tongue raises towards the junture of the hard palate and the soft palate :, , Back vowels: the back of the tongue raises towards the soft palate :, , , , : , :, , , : 10

The height of the tongue in the mouth: high, mid and low vowels High vowels: :, Low vowels: , Mid vowels: ( ), :, ,

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English Phonetics The shape of the lips: round, neutral and unround vowels Round vowels: :, , Neutral vowels: , :, Unround vowels: :, , , , : ,

The length of the sounds: long and short vowels Long vowels: :, :, , :, : Short vowels: , , , , , ,

The degree of muscular tension: tense and lax vowels Tense (long) vowels: :, :, , :, : Lax (short) vowels: , , , , , ,

4. What makes an English front vowel different from ist back counterpart? Give example An English front vowel differs from its back counterpart is due to the position of the tounge in the mouth or the raising part of the tongue. In the pronunciation of an front vowel: the front of the tongue raises towards the hard palate, but in the articulation of the back vowel the back of the tongue raises towards the soft palate. 5. List all the diphthong. How are they classified into different groups according to their direction of glide? a. Definition, list There are 8 diphthongs in the English language, including: b. Classification English diphthongs can be classified according to the direction of glide: Diphthongs gliding to (centring group): Diphthongs gliding to (closing group): Diphthongs gliding to (closing group): , , , , , , , , , , , ,

6. What are the differences between a vowel and a consonant in the English language? Give example a. Definition - Consonants are speech sounds produced by creating an obstruction to the airstream during the articulation. - Vowels are speech sounds where the airstream escapes the oral tract (organ of speech) unobstructed. b. Differences Criteria Consonants Vowels

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English Phonetics Airstream movement: The airstream is obstructed The airstream passes freely during the articulation of the through the vocal track speech sound Consist of voiced and voiceless Consist of voiceless sounds sounds only /p/, /b/ , ,

Voicing Eg.

B. Practice 1. Write the symbol that correponds to each of the following phonetic description and then give an English word contaning the sound: a. high front unround lax vowel: b. mid front unround lax vowel: c. low front unround lax vowel: d. low back unround tense vowel: : e. low back slightly round lax vowel: f. mid back round tense vowel: g. mid central neutral lax vowel: h. mid central neutral tense vowel: : i. low central lax vowel: 2. Underline the word that: a. contains a diphthong: A. peep A. university c. contains a high vowel: A. sat A. duration A. superd A. twice A. spoon B. meet B. station B. supper B. headlight B. understood C. got C. smooth C. stupid C. funny C. good D. much D. crime D. swear D. fine D. food d. does not contain diphthong: e. contains a central low monothong: f. does not contain a monophthong: g. contains a round short vowel: B. quay B. utterance C. tie C. Oxford D. grease D. eat b. begins with a central vowel: bit / bet / hat / farm / top / cot / the / her / current / / / / / / / / / / (it can be )

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English Phonetics

UNIT 4 A. Theory

INTRODUCTION TO PHONOLOGY

1. What is phonology? Phonology is the description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language. ; 2. What is a phoneme / allophone? Prove your point of view - Phonemes are the smallest segments of sound that can be distinguished by their contrast within words. (Segments: are the smallest pieces of sound that are divided from a speech) - Allophone are phonemes derived from the same phoneme in different distribution. Eg. stop talking / [ ] and [
=

] are allophone of phoneme [ ]

3. What are the differences between phonemic transcription and allophonic (phonetic) transcription? Give example - Transcription is the use of a set of symbols representing sounds to show the sounds in written form. There are two kinds of transcription: phonemic (broad) transcription and allophinic (phonetic or narrow) transcription. Criteria Symbols Feature Phonemic transcription Uses slanting bracket Allophonic transcription Uses square bracket

Shows different phonemes that make Shows how sounds are pronounced up word. It does not show any extra including phonetic details features, no detail of pronunciation; (allophones) therefore, we cant look at this transcription to pronounce the word Car / :/ - shows the phonemes Car / :/ - show both phonemes involved in the word only. and phonetic detail. The symbol [ ] indicates that phoneme [k] is aspirated.

Eg

4. What can be stated as necessary conditions for forming a minimal set? Give set of words to illustrate In order to form a minimal set, we must have more than two words which are different in meaning, but they have the same number of segments and only one different segment in the same position/distribution. hoanguyen 13

English Phonetics Eg. bat / pad / /, but / /, pat / /, bet / /, pan / / /

5. What is a minimal pair / set? Give example - Minimal pair: is a pair of words which are different in meaning, having the same number of segments with only one different segment in the same position/distribution. Eg. hat / /, cat / / - the different segment is the first one. - Minimal set: is a set of more than two words of different meaning which have the same number of segment and only one different segment in the same position/distribution. Eg. bat / B. Practice 1. Which of the followings is a minimal pair? A. cater better / /-/ / / B. round bound /-/ B. table cable / / / / /-/ B. back bad /-/ / // / / C. rock box / /-/ / /, but / /, bet / / - the different segment is the middle one.

2. Which of the following is not a minimal pair? A. time mine / / /-/ /-/ A. road load C. teacher richer /-/ C. sea saw /-/ / /

UNIT 5 A. Rules

RULES FOR ENGLISH ALLOPHONES

Note: [+ voiced: voiced sound], [- voiced: voiceless sound] [+ aspirated: aspirated], [- aspirated: unaspirated] 1. Aspiration a. Aspirated Symbol: [ ] [- voiced, + plosive] [+ aspirated] when syllable initial. Means: voiceless plosive sounds (/p, t, k/) will be aspirated as they are the initial syllable, or when they stand in initial position of a stress syllable. Eg. car [ b. Unaspirated Symbol: [=] [- voiced, + plosive] [- aspirated] when standing: hoanguyen 14 :] important [ ] top [ ]

English Phonetics + after /s/ at the beginning of the syllable; or + in medial or final position of a syllable Eg. sport [
=

]happy [

map [

2. Unexploded articulation Symbol: [ ] ] adapt [ ] looked [ ] [- voiced, + plosive] unexploded before another [+ plosive] Eg. act [ 3. Dentalization Symbol: [ ] [+ alveolar] [+ dental] before [+ dental], means that alveolar (/t, d, s, z, l, n/) will be dentalized when it stand before a dental sounds (/ , /). Eg. eighth [ 4. Consonants: [+consonantal) longer when at the end of the word. Eg. mum [ Eg. cap [ 5. Devoicing Symbol: [ ] [+ approximant] devoiced after [+ aspirated, + plosive] Approximant (/w, r, j, l/) will be devoiced when stand after aspirated plosive. Eg. play [ ] cry [ ] between [ ] ] ]-/ / is pronounced longer. cook [ ]-/ / and / / are pronounced longer. [-voiced] longer when at the end of the word. ] width / /

6. Syllabicity (forming syllable without vowel) Symbol: [ ] [+ nasal] [+ syllabic] when at the end of the word and after [+ obstruent] (plosive, fricative or affricate) Eg. chasm [ Eg. channel [ 7. Velarization Symbol: [ ] ] ] mechnism [ metal [ ] ] [+lateral] [+ syllabic] when at the end of the word and after another consonant.

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English Phonetics [+ lateral] velarized when after a vowel and before another consonant; or at the end of the word. Eg. milk [ 8. More front articulation [+ velar] more front before more front vowels Eg. key [ / / and / ] gap [ ] / become more front as they stand before front vowels ]file [ ] mill [ ]

9. Vowel quality a. [+vowel] longer in open syllables (no consonant after the vowel). Eg. see [ :] key [ ]

b. [+ vowel] longer in stressed syllable. Eg. populate [ ] population [ ]

c. [+ vowel] shorter before voiceless sounds in the same syllable. Eg. lap [ ] hit [ ] the vowel is pronounced shorter.

d. [+ vowel] [+ nasal] before [+ nasal] Symbol: [ ] ] calm [ ] bean [ ] ] Eg. ban [

5. [+ front vowel] [retracted] before syllable final / Eg. milk [ B. Exercises ]calory [ ]

/; or before velarized [

1. Give some allophones of the phoneme /k/ that occurs in different distribution? [ ] - /k/ is aspirated when it is initial syllable; or stands in initial position of stress syllable. Eg. car [ ] can [ ]

= [ ] - /k/ is unaspirated when it stands aster /s/ in the beginning syllable; or in the medial or final position of the word.

Eg. scar [ [ Eg. act [

] ]

book [

] cooked [ ]

] - /k/ is unexploded as it stands before another plosive.

[The same is applied to other voiceless plosive (/p, t/)].

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English Phonetics 2. What happens to an English fortis plosive when they are preceded by a voiceless alveolar fricative? Give one example for each plosive of this kind. When an English fortis (voiceless) plosive (/p, t, k/) is preceded by a voiceless alveolar fricative (/s/), it will be unaspirated. Eg. Eg. sport [ sky [ stay [ ] ] ]

3. Transcribe the word PRACTICAL phonetically, then give the description of the transcribed consonants. Practical [ ]

4. Show the differences between the underlined sounds in the following pair of words a. wide [ ] Width [ skill [ ] ] The first one is longer, the f. quite second is dentalized. [ ] /k/ in the first word is g. good longer as it stand at the [ ] final position, /k/ in the second is unaspirated as standing after /s/. / / in the first word is h. truth shorten, but / / in the [ ] second is longer. /l/ in the first word is i. kilt velarized, but /l/ in the [ ] second word is devoiced /l/ in the first word is j. cook dentalized, but /l/ in the [k ] second word is unchanged sky [ food [ ] ] / / in the first word is shorter, but / / in the second is longer / / in the first word is a short vowel, but / / is a long vowel

b. quick [ ]

c.import [ ]

shore [ ]

true [ ]

/ :/ in the first word is shorter as standing before fortis sound, but / :/ in the second is longer / / in the first word is velarized, but / / in the second word is unchanged /k/ in the first word is unaspirated, but /k/ in the second one is aspirated

d. bill [ ]

plate [ ]

led [ ]

e.health [ ]

love [ ]

key [ ]

5. What do the following formulas mean? Give example for each case. a. [+ alveolar] [+ detal] before [+ dental] means alveolar (/n, t, d, s, z, l /) will be dentalized when it stands before a dental sound (/ , hoanguyen /). 17

English Phonetics Eg. eighth [ ] width [ ]

b. [+ approximant] [-voiced] after aspirated plosives means approximant (/w, r, j, l /) will be devoiced when it stands after aspirated plosives (/ , , /). Eg. play [ ] cry [ ] between [ ] c. [+ vowels] [+ nasal] before [+ nasal] means vowel will be nasalized as standing before a nasal sound (/m, n, /). Eg. ban [ ] calm [ ] bean [ ]

UNIT 6 A. Theory

ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH

1. What is assimilation in the English language? Give example Assimilation is a process when one sound adapts itself to the neighbouring sound so that it becomes close to the assimilating one in one or more aspects. Eg. in the [ right place [ ][ ][ ] ]

2. What is elision / liaision? Give example Elision is the missing out of a consonant or vowel or both in informal spoken English or in rapid speech in English. Eg. word. today [ potato [ Eg. come in [ ]-/ ]-/ ] / is disappeared / is disappeared set up [ ] acts [ ]-/ / will be disappeared in the articualtion of the word. ]-/ / will be disappeared in the articualtion of the looked back [

Liaision is a phenomenon where a sound is linked to another in informal speech.

3. What is the difference between progressive assimilation and regressive assimilation? Prove it. Consider a case where two words are combined, the first word ends with a single final consonant (Cf) and the second one starts with a single initial consonant (Ci). We have the following construction: ..Cf | Ci In progressive assimilation, the initial consonant (Ci) changes to become like the final consonant (Cf) in some ways, whereas (Cf) changes to become like (Ci) in some aspects in regressive assimilation. Eg. regressive assimilation: good morning [ one more [ hoanguyen ][ ][ ] 18 ];

English Phonetics progressive assimilation: in the [ ][ ]

4. What is the difference between elision and liaison? Prove Elision is the missing out of the consonant or vowel or both in informal spoken or rapid speech, whereas liaision is the linking of a sound to another in informal speech. Eg. Eg. today [ come in [ ]-/ / is disappeared (elision) ] (liaison) ] [

5. Give example of liaison of consonant and vowel Liaision is the phenomenon in which a sound is linked to another in informal speech. Eg. come in [ my turn [ ] (final consonant + initial vowel) ] (final vowel + initial consonant)

6. What are the types of assimilation? Give example a. According to the direction of change - Regressive assimilation: Ci Cf Eg. good morning [ one more [ - Progressive assimilation: Cf Ci Eg. in the [ ][ ] b. According to the way which phonemes change Assimilation of place of articulation: Alveolar (/t, d, n/) + bilabial (/p, b, m/) bilabial /t/ + /p, b, m/ /p/ /d/ + /p, b, m/ /b/ /n/ + /p, b, m/ /m/ /t/ + / , /d/ + / , /n/ + / , /s/ + / /z/ + / , , // / // // / / / / right place [ good boy [ ten men [ white coat [ bad guy [ one cup [ this year [ nice shoes [ those shops [ Assimilation of manner of articulation: Plosive (/t, d/) + fricative (/s, z/) / nasal (/n/) fricative / nasal ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ /) palato-alveolar ][ ][ ][ ]; ] ] ] ][ ] ] ] ] ] ][ ][ ] ];

Alveolar (/t, d, n/) + velar (/ , /) velar

Alveolar (/s, z/) + palato-alveolar (/ /) / palatal (/

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English Phonetics /t, d/ + /s/ /s/ /t, d/ + /z/ /z/ /t, d/ + /n/ /n/ Plosive / nasal (/t, d, n/) + fricative (/ /t, d, n/ + / / /t, d, n/ that side [ good song [ that zoo [ bad zone [ hot night [ good night [ /) plosive / nasal get them [ read these [ in the [ Assimilation of voicing in consonant: Lenis (voiced) / bad toy [ big car [ , , / fortis (voiceless) / ][ ][ :] [ ] :] , , / ] + ; + ; + ][ ][ ][ ] ] ] ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ][ ] ] ] ] ] ]

tomb place [

Note: fortis + lenis no assimilation. 7. Types of elision: a. Definition: Elision is the missing out of a consonant or vowel or both in informal spoken English or in rapid speech in English. b. Types of elision Consonant: Plosive + plosive + plosive / fricative the middle plosive will disapprear Eg. looked back [ / / / / / + plosive / nasal / fricative / Eg. last time [ Eg. left door [ Eg. kind nurse [ Eg. skimmed milk [ Loss of / / in of + consonant Eg. lots of them : / + plosive / nasal / fricative / / : ] last song [ : ] :] ] : ] / ] laft shoe [ / / ] seemed good [ ]; ] last night [ ] left mountain [ : ] canned bacon [ acts [ ]

/ + nasal / lenis (voiced) plosive / / + nasal / lenis (voiced) plosive /

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English Phonetics Vowel: Fortis plosive aspirated + weak vowel / Eg. today [ Weak vowel (/ , /) + / Eg. tonight [ 8. Types of liaision: Liaision: is the a phenomemon in which a sound is linked to another in informal speech Final consonant + initial vowel: Eg. come in [ Final vowel + initial vowel: Eg. my turn [ Final vowel + initial vowel: Eg. the end [ Final / / + initial vowel: : : r B. Practice: 1. Explain why [ ] is chosen for substitution for [ ] instead of the other sounds in the phrase good girl when it is pronunced by native English speaker in casual speech. State the principle for this phenomenon. Good girl [ : ][ : ] ] because they have the same place of articulation; there [ ] is chosen for the substitution for [ for the articulation is simplified. Principle: alveolar + velar velar 2. Give phonetic transcription and explain changes (if any) in term of assimilation, elision or liaision a. this sharp pen is mine, and that pen is your [ [ : : : ]: / , , / is assimlated into / ] ] / as: alveolar + palato] ] Eg. her own [ Eg. media event [ ] : ] ] ] potato [ , , // ] delight [ , , , // , ] / become syllabic consonant ] / will disappear

Intrusive / /: letter a + vowel:

[ : ] [ alveolar palato-alveolar [ [ plosive ] [

]: the linking between final consonant and initial vowel ]: / / is assimilated into / /as: plosive + fricative

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English Phonetics [ vowel / ][ ]: the linking between final consonant / / and initial /; the assimilation between / / and / /: alveolar + palatal palatal alveolar

b. ten boys meet and said good morning [ [ [ bilabial [ : [ fricative [ [ bilabial ][ : : ]: / ] ] / is assimilated into / /: alveolar + bilabial

]: the linking between final consonant and initial vowel ][ ][ ][ ]: / ]: / / is assimilated into / /: plosive + fricative

/ is assimilated into / ]: /

/: alveolar + velar velar /: alveolar + bilabial

/ is assimilated into /

c. she acts particularly well in the first scene [ [ : : : : : ] : ]

[ : ]: the linking between final vowel and initial vowel; the elision of /t/: plosive + plosive + fricative [ [ [ [ : sound. ]: / ][ : ][ : / is missed out as standing after a fortis (voiceless) aspirated plosive ]: nasal + fricative nasal : ]: / // / as it stands before fricative ]: linking between final consonant and initial vowel

UNIT 7 A. Theory

STRESS

1. English word stress and its functions? a. Definition Stress is the pronunciation of a syllable with more force than the surrounding ones, that means the way the speakers use energy created from the lungs to make a syllable more prominent than the others. The salience of a sound or syllable is called stress. b. Functions Grammatical / syntactic function: Stress is used to change the word class without changing in the writing of the word. (noun has stress on the first syllable and verb has stress on the second syllable)

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English Phonetics Eg. abstract [ transport [ ] (n) abstract [ ] (n) transport [ ] (v) ] (v)

Stress is used to distinguish compound words from a free combination of words (if the stress is on the first element compound; if stress is on both elements free combination) Eg. whitehouse [ combination) ] (compound) white house [ ] (free

Stress is used to indicate grammatical structure of the words Eg. diplomat [ diplomacy [ diplomatic [ ] (n) person who works in diplomatic field ] (n) skill in dealing with people ] (adj) concerning diplomacy

Emphasis function: stress is employed to give emphasis to word to to contrast word with another. Stress helps to form the intonation. 2. What is meant by prominence of a stressed syllable in English? All stressed syllable have the one characteristic in common which is called prominence, means that this characteristic helps to distinguish stressed syllable from unstressed one. 3. What is the nature of English word stress? The nature of English word stress includes four factors: Loudness: stressed syllable is louder than unstressed one. Length: stressed syllable is pronounced longer than unstressed one. Pitch: stressed syllable has higher pitch than unstressed one. Quality of neighbouring vowel: the vowel of stressed syllable is different from the others

4. Placement of stress within word a. Stress on simple words: Two-syllable words: Verbs: + Stress is marked on the second syllable if it contain a long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonants. Eg. apply [ ] attract [ ] + Stress is on the first syllable if final syllable contains short vowel and one (or no) consonant. Eg. enter [ Eg. follow [ Exception: honest [ hoanguyen ] ] open [ borrow [ ] perfect [ : ] . ] ] 23 + Stress is placed on the first syllable if the final syllable contain diphthong Adjective, adv, preposition: same rule to verbs

English Phonetics + + Nouns: Stress is on the first syllable if second syllable contains a short vowel Eg. money [ Eg. design [ ] ] product [ balloon [ : ] ] Stress is marked on second syllable if it contain long vowel or diphthong

Noun and verb with identical spelling: stress is on the first syllable if it is noun and stress is on the second syllable if it is verb Eg. import [ export [ Three-syllable words: Verbs: + Stress is placed on the middle (second) syllable if final syllable contains a short vowel or ends with not more than one consonant. Eg. encounter [ ] determine [ : ] + Stress is on the final syllable if it contains a long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant. Eg. recommend [ Nouns and Adjectives: ] entertain [ ] ] (n) - [ ] (n) - [ ] (v) ] (v)

+ Stress is marked on middle (second) syllable if: final syllable contains a short vowel or ; middle syllable contains a long vowel or diphthong or ends with more than one consonant. Eg. disaster [ convenient [ : : ] potato [ ] ] discover [ ]

+ Stress is on the first syllable if: final syllable contains a short vowel and the middle syllable contains a short vowel and ends with not more than one consonant. Eg. quantity [ opportune [ : ] cinema [ ] generous [ ] custody [ ] ]

+ If final syllable contains a long vowel or diphthong or end with more than one consonant, stress is usually on the first syllable and the final syllable is said to have secondary stress. Eg. entellect [ b. Stress in complex words: Verbs ending in -ate: Two-syllable verb: stress is on the second syllable Eg. donate [ Eg. dominate [ Eg. investigate [ Adjective ending in -ative: hoanguyen 24 ] ] relate [ calculate [ ] ] ] Three-syllable verbs: stress is on the first syllable More than three syllables: stress is on the sencond one ] anticipate [ ] alkali [ ] marigold [ ]

English Phonetics Two and three-syllable adj: stress is on the first syllable Eg. attractive [ Eg. communicative [ -ee: employee [ -eer: engineer [ -ese: vietnamese [ -ette: cigarette [ -esque: picturesque [ -able: comfort [ -age: marry [ ] -al: approve [ :] -en: dark [ :] -ful: wonder [ ] -ing: amaze [ ] ] : ] ] comfortable [ ] marriage [ ] approval [:] darken [: ] wonderful [] amazing [ ] :] : ] : transferee [ ] volunteer [ ] japanese [ ] : ] : ] :] More than three syllable: stress is on the original place

Suffixes carrying primary stress themselves (secondary stress is on the first syllable):

Suffixes that do not affect stress placement:

-ish: book [ ] bookish [ ] (for Adjs or Vs with more than one syllable: stress is always on the syllable preceding -ish eg. demolish -like: bird [ :] -less: power [] -ly: careful [ ] -ment: punish [] -ous: poison [ ] -fy: glory [ ] -wise: clock [] -y (Adjs or Ns): fun [] -ness: homeless [ ] birdlike [: ] powerless [ ] carefully [] punishment [] homelessness [] poisonous [] glorify [] clockwise [] funny [] advantageous

Suffixes that influence the stem (attract stress to the syllable preceeding them): - -enous: advantage [:] [] -ial: adverb [:]

-graphy: photo [] photography [ ] adverbial [:] diplomatic [] graduation [] -ic: diplomat [] -ion: graduate [] -ious: injure [] ambitious [] -ty: equal [ :]

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English Phonetics -ive: impulse [] impulsive []

Suffixes: -ance, -ant and -ary Single-syllable words: stress is on the stem More than one syllable stem: stress is on one of them (use the rules above) Eg. importance [] + Otherwise (containing short vowel), stress is on the syllable preceding the final one. Eg. inheritance [] Prefixes: stress in words with prefixes is governed bu the same rules as those for words without prefixes. c. Stress on compound words Compounds = N + N: stress is on the first element Eg. typewriter []suitcase newspaper [ :] Eg. bad-tempered [] ] first-classs [::] Compounds functioning as adverbs: stress is on final element Eg. North-East [ :] downstream Compounds functioning as verbs and having an adverbial first element (the first element is adv): stress is on final element Eg. back-pedal [] up-grade [] but a bad-tempered teacher (Note: bad-tempered [] [ :]) d. Word-class pair Two words (two-syllable) with identical spelling, one of them is V and the other is either a N or an Adj: If stress is on the second syllable: it is V If stress is on the first syllable: it is N or Adj abstract contract [] (V) half-timbered [:]

+ If final syllable is strong (containing long vowel or diphthong): it has stress

Compound = Adj + N_ed / Compound = Number + N: stress is on the final element [:

Eg. abstract [] (Adj) [] (V) contract [] (N) B. Practice: 1. Mark the stress on the words below: a. optimistic [] c. autonomous [] hoanguyen

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English Phonetics [] e. representation f. tragedy [] [] g. freedom [:] h. championship []

2. Work out the rule for stress placement from the examples below: a. possibility [] capacity [] b. record [] (N) record [] (V) Word-class pair: Noun has stress on the first syllable while Verb has stress on the final syllable. Suffix -ty attracts stress to the syllable preceding it.

3. Mark the stress on the following compounds and then work out the rule blacksmith []: Compound = N+ N stress on the first element walking-stick []: free combination of words non-government []: Stress on words with prefix is based on the rules for those without prefix

- hot-tempered []: Compound = Adj + N_ed stress is on the final element

UNIT 8 A. Theory

INTONATION

1. English intonation and its function? a. Definition When speaking, people generally raise the pitch of their voice forming pitch pattern. They also give syllable in their utterances greater degree of loudness and change their speech rhythm. These phenomena are called intonation. In other words, intonation is the raises and falls in which level or pattern of pitch change. b. Functions Attitudinal function: Intonation enables us to express emotions and attitudes as we speak, and adds special meaning to spoken language. Accentual function: Intonation helps to produce the effect of prominence on syllables that need to be perceived as stressed. hoanguyen 27

English Phonetics Grammatical function: The listener is better able to recognise the grammar and syntactic structure of what is being said byusing information contained in the intonation. Discourse funtions: Intonation can signal to the listener what is to be taken as new information and what is already given 2. What are the basic tunes in English intonation and their uses? Falling tune (intonation): Uses: + In statement + In imparative sentence (cu mnh lnh khng c ch ng) + Wh-question Rules: + The voice decends step-wise on each stressed syllable. Unstressed syllables are on the same level at the preceding stressed syllable. + To avoid monotomy, speaker can make his voice used of the convenience of stressed syllable, but not as high as stressed syllable + For long statement, break them into different tunes. Eg. He goes to the cinema with her.

Raising tune (intonation): Uses: + Yes / No question + Imparative as request or statement as remark of emotion Rule: the voice ascends step-wise at each stress syllable ans then rises. Eg. Did you break the vase? (Note: Tr ng t trong cu hi Yes/No vn c stress)

Sustained tune: the combination of falling and raising tunes Uses: Clause: Subordinate clause: raising tune + Main clause: falling tune Eg. When he came, I asked him to wait


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English Phonetics Main clause: falling tune + Adv phrase: raising tune Eg. You can ask me, if necessary


Tag question: Eg. Its a nice day, isnt it? + Imply answer (agreement): statement: falling tune + tag: falling tune


+ Ask for information: statement: falling tune + tag: raising tune Eg. Its a nice day, isnt it?


3. Form of intonation a. Definition -

Tone-unit: is a unit generally greater in size than the syllable is needed to analyze the intonation. Tonic syllable: is a syllable which carries a tone will be called tonic syllable. Tonic syllable has a higher degree of prominence.

b. Structure of the tone unit TONE-UNIT = Prehead (PH) + Head (H) + Tone Syllable (TS) + Tail Prehead: all stressed syllable before the first stressed syllable Head: extends from the first stressed syllable up to the TS (not including TS) Tonic Syllable: main stressed syllable on which pitch movement begins Tail: the remained part (all unstressed syllable after TS) Eg. I have gone to the zoo. PH H TS

Im talking to a student now. PH B. Practice Mark the possible intonation for the following: a. Have you been to Marys wedding party? (raising tune Yes/No question) H TS Tail

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English Phonetics

b. You must take him home (falling tune imperative)

c. Get on with your dinner (falling tune imperative)

d. Shall I bring some sandwitches for you, too? (raising tune)

e. Please sit down (falling tune imperative)

f. If you like, Ill send the car for you (if-clause: raising tune + main clause: falling tune)

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