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INDEX
Sl.No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7

Description Cover Sheet Index Preface Foreword Approval Sheet Important Note Status of Amendments Welding - General Base Materials Welding Material Specification and Control Procedure for Welder Qualification Inspection of Welding Repair Welding Safe Practices in Welding Pre-Assembly & Welding of Ceiling Girders Pre-Assembly of High Crown Plates Erection Welding Practice for SA 335 P91 Material Argon Purity Level Use of resistance heating for PWHT of P-91 pipes General Tolerances for welding structures - (Form and position) (Doc. Ref. : AA0621105) Welding of pipes and pipes shaped connections in Steam Turbines, Turbo-Generators and Heat Exchangers (HW0620599) Instructions for carrying out condenser plate and neck welding Repair procedure of arresting the leakage of strength welds on tube to tube sheet joints of U tube HP heater Repair procedure of grey cast iron castings Special Instructions for the repair of Steam Turbine Casings Gas Metal Arc Welding Orbital Welding Edge Preparation Details Erection Procedure for Rear Water box and Rear water Chamber in condenser Welding & HT details of thermo couple pads & clamps for SH & RH Welding and PWHT sequence for lower ring header Demagnetization Procedure Erection Welding Practice for SA 213 T91 Material Selection Chart for Dummy end Covers for Hydraulic test / Nipples Free end Details (BHEL-Trichy) Schedule of Pipes

B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 B-7 B-8 B-9 B-10 B-11 B-12 B-13 B-14 B-15 B-16 B-17 B-18

Page No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 15 24 49 66 70 72 78 94 95 115 117 121

125 128 132 135 139 146 150 161 164 170 172 174 175 182 185

IMPORTANT
THIS WELDING MANUAL PROVIDES BROAD BASED GUIDELINES FOR WELDING WORK AT SITES. HOWEVER, SITES MUST ENSURE ADHERENCE TO THE PRIMARY DOCUMENTS LIKE CONTRACT DRAWINGS, ERECTION WELDING SCHEDULE, STATUTORY PLANT / CORPORATE STANDARDS, WHEREVER SUPPLIED,

DOCUMENTS,

WELDING

PROCEDURE

SPECIFICATIONS,

CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS, IF ANY AND SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS ISSUED BY RESPECTIVE MANUFACTURING UNITS SPECIFIC TO THE PROJECT.

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

STATUS OF AMENDMENTS

Sl.No.

Reference of Sheet(s) Amended

Amendment No. & Date

Remarks

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

CHAPTER A1 WELDING - GENERAL

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

WELDING-GENERAL
1.0 SCOPE: This manual deals with activities and information related to welding for site operations including P91 material. Where specific documents are supplied by the manufacturers, the same shall be adopted. 2. DOCUMENTS REFERRED:

2.1 The following documents are referred in preparation of this manual. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3. AWS D1.1 ASME sections I, II (A&C), V & IX ASME B31.1 IBR BHEL Manufacturing Units Standards & practices

PROCEDURE:

3.1 The following documents shall be referred as primary documents 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 Contract drawings Erection Welding Schedule or equivalent Plant / Corporate standards, where supplied Statutory documents Welding Procedure Specifications Contractual obligations, if any.

Welder Qualification: Ensure, personnel qualified as per statutory requirements are engaged, where required. For welding not under the purview of statutory requirements, qualification of welders shall be as in this manual. Monitor performance of qualified butt welders as in this manual. Ensure selection, procurement, storage, drying & issue of welding consumables, as detailed in this manual. List of approved vendors of general purpose welding electrodes as provided by BHEL, Tiruchy Unit shall be used for selection of brands at sites . Alternatively specific contractual requirements, if any may be followed.

3.3 3.4

3.4.1

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

10

3.4.1.1 Where Tiruchy list does not cover site requirements, such specific cases may be referred

to concerned unit and Head(Qly) of the region. 3.5 Welding in-charge shall assign a unique identification for all the butt welds coming under the purview of statutory regulations. Such identification may be traceable through documents like drawings, sketches etc. A welding job card incorporating the welding parameters and heat treatment requirements is recommended to be issued for all critical welds like pressure part welds, piping welds, ceiling girder welds. A format of the job card is enclosed for illustration. Heat Treatment: Preheat, inter pass, post heat and Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) requirements shall be as per applicable documents; where these are not supplied, reference may be made to Welding / Heat Treatment Manual. Prior to PWHT operation, a job card containing material specification, weld reference, size, rate of heating, soaking temperature, soaking time and rate of cooling shall be prepared referring to applicable documents, and issued. The PWHT chart shall contain the chart number, Weld Joint No., Temperature recorder details (like Sl.No., make, range, chart speed) , date of PWHT, start and end time of operation . The chart shall be evaluated and results recorded on the PWHT job card. Refer Heat Treatment Manual (Document No. PSQ-HTM-COM) for details. Equipment & Instruments: Equipment/accessories used shall be assessed for fitness prior to use. Use calibrated temperature recorders. Thermal chalks shall be batch tested prior to use. Inspection: Inspection of welding may be done as per Chapter A5 and records maintained as appropriate.

3.5.1

3.6 3.6.1

3.6.2

3.6.3

3.6.4

3.7 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 3.8 3.8.1

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

11

3.8.2

Weld log containing the following information shall be prepared for all completed systems. Project / Unit reference Drawing No. Weld Joint No. EWS / Equivalent Material specification Welder code Date of welding NDE report No. and results (including repair details) PWHT Chart No. and results Remarks, if any.

3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2

Safety: Safe access to weld area shall be provided. Adequate protection shall be provided against excessive wind and rain water entry during welding. Records:

3.10

3.10.1 All records, as required, shall be maintained by welding in-charge.

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

12

WELDING JOB CARD WELDING JOB CARD


Page 1 of 2 Project Unit No. Job Card No. Joint No. Drawing No. System Description Size (Dia. x thick) Material Specification Welder No.(s) Date of welding Filler wire Specification Electrode Specification Preheat temperature Inter pass temperature Post Heat temperature PWHT temperature : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Welding Engineer Page 2 of 2 FILLER WIRE / ELECTRODE CONSUMPTION GTAW Filler wire SMAW 2.5 mm 3.15 mm 4.0 mm : : : : Area: Boiler / TG / PCP Date:

Date of LPI for RG Plug Remarks Date of Return

: : :

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

13

JOB CARD (WELDING, HEAT TREATMENT & ND EXAMINATION) FOR P91 WELDS Card No.: Project : System: PGMA: Material Specification: Filler GTAW metal: Joint fit-up: No. of T/Cs: Welders ID: Preheat Temp.: Purging flow rate: Shielding flow rate: Interpass Temp.: Holding Temp.: PWHT: Soaking time Preheating started at Root welding started at Welding started at Hrs. Hrs. C Minimum Litres / min. Min. WT: Location : + Date: Unit No. Contractor: Drawing No. DU No.: OD (mm): SMAW Root gap: Root mismatch: Distance from EP edge: M/c No.: Rate of heating: Purging time: Distance bet. dams: C per hour Minutes Metres C per hour C per hour 300 C Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Log sheet filled: mm Y/N Joint No.: Thick(mm)

Litres / min. for GTAW

C Maximum C Hrs. on Hrs.

Rate of cooling: Rate of heating / cooling: Preheating completed at Root welding completed at Welding completed at C and C Holding completed at

C for min. 1 hour. for post heating

Minutes (2.5 minutes per mm) Cooling to:

Interpass temp. maintained between Holding temp. reached at Location No. of T/Cs: : PWHT started at Soaking completed at UT Equipment used: UT carried out on MPI Equipment used: MPI carried out on Hardness test Equipment used: Hardness test carried out on History of interruption if any, with time: Contractor Hrs. on Hrs.

Soaking started at . 300C reached at Calibration validity: Result : OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Result: OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Value:

Hrs. Hrs.

BHEL

Customer

WELDING MANUAL

A1. WELDING-GENERAL

14

Card No.: Project : System: PGMA:

JOB CARD (WELDING, HEAT TREATMENT & ND EXAMINATION) FOR T91 WELDS Date: Unit No. Contractor: Drawing No. DU No.: + OD (mm): SMAW Root gap: Location : C Minimum Litres / min. Root mismatch: Distance from EP edge: M/c No.: Rate of heating: Purging time: Distance bet. dams: C per hour Minutes Metres C per hour C per hour 300 C Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Hrs. Log sheet filled: Y/N Joint No.: Thick(mm)

Material Specification: Filler GTAW metal: Joint fit-up: No. of T/Cs: Welders ID: Preheat Temp.: Purging flow rate: Shielding flow rate: Interpass Temp.: Holding Temp.: PWHT: Soaking time Preheating started at Root welding started at Welding started at Hrs. Min. t:

mm

Litres / min. for GTAW

C Maximum C Hrs. on Hrs.

Rate of cooling: Rate of heating / cooling: Preheating completed at Root welding completed at Welding completed at C and C

C for min. 1 hour. for post heating

Minutes (2.5 minutes per mm) Cooling to:

Interpass temp. maintained between Holding temp. reached at Location No. of T/Cs: : PWHT started at Soaking completed at UT Equipment used: UT carried out on MPI Equipment used: MPI carried out on Hardness test Equipment used: Hardness test carried out on History of interruption if any, with time: Contractor Hrs. on Hrs. Hrs.

Holding completed at

Soaking started at . 300C reached at Calibration validity: Result : OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Result: OK / Not OK Calibration validity: Value:

Hrs. Hrs.

BHEL

Customer

WELDING MANUAL

A2 BASE MATERIALS

15

CHAPTER A2 BASE MATERIALS

WELDING MANUAL

A2 BASE MATERIALS

16

BASE MATERIALS 1.0 SCOPE:

1.1 This chapter contains tabulations of chemical compositions and mechanical properties of various materials generally used in BHEL sites. 2.0 CONTENTS: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Table A2.1 Table A2.2 Table A2.3 Table A2.4 Table A2.5 Table A2.6 Table A2.7 Pipes (ASME) Tubes (ASME) Forgings (ASME) Castings (ASME) Plates / Sheets (ASME) Pipes (Other specifications) Tubes (Other specifications)

3.0

The data are for general information purposes. The corresponding P numbers are also indicated. For materials not covered in this chapter, the supplier shall be contacted.

4.0

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Table- A2.1 Pipes


Chemical Composition (%) Sl. P.No. / No. Group No. Material Specification Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S Kg / Kg / %E mm2 mm2 Min. (MPa) (MPa)
42(415) 25(240) 30

Mn

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

SA 106 Gr. B (Remarks: Carbon 1 P1/1 restricted to CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 0.25% Max.) SA 106 Gr. C 2 P1/2 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.25% Max.) SA 335 P 12 SA 335 P 22 SA 335 P91

0.30 Max.

0.29-1.06

0.035 Max.

0.035 Max.

0.10 Min.

0.40 Max.

0.40 Max.

0.15 Max.

0.08 Max

AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


0.35 Max. 0.291.06 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.10 Min. 0.40 Max. 0.15 Max.

0.40

49(485)

28(275)

30

3 4 5

P4/1 P 5A / 1 P 15E /1

0.15 Max. 0.15 Max. 0.080.12

0.300.61 0.300.60 0.300.60

0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.02 Max.

0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.01 Max.

0.50 Max. 0.50 Max. 0.200.50

0.40 Max.

0.801.25 1.902.60 8.009.50

0.440.65 0.871.13 0.851.05

0.18-0.25

42(415) 42(415) 60(585)

21(220) 21(205) 42(415)

30 30 20

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Table-A2.2 Tubes
Chemical Composition (%) Sl. No. 1 P.No. / Group No. P1/1 Material Specification (ASME) SA 192 SA 210 Gr A1 2 P1/1 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.25% Max.) SA 179 SA 210 Gr C 4 P1/2 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.30% Max.) SA 209 T1 SA 213 T11 SA 213 T12 SA 213 T22 SA 213 T5 SA 213 T9 SA 213 T91 SA 213 TP 304 H 0.35 Max. 0.29- 1.06 0.27 Max. 0.93 Max. C 0.06-0.18 Mn 0.27-0.63 P 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.02 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. S 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.01 Max. 0.03 Max. 0.03 Max. Si 0.25 Max. Ni Cr Mo V Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. (MPa) (MPa) 33(325) 18(180) 35

0.10 Max.

42(415)

26(255)

30

P1/1

0.06-0.18

0.27-0.63

33(325)

18(180)

35

0.10 Max.

49(485)

28(275)

30

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

P3/1 P4/1 P4/1 P5A/1 P5B/1 P5B/1 P15E/1 P8/1

0.10- 0.20 0.05-0.15 0.05-0.15 0.05-0.15 0.15 Max. 0.15 Max. 0.07- 0.14 0.04- 0.10

0.30- 0.80 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.61 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60 0.30- 0.60 2.00 Max.

0.10- 0.50 0.50-1.00 0.50 Max. 0.50 Max. 0.50 Max. 0.25-1.00 0.20- 0.50 1.00 Max.

0.40 Max. 8.0011.00 9.0013.00

1.001.50 0.801.25 1.902.60 4.006.00 8.0010.00 8.009.50 18.00 20.00 17.00 19.00

0.44-0.65 0.44-0.65 0.44- 0.65 0.87- 1.13 0.45- 0.65 0.90- 1.10 0.85- 1.05 0.180.25 -

39(380) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 42(415) 60(585) 53(515)

21(205) 21(205) 22(220) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205) 42(415) 21(205)

30 30 30 30 30 30 20 35

13

P8/1

SA 213 TP 347 H (Cb + Ta Stabilised)

0.04- 0.10

2.00 Max.

1.00 Max.

53(515)

21(205)

35

WELDING MANUAL

19

Table A2.3 Forgings


Chemical Composition (%) Sl. No. P.No. / Group No. Material Specification SA 105 (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.25% Max.) SA 182 F11 Class 3 SA 182 F 12 Class 2 SA 182 F 22 Class 3 SA 182 F91 C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo V Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. (MPa) (MPa)

P1/2

0.35 Max. 0.100.20 0.10-0.20 0.15 Max. 0.08-0.12

0.601.05 0.300.80 0.30-0.80 0.30-0.60 0.30-0.60

0.035 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.02 Max.

0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.01 Max.

0.10.35. 0.501.00 0.10-0.60 0.50 Max. 0.20-0.50

0.40 Max.

0.30 Max. 1.001.50 0.80-1.25 2.00-2.50 8.00-9.50

0.12 Max.

0.08 Max

49(485)

25(250)

30

2 3 4 5

P4/1 P4/1 P5A/1 P15E/1

0.40 Max.

0.44-0.65 0.44-0.65 0.87-1.13 0.85-1.05

0.18-0.25

49(515) 49(485) 53(515) 60(585)

28(310) 28(275) 32(310) 42(415)

20 20 20 20

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Table A2.4 Castings


Chemical Composition (%) Sl. No. P.No. / Group No. Material Specification (ASME) SA 216 WCB (Remarks: Carbon restricted to 0.25% Max.) SA 216 WCC SA 217 WC6 SA 217 WC 9 SA 351 CF 8 SA 351 CF 8M SA 351 CF 8C SA 351 CH 20 C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. (MPa) (MPa) 49(485) 25(250) 22

P1/2

0.30 Max.

1.00 Max.

0.04 Max.

0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max.

0.60 Max.

0.50 Max.

0.50 Max.

0.20 Max.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

P1/2 P4/1 P5A/1 P8/1 P8/1 P8/1 P8/2

0.25 Max. 0.20 Max. 0.18 Max. 0.08 Max. 0.08 Max. 0.08 Max. 0.04-0.20

1.20 Max. 0.50-0.80 0.40-0.70 1.50 Max. 1.50 Max. 1.50 Max. 1.50 Max.

0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max.

0.60 Max. 0.60 Max. 0.60 Max. 2.00 Max. 1.50 Max. 2.00 Max. 2.00 Max.

0.50 Max. 8.0011.00 9.0012.00 9.0012.00 12.0015.00

0.50 Max. 1.00-1.50 2.00-2.75 18.0021.00 18.0021.00 18.0021.00 22.0026.00

0.20 Max. 0.45-0.65 0.90-1.20 0.50 Max. 2.00- 3.00 0.50 Max. 0.50 Max.

49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485) 49(485)

28(275) 28(275) 28(275) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205) 21(205)

22 20 20 35 30 30 30

WELDING MANUAL Table A2.5 Plates / Sheets


Chemical Composition (%) Sl. No. P.No. / Group No. Material Specification C 0.25-0.29 0.21-0.27 0.31 Max. 0.30 Max. 0.35 Max. 0.17 Max. 0.15 Max. 0.06-0.15 0.08 Max. 0.23 Max. 0.22 Max. 0.20 Max. 0.20 Max. 0.20 Max. Mn 0.80-1.20 0.55-1.30 0.79-1.30 0.84-1.62 1.30 Max. 0.35-0.73 0.25-0.66 0.25-0.66 2.00 Max. 1.50 Max. 1.50 Max. 1.50 Max. 1.60 Max. 1.0-1.7 P 0.04 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.025 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.050 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.03 Max S 0.05 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.012 Max. 0.03 Max. 0.050 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.025 Max. Si 0.40 Max. 0.13-0.45 0.13-0.45 0.13-0.45 0.13-0.45 0.13-0.45 0.50 Max. 0.18-0.56 0.75 Max. 0.40 Max. 0.40 Max. 0.45 Max. 0.60 Max. Ni 0.43 Max. 8.0010.50 0.80 Max. Cr 0.74-1.21 1.88-2.62 7.90-9.60 18.0020.00 0.30 Max. Mo 0.40-0.65 0.85-1.15 0.80-1.10 0.10 Max.

21

V 0.16-0.27 0.20 Max.

Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. (MPa) (MPa) 53(415) 49(485) 53(515) 49(485) 46(450) 52(515) 60(585) 53(515) 42 42 42 55 (500-650 21(220) 27(260) 29(275) 27(260) 28(275) 32(310) 42(415) 21(205) 25 25 25 40 320-420 25 21 19 21 22 18 18 40 23 23 23 20 1819

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

P1/1 P1/1 P1/2 P1/2 P1/2 P4/1 P5A/1 P15E/1 P8/1

SA 36 SA 516 Gr 60 SA 516 Gr 70 SA 299 SA 515 Gr 70 SA 387 Gr 12 Class 2 SA 387 Gr 22 Class 2 SA 387 Gr 91 SA 240 TYPE 304 IS 2062 Gr.A IS 2062 Gr.B IS 2062 Gr.C IS 8500-540 BSEN10025Gr 420N

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Table-A2.6 Pipes (Other Specifications)


Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 P.No. / Group No. P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 Material Specification DIN St. 35.8 DIN St. 45.8 BS 3602 / 410 BS 3602 / 460 BS 3604 620-460 HFS or CDS 620-440 BS 3604 622 HFS or CDS BS 3604 HFS 660 Or CDS 660 X20CrMoV121 DIN17175 Chemical Composition (%) C 0.17 Max. 0.21 Max. 0.21 Max. 0.22 Max. 0.10-0.15 0.10-0.18 0.080.15 0.15 Max. 0.17-0.23 Mn 0.400.80 0.45-1.20 0.40-1.20 0.80-1.40 0.40 Max. 0.40-0.70 0.400.70 0.400.70 1.00 P 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.030 Max. S 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.030 Max. Si 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.35 Max. 0.35 Max. 0.10-0.35 0.100.35 0.50 Max. Ni Cr 0.70-1.10 0.70-1.10 2.00 2.50 Mo 0.45-0.65 0.450.65 0.901.20 V Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S Y.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. 36.7024 25 48.96 41.8026 21 54.10 41.8225 22 56.10 46.9028.60 21 61.20 46.9018.36 22 62.22 44.9029.58 22 60.20 48.80 26.80 17

P4/1

P5/1

0.10-0.35 0.50

0.25-0.50 10.0012.50

0.50-0.70

0.22-0.30

47.30

30

17

P5B / 2

0.30-0.80

0.80-1.20

0.25-0.35

70-86

50

17

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Table-A2.7 Tubes
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P.No. / Group No. P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P1/1 P3/1 P4/1 P4/1 P5/1 P5/1 P5/1 P5B / 2 Material Specification DIN St. 35.8 DIN St. 45.8 BS 3059 / 360 BS 3059 / 440 15 Mo3 DIN17175 13 Cr Mo 44 DIN17175 BS 3059 / 620 10 Cr Mo 910 DIN17175 BS 3059 (622) 440 BS 3059 (622) 490 14 Mo V 63 DIN17175 X20CrMoV121 DIN17175 Chemical Composition (%) C 0.17 Max. 0.21 Max. 0.17 Max. 0.12-0.18 0.12-0.20 0.100.18 0.10-0.15 0.08-0.15 0.08-0.15 0.08-0.15 0.10-0.18 0.17-0.23 Mn 0.400.80 0.40-1.20 0.400.80 0.90-1.20 0.400.80 0.400.70 0.400.70 0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 1.00 P 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.030 Max. S 0.04 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.045 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.04 Max. 0.040 Max. 0.035 Max. 0.030 Max. Si 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.35 Max. 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.10-0.35 0.50 Max. 0.50 Max. 0.50 Max. 0.10-0.35 0.50 0.30-0.80 Ni Cr 0.70-1.10 0.70-1.10 2.00-2.50 2.00-2.50 2.00-2.50 0.30-0.60 10.0012.50 Mo 0.25-0.35 0.450.65 0.450.65 0.90-1.20 0.90-1.20 0.90-1.20 0.50-0.70 0.80-1.20 V 0.22-0.32 0.25-0.35 Mechanical Properties (Min.) T.S T.S %E Kg / mm2 Kg / mm2 Min. 36.7024 25 48.96 41.8026 21 54.06 36.7022 24 51.00 44.8825 21 59.20 45.9027.50 22 61.20 44.8829.60 22 60.18 46.9018.40 22 62.20 45.9028.60 20 61.20 44.9017.85 20 60.18 49.9828.05 20 65.00 46.9032.60 20 62.22 70-86 50 17

Table- A2.7 Tubes (Other Specifications)

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CHAPTER - A3 WELDING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION AND CONTROL

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25

WELDING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION AND CONTROL 1.0 SCOPE: This chapter gives details for welding material specification and control at sites. 2.0 CONTENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 3.0 Table- A3.1 - Weld Metal Chemical Composition. Table-A3.2 - Mechanical property requirement for all-weld metal. Receipt inspection of welding electrodes/filler wires. Storage and identification of welding electrodes/filler wires. Drying and holding of welding electrodes. Selection and issue of welding electrodes/filler wires. Table-A3.3 - Selection of GTAW filler wire, SMAW electrodes for butt welds in tubes, pipes, headers. Table-A3.4 - Selection of electrodes for welding attachments to tubes. Table-A3.5 - Selection of electrodes, preheat, PWHT for attachment to attachment welds. Table-A3.6 - Selection of electrodes for welding nozzle attachments, hand hole plate, RG plug etc. to headers, pipes. Table-A3.7 Selection of filler wire and electrodes for non-pressure parts ( including structures ) Table-A3.8 - A numbers Table-A3.9 - F numbers SFA Classification

For welding consumables not covered in this chapter, relevant details may be obtained from the Manufacturing Units.

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26

Table A3.1 WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Electrode E 6010 E 6013 E 7018 / E 7018-1 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 9015-B9 / E 9018-B9 E 308 E 308-L E 309 E 309-L E 347 ENi-Cl ENiFe-Cl SFA No. 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.15 5.15 Weight, % S Ni NS 0.30 NS 0.30 0.035 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.30 NS NS NS 0.80 9.0011.00 9.0011.00 12.0014.00 12.0014.00 9.0011.00 85 d min 45d-60 Other Elements % Cr 0.20 0.20 0.20 NS 1.00-1.50 2.00-2.50 8.0010.50 18.0021.00 18.0021.00 22.0025.00 22.0025.00 18.0021.00 NS NS Mo 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.40-0.65 0.40-0.65 0.90-1.20 0.85-1.20 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 NS NS V 0.08 0.08 0.08 NS NS NS 0.15-0.30 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Cu NS NS NS NS NS NS 0.04-0.25 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 2.5e 2.5e Cb+Ta 8XC Min. to 1.00 Max. Fe Al others 8.0 1.0 Total 1.0 Fe Al others Remf 1.0 Total 1.0 Combined Limit for Mn+Ni+Cu+Mo+V=1.75

C 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.12 0.05-0.12 0.05-0.12 0.08-0.13 0.08 0.04 0.15 0.04 0.08 2.00 2.00

Mn 1.20 1.20 1.60 0.90 0.90 0.90 1.20 0.50-2.50 0.50-2.50 0.50-2.50 0.50-2.50 0.50-2.50 2.50 2.50

Si 1.00 1.00 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.30 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 4.00

P NS NS 0.035 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 NS NS

Note : Single values are maximum permissible limits. NS Not Specified

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27

Table A3.1(Contd) WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Electrode ER70S-2 ER80S-G ER90S-G ER80S-B2 ER90S-B3 ER80S-D2 ER90S-B9 ER 308 ER 309 ER 309-L ER 347 SFA No. 5.18 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 Weight, % S Ni 0.035 0.15 Other Elements % Ti 0.050.15 Zr 0.020.12 Al 0.050.15

C 0.07

Mn 0.90-1.40

Si 0.40-0.70

P 0.025

Cr 0.15

Mo 0.15

V 0.03

Cu 0.50b

0.07-0.12 0.07-0.12 0.07-0.12 0.07-0.13 0.08 0.12 0.03 0.08

0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 1.60-2.10 1.20 1.00-2.50 1.00-2.50 1.00-2.50 1.00-2.50

0.40-0.70 0.40-0.70 0.50-0.80 0.15-0.30 0.30-0.65 0.30-0.65 0.30-0.65 0.30-0.65

0.025 0.025 0.025 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

Not Specified Not Specified 0.025 0.20 0.025 0.20 0.025 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.80 9.0011.00 12.0014.00 12.0014.00 9.0011.00

1.20-1.50 2.30-2.70 NS 8.0010.50 19.5022.00 23.0025.00 23.0025.00 19.0021.50

0.40-0.65 0.90-1.20 0.40-0.60 0.80-1.20 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

NS NS NS 0.15-0.23 NS NS NS NS

0.35c 0.35c 0.50c 0.20 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75

Total other Elements 0.50 Total other Elements 0.50 Total other Elements 0.50 Total other Elements 0.50

Cb+Ta 10XC Min. to 1.0 Max.

Note : Single values are maximum permissible limits. NS Not Specified

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28

TABLE A3.1 (Contd) WELD METAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION a) These elements may be present but are not intentionally added. b) The maximum weight percent of copper in the rod or electrode due to any coating plus the residual copper content in the steel shall be 0.50. c) The maximum weight percent of copper in the rod or electrode due to any coating plus the residual copper content in the steel shall comply with the stated value. d) Nickel plus incident Cobalt. e) Copper plus incident Silver. f) Rem stands for remainder. g) Manufacturers certification to have met the requirements of ASME Sec. II Part C is acceptable in cases where the chemical analysis are not reflected. h) Single values are maximum.

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29

Table-A3.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENT FOR ALL-WELD METAL

Electrode

SFA No. 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.15 5.15 5.18

Tensile Strength Ksi / MPa 60 / 430 60 /430 70 / 490 70 / 490 70 / 490 80 /550 90 /620 90 /620 80 / 550 75 / 520 80 / 550 75 / 520 75 / 520 40-65 / 276-448 58-84 / 400 -579 70 /490

Yield Strength at 0.2% of Proof Stress, ksi/ MPa 48 / 330 48 / 330 58 / 400 58 / 400 57 / 390 67 / 460 77 / 530 77 / 530 38-60 / 268-414 43-63 / 294 -434 58 / 400

Elongation In 2 inch (50.8 mm) % 22 17 22 22 22 19 17 17 35 35 30 30 30 3-6 6-18 22

E6010 E6013 E7018 E7018-1* E7018-A1 E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E9018-B9 E308 E308L E309 E309L E347 ENi-CI ENiFe-CI ER70S-2

ER80S-B2

5.28

80 / 550

68 / 470

19
average minimum

* - These electrodes shall meet the lower temperature impact requirement of 20 ft-lb at - 50F. ( 27 Joules at 46 C)

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30

Table- A3.2 (Contd..) MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENT FOR ALL-WELD METAL

Electrode

SFA No. 5.28 5.28 5.28 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9

Tensile Strength Ksi / MPa 90 / 620 80 / 550 90 / 620

Yield Strength at 0.2% of Proof Stress, ksi / Mpa 78 / 540 68 / 470 60 / 410

Elongation In 2 inch (50.8 mm) % 17 17 16

ER90S-B3 ER80S-D2 ER90S-B9 ER308 ER308L ER309 ER309L

These values are not required in the test certificate

ER347

5.9

NOTE:

a) Single values are minimum. b) Manufacturers certification to have met the requirements of ASME-Section II Part C is acceptable in cases where the mechanical properties are not reflected. c) 1ksi is approximately equal to 6.89 Mpa.

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31

RECEIPT INSPECTION OF WELDING ELECTRODES / FILLER WIRES


1.

All electrodes/filler wires received at site stores shall be segregated for type and size of electrode. Ensure that electrode packets received are free from physical damage. Where electrodes are damaged, the same shall be removed from use. Only electrodes identified in the list of approved vendors of welding electrodes are to be accepted. Where filler metals are supplied by manufacturing unit, inspect for damages, if any. Ensure availability of relevant test certificates. Refer tables of chemical compositions and mechanical properties for acceptance. Endorse acceptance/rejection on the test certificate.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

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32

STORAGE & IDENTIFICATION OF WELDING ELECTRODES/FILLER WIRES

1.0 1.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

SCOPE: This procedure is applicable for storage of welding electrodes/filler wires used at sites. PROCEDURE: Only materials accepted (based on receipt inspection) shall be taken into account for storage. Storage Facility: The storage facility shall be identified. Access shall be restricted to authorised personnel. The storage area shall be clean and dry. Steel racks may be used for storage. Avoid storing wood inside the storage room. Maintain the temperature of the storage facility above the ambient temperature. This can be achieved by the use of appropriate heating arrangements. The electrodes/filler wire shall be segregated and identified for a. b. Type of electrode e.g. E7018. Size of electrode e.g. Dia 3.15 mm.

2.3

2.4 2.4.1

Colour coding for filler wires: On receipt of GTAW filler wires, codify the filler wires as below, in case embossing is not available on either ends. Both ends shall be colored. Specification Brand Name* TGS-M / Union1 Mo TGS 1CM TGS 2CM / Union1CrMo 910 MTS-3 TGS 347/ Thermanit H347 Colour Code Green Silver grey / White Brown / Red Yellow Blue

RT 1/2 Mo (ER80S-G / ER 70S-A1) RT 1 Cr 1/2 Mo (ER80S-G / ER 80SB2) RT 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo (ER90S-G/ ER 90S B3) 9 Cr 1Mo 1/4 V(ER90S-B9 ) RT RT 347 (ER347) (*or other approved equivalents) 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5

Where another set of colour code is followed, maintain a record of coding used. Where the filler wire is cut, apply the appropriate colour code at both ends of the piece. For other filler wires, a suitable colour distinct from Table 1 shall be applied. AWS No. or brand name embossed end to be retained for identification.

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33

DRYING AND HOLDING OF WELDING ELECTRODES 1.0 SCOPE: 1.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 3.0 3.1 4.0 4.1.0 4.1.1 4.1.2 This section details activities regarding drying and holding of welding electrodes used at sites. PROCEDURE: While handling, avoid contact of oil, grease with electrodes. Do not use oily or wet gloves. It is recommended that not more than two days requirements are dried. GTAW Filler Wires: These wires do not require any drying. Covered Electrodes: Drying and holding : Identify drying oven and holding oven. They shall preferably have a temperature control facility upto 400C for drying oven and 200C for holding oven. A calibrated thermometer shall be provided for monitoring temperature. On opening a packet of electrodes, segregate and place them in the drying oven. Avoid mix up. After loading, raise the drying oven temperature to the desired range as per table in 4.2.5. Note the time when the temperature reaches the desired range. Maintain this temperature for the duration required as per Table in 4.2.5. On completion of drying, transfer the electrodes to holding oven; maintain a minimum temperature of 150C till issue. The electrode shall not be subjected to more than two cycles of drying.

4.1.3 4.2.0 4.2.1 4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

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34

4.2.5

Maintain a register containing following details: Brand Name Batch No. Baking Temp. reach time Time of transfer to holding oven

Date

Sl.No. 1 2 3

Dia

Qty.

Remarks

Redrying and Holding Parameters AWS Classification E7018 E7018-1 E7018-A1 E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E8018-B2L E9018-B3L E9018-B9 E309 & E347 Redrying (*) Temperature C Size 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 250 - 300 Time (Hours) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Minimum Holding Temperature C (@) 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

Note : (*) Guideline has been given however, suppliers recommendations shall be followed. Note : (@) Maintain the temperature in the oven till issue. 4.2.6 After issue, maintain the electrodes in a portable oven at a minimum temperature of 65C till use (not applicable for E6013 electrodes) Unused, returned electrodes shall be segregated and kept in the holding oven.

4.3

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35

SELECTION AND ISSUE OF WELDING ELECTRODES / FILLER WIRES 1.0 1.1 SCOPE: This procedure details methods for selection and issue of welding electrodes/filler wires for site operations. PROCEDURE: Selection: The type of filler wire/electrode for welding shall be based on the details given in the contract documents like Erection Welding Schedule, drawings, Welding Procedure Specifications as supplied by the manufacturing units. Where not specified by the manufacturing units, selection shall be based on the tables enclosed. Where electrodes/ filler wires are not covered in the documents mentioned in 2.1.1., 2.1.2, refer to manufacturing units. Issue : Issue of welding electrodes / filler wires shall be based on authorised welding electrodes issue voucher. It is recommended to restrict quantity issued to not more than 4 hours requirements. Redried low hydrogen electrodes shall be carried to the work spot in a portable oven. Maintain the temperature in the portable oven at the work spot above 65C. Unused electrodes shall be returned and kept in the holding oven till reissue.

2.0 2.1 2.1.1

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.2 2.2.1

2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.3.1 2.2.4

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Table- A3.3 SELECTION OF GTAW FILLER WIRE, SMAW ELECTRODE FOR BUTT WELDS IN TUBES, PIPES AND HEADERS
Material

P1 Gr 1 P1 Gr 2 P3 Gr 1 P4 Gr 1 P5A Gr 1 P15 E Gr 1

Welding Process GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW SMAW GTAW GTAW

P1 Gr 1 P1 Gr 2 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 Note 1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-1

P3 Gr 1

P4 Gr 1

P5A Gr 1

P15 E Gr 1

P8

Cr Mo V

ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 70S-A1 E7018-A1 ER 80S-B2 E8018-B2 ER 80S-B2 E8018-B2 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER90S-B9 ER90S-B9 Note-3 E 9015-B9 / E 9018-B9 ERNiCr3 ENiCrFe3 ERNiCr3 ENiCrFe3 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3 ER347 E347 ER 90S-B3 E9018-B3

P15 E Gr 1 SMAW P8 CrMoV Note 2 GTAW SMAW GTAW

SMAW Note-1 : E7018-A1 for P1 Gr2 + P1 Gr2 when PWHT is involved. Note-2 : DIN14MoV63 or equivalent Note-3 : For t > 20 mm,use ER 90S B3 for the root welding

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37

Table- A3.4 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR WELDING ATTACHMENTS TO TUBES


Attachment Material Tube Material P1 Group 1

P4 Group 1 E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 309

P5A Group 1 E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3 E 309

P8 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 7018-A1 E 347

P1 Group 1 P1 Group 2 P3 P4 Group 1 P5A Group 1 P8

E 7018 E 7018-A1 E 8018-B2 E 9018-B3

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38

Table- A3.5 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES, PREHEAT, PWHT FOR ATTACHMENT TO ATTACHMENT WELDS (Seal Bands, High Crown Bars, End Bars, End Bar Lifting Lugs and Collector Plates etc.)

Material

Welding Requirements Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT Electrode Preheat PWHT

P1

P4

P5 A

P8 Group 1

P8 Group 2

P 15E / 1

P1

P4

P5 A

P8

E7018 Nil Nil E7018 (Note 2) 150 (Note 4) Nil (Note 2 & 3) E7018 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1 & 2) E309 Nil Nil -

E8018-B2 150 (Note 4) Nil (Note 3) E8018-B2 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1) E309 Nil Nil -

P 15 E / 1

E9018-B3 150C (Note 4) Nil (Note 1) E309 Nil Nil E9018-B3 220C 745 + 15 C

E347 Nil Nil ENi Cr Fe3 220C 745 + 15 C

E309 Nil Nil ENi Cr Fe3 220C 745 + 15 C

E9015-B9 220C 760 + 10 C

Note 1 : When P5 A material thickness is more than 10 mm, PWHT is required. Note 2 : Electrode, preheat and PWHT requirement for welding end bar lifting lug are as follows: End Bar Lifting Lug P1 P1 End Bar P4 P5 Electrode E8018-B2 E9018-B3 Preheat C 150 150 PWHT C 640 670 680 710

Note 3: When P4 material thickness is more than 13 mm PWHT required. Note 4 : Preheat is not required for P4up to 16 mm & for P5 A up to 12 mm, if PWHT is carried out. Note - 5: For load carrying members, PWHT is required irrespective of thickness.

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Table- A3.6 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR WELDING NOZZLE ATTACHMENTS, HAND HOLE PLATE, RG PLUG ETC. TO HEADERS, PIPES.

Header, Pipe Material

Attachment Material
P1

P3

P4

P5 A

P15 E/1

P8

P1 P4 P5 A P15 E/1 CrMoV Note 1

E7018-1 -

E7018-1 E8018-B2 -

E8018-B2 E9018-B3 E9018-B3 E9018-B3

E9018-B3 E9015-B9 / E9018-B9 -

ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3 ENiCrFe3

Note 1 : DIN 14MoV63 or equivalent.

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40

Table A3.7 SELECTION OF ELECTRODES FOR NON-PRESSURE PARTS (INCLUDING STRUCTURES) (NOTE 1) Material SMAW Electrodes For butt welds 6 mm: E 6013 > 6 mm: E 7018 P1 + P1 For fillets 8 mm : E 6013 >8 mm: E 7018 Carton Steel + P1 Carton Steel + Carton Steel E 6013 or E 7018 E 8018 B2 EL 8 EM 12 K EL 8 EM 12 K EM 12 K EB 2 E 81 T 1 B2 E 71 T - 1

SAW Wires

C O2 Wires

Note 1 : E 6013 Electrodes can be used for all non-load carrying welds of all thickness of IS 2062 plates upto 20 mm thickness and 8 mm fillets.

WELDING MANUAL

41

TABLE- A3.8 A NUMBERS CLASSIFICATION OF FERROUS WELD METAL ANALYSIS FOR PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION

A. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Types of Weld Deposit Mild steel Carbon-Molybdenum Chrome (0.4% to 2%)Molybdenum Chrome (2% to 6%)Molybdenum Chrome (6% to 10.5%)Molybdenum Chrome-Martensitic Chrome-Ferritic Chromium-Nickel Chromium-Nickel Nickel to 4% Manganese-Molybdenum Nickel-Chrome-Molybdenum

Analysis, % (Note 1) C 0.20 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.17 0.15 Cr 0.50 0.402.00 2.006.00 6.0010.50 11.0015.00 11.0030.00 14.5030.00 19.0030.00 1.50 Mo 0.400.65 0.400.65 0.401.50 0.401.50 0.70 1.00 4.00 6.00 0.55 0.250.75 0.250.80 Ni 7.5015.00 15.0037.00 0.804.00 0.85 1.252.80 Mn 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.20 2.00 1.00 2.50 2.50 1.70 1.252.25 0.752.25 Si 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Note 1: Single values shown above are maximum.

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42

Table- A3.9
F.No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.4 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.1 SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 other than austenitic and duplex SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 SFA-5.5 ASME Specification No. Steel and Steel Alloys EXX20 EXX22 EXX24 EXX27 EXX28 EXXX(X)-26 EXX20-X EXX27-X EXX12 EXX13 EXX14 EXX19 E(X)XX13-X EXX10 EXX11 E(X)XX10-X E(X)XX11-X EXX15 EXX16 EXX18 EXX18M EXX48 EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 E(X)XX15-X E(X)XX16-X E(X)XX18-X E(X)XX18M E(X)XX18M1 AWS Classification No.

WELDING MANUAL

Table- A3.9

43 AWS Classification No.

F.No. 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

ASME Specification No. SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.4 austenitic and duplex SFA-5.2 SFA-5.9 SFA-5.17 SFA-5.18 SFA-5.20 SFA-5.22 SFA-5.23 SFA-5.25 SFA-5.26 SFA-5.28 SFA-5.29 SFA-5.30 SFA-5.30 SFA-5.30

EXXX(X)-15 EXXX(X)-16 EXXX(X)-17 All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications All classifications INMs-X IN5XX IN3XX(X)

Aluminium and Aluminium-Base Alloys 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 E1100 E3003 ER1100 R1100 ER1188 R1188 ER5183 R5183 ER5356 R5356 ER5554 R5554 ER5556

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44

TABLE- A3.9(CONTD.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION
F.No. 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 ASME Specification No. SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.3 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 SFA-5.10 AWS Classification No. R5556 ER5654 R5654 E4043 ER4009 R4009 ER4010 R4010 R4011 ER4043 R4043 ER4047 R4047 ER4145 R4145 ER4643 R4643 R206.0 R-C355.0 R-A356.0 R357.0 R-A357.0 ER2319 R2319 Copper And Copper Alloys 31 31 32 32 SFA-5.6 SFA-5.7 SFA-5.6 SFA-5.7 ECu ERCu ECuSi ERCuSi-A

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45

TABLE- A3.9 (CONTD.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION
F.No. 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 41 41 41 42 42 42 42 ASME Specification No. AWS Classification No. SFA-5.6 ECuSn-A SFA-5.6 ECuSn-C SFA-5.7 ERCuSn-A SFA-5.6 ECuNi SFA-5.7 ERCuNi SFA-5.30 IN67 SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-A SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-B SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-C SFA-5.8 RBCuZn-D SFA-5.6 ECuAl-A2 SFA-5.6 ECuAl-B SFA-5.7 ERCuAl-A1 SFA-5.7 ERCuAl-A2 SFA-5.7 ERCuAl-A3 SFA-5.6 ECuNiAl SFA-5.6 ECuMnNiAl SFA-5.7 ERCuNiAl SFA-5.7 ERCuMnNiAl Nickel And Nickel Alloys SFA-5.11 ENi-1 SFA-5.14 ERNi-1 SFA-5.30 SFA-5.11 SFA-5.14 SFA-5.14 SFA-5.30 IN61 ENiCu-7 ERNiCu-7 ERNiCu-8 IN60

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46

TABLE- A3.9 (CONTD.) F NUMBERS GROUPING OF ELECTRODES AND WELDING RODS FOR QUALIFICATION
F.No. 45 45 45 45 45 ASME Specification No. SFA5.11 SFA5.14 SFA5.14 SFA5.14 SFA5.14 SFA5.14 AWS Classification No. ENiCrMo-11 ERNiCrMo-1 ERNiCrMo-8 ERNiCrMo-9 ERNiCrMo-11

45

ERNiFeCr-1

Titanium And Titanium Alloys


51 51 51 51 52 53 53 54 55 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 SFA-5.16 ERTi-1 ERTi-2 ERTi-3 ERTi-7 ERTi-4 ERTi-9 ERTi-9ELI ERTi-12 ERTi-5
Zirconium And Zirconium Alloys 61 61 61 SFA-5.24 SFA-5.24 SFA-5.24 ERZr2 ERZr3 ERZr4 Hard-Facing Weld Metal Overlay 71 SFA-5.13 72 SFA-5.21 E Co Cr A & All classifications ER Co Cr A & All classifications

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47

SFA CLASSIFICATION
SFA NO. DESCRIPTION

5.01 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.20

Filler Metal Procurement guidelines Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Rods for Oxy fuel Gas Welding Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Covered Copper and Copper Alloy Arc Welding Electrodes Copper and Copper Alloy Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes Filler Metal for Brazing and Braze Welding Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods Bare Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welding Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding Tungsten and Tungsten Alloy Electrodes for Arc Welding and Cutting Surfacing electrodes for shielded metal arc welding Nickel and Nickel Alloy Bare Welding Electrodes and Rods Welding Electrodes and Rods for Cast Iron Titanium and Titanium Alloy Welding Rods and Electrodes Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Carbon Steel electrodes and rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding

WELDING MANUAL

48

SFA CLASSIFICATION
SFA NO. DESCRIPTION

5.21 5.22

Bare electrodes and rods for surfacing Stainless Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless Steel Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32

Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Electro-slag Welding Carbon and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Electro-gas Welding Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielded Arc Welding Low Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding Consumable Inserts Fluxes for Brazing and Braze Welding Welding Shielding gas

WELDING MANUAL

CHAPTER - A4

49

CHAPTER - A4 PROCEDURE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION

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PROCEDURE FOR WELDER QUALIFICATION


1.0

SCOPE: This chapter details the procedure for qualification of welder and performance monitoring. CONTENTS: 1. 2. 3. Qualification of Welder. Table- A4.1 - Welder Qualification Requirements. Figure-1 Fillet Weld Break Specimen. Figure- 2 Method of Rupturing. Figure- 3 Positions. Figure- 4 Plate Butt Weld Specimen. Figure- 5 Pipe Butt Weld Specimen. Figure- 6 Bend Test Specimen. Figure- 7 Bend Test Jig. 4. 5. Record of Welder Performance Qualification Tests. Welder performance monitoring.

1.1

2.0

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QUALIFICATION OF WELDER

1.0

BASE METAL: For selection refer Tables in Chapter II. TEST COUPON: Depending on the range to be qualified, choose the appropriate test coupon from Table A4.1 For plate butt welds, details of edge preparation shall be as per Figure-4. For pipe butt welds, details of edge preparation shall be as per Figure-5. For structural tack welds, refer Figure-1. REQUIREMENT OF TESTS: For Structural Tack Welders:

1.1 2.0 2.1

2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0 3.1

3.1.1 Break Test as per Figure-2. 3.2 For Plate Butt Welds:

3.2.1 Minimum of 2 specimens for bend test; one for root bend and other for face bend. Width of specimen shall be 38 mm for plate thickness upto 10 mm. For Plate thickness greater than 10 mm, side bend test ( 2 Specimens) shall be done and the width of specimens shall be 10 mm . 3.3 For Pipe Welder :

3.3.1 The order of removal of test specimens shall be as per Figure-6. 3.3.2 For width and number of bend specimens, refer below:

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OD > 101.6 50.8 - 101.6 < 50.8 <= 25.4 (**) for thickness substituted.

W 38.0 19.0 10.0 (++) greater than

No. of Bend Specimens Face Root Side 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 10.0 mm, side bend test (**) (**) (**) of width 10.0 mm may be

(++) Cut into 4 equal sections (with allowance for saw cuts or machine cutting); sharp corners to be rounded off. OD - Outer diameter of pipe in mm. W - Width of bend test specimen in mm. 3.4 For bend test jig refer Figure-7, for thickness of bend specimen 10.0 mm; for other thicknesses (t) the dimension shall be as below : A B C D = = = = 4t 2t 6t + 3.2 mm 3t + 1.6 mm

The above values are nominal. 3.5 Radiographic examination of test welds may be carried out in lieu of bend tests. Procedure and acceptance criteria are as per NDE Manual. ESSENTIAL VARIABLES : Changes to the following variables require requalification. Process : Example : Change from GTAW to SMAW or vice versa. Joint : A change from one type of bevel to another. Example : vee bevel to u bevel. Base Metal : A change in thickness or pipe diameter beyond the limits prescribed in Table- A4.1

4.0 4.1 4.1.1

4.1.2

4.1.3

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4.1.4

Filler Metal: A change from one F number to another F-number, except as specified in Table-A4.1

4.1.5

Positions: This procedure envisages qualification of welders to perform in all positions. Deviation to this is not recommended.

4.1.6

Gas: This procedure envisages test to pre-prescribed gas as for production welds. Deviation to this is not recommended.

4.1.7

Electrical Characteristics: a) AC to DC and vice versa. b) In DC, DCEN (Electrode Negative) to DCEP (Electrode Positive) and vice versa.

4.1.8

Technique : This procedure envisages only use of uphill progression technique. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA : Structural Tack Welding : No cracks. No lack of fusion. Undercut not exceeding 1 mm. Not more than 1 porosity (max. diameter of porosity 2 mm). Plate/Pipe Welding : Visual Inspection : a) No cracks. b) No lack of fusion or incomplete penetration. c) Not more than 1 porosity in a length of 100 mm of length of weld (max. porosity diameter 2mm).

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5.0

Acceptance Criteria - Bend Tests ( ASME Sec IX- QW-163 ) The weld and heat-affected zone of a transverse weld-bend specimen shall be completely within the bent portion of the specimen after testing. The guided bend specimens shall have no open discontinuity in the weld or heataffected zone exceeding 1/8 in.(3 mm), measured in any direction on the convex surface of the specimen after bending. Open discontinuities occurring on the corners of the specimen during testing shall not be considered unless there is definite evidence that they result from lack of fusion, slag inclusions, or other internal discontinuities. For corrosion resistant weld overlay cladding, no open discontinuity exceeding 1/16 in. (1.5 mm), measured in any direction, shall be permitted in the cladding, and no open discontinuity exceeding 1/8 in.(3mm) shall be permitted along the approximate weld interface.

6.0 6.1

RETESTS: A welder who fails to meet the acceptance criteria for one or more test specimens, may be retested as per this procedure after adequate practice. VALIDITY : When a welder meets the requirements of this procedure, the validity will be for a maximum of 2 years from the date of test, limited to validity specified by statutory authority, as applicable. The validity may be extended by one year each time, based on satisfactory performance, with sufficient back up records.

7.0 7.1

8.0 8.1

REQUALIFICATION : Requalification is required for the following : a. b. Where there is a specific reason to doubt the skill of the welder. Due to non-engagement of the welder for a continuous period of 6 months.

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9.

RECORDS: The welding in charge at site shall maintain the following records: a) b) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Record of Welder Performance qualification Test (as per format). Register of qualified welders (employer-wise) containing the following details: Name of welder. Age. Tested for pipe / tube / plate / tack. Performance Test No. Validity. Welder Code. Remarks.

The above register shall be updated for deletions also. Copies of welder identity card (including details as in 9 b and relevant variables qualified). Pertinent radiography reports. 10.0 ENCLOSURES : 1. Table -A4.1 : Welder Qualification Requirements. 2. Record of Welder Performance Qualification Test. 3. Figure-1: Structural Tack Weld Specimen. 4. Figure-2 : Break Test. 5. Figure-3 : Weld Positions. 6. Figure-4 : Plate Butt Weld Specimen. 7. Figure-5 : Pipe Butt Weld Specimen. 8. Figure-6 : Order of Removal of Test Specimen. 9. Figure-7 : Bend test Jig.

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WELDER QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Table A4.1 Base6 Metal Note 1 Test Coupon Dimension OD, t t=10mm or 12mm t25mm - do t<25mm t13mm - do t<13mm OD<25mm OD25mm & 73mm 4 Pipe Welder - do OD>73mm t<13mm t13mm F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 F4 3G & 4G 2G, 3G & 4G 2G, 3G & 4G 6G 6G 6G 6G 6G Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Fig.3 Electrode6 to be used Note 2, 4 (E6013) F2 (E7018) F4 F4

Sl.No.

Test For

Weld Positions 3F & 4F 3F & 4F 3G & 4G

Reference Figure Fig. 1 & 2 Fig. 1 & 2 Fig.3

Range Qualified Dia. & T T-Unlimited T-Unlimited T3.2mm* T>3.2mm* 2t T-Unlimited OD610mm T2t OD610mm Test piece Dia.& above 25mm & above 73mm & above T2t T-Unlimited

Position Qualified All All All All All All All All All All All

Electrode Qualified Note 2, 4 F2, F1 F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below F4 & Below

Remarks Refer Fig. 1,3 Refer Fig. 1,3

Structural tack

P1 Gr 1

Plate Welder (Structural) Plate Welder (Other than structural)

* Also qualifies for welding fillet welds on material of unlimited thickness.

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Table A4.1 (contd...)


NOTES: 1.

For P grouping refer Chapter II. For F grouping refer Chapter III. Base material limitation: a. Where test coupons belong to P1 thro P15F, welder is qualified for base materials P1 thro P15F.( ASME Sec IX QW 423, Alternate base material for welder qualification) It means, if a welder is qualified with carbon steel material, he is also qualified for alloy steel and vice versa. b. Use appropriate F group electrodes.

2. 3.

4.

Qualification in one F number, qualifies for that F-number only, except as stated below in A, B, C & D. A. B. C. D. Qualification in F4 qualifies for F4 and below. Qualification in F5 qualifies for F5 only. Qualification in any of F41 thro F45 qualifies for F41 thro F45. For non-ferrous materials, the base materials shall be typical of production material and appropriate filler materials shall be selected. Qualification is limited to the base material, process and filler F group. Diameter and thickness limitations apply as per Table A4.1 OD = outer diameter, t = thickness of test coupon; T = thickness qualified.

5.

Where qualification is for GTAW followed by SMAW, the welder is also qualified upto 6 mm thickness by GTAW process. Base material indicated is carbon steel; for other base materials, corresponding electrodes are to be chosen. Also for GTAW process, the corresponding filler wire should be chosen.

6.

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TACK WELDER QUALIFICATION

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RECORD OF WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION TEST


Performance Test No. Site: Date:

Welders Name & Address:

Welder Code:

Material Groupings permitted: Thickness Qualified: (This performance test is as per Procedure No. )

Welding Process: Position(s) Qualified: Dia Qualified: TEST MATERIAL

Specification: Thickness (and Dia. of pipe): Shielding Gas(es)

Filler Material: SFA No.: AWS Classification:

PROCESS VARIABLES Position of test weld: Pre-heat temp: Test Joint Sketch Current: Inter Pass Temp: Test Results Type of Bend Type of Bend Type of Bend Type of Bend Radiography Ref. & Results: Polarity: Post-heat Temp:

Results Results Results Results

Agency Conducting Test : We certify that the statement in this record is correct and that the test weld were prepared, welded and tested in accordance with requirements. This is valid upto __________________________

Welding In-charge / BHEL

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WELDER PERFORMANCE MONITORING


1.0

PURPOSE: This procedure deals with monitoring the performance of welders engaged at sites. This procedure is applicable where radiography is performed.

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

PROCEDURE: The welder performance shall be monitored on a calendar month basis. Extent of radiography shall be representative of weekly outputs of the welder. Quantum of radiography shall be as per contractual requirements. Evaluation of welds radiographed shall be as per NDE manual or other documents as specifically applicable.

2.5 2.5.1

Welder performance evaluation: For welds dia. 88.9 mm:

2.5.1.1 The percentage of defects is calculated as a percentage of number of unaccepted welds to those radiographed. 2.5.1.2 Upto and including 5% defects: Performance is satisfactory else unsatisfactory. 2.5.2 For welds dia. > 88.9 mm and plate welds:

2.5.2.1 The percentage of defects is calculated as a percentage of length of defects to the length radiographed. 2.5.2.2 Upto and including 2.5% defects: performance is satisfactory else unsatisfactory. 2.6 When a welder gives unsatisfactory performance for a continuous period of 3 months, he shall be requalified. 2.6.1 Requalification of welder shall be called for when there is a specific reason to question his ability to make acceptable welds. This shall override requirements of clause 2.6. 2.7 Welds produced during any month shall be radiographed and evaluated latest by 10th of the succeeding month. 2.7.1 Under circumstances when clause 2.7 is not satisfied for any particular welder, he may be disengaged from the job till such time his performance is evaluated for the month in study.

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2.7.2

Site in-charge may waive the restriction imposed in 2.7.1 reviewing the situations for non-compliance with Cl.2.7 and may allow engagement of the welder in question for a period not exceeding one successive month to the month in study.

3.0 3.1

RECORDS: Welding in-charge shall prepare and maintain Welder Performance Records, welderwise.

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CHAPTER - A5 INSPECTION OF WELDING

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INSPECTION OF WELDING
1.0 PURPOSE: This procedure provides details for performing visual inspection of weld fit-ups, welding in progress and completed welds. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0 3.1 REFERENCE: Contract drawings. Erection Welding Schedule (supplied by Units) or equivalent. Welding Procedure Specification, where supplied. Indian Boiler Regulations (for boilers erected in India) GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: Ensure that the components to be welded are in accordance with the contract drawings, Welding Schedule and other relevant documents. The condition of welded surfaces to be inspected must be clean and dry. There shall be sufficient lighting to allow proper interpretation of visual inspection. WELD FIT-UP INSPECTION: The surface to be welded shall be smooth and free from deep notches, irregularities, scale, rust, oil, grease and other foreign materials. Piping, tubing and headers to be joined shall be aligned within allowable tolerances on diameters, wall thicknesses and out-of-roundness as below: Maximum permissible mis-alignment at bore Bore (mm) Upto 100 Over 100 to 300 Over 300 4.3 Max. Misalignment (mm) For GTAW For SMAW 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.4

3.2 3.3 4.0 4.1

4.2

While fit up, components to be welded shall not show any appreciable off-set or misalignment when viewed from positions apart. The root opening of components to be joined shall be adequate to provide acceptable penetration. On fillet welds, the parts to be joined shall be brought as close to contact as practical, although in most instances a small opening between the parts is desirable. Root gaps shall be maintained at 1.6 mm - 2.4mm (refer relevant document). NOTE : Wherever pre heating is done, ensure the root gap before welding

4.4

4.5

4.6

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4.7 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.0 6.1 6.2

Weld area should be protected from drafts and wind, to maintain inert gas shield. CHECKS DURING WELDING OPERATION: Ensure the required minimum preheat temperature is maintained during welding. Ensure correct electrode / filler metal is used for welding. Tack welds are examined by the welder before they are incorporated in the final weld. Ensure proper re-drying / holding of electrodes prior to use. Ensure inter pass temperature is not exceeded during welding. Ensure proper cleaning of weld between beads. CHECKS ON THE COMPLETED WELD: No visible cracks, pin-holes or incomplete fusion. The weld surface must be sufficiently free of coarse ripples, grooves, overlaps, abrupt ridges and valleys, visible slag inclusions, porosity and adjacent starts and stops. Undercuts not to exceed 0.8 mm or 10% of wall thickness whichever is less. Where inside surface is readily accessible, the same shall be inspected for excess penetration and root concavity. The permissible limits are given below : Root concavity: max of 2.5 mm or 20% of thickness at weld, whichever is lesser, provided adequate reinforcement is present. Excess penetration: up to and including 3.2 mm.

6.3 6.4

6.5 6.6

For plate butt welds, the weld reinforcement should not exceed 3.2 mm. For circumferential joints in piping and tubing the maximum weld reinforcements permitted are given below : Maximum Permissible Reinforcements ( ASME Sec I PW 35) Thickness of base metal in mm Upto 3.0 Over 3 to 5 Over 5 to 13 Over 13 to 25 Over 25 to 50 Over 50 Reinforcement in mm 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Max of 6.0 or 1/8 of weld width

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6.7

There shall be no overlaps. The faces of fillet welds are not excessively convex or concave and the weld legs are of proper length.

6.8

In case of weld joints in pressure parts and joints like ceiling girder, the weld joint must be suitably identified.

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CHAPTER - A6 REPAIR WELDING

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REPAIR WELDING
1.0 1.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 PURPOSE: This procedure details steps to be taken for weld repairs. PROCEDURE: Unacceptable welds, based on visual inspection or NDE, shall be repaired. Removal of Defects: The identified defect area shall be marked on the part. The defects may be removed by grinding/thermal gouging.

2.2.2.1 Where thermal gouging is done, adopt the requirements of preheating as detailed in Heat Treatment Manual. 2.2.2.2 However, only grinding is permitted for the last 6 mm from the root. 2.3 2.4 Removal of defects shall be verified by visual inspection, PT, MT, RT as appropriate. The profile of ground portion shall be smooth and wide enough to permit proper fusion during repair welding. Repair welding shall be carried out as per the procedure for the initial weld. Repair weld shall undergo the same type of NDE as the initial weld. Repeat steps 2.1 to 2.6 till acceptable weld is made. Where the defect volume is high, Cut and weld of joints is recommended. Where a specific repair procedure is supplied by the Manufacturing Unit, the same shall be followed. RECORDS : Records pertaining to the repairs like Welder, NDE records shall be maintained.

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.0

4.0 4.1

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CHAPTER - A7 SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING

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SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING A7. SAFE PRACTICES IN WELDING (This is included for information purposes only.) (Non-mandatory Information) This covers many of the basic elements of safety general to arc welding processes. It includes many, but not all, of the safety aspects related to structural welding. The hazards that may be encountered and the practices that will minimize personal injury and property damage are reviewed here. J1 Electrical Hazards Electric shock can kill. However, it can be avoided. Live electrical parts should not be touched. Read and understand the manufacturers instructions and recommended safe practices. Faulty installation, improper grounding, and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger. All electrical equipment and the work-pieces should be grounded. A separate connection is required to ground the work-piece. The work lead should not be mistaken for a ground connection. To prevent shock, the work area, equipment, and clothing should be kept dry at all times. Dry gloves and rubber soled shoes should be worn. The welder should stand on a dry board or insulated platform. Cables and connections should be kept in good condition. Worn, damaged or bare cables should not be used. In case of electric shock, the power should be turned off immediately. If the rescuer must resort to pulling the victim from the live contact, non-conducting materials should be used. A physician should be called and CPR continued until breathing has been restored, or until a physician has arrived. J2 Fumes and Gases Many welding, cutting, and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to ones health. Fumes and solid particles originate from welding consumables, the base metal, and any coating present on the base metal. Gases are produced during the welding process or may be produced by the effects of process radiation on the surrounding environment. Everyone associated with the welding operation should acquaint themselves with the effects of these fumes and gases.

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The possible effects of over-exposure to fumes and gases range from irritation of eyes, skin, and respiratory system to more severe complications. Effects may occur immediately or at some later time. Fumes can cause symptoms such as nausea, headaches, dizziness, and metal fumes fever. Sufficient ventilation, exhaust at the arc, or both, should be used to keep fumes and gases from breathing zones and the general work area. J3 Noise Excessive noise is a known health hazard. Exposure to excessive noise can cause a loss of hearing. This loss of hearing can be either full or partial, and temporary or permanent. Excessive noise adversely affects hearing capability. In addition, there is evidence that excessive noise affects other bodily functions and behavior. Personal protective devices such as ear muffs or ear plugs may be employed. Generally, these devices are only accepted when engineering controls are not fully effective. J4 Burn Protection Molten metal, sparks, slag, and hot work surfaces are produced by welding, cutting and allied process. These can cause burns if precautionary measures are not used. Workers should wear protective clothing made of fire resistance material. Pant cuffs or clothing with open pockets or other places on clothing that can catch and retain molten metal or sparks should not be worn. High top shoes or leather leggings and fire resistant gloves should be worn. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of high top boots. Helmets or hand shields that provide protection for the face, neck, and ears, should be worn, as well as head covering to protect. Clothing should be kept free of grease and oil. Combustible materials should not be carried in pockets. If any combustible substance is spilled on clothing it should be replaced with fire resistance clothing before working with open arcs or flame. Appropriate eye protection should be used at all times. Goggles or equivalent also should be worn to give added eye protection. Insulated gloves should be worn at all times when in contact with hot items or handling electrical equipment.

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J5 Fire Prevention Molten metal, sparks, slag, and hot work surfaces are produced by welding, cutting, and allied processes. These can cause fire or explosion if precautionary measures are not used. Explosions have occurred where welding or cutting has been performed in spaces containing flammable gases, vapours, liquid, or dust. All combustible material should b e removed from the work area. Where possible, move the work to a location well away from combustible materials. If neither action is possible, combustibles should be protected with a cover or fire resistant material. All combustible materials should be removed or safely protected within a radius of 35 ft. (11m) around the work area. Welding or cutting should not be done in atmospheres containing dangerously reactive or flammable gases, vapours, liquid, or dust. Heat should not be applied to a container that has held an unknown substance or a combustible material whose contents when heated can produce flammable or explosive vapours. Adequate ventilation should be provided in work areas to prevent accumulation of flammable gases, vapours or dusts. Containers should be cleaned and purged before applying heat. J6 Radiation Welding, cutting and allied operations may produce radiant energy (radiation) harmful to health. Everyone should acquaint themselves with the effects of this radiant energy. Radiant energy may be ionizing (such as X-rays) or non-ionizing (such as ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared). Radiation can produce a variety of effects such as skin burns and eye damage, if excessive exposure occurs. Some processes such as resistance welding and cold pressure welding ordinarily produce negligible quantities of radiant energy. However, most arc welding and cutting processes (except submerged arc when used properly), laser welding and torch welding, cutting, brazing, or soldering can produce quantities of non-ionizing radiation such that precautionary measures are necessary.

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1. 2.

Welding arcs should not be viewed except through welding filter plates. Transparent welding curtains are not intended as welding filter plates, but rather, are intended to protect passers by from incidental exposure.

3. 4.

Exposed skin should be protected with adequate gloves and clothing as specified. The casual passers by to welding operations should be protected by the use of screens, curtains, or adequate distance from aisles, walkways, etc.

5.

Safety glasses with ultraviolet protective side shields have been shown to provide some beneficial protection from ultraviolet radiation produced by welding arcs.

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PART - B

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CHAPTER - B1 PRE-ASSEMBLY AND WELDING OF CEILING GIRDERS

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PRE - ASSEMBLY AND WELDING OF CEILING GIRDERS

A)

PREPARATION FOR PRE-ASSEMBLY:

Prepare pre-assembly bed preferably inside boiler (Sketch -1A / Sketch 1B) - Boiler Main Columns on LHS & RHS may be used for supporting bottom beams of pre-assembly bed (Sketch-1A). Ensure bottom support members are uniformly spaced and closer (approximately 1 metre) on either side of the joint to facilitate locking all around and avoid sagging during welding & PWHT. Identify Girder pieces Check Work order / PGMA / DU No, girder designation etc. Place girder pieces on bed for pre-assembly in sequence as per drawing. Check and repair damages of edge preparation of individual pieces, if any, after placement on bed before fit up. Check width between flanges and web height at fillet joint location (LHS & RHS) (Reduce web height before fit up, if required by grinding, so as to ensure minimum 3 mm gap at top & bottom for free expansion of web inside flanges on pre-heating). B) PRE-ASSEMBLY FIT UP & ALIGNMENT:

Do pre-assembly fit up and alignment of girder pieces following shop match marks. Use L clamps and wedges ( Tack welds are not permitted on the weld joints ) for web alignment to keep the joint free during welding of flange joints to facilitate weld shrinkage. Check, measure and record the following for the pre-assembly before welding (Sketch-2A/ Sketch 2B) (Also to measure & record after welding & PWHT) - Sweep by piano wire on bottom flange (max 3mm at joints & 10mm for assy) - Camber by water level on bottom flange (max 3mm at joint & 10mm for assy) - Length between girder pin bolt hole centers (overall max 15 mm) - Diagonal difference (max 15 mm) - Root gap (Flange=4 to 6mm; Web=6 to 8mm) - Web verticality by plumb (To monitor distortion before & after welding) - Distance between punch marks at weld joints (To monitor weld shrinkage) NOTE: 1 . Flange root gap will be absorbed during welding as weld shrinkage. 2 . Tolerances given above are indicative. 3 . To accommodate weld shrinkage ,ensure - Web root gap 3-4 mm more than flange root gap - Length before welding = Drg length + root gap of flange joints 4 . Ensure temporary locking & welding of the pre-assembly before start of girder welding (Sketch-3) with provision for longitudinal movement during welding to avoid accumulation of thermal stresses & facilitates controlled weld shrinkage.

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C) PRE-ASSEMBLY WELDING WITH PRE-HEAT & POST-HEAT Weld thermocouples on top & bottom flange and web joints (Sketch-4). Arrange pre-heating of flange and web joints with electric resistance coil heaters. Record entire cycle of preheat, inter pass & post-heat temp of joints during welding including intermissions/stoppages with a calibrated temperature recorder. Engage qualified welders for welding. Issue weld job card (Refer Exhibit) . Ensure usage of approved welding electrodes with necessary baking before use. Carry electrodes always in portable ovens. Start welding after ensuring required pre-heat and follow recommended weld sequence shrinkage. Ensure pre-heating temperature after back grinding. On completion of welding dress grind the welds for conducting NDE D) NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION (NDE): FLANGE BUTT JOINT: Root Back grinding : 100% LPI ( sketch-5 with 2 welders per joint) for effective control of weld

Intermediate radiography for thickness > 80mm ( desired) On completion of weld 100 % RT for thickness >32mm & < 80mm 100 % UT for thickness > 80mm 100 % MPI for thickness > 25mm (after PWHT) WEB BUTT JOINT: Root Back grinding On completion of weld Spot RT for thickness <32mm 100% RT for thickness >32mm FILLET WELDS: Between flange and web 100% MPI (after PWHT) : 100% LPI

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E)

PRE-HEATING, POST HEATING & PWHT REQUIREMENTS : Refer WPS & Heat Treatment Manual

PWHT CYCLE: Weld thermocouples on top & bottom flange and web joints (as per sketch-4). Arrange PWHT of flange and web joints with electric resistance coil heaters. Issue PWHT job card. (Refer Exhibit) Select midpoint of temperature range and control cycle within a tolerance of 15C. Record PWHT cycle with a calibrated temperature recorder Identify PWHT chart with chart No & date and PWHT cycle with weld joint number. Review the cycle and record observations / acceptance on chart .

F)

FINAL INSPECTION (AFTER PWHT):

Grind / buff the Flange Butt & Fillet joints (site welds) and conduct MPI. Clean all Site welds and paint with two coats of red oxide primer. Repeat all checks under section B and record measurements ( Sketch 2A / 2B). Punch centre line of girder on flange thicknesses and top surface of top flange

G)

OTHER PREPARATORY WORKS FOR ERECTION:

Blue match girder pin bottom piece with column and complete support lugs welding in position. Subsequently blue match girder pin top piece with girder, tack weld support lugs in position, remove and complete lugs welding. Conduct LPI & maintain record.

Open the girder pin assembly, buff clean the pin and seating surfaces, apply grease, reassemble and lock the pin with pin assembly by tack welding of lock plates. Mount the girder pin assembly on ceiling girder for easiness of erection of girder pins. Buff Clean Cement wash in the HSFG bolt area and cleat angles at WBs location

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CHAPTER B1 PRE ASSY SKETCHES

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Weld Sequence Sht. 1 of 2

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WELDING SEQUENCE FOR CEILING GIRDER


Sl. SEQ. No. No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 6 7 6 7 1,2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 4 5 3 1 2 Weld root run at flange Repeat step 1 and 2 and weld three runs Post heat and cool to room temperature Back grind and do LPI (at flange) Pre heat and weld Root + Three runs (at other side of the flange) Follow steps 1, 2 and 3 alternatively and welding upto 60% of the thickness of the flange the mismatch and check the root gap of the web and grind if required Correct Weld root run (at web) Weld root run (at web) Weld two run (at web) Weld two run (at web), post heat and cool to room temperature Back grinding and do LP (at web) Grind the flange welding and take intermediate RT if required Root run (at other side of the web) Root run (at other side of the web) Weld two run at web Weld two run at web Weld three run at flange Weld three run at flange Follow steps 1,2 and 3 alternatively and complete the flange welding Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Weld three run at web Follow steps 4, 5,6,7 alternatively and complete the web welding Weld root +two run (at flange +web) - Fillet weld Weld root +two run (at flange +web) - Fillet weld Follow step 8 and 9 alternatively(each three run and complete flange +web fillet welding) Weld Sequence Sht. 2 of 2

WELDING SEQUENCE
Pre heat and weld root run at flange

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BHEL : ___________________ SITE Unit No.: _________________________ WELDING JOB CARD

Unit no. Card no. PGMA, DU Joint No. Drg Ref Dia X Thick Material Welder no.(s) Date of welding Filler wire Electrode Preheat Post heat Inter pass temp

: : 002

Area : Boiler/TG/PCP Date 26/11/2000

: 35/211 : GRBLHS :

Flange
:

Web
PL 40 x 25

PL 100X75
: IS2062Fe410B

IS8500Fe540
: ST082(TOP)

ST043(BOTTOM)
:

26/11/200
:

: E7018

E8018B2
: 150 deg c

150 deg.c
: 150deg.c/1 hour

250 deg.c/1 hour


: 300 deg.c max

300 deg.c max

Welding Engr.

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BHEL : ______________SITE

Unit : ______________
(PWHT) Stress Relief (S.R.) JOB CARD

Unit no.

Area Boiler/TG/PCP

Card no. PGMA, DU Joint No. Drg Ref Dia x Thick Material NDE Cleared on

: : : :

007

Date 04/01/2001

GRERWS (Unit-111)

Flange
:

Web
PL 36 x 25

PL 100X75
: IS2062Fe410B

IS8500Fe540
:

04/01/2001 Report no.


Actual

Required
Rate of heating Max deg c / hour 52

55
Soak temperature deg c Soak time Minutes Rate of cooling Max deg.c/hour : 630

635+/-15
: 165

165
: 62

65

Welding Engr.

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CHAPTER - B2 ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA335 P91 MATERIAL

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ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA335 P91 MATERIAL


1.0 1.1 2.0 SCOPE: This document details salient practices to be adopted during erection of SA335 P91 material. MATERIAL: Pipe materials shall be identified as follows:1) Colour Code : Brown & Red 2) Hard Stamping : Specification, Heat No, Size. 3) Paint / Stencil : WO DU, as per the relevant drg & document. 2.1 When any defect like crack, lamination, deposit noticed during visual examination the same shall be confirmed by Liquid Penetrant Inspection. If confirmed, it shall be referred to unit. 3.0 3.1 ERECTION: Edge Preparation and fit up

3.1.1 Cutting of P-91 material shall be done by band saw / hacksaw / machining / grinding only. Edge preparation (EP) shall be done only by machining. In extreme cases , grinding can be done with prior approval of Welding Engineer/Quality Assurance Engineer. During machining /grinding, care should be taken to avoid excessive pressure to prevent heating up of the pipe edges. 3.1.2 All Edge Preparations done at site shall be subjected to Liquid Penetrant Inspection Weld build-up on Edge Preparation is prohibited. (LPI).

3.1.3

The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure proper alignment and root gap. Neither tack welds nor bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment. Partial root weld of minimum 20mm length by GTAW and fit-up by a clamping arrangement is recommended. Use of site manufactured clamps for fit up is acceptable .The necessary preheat and purging shall be done as per clause 4.1 and 3.2.2 The fit-up shall be as per drawing. Root gap shall be 2 to 4 mm; root mismatch shall be within 1-mm. Suitable Reference punch marks shall be made on both the pipes (at least on three axis). a) At 200 mm from the EP for UT. b) At 1000 mm from the EP for identifying weld during PWHT.

3.1.4

3.2.0 FIXING OF THERMOCOUPLE (T/C) AND HEATING ELEMENTS DURING PREHEATING AND PWHT 3.2.1 No Preheating is required for fixing T / C with resistance spot welding Following are the equipment / facilities for heating cycles. (1) Heating methods: Induction heating (2) Thermo couples : Ni-Cr / Ni-Al of 0.5 mm gauge size. (3) Temp.Recorders : 6 Points / 12 Points.

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3.2.2

ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING :

Argon gas of 99.99% conforming to Gr 2 IS 5760 1998 shall be used for purging the root side of weld. The purging dam (blank) shall be fixed on either side of the weld bevel prior to pre-heating. The dam shall be fixed inside the pipe and it shall be located away from the heating zone. Purging is to be done for root welding(GTAW) followed by two filler passes of SMAW in case of butt welds. Purging is not required in the case of nozzle and attachment welds, when they are not full penetration joints. The Argon to be used shall be dry. The flow rate is to be maintained during purging is 10 to 26 litres/minute and for shielding during GTAW is 8 to14 litres/minute.(A minimum flow rate as per welding Procedure specification shall be maintained). Start purging from inside of pipe when root temperature reaches 220deg C. Provide continuous and adequate Argon Gas to ensure complete purging in the root area. The minimum pre-flushing time for purging before start of welding shall be 5 minutes, irrespective of the pipe size. Wherever possible, solid purging gas chambers are to be used which can be removed after welding. If not possible, only water-soluble paper is to be used. Plastic foils that are watersoluble are NOT acceptable. 3.2.3 USING ALUMINIUM DAM ARRANGEMENT: In order to retain the Argon gas at the inside of the pipe near root area of the weld joint, the purging dams made of Aluminium (or other suitable material like mild steel) and permanent gaskets may be provided during the weld fit-up work as indicated in the sketch. The Aluminium discs shall be firmly secured with a thin wire rope. After completion of the root welding followed by two filler passes, the disc may be pulled outwards softly. CAUTION : ENSURE REMOVAL OF PURGE DAM ARRANGEMENT AFTER WELDING

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.3.2.4 USING OF WATER SOLUBLE PAPER: The dams can be made of water-soluble paper for creating the purging chamber. The advantage in such dam arrangement is that dissolving in water can flush the dams. The following are different methods used. 3.2.4:-

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4.0

WELDING / WELDERS QUALIFICATION: Only qualified welding procedures are to be used. Welders Qualified as per ASME Sec IX and IBR on P91 material shall only be engaged. Welders log book to be maintained and welders performance to be monitored by site welding engineer / Quality assurance engineer. The applicable WPS for P91+P91 shall be WPS N0.1034.

4.1

PREHEATING: Prior to start of pre heating ensure that surfaces are clean and free from grease, oil and dirt. Preheating temp shall be maintained at 220 deg C (min) by using Induction heating. The Temperature shall be ensured by using a Calibrated autographic recorder and two calibrated thermo couples fixed at 0 deg and 180 deg positions on both pipes 50 mm away from the EP. The thermocouple shall be welded with the condenser discharge portable spot welding machine. The preheating arrangements shall be inspected and approved by welding engineer /Quality Assurance Engineer.(Ref Fig - 1) Alternate arrangements shall be made during power failure. Two additional spare thermocouple to be fixed(as described above) for emergency use. Gas burners shall be employed to maintain the Temperature until the power resumes.

4.2

WELDING: Root Welding shall be done using GTAW process ( as per WPS) five minutes after the start of argon purging. Filler wire shall be cleaned and free from rust or oil. Argon Purging shall be continued minimum two filler passes of SMAW.

4.3

STORAGE OF WELDING CONSUMABLES: a. Welding consumables are received with proper packing and marking which includes the relevant batch number for easy identification. b. Electrodes are stored in their original sealed containers / packages until issued and kept in dry and clean environment as per the instructions of electrode manufacturers, taking care of shelf life. c. Welding filler wires are received with proper packing and marking which includes the relevant batch number for easy identification. d. The filler wires are stored in their original packages until issue and kept in dry and clean environment.

4.3.1

The electrode GTAW wires issued to the welders should be controlled through issue slips. SMAW electrodes used must be dried in drying ovens with calibrated temperature Controller. The drying temp shall be as recommended by the electrode manufacturer. The drying Temp shall be 200 - 300 deg C for two hours if it is not specified by the manufacturer. Portable flasks shall be used by the welders for carrying electrodes to the place of use. The electrodes shall be kept at minimum100 deg C in the flask. Welding shall be carried out with short arc and stringer bead technique only.

4.4

The inter-pass temperature shall not exceed 350 deg C. After completion of Welding bring down the temp to 80 - 100 deg C and hold it at this temp for one hour minimum. The PWHT shall commence after completing one hour of soaking. CAUTION:- No LPI / Wet MPI shall be carried out on weld before PWHT.

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5.0

POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT:

Arrangements: - A minimum of four thermocouples shall be placed such that at least two are on the weld and the other two on the base material on either side of the weld within the heating band at 180 degrees apart about 50mm from the weld joint. Two stand by thermocouple shall also be provided on the weld in case of any failure of the thermocouple. The width of the heated circumferential band on either side of the weld must be at least 5 times the thickness of the weld. In case of fillet joints the heating band shall be six times the thickness of the base material. (Ref Fig - 2). An insulation of about 10mm thickness shall be provided between the cable and weld joint.

5.1

Obtain the clearance for post weld heat treatment cycle from QAE / Welding Engineer.

The PWHT temp for P91 with P91 material shall be 760 + 10 deg C and the soaking time shall be 2.5 minutes per mm of weld thickness, subject to a MINIMUM OF TWO HOURS. All records shall be reviewed by Welding Engineer prior to PWHT clearance. Heating shall be done by Induction heating only. The rate of heating / cooling :- Thickness up to 50mm - 110 deg C / hr.(max) (above 350 deg C) Thickness 50 to 75mm - 75 deg C / hr.(max) Thickness above 75mm - 55 deg C / hr.(max) Thickness = Actual thickness as measured. 5.2 INSULATION: The width of the insulation band beyond the heating band shall be at least two times the heating band width on either side of the weld ment. The recording of time & temp shall be continuously monitored with a calibrated recorder right from preheating. This will be ensured at every one hour by site authorized personnel. PREVENTIVE MEASURES DURING POWER FAILURE AND NON-FUNCTIONING OF EQUIPMENT'S: No interruption is allowed during welding and PWHT. Hence all the equipment for the purpose of power supply, welding , heating etc., shall have alternative arrangements. (diesel generator for providing power to the welding and heating equipments, standby welding and heating equipments, reserve thermocouple connections, gas burner arrangement for maintaining temp etc.) Following preventive measures shall be adopted until normal power supply or backup power supply through diesel generator is restored. (a) During start of preheating: In case of any power failure/interruption during preheating, the weld fit-up shall be insulated and brought to room temperature. After the electric supply resumes the joint shall be preheated as per Clause No: 4.1. (Ref: Fig 3)

5.3

(b) During GTAW / SMAW: Use gas burner arrangement to maintain the temperature at 80 deg - 100 deg C upto a length of 50mm on either side from weld centre line along the complete circumference of the pipe. Root welding shall be continued after power is restored and preheating temperature is raised to 220 deg C. During the above period temperature shall be recorded through contact type Thermometer. (Ref : Fig4)

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(c)

During cooling cycle after SMAW welding to holding temperature at 80 to 100 deg C for one hour. (Ref: Fig 5) Care shall be taken to avoid faster cooling rate by adequate insulation. The required temp 80 - 100 deg C shall be maintained by gas burner arrangements till power resumes / start of PWHT. During post weld heat treatment; The following shall be followed *1) During heating cycle The whole operation to be repeated from the beginning. (Ref: Fig 6) *2) During soaking Heat treat (soak) subsequently for the entire duration. (Complete period). (Ref: Fig 7) The heating rate shall be as per the chart. 3) During cooling (above 350 deg C ). Reheat to soaking temperature and cool at the required rate. ( Ref : Fig 8) * Temp should not be allowed to fall below 80 100 deg C. Gas burner arrangement shall be used to maintain the temperature. In all the above cases (a to d) the temp. Measurement on the weld joint by means of contact type calibrated temp. Gauges shall be employed to record the temperature at regular Intervals of 15 minutes in the log book by Quality Assurance Engineer /Welding Engineer. TEMPERATURE MONITORING: The welding and heat treatment chart given in Figure 9 shall be followed for the following details. The actual PWHT chart shall be monitored for the following: a) Preheat b) Inter pass Temperature (GTAW + SMAW) c) Controlled cooling and Holding at 80-100 Deg C for minimum one hour under insulation. Start PWHT after minimum one hour of soaking. d) Heating to PWHT e) Soaking at PWHT f) Cooling to 350 Deg C g) Cooling to Room Temperature (under insulation)

(d)

5.4

5.5

5.5 CAUTION: THE PWHT TEMP. SHALL NOT DEVIATE FROM THE VALUES SPECIFIED IN THE CHART RANGE SINCE ANY DEVIATIONS TO THE SPECIFIED HOLDING TEMPERATURE RANGE, WILL ADVERSLY AFFECT THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WELDMENT AND MAY LEAD TO REJECTION OF THE WELDMENT. THE WELD JOINTS SHOULD BE KEPT DRY.UNDER TO COME NO IN CIRCUMSTANCES ANY

WATER/LIQUID IS

ALLOWED

CONTACT WITH WELD AS

WELL AS PREHEATED PORTION OF PIPE.

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102

INDUCTION HEATING (for all Thickness)

TOP

1 50mm

3
50mm
Induction Cable

4
50mm

3
2
50mm

4
30 mm

Insulation
4 X T Min OR as recommended by equipment supplier.

30mm

Insulation 4 X T Min OR as recommended by equipment supplier.

1&2 Measurement TC, 3&4 Spare TC THERMOCOUPLE (TC) ,PREHEATING ARRANGEMENT

Fig - 1

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ARRANGEMENT FOR POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

Insulate 2 Times Heating Band Width

fibre glass cloth or Ceramic wool

Heating Band W= 8 X T min or as recommended by the equipment supplier

TC1

Induction Cable

50mm

1&2 Measurement TC, 3&4 Spare TC TC 3

50mm

TC 4 at 180 apart

TC2

TC5, TC6 ( Spare TC) shall be fixed at 90, 270 to TC3

Fig-2

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Power Failure during Preheating


Temp in deg c

Theoretical curve Actual curve 350

220 100 80 RT

POWER CUT

After power resumes

Time

Immediately cover the joint by insulation, if welding has not been started. Start preheat as per Cl.4.1 after power resumes Fig - 3

Power Failure during GTAW/SMAW


Temp in deg c Theoretical curve Actual curve

350

BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED PIPING CENTRE CHENNAI


220 100

PAGE 2

OF 25

After power resumes

Maintain CHENNAI BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED PIPING CENTRE 80 - 100c by immediate 2 PAGE 80 During power cut RT

OF 25

insulation and heating by burners

Time

Fig - 4

WELDING MANUAL

105

Power Failure during cooling / holding

Temp in deg c

Theoretic al curve

350 220

Actual curve

After power resumes


100 80

RT

During power cut

Maintain 80 - 100C for a min period one hour by immediate insulation and heating by gas

Time

Fig - 5

WELDING MANUAL

106

Power Failure during PWHT heating cycle


Temp in deg c Theoretical curve 760 10 Actual curve

350

220 100 80 RT Power cut Time

Rate of heating shall be adhered

Fig - 6

Power Failure during PWHT soaking cycle


Temp in deg c 760 10 Actual curve T T1

350

Power cut Theoretical curve

220 100 80 RT Time

T1 =T

Fig - 7

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Power Failure during PWHT cooling cycle


Temp in deg c Theoretical curve 760 10 Actual curve

350 220 100 80 RT Free fall (While heat insulated)

Rate of cooling shall be adhered

Time

Fig - 8

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5.7

CALIBRATION: All equipments like recorder, thermocouple, compensating cable, oven thermostat etc. should have valid calibration carried at BHEL approved labs. The calibration reports shall be reviewed and accepted by Calibration In-charge at site prior to use.

6.0

NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION ( Refer NDE Manual ) : 6.1 All NDE shall be done after PWHT only. Prior to testing all welds shall be smoothly ground. All weld s (fillet & butt) shall be subjected to MPI (MPI shall be done by YOKE type only). In addition to MPI, butt-welds and all full penetration welds shall be examined by UT. LPI procedure shall be BHE: NDT : PB : P T : 01 and MPI procedure shall be BHE: NDT : PB : MT: 05 The penetrant materials (Dye Penetrant, Solvent cleaner & Developer) and medium (dry/wet particles) used in MPI shall be of BHEL approved brands only. UT procedure shall be as per BHE:NDT:PB: UT21 with additional requirements as in (a) through (e) a) The calibration blocks used shall be of same material specification (P91) dia & thickness. The UT equipment shall be calibrated prior to use and should be of digital type Krautkramer Model USN 50 or equivalent or higher version , capable of storing calibration data as well as ultrasonic test results as per UT-21 All record able indications will be stored in memory of either the digital flaw detector or a PC for review at a later period. The equipment calibration data for specific weld as well as the hard copy of Static echo-trace pattern Showing the flaw-echo amplitude with respect to DAC, flaw depth, projection surface distance (probe position) and beam-path shall be attached to UT test report. This hard-copy of echo-trace with equipment calibration data will form part of test documentation. e) The examination as well as evaluation will be performed by a qualified Level II personnel, and a test report will be issued. Any defect noticed during NDT shall be marked with marker.

b)

c)

d)

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110

REPAIR OF WELD JOINTS: (A) WELD REPAIR AT ROOT: On visual examination during root welding if it reveals any surface defects, the same shall be removed by grinding maintaining temperature 80 - 100 deg. C and re welded with GTAW maintaining 220 deg. C before starting SMAW.

(B) WELD REPAIR ON COMPLETION: Any defect observed on the weld shall be brought to the notice of Quality assurance engineer. The size and nature of defect shall be reviewed. Any repair on weld to be carried on their approval only. If any defects are noticed on the fully completed weld while performing U.T after completion of PWHT, the same may be assessed in order to find the seriousness of the defect and to locate where exactly the defect lies from the weld outside surface. The defect area shall be marked and repaired as below: a) The weld shall be removed by grinding (gouging not permitted) such that the area for repair welding is free from sharp corners and provided with sufficient slope towards the weld face sides. Incase of cut & weld joints HAZ (5mm) will have to be removed by grinding. b) Surface examination (MPI/LPI) on the ground and welded area to be performed to ensure a sound base metal before depositing weld layers using SMAW. c) The temp. of the weld is to be maintained at preheat temp. d) Carry out SMAW using the same procedure as that of welding. e) All the specified precautions w.r.t to welding consumables, heating cycles, post weld heat treatment etc. as followed for original welding, shall be strictly adhered. The NDE shall be conducted for the entire weld joint. f) If any further defects are observed on the repaired weld, the same may be further reworked as mentioned above.

8.0

HARDNESS SURVEY: The equipment recommended to measure the hardness are EQUOTIP or MICRODUR make or equivalent portable equipment. The equipment used for the hardness measurement shall be calibrated as recommended by the manufacturer and also on a P91 calibration block provided by PC. The surface shall be cleaned and prepared as per hardness test instrument manufacturers recommendation prior to hardness survey. Hardness survey shall be done on each joint at three locations along the circumference. At each location three readings shall be taken on weld and parent metal .The readings on the parent metal shall be taken within 15mm from the weld fusion line. All the hardness values shall be recorded.

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The max allowable hardness at weld and parent metal shall be 300 HV10. Joints having hardness above 300 HV shall be reheat treated and hardness shall be checked again. If hardness is still more refer to unit. PM 1 WELD PM 2 0

270

90

180 Figure 10 LOCATION 1 PM READINGS 1 0 90 180 270 2 3 AVE 1 WELD 2 3 PM 2 AVE 1 2 3 AVE

PM : PARENT MATERIAL 9.0 COMBINATION WELDING:

AVE : AVERAGE

For other combination of material like P22 with P91, and X22 with P91 the applicable WPS for the involving material shall be obtained from equipment supplier / WTC / PC and the same shall be used . 9.1 SOAKING TIME FOR COMBINATION WELDING: WPS N0. Material 1035 P91+P22 MS W0454. P91+X22 Soaking time 2.5mts / mm minimum one hour 2.5mts / mm minimum two hour for thickness upto 50 mm and minimum four hours for thickness above 50 mm. However the precautions as required for P91shall be fully taken care of. Temp., 74515C 75010C

10.0

DEMAGNETISATION: Refer NDE Manual Ch 1.11

11.0 11.1

TRAINING: The personnel engaged in P91 piping fabrication shall be trained in the following areas. a. Method and Care during fit-up. b. Argon gas root purging arrangement. c. Fixing of thermocouple and wires. d. Arrangements for Pre/Post heating requirements and methods. e. Adjustment of heating pads/cables at the time of controlling the temperature within specified tolerance limits during welding or PWHT in case of induction heating. f. Good appreciation of the WPS requirements. g. Handling of P91 welding consumables and re-drying conditions. h. Special precautions during the power/equipment failure. i. Weld joints of dissimilar thickness / material specification.

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j.

Weld defect control and weld repair systems.

11.2

SPECIFIC TRAINING FOR WELDERS: a. The qualified welders who will be engaged in P91 welding shall be given training on pipe joints simulated with P91 welding and heating cycle conditions. b. The acquaintance on welding positions, as applicable shall be given using P91 pipes and P91 welding consumables. c. Welding techniques and instructions on Dos and DONTs of P91 welding. d. Welders only who are qualified on P91 welding alone shall be engaged. e. Whenever new welders have to be engaged they shall undergo all the training as above and shall be qualified with P91 material only.

11.3

CONTROL ON WELDERS: The welder during welding at site follow the following procedures. The welder shall interact with the HT operator (Induction equipment operator) to ensure that preheat and interpass temperature during welding are maintained as per requirements. The welder shall not mix the welding electrodes with that of the other welder. At the end of the shift, the unused electrodes shall be returned to the stores.

11.4

PERSONNEL / CONTRACTORS ENGAGED FOR HEATING CYCLES (HT Operator):

11.4.1 The Personnel / Contractor shall have adequate heat treat experience on P91 or similar material. 11.4.2 HT operator shall be aware of the following: a) The equipment used and its working principle and operation. a) The procedures to be followed in using heating equipments. b) Procedure to be followed in case of power failure or equipment non-functioning so that heating cycle is not disrupted. c) Calibration of equipments. d) Method of fixing thermocouples and compensating cables leading to HT recorder. e) Fixing of heating pads or elements on the pipe joints and also in maintaining the temperature within the specified limits. 11.5 NDE PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS: All NDE personnel performing NDT like UT & MPI/LPI shall be qualified in accordance with BHEL Procedure meeting the requirements of recommended practice SNT TC - IA. MPI & LPI shall be carried out by level I qualified personnel and shall be evaluated by level II qualified personnel. However UT examination and evaluation shall be done by level II qualified personnel. 11.6 LEVEL OF SUPERVISION Site Incharge shall be responsible for the completion of all activities from weld fit-up to final clearance of weld joints after satisfactory NDE and acceptance by BHEL/Customer/IBR.

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12.0

DOs and DONTs during P 91 welding, heat treatment and NDE at construction site:

12.1 DOS: a) Cutting by Band saw/Hack saw/Machining. b) Pipes Edge Preparation by machining. Machining shall be done without excessive pressure to prevent heating up of pipe c) Grinding may be done on exceptional cases after approval and taking adequate care to prevent overheating. d) Thermocouple wire (hot/Cold junctions) shall be welded with condenser discharge portable spot-welding equipment. e) Reserve Thermocouples shall be made available , incase of failure of connected thermocouple elements. f) Ensure adequate Argon Gas for complete purging of air inside the pipe before starting GTAW root welding. g) Ensure Preheating at 220 Deg.C minimum before GTAW root welding. h) Start preheating only after clearance from Welding engineer / Quality assurance engineer for weld fit-up and alignment of the joint as well as fixing of Thermocouple connections ( for Induction heating)

i) Do visual inspection on root weld maintaining weld preheating temp. j) Continue Argon purging until the GTAW root welding followed by minimum two filler passes of SMAW, is completed. k) Perform partial root welding to facilitate fit-up if necessary. l) Ensure that only one layer of root welding using TGS 2CM filler wire (2 Cr 1 Mo) is deposited. (wherever specified). m) Ensure proper use of TIG wires as identified by colour coding or suitable hard punching. n) Keep the GTAW wires in absolutely clean condition and free from oil , rust, etc. o) Dry the SMAW electrodes before use. p) Ensure the interpass temperature is less than 350 Deg.C. q) Hold at 80-100 Deg.C for a period of Minimum 1 hour before the start of PWHT. r) Record entire heating cycle on Chart through recorders.

s) Exercise control during grinding of weld and adjoining base metal while removing surface/sub-surface defects or during preparation for NDE. t) Ensure no contact with moisture during preheat, welding, post heat and PWHT of Weld Joints. u) Ensure removal of argon purging arrangements after welding. v) Use short Arc only. The maximum weaving shall be limited to 1.5 times the dia of the electrode.

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13.0 DONTs: a) Avoid Oxy-Acetylene flame cutting. b) Avoid Weld-build up to correct the weld end-d1 or to set right the lip of the weld bevel. c) Avoid Arc strike on materials at the time of weld fit up or during welding. d) Do not Tack weld the Thermocouple wires with Manual Arc/TIG welding. e) NO GTAW root welding without thorough purging of root area. f) Do not use Oxy-acetylene flame heating for any heating requirements. g) Do not use Thermal chalks on the weld groove. h) Do not stop argon purging till completion of GTAW root welding and two layers of SMAW. i) No Tack welding or Bridge piece welding is permitted. j) Do not use unidentified TIG wires or electrodes. k) Do not exceed the maximum interpass temperature indicated in WPS l) Do not allow moisture, rain, water, cold wind, cold draft etc. to come in contact with the weld zone or heating zone during the entire cycle from preheat to PWHT. m) Do not exceed the limits of PWHT soaking temperature. n) Do not Interrupt the Welding/heating cycle except for unavoidable power failures o) Do not use uncalibrated equipment for temperature measurement during heating, welding, post weld, heat treating etc., 14.0 1) NDE Consumables: For LPI consumables list refer NDE Manual CH 1.1

2) Dry Magnetic powder: (a) MAGNAFLUX - PRODUCT GREY; 8A RED (b) FERROCHEM PRODUCT NO: 266 (c) K-ELECTRONICS PRODUCT RD- 200 (SPECIAL) Non-fluorescent magnetic ink: (Prepare bath as instructed by supplier) a) MAGNAFLUX Product 9C RED with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle. b) FERROCHEMPRODUCT NO: 146 A with oil vehicle (with high flash point 92C) c) SARDA MAGNA CHECK INK with oil vehicle (with high flash point 92C) 4) Fluorescent magnetic ink: (Prepare bath as instructed by supplier) a) MAGNA FLUX Product 14A with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle. b) MAGNA FLUX Product 14 AM Prepared bath of 14A and MG/MX carrier II ready to use without measuring and Mixing in aerosol container with MX/MG carrier II oil vehicle DOCUMENTATIONS: The documentation shall be as per the customer approved BHEL Quality Plan.

3)

15.0

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TECHNICAL DIRECTIVE Sht no.: 1 of 2 ARGON PURITY LEVEL WHAT IS ARGON: Argon is chemically-inert, monatomic gas, heavy and available in quantity at reasonable cost. Its chemical symbol is Ar. Atomic weight is 40. Molecular weight is 40. APPLICATION OF ARGON IN BHEL: In the welding process, Argon is used for SHIELDING and BACKING purpose. The atmosphere in which we live is composed of about 4/5th of Nitrogen and 1/5th Oxygen. The welding process when exposed to air, most metals exhibit a strong tendency to combine with Oxygen, and to lesser extend with Nitrogen, especially when in the molten condition. The rate of oxide formation will vary with different metals, but even a thin film of oxide on the surface of metals to be welded can lead to difficulties. For the most part, the oxides are relatively weak, brittle materials that in no way resemble the metal from which they are formed. A layer of oxide can easily prevent the joining of two pieces by welding. Argon is a shield gas used in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Root Shielding and Plasma cutting. Argon protects welds against oxidation as well as reduces fume emissions during welding. PRODUCTION OF ARGON : A co-product of oxygen and nitrogen production, argon is manufactured commercially by means of air separation technology. In a cryogenic process, atmospheric air is compressed and cooled. Following liquefaction, the air is fractionally distilled based on the different boiling points of each component. (The boiling point of argon is between those of nitrogen and oxygen.). During distillation, liquid nitrogen is the first product extracted from the high-pressure column. Next, a stream containing oxygen and argon (plus other gases) is withdrawn. The crude stream, containing approximately 10 percent argon, is refined in a separate distillation column to produce argon with 98 percent purity. Manufacturers can further refine the stream by mixing the argon with hydrogen, catalytically burning the trace oxygen to water, drying and, finally, distilling the stream to remove remaining hydrogen and nitrogen. Using this process, producers can achieve an argon product with 99.9995 percent purity.

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TECHNICAL DIRECTIVE Sht no.: 2 of 2 ARGON PURITY LEVEL The compressed argon is supplied in cylinders and liquid argon is supplied in tanks. The cylinder used for argon will have the body colour of BLUE without band, size of 25 cms dia. & 1.5 m length, capacity of 6.2 M3 and pressure when fully charged at 150C (approx) 137 Kg/Cm2 (1949 psi). PURITY LEVEL OF ARGON INDIAN STANDARD for ARGON, Compressed & Liquid Specification no. IS 5760: 1998 shall be referred. There are 3 grades of argon, namely: Grade 1 : Ultra high purity argon for use in electronics and allied industries and indirect reading vacuum spectrograph, Grade 2 : High purity argon for use in lamp and allied industries and Grade 3 : Commercial grade argon for use in welding industry and for other metallurgical operations. Accordingly the argon shall comply with the requirements given below: Sl. No. CHARACTERISTIC i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Oxygen, ppm, Max. Nitrogen, ppm, Max. Hydrogen, ppm, Max. Water vapours, ppm. Max. Carbon dioxide, ppm, Max. Carbon monoxide, ppm, Max. Hydrocarbons, ppm, Max. REQUIREMENT Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 0.5 5.0 10.0 2.0 10.0 300 1.0 2.0 5.0 0.5 4.0 7.0 0.5 0.5 3.0 0.5 0.5 2.0 0.2 0.5 -

PURCHASE SPECIFICATION FOR ARGON: BHEL - WELDING TECHNOLOGY CENTRE, Trichy recommends the specifications for purchasing the Argon for welding process is, Argon as per Grade 3 of IS-5760: 1998 Rev 02 with Oxygen & Water Vapours restricted to max. 7 PPM each and with Argon purity level of min. 99.99%. The supply should accompany Test Certificate for the batch indicating individual element PPM level and overall purity level. Hence, it is recommended to purchase the Argon with above specification by BHEL as well as by our Sub-contractors engaged at sites. ---- O ----

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Welding research institute Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Tiruchirappalli-620014 Use of Resistance heating for Post weld heat treatment of P91 pipes. (For Reference only WPS of concerned Unit shall prevail)
The subject of the use resistance heating for PWHT has been raised over the past few years especially for application to P91 steel pipes. In response to this WRI had taken up extensive studies on the effectiveness of this method in P22, P91 and SA106 Gr.B pipes using the conventionally used continuous coil type heating method and flexible ceramic pad based resistance heating. The studies were primarily aimed at evaluation of the effectiveness of the method to achieve close temperature gradients of the order of 15C across the wall thickness of the pipe during soaking period of Post weld heat treatment. In view of this thermocouples were attached on the inner walls of the pipe also in this study, though it is not done in actual situations to enable measurement of temperature gradients at various stages of PWHT across the wall thickness. The studies were conducted with different parameters such as heating dimensions, soaking times etc. The study reveled the following 1. Close temperature gradients up to 15C could be achieved across the circumference of the pipe when an automatic heat treatment is carried out using Flexible ceramic type pad elements along with Programmable temperature controller energized by a thyristorised power source that gives an output supply of 65/80V and a digital temperature indicator cum printer is used.
2.

This automatic method could be easily used to control the preheat temperature as well as the inter pass temperature required to be controlled during welding of P91 steels. The digital printer could give the temperature values along with real time and were found
to be reliable.

3.

The conventional method of PWHT using continuous coil type heating method were found to give higher temperature gradients of the order of 25C and required a close monitoring by skilled personnel to obtain the right results. Subsequent to this study, a workshop was conducted in Nov 2003 at PSSR chennai to communicate the results to all construction engineers. Representatives from various power sector regions attended this workshop. During deliberations, it was felt by all that the automatic resistance based heat treatment can be applied in one of the 500 MW sites. Some people opined that prior to the actual use it could be demonstrated in Bellary site as a next step for implementation of the technique.

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In the meanwhile, WRI was recently requested (July 2006) to assist L&T ECC division to establish the resistance heating method for heating and PWHT of P91 pipes at SIPAT site for the 660 MW boiler being erected by them. In response to this the same contractor who was engaged earlier for WRI trials was engaged and a demonstration was carried out at SIPAT site. The primary aim of this demonstration was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the automatic method to get temperature gradients to levels of 15C in P91 pipes up to 30 mm thickness. In tune with this two trials were conducted at site. The first pipe was a P91 pipe with 25 mm thickness in which the entire preheating, interpass temperature control and during welding and PWHT cycle was applied. The welded pipe was also subjected to procedure qualification tests at WRI. Secondly one more pipe of 45 mm thickness was also tried to study the effectiveness of the method with thermal cycle simulation only without welding. The results of the above study reveal the following 1. Temperature gradients within 8-10C could be obtained between the outer and inner walls with the automatic resistance heating method. 2. The temperature chart showed that no interruptions or kinks in the time-temperature record indicating the steady maintenance of temperature throughout the PWHT cycle. 3. The method could be effectively used for the entire heating cycle, including preheating, interpass temperature control during welding, cooling to intermediate temperature and regular PWHT cycle. 4. Similar results were observed in the case of 45 mm thick pipe also and the results were highly reliable. 5. The trials at WRI shop as well as SIPAT site has given good and satisfactory results indicating that the automatic local PWHT is more reliable, consistent and can be applied in site with ease. In view of the above it can be concluded that the automatic resistance based heating method can be used for the entire heating cycle for welding P91 grade pipes up to 32 mm to achieve temperature gradients of the order of 10C which is required as per specification. The details of the various components of the automatic resistance heating equipment and system that are to be used in are given in Annex I. The contact address of the contractor through whom the trials were carried out is given in annex II. Besides this, some more contractors have also shown interest in carrying out the PWHT in the automatic mode. Their addresses are also given in annex II. As the entire set of equipments is made indigenously many contractors would come up with the automatic heating facilities when BHEL specifies the usage of this method. In this context it is recommended to carry out Procedure qualification test with the largest thickness pipe at site to establish the process with the contractors prior to application for the actual pipe. This would enable the contractors to stabilize the process and serve as a measure of quality assurance for site heat treatment.

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119

Details of the automatic resistance heating based equipment recommended for PWHT.

Sl.no

Key components of the Description of the items that are essential equipment

01

Type of heating element

Flexible ceramic pads containing stranded heating elements of standard width and breadths to cover various diameters of pipes. The pads can be of 2.7/3.6 kW power with 65/80V Power source: 50/70 KvA transformer power source with 3 phase input supply with 415 / 440 V, 50 Hz supply to provide a secondary output voltage of 65/85V and 225 Amps per phase. 6 way thyristorised switching, energy regulators. Microprocessor based Programmable cycle controller (0-1200C) with easy setting of time and temperature for setting heating/soaking and cooling rates. Calibrated Digital multi point recorder (12 channel- 0 to 1200C) cum printer with suitable connecting cable for real time recording temperature with time for the entire heating cycle. Suitable plug in type copper cables, 2/3/4 way splitter cables to connect heating pads and power source. Suitable temperature compensating cables to connect thermocouples and Power source and temperature recorder 1. Capacitor discharge based Thermocouple fixing unit. 2. Calibrated thermocouples (type K). 3. Mineral wool /ceramic wool Insulation pads of min 25 mm thick for insulation of the pipe. 4. Steel banding machine with 1 thick steel band for securing the heating pads with the pipe.

02

Power supply

03

Controller

04

Temperature recorder

05

Power cables

06

Accessories

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Annex II

List of vendors /contractors who can carry out the automatic local PWHT at site
Vendor used for the study at WRI and at SIPAT site Mr. Fernandez Phone Indo therm engineers Pvt.Ltd 25822175,25830410,25805563, 25831948 Plot No. A-374, Fax: 022- 25833882 Road No. 9 Cell no: 9892592329 Wagle Industrial Estate Email: itepl@vsnl.com Thane 400 504

01

02

Vendors who are ready to offer PWHT services with auto equipments K.B. Jetly 022 - 556 7654/ 5581766/556 6096 East West Engineering & electronics company eastwestndt@vsnl.com 204, Acharya complex center Dr. C. Gidwani road Chembur, Mumbai 400 074 Shri .V. Kannan Shastra NDT services 131,Aharya commercial center Near Basant Cinema Dr.C.G.Road Chembur Mumbai 400 074 Injo tech services Office No. 44, 5th floor Yugay Mangal complex Near ICICI bank, Erandwane Pune 411 038 OPI services, Pune Ph: 022- 5575 1279 Kannan1559@yahoo.com Mobile: 98213 29436

03

04

Mr. Ingale 020-5621 2833, 5621 6833 Mobile of Mr. Ingale: 09822036600 injotech@vsnl.com Mr. Sathe Cell: 9822499002

05

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B-3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES


(FORM AND POSITION)

121

CHAPTER - B3 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDING STRUCTURES (FORM AND POSITION)

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(FORM AND POSITION)

122

Doc. Ref.: AA 0621105 GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR WELDED STRUCTURES - (FORM AND POSITION)
1.0 1.1 GENERAL : Tolerance on form and position as defined in this standard are permissible variations from the geometrically ideal form and position corresponding to the accuracies commonly obtained in workshops. The standard covers tolerances on straightness, flatness and parallelism.

Doc. Ref.: AA 0621105

1.2 This standard is based on DIN 8570 Part 3 - 1987 B3. GENERAL TOLERANCES FOR components STRUCTURES 1.3 General tolerances for machined WELDED are covered in corporate standard AA 023 POSITION) (FORM AND 02 08. 1.4 Refer Corporate Standard AA 062 11 04 for general tolerances for lengths and angles of welded components, assemblies and structures. 2.0 2.1 SCOPE : This standard prescribes four degrees of accuracies taking into account the function dependent and the fabrication dependent differences along with appearance aspects of welded components, assemblies and structures. 2.2 For technical and economic reasons other degrees of accuracy may be appropriate which have to be specifically stated. 3.0 3.1 DEVIATIONS : The values of deviations for different classes of accuracies of straightness, flatness and parallelism are given in Table-1. These values apply to overall dimension and to part lengths. 4.0
4.1

REPRESENTATION ON DRAWING :
The required degree of accuracy shall be specified in all fabrication drawings. For example Class E of AA 062 11 05 (DIN 8570 Part 3). TABLE 1 : TOLERANCES ON STRAIGHTNESS, FLATNESS AND PARALLELISM

Nominal Dimension Range (larger side length of surface) - mm Grade Above Above Above Above Above Above Above Above Above of accu1000 2000 4000 8000 12000 16000 Above 30 to 120 to 315 to racy to to to to to to 20000 120 315 1000 2000 4000 8000 12000 16000 20000 E 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F 1 1.5 3 4.5 6 8 10 12 14 16 G 1.5 3 5.5 9 11 16 20 22 25 25 H 2.5 5 9 14 18 26 32 36 40 40

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(FORM AND POSITION)

123

5.0
5.1

TESTING :

Figures 1 to 3 illustrate the mode of testing for straightness, flatness and parallelism.

The test method should be selected on the basis of current measuring practice.
There should be no unusual temperature or weather conditions, e.g. strong sunshine. The measured values apply to the conditions on the day of testing.

5.2

STRAIGHTNESS :
The edge of the welded component and the straight edge can be arranged in relation to each other so that the end points of the measured length are the same distance apart from the ends of the straight edge. The distances between the edge and the straight edge should be measured.

5.3

FLATNESS :
A measuring plane can be set up outside the welded component parallel to the limiting planes at any desired distance. For example this can be done with optical instruments, flexible tube liquid levels, tension wires, clamp plates, surface plates and machine beds.

5.4

PARALLELISM :
Any of the measuring devices mentioned above can be used to set up a measuring plane outside the welded component parallel to its reference plane. from the actual surface to the measuring plane is measured. The distance

The position of the reference surface (= surface after machining) is dimensionally determined. Dimension a1 gives the required finished height of the foundation. Dimension a2 gives the minimum thickness of the support. The distance between the reference plane and the measuring plane is greater than : hmax by the minimum possible thickness of the machining allowance b. The variation of the actual surface (=surface before machining) from the reference plane must be within the tolerance on parallelism. Maximum variation is hmax - hmin t
Note : The tolerance on form and position as per this standard may be mentioned on the drawing in addition to the linear tolerances as per AA 062 11 04 wherever required.

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(FORM AND POSITION)

124

WELDING MANUAL

125

CHAPTER - B4 WELDING OF PIPES AND PIPES SHAPED CONNECTIONS IN STEAM TURBINE, TURBO-GENERATORS AND AUXILIARIES

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126

WELDING OF PIPES AND PIPES SHAPED CONNECTIONS IN STEAM TURBINE, TURBO-GENERATORS AND AUXILIARIES Doc.Ref.: HW 0620599 1.0 SCOPE : These guidelines cover edge preparation, method of welding for pipes and pipe shaped connections to be used in Steam Turbine, Turbo-generator and heat exchanger of KWU design. 2.0 2.1 WELD EDGE PREPARATION : Various forms of edge preparation to be used for shop weld, site weld and edge preparations for pipes manufactured from rolled plates are covered in this standard. However, edge preparation may be altered in case where pipe connections are made between customers pipe line and BHEL supply. In all such cases edge preparation must be given on the drawing. ASSEMBLY AND WELDING PROCEDURES : Before tacking the weld edges must be aligned. The linear misalignment between weld edges must be maintained according to specifications No. HW 0620099. Machined weld end preparations of the components being despatched to site must be protected with a metal cover. Shaped parts of piping e.g. flanges, reducer, elbows, T-sections etc. are ordered with edge preparations carried out at suppliers work. Welding processes are selected in accordance with Annexure-I. Welders qualified as per ASME Section IX are to be employed. The distinction is to be made between shop and site welds in the drawing as per Plant Standard No. 0623.003. Tack welds, if not to be removed, must be made with the same filler metal and must be performed by qualified welder. The weld joints are to be purged by inert gas in case of high alloy steels. PIPES ROLLED FROM PLATES : Weld seams of rolled pipe are welded by Shielded Metal Arc welding. The root is gouged / ground and welded from back side. 5.0 5.1 INSPECTION : The weld seams are subjected to internal examination in accordance with HW 0850199. The external characteristics are examined in accordance with HW 0620099.

2.2

3.0 3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4 3.5 3.6

3.7

3.8 4.0 4.1

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ANNEXURE-I

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128

CHAPTER - B5 INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT CONDENSER PLATE AND NECK WELDING

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129

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT CONDENSER PLATE AND NECK WELDING


1.1 GENERAL:

1.1.1 The welding of the condenser is performed by step back seam method i.e. from tack weld to tack weld. 1.1.2 Subsequent filling welds after tack welding are always performed in the opposite direction. Welding to be carried out as per requirement envisaged in drawing / field welding schedule. 1.1.3 Condenser Erection Manual as well as instructions issued by manufacturing unit may also be referred in conjunction with this manual. 1.1.4 1.2 All the welding shall be carried out by qualified welders. CONDENSER SHELL INTERNALS WELDING:

1.2.1 Tack weld the tube support plate sections aligned with the centre point to the slot profiles on the bottom plate and the side walls. After tack welding, verify that the holes in the support plates lie in the vertical and horizontal planes. Enter the actual measurements on the measurement data record provided. The thin steel wires and alignment devices can now be removed, as they are no longer required for further assembly of the condenser shell internals. Move the internals temporarily housed in the spaces in the tube support plate sections into their correct positions, align and tack weld them in accordance with the plantspecific drawing. Assemble the central fishing and the bracing assemblies such as flat irons and tubes. NOTE:The steam baffles and bracing units must not be tacked to the tube plates of the water boxes. This operation is not performed until all internals have been welded to one another. Then align the various sections of the air extraction line, weld them together to form one unit and tack weld to the tube support plates. During alignment, ensure that the air extraction openings are directed towards the bottom plate and that therefore the connection holes for the connecting piping systems are necessarily in the correct positions. Pass out and fit the pipe work to the connecting piping system through the connection holes. Assemble the shields for the cooler tube nests. Set down the shields on the flat iron supports, align and tack weld.

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After assembly of all the steam space internals which, to allow for welding warpage, may only be tack-welded, commence welding of all the condenser shell internals, the welding sequence being of up most importance. NOTE: The feed water heater platform must be mounted and welded in place prior to the assembly of the condensate drain sheets as there is only a gap of approximately 200 mm between the feed water heater platform and the air cooler sheet. Then weld the vertical slot profile strips to the side walls and tube support plates. During this procedure, welders should as far as possible work simultaneously. When the condenser shell internals have been completely welded together, tack and weld the steam baffle plates, the bracing assemblies and the air extraction line and the connecting piping system at the front and rear tube plates. When all welding work has been concluded, remove all weld residue from the weld seams and weld zones in the entire condenser shell. NOTE:To prevent welding warpage, all welds must be performed simultaneously from both sides using the back-step method. Vertical joints must be welded from top to bottom, i.e. from the upper edge of the tube support plate to the bottom plate.

ATTENTION:-

THE PERTINENT WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION

AND WELDING INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE OBSERVED WHEN WELDING.

1. Steam space (top view) 2. Tube support plate 3. Vertical slot profiles 4. Welding locations

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1.3

WELD CONNECTIONS BETWEEN CONDENSER AND LOW PRESSURE TURBINE

NOTE :- The assembly welding instructions given herein are of a general nature. Please see also the assembly plans, drawings and other instructions for the plant in question. 1.3.1 In any weld connection, the cooling of the locally heated material in the weld zone will, by laws of physics cause transverse and longitudinal contractions, these giving rise to stresses in the material. In order to keep these stresses as low as possible, it is imperative that the weld is prepared as specified in the drawings. Before welding is commenced the semi-circular structural profiles must be bolted to the dome end walls. 1.3.2 WELDING THE CONDENSER TO THE LOW-PRESSURE TURBINE After the condenser has been brought to operating weight and the spring supports have been adjusted to compensate for welding contraction, prepare for welding the condenser to the low-pressure turbine. Erect scaffolding inside the condenser in accordance with applicable accident prevention regulations to facilitate access to the weld locations. Then fit the intermediate, corner and web plates (as called for) and prepare the weld edges. Tack these parts to the condenser dome with welds with a tack length of three times the plate thickness at intervals of 25 times the plate thickness. Weld the joint using the back-step method from tack to tack (see Fig.1). When the base layer has been completed, make the following filler weld layers, each in a single pass, and reversing direction for each layer (see Fig.2). After welding, clean the weld zone using suitable tools. ATTENTION:AND WELDING INSTRUCTIONS MUST BE OBSERVED WHEN WELDING. THE PERTINENT WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION

WELDING MANUAL

B-6

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 132

CHAPTER - B6 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE SHEET JOINTS OF U TUBE H.P. HEATER

WELDING MANUAL

B-6

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 133

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE SHEET JOINTS OF U TUBE H.P. HEATER

1.1 Pressurise the shell side with Nitrogen or Pneumatic air to 7 Kg / cm2 and apply soap solution over the complete area of welding on tube sheet.
1.2 Find out the leakage of tubes and identify by marking either with chalk or colour.

1.3 Reduce the pressure to zero and also ensure the removal of Nitrogen from the shell. 1.4 Face the defective weld as identified earlier by using face cutter and ensure the elimination of defect by dye penetrant (LPI) test. 1.5 If found satisfactory, clean the penetrant thoroughly and weld with manual TIG using the specific WPS according to Tube sheet material and tubes. 1.6 After welding test the weld by dye penetrant and ensure the sound weld metal deposition. 1.7 Pressurise the shell side again to 7 Kg / cm2 with Nitrogen or Pneumatic air and test the soundness of welds. 1.8 Plugging of tube of U tube HP Heater on weld overlayed tube sheets. This procedure explains the method of plugging of tubes on overlayed tube sheets of : 1. 2. 3. 4. Carbon steel tubes on inconel weld overlayed tube sheets. Inconel tubes to inconel weld overlayed tube sheets Carbon steel tubes on stainless steel overlayed tube sheets. Stainless steel tubes on Stainless steel overlayed tube sheets.

Procedure : 1. Face the tube end (to be plugged) such that the face of the tube is 4 mm below the surface of the tube sheet using the facing cutter as shown in sketch. 2. 3. Clean the hole inside thoroughly with the solvent. Prepare the plug made of either SA 105 or 11416.1 to a length of 38 mm as shown in sketch such that the OD of plug is machined for the interference fit with the tube hole i.e. tight fit having plug 0.05 mm less than the actual inside of tube as shown in sketch.

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REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR ARRESTING THE LEAKAGE OF STRENGTH WELDS ON TUBE TO TUBE 134

4.

Fit tightly the plug inside the hole as shown in sketch and weld by GTAW (manual) using the suitable filler rod.

5. 6.

Inspect the soundness of weld after each layer by dye penetrant. After completing the weld pressurise the shell to the operating pressure and then inspect the weld by dye penetrant.

TUBE PLUG PROCEDURE

SKETCH

WELDING MANUAL

B-7

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS

135

CHAPTER - B7 REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS

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B-7

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS

136

REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS


1.0 1.1 SCOPE This quality control procedure is valid for the repair of grey cast iron castings covering the following specifications : IS 210 Gr. 20 & Gr. 25 1.2 Defective castings can be salvaged by sound welding practices provided the defects are accessible to repair are not extensive and are economical to reclaim by welding. Where repairs are carried out on pressure retaining areas special care should be exercised to ensure sound weld repair. 2.0 2.1 DEFECTS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE WELD REPAIRS : Machinable surfaces : Foundry defects can be left without weld repairs on Machinable areas provided the depth of such defect is less than 50% of the machining allowance provided. Defects revealed during machining shall undergo weld repairs. Isolated pores or sand inclusions of size < 3 mm and separated from one another by atleast 25 mm can be left without weld repairs. 2.2 Non-Machinable surfaces : Foundry defects other than cracks, cold shuts, shrinkage etc. can be dressed smooth by grinding provided the depth of such defect is < 5 % of the specified wall thickness, and size < 10 mm, separated from one another by atleast 100 mm. 3.0 3.1 PREPARATION OF SURFACE : The surface around the defective area shall be free from foreign materials such as oil, grease, paint, rust, sand etc. 3.2 The defective area shall be ground or machined to obtain a sound base for welding. In the case of surface defects, the skin should be similarly ground or machined. 3.3 Before starting weld repair free graphite shall be removed by flame heating and cleaned with a wire brush.
3.4 Depending upon the size of the defect, shallow or deep grooves shall be formed by grinding / machining.

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REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS

137

3.5

Where defects are located in relatively inaccessible positions, sufficient material shall be removed to permit a satisfactory welding operation.

4.0

ELECTRODES : Low heat nickel iron electrodes (ENi CI and ENiFe-CI type) should be used. The following brands are recommended for repairs : ENi CI : 1) NFM (D&H Secheron) 2) CASTRON KALT ( Modi) 3) FERROLOID -4 (ESAB) ENiFe-CI : 1) ESAB 802 2) 1111CI (D&H Secheron) Any other equivalent approved by BHEL may also be used.

5.0 5.1

WELDING PROCEDURE : To ensure maximum freedom from porosity in weld deposits, nickel iron electrodes should be re-baked for atleast one hour at 260C in a well ventilated electric oven and either used immediately or stored in a similar oven at 120C until used.

5.2

The welding current should be kept as slow as possible consistent with smooth operation and a good wash at the sides of the joint.

5.3

Wherever possible the casting should be positioned for down hand welding operation. When extra long welds or several repair positions are involved it is preferable to stagger the welding operation to distribute the heat and to minimise the distortion.

5.4

Manipulation of the electrode : It is preferable to use stringer bead technique, with beads not > 50 to 75 mm in length, slight weaving of the electrode may be done to obtain better wash, but in no case the width of the deposit should be > 3 times the nominal dia. of the electrode.

5.5

It is preferred to butter the surface of the weld preparation first and then fill gradually towards the centre of the repaired area.

5.6

It is essential to clean the slag from each crater before making a re-strike and to remove it completely from each weld run before depositing the adjacent weld.

5.7

To ensure maximum weld soundness the forward movement of the electrode tip should be accelerated as the end of the weld run is approached, this will taper the run rather than ending it abruptly in a large weld pool. When re-striking the arc should be started ahead of the previous weld run, move back over the tapered portion, then continued forward.

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REPAIR PROCEDURE FOR GREY CAST IRON CASTINGS

138

The defective zone must be adequately prepared to permit correct manipulation of the electrode. 6.0 6.1 PREHEATING : Preheating is normally not required. Where preheating is resorted to, the entire casting should be preheated. Interpass temperature should not exceed 250C. 6.2 It is advisable to cool as slowly as possible after welding although in most cases, it is sufficient merely to cool under a cover of heat insulating material such as asbestos, sand or ashes.
6.2 Peening of the weldment after the weld cools down may be done to reduce the shrinkage stresses.

7.0

WORKMANSHIP : The weld profile should perfectly merge with the contour of the casting and shall be free from spatter, slag etc.

8.0

INSPECTION : In addition to visual examination, non-destructive tests like liquid penetrant inspection might be employed on repaired areas to ensure freedom from cracks.

WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS

139

CHAPTER - B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS

WM B8 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS

140

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE REPAIR OF STEAM TURBINE CASINGS : These instructions are only guidelines. Specific written approval is to be taken Note
from the Manufacturing units prior to carrying out repair works. 1.0 1.1 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS : This instruction is valid for the repair of steam turbine castings by welding. The materials for which this instruction is applicable are: CSN 422643, 422710, 422743, 422744, 422745, GS17CrMo55, GS C 25, SA216WCB, GS 17CrMoV511, 21CrMoV57V, 21Cr.MoV57. 1.2 The repair by welding may be carried out only by qualified welder having enough experience in this line. 1.3 The castings of casings supposed to be repaired by welding must be in the heat treated state specified in the respective drawing. It is forbidden to carry out any repair by welding on castings which were not annealed or subjected to the prescribed heat treatment. 2.0 2.1
2.2

DECISION ON REPAIR : No repair must be carried out without the approval of the manufacturing unit.
The manufacturing department takes the decision about the repair based on a strict visual and defectoscopic examination taking into consideration the type and size of the defect and its location with regard to the possibility of repair. No repair must be

undertaken, would it endanger the proper operation and safety of the equipment.

3.0 3.1

EXECUTING THE REPAIR : The defects in castings ascertained by the manufacturing unit, must be chipped off or ground out or drilled out in such a way as to obtain a clean metallic surface. Gouging by flame or arc - air method is permissible only with non alloyed cast steel like CSN 422643. Even then the gouged portion must be ground in order to obtain a metallic surface. In case of doubts whether the defect has been completely removed or not, the electro-magnetic crack test must be applied.

3.2

The defective portions must be removed in such a way as to enable the welder to carry out the welding successfully. There must be no sharp edges and the transition from the defective portion to the faultless material must be done in a smooth way. The welding engineer has to certify whether the preparation has been carried out properly.

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3.3

The exact procedure of welding different types of cast steels can be found in the enclosure of this instruction.

3.4

In case cracks develop during welding, the welder is obliged to stop the welding operation and call the welding engineer immediately who will instruct the welder how to proceed further on.

3.5

If preheating for welding is prescribed, it is recommended to heat the whole casting upto the required temperature. The preheating temperature has to be maintained

through out the welding operation. Heating by means of heating fixtures (producer gas) is permissible. It is essential to protect the casting during welding against any sudden cooling which could cause the increase of inner stresses. The surface exposed to the atmosphere should be covered by suitable insulating materials (asbestos mats, glass wool etc.). The temperature of preheating is being checked during welding by means of suitable temperature indicating aids like thermo-chalks etc. If the preheating

temperature falls during welding below the minimum required value, welding must be interrupted and the temperature regained.

3.6

Welding must proceed without any interruption. In case welding is interrupted for any unexpected reason the casting must not cool down fast but must be heated by gas burners in order to cool down slowly to the room temperature. The same procedure has to be followed when concluding the welding operation.

3.7

In case of large welds intermediate annealing has to be carried out according to the enclosure of this instruction.

4.0 4.1

INSPECTION OF THE REPAIR : All major repairs done on casing by welding must be recorded. The manufacturing unit / inspection department is obliged to keep these records (including a sketch about the location of the defect). Only small repairs like local porosity need not be recorded.

4.2

The welds shall be inspected visually. Larger repairs shall always be inspected by applying defectoscopic methods. The weld must be homogenous without any cracks.

4.3

Defects found in the weld must be again repaired following the same procedure as stated above.

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5.0 5.1

HEAT TREATMENT : The repaired and inspected castings must be again heat treated. The type of heat treatment will be given by the welding engineering department from case to case.

6.0 6.1

RESPONSIBILITY : The manufacturing unit is responsible for : a) b) c) d) The exact determination of the repair to be carried out on the casing. Ascertaining that the found defects were nicely removed. Inspection of the executed repair. Record keeping on repairs. The welding engineering department / manufacturing unit is responsible for : a) Certifying that the places on which welding is supposed to be done are properly prepared for undertaking the repair.
b) Follow up of welding procedure specification.

6.2

c) d) e)

Supervision of the welding operation. Ascertaining that the preheating temperature has been reached if prescribed. Cooperating with the manufacturing unit when evaluating the result of the welding operation. Prescribing the necessary heat treatment after welding if required.

f)

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7.0 1

REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-C25, 422710, 422643, SA 216 WCB : Defects shall be removed by grinding / machining.

Removal of defects

Inspection of pre-welding

: Complete elimination of defects shall be ensured by LPI / MPI /

Radiography. 4 Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Process c) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec.IX / IBR : SMAW : E7018-A1. Properly baked electrodes to be used. d) Position : The welding shall be done in the flat position as far as possible. e) Arc current : 2.50 mm (60-80 amps) 3.15 mm (90-130 amps) 4.00 mm (140-180 amps) 5.00 mm (190-240 amps) f) Preheating : Upto 30 mm thickness } 10C 30-100 mm thickness } 100C 101-200 mm thickness } 150C g) Inter pass te perature 5 Stress relief : 350C max. : Below 40 mm thickness no stress relief is required. Above 40-200 mm thickness stress relieve at 600-620C for 3 hours. 6 Inspection of Post welding : MPI followed by UT.

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8.0 1

REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-17CrMoV511, 21CrMoV57V, 21CrMoV57, 422731.1, 422743.1, 422744.1, 422745.1

Removal of defects

: Defects shall be removed by grinding or machining and ensure complete removal by LPI / MPI.

Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Process c) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec.IX / IBR : SMAW : E9018B3. Properly baked electrodes to be used. d) Arc current : 2.50 mm (60-80 amps) 3.15 mm (90-130 amps) 4.00 mm (140-180 amps) 5.00 mm (190-240 amps) e) Preheating : 300C, continue this temp. throughout the welding operation. f) Inter pass temperature : 375C max. : The casing has to be stress elieved as

Post weld heat treatment

per code of practice in welding procedure specification. 6 Inspection after Post weld heat treatment : MPI followed by UT.

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9.0 1

REPAIR WELDING PROCEDURE Material specification : GS-17CrMo55(P4), A182F12, A217WC6, A387-12

Removal of defects

: Defects shall be removed by grinding or machining and ensure complete removal by LPI.

Welding procedure : a) Welder b) Electrode : Qualified as per ASME Sec.IX : E8018B2. Properly baked electrodes to be used. d) Arc current : 4.00 mm (140-180 amps) 5.00 mm (190-240 amps)

e) Preheating

: 250C, maintain this temp. throughout the welding operation.

f) Inter pass temperature 5 Post weld heat tr atment

: 350C max. : Maintain the temp. at 300C for about 2-3 hours and allow it to cool under asbestos.

Inspection after Post weld heat treatment

: MPI followed by UT.

Note : If weld repair is extensive, i.e. thickness of weld metal is more than 10 mm, the casing has to be stress relieved as per the code of practice.

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CHAPTER - B9 GAS METAL ARC WELDING

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GAS METAL ARC WELDING


1. GENERAL

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) can be used as a faster alternative to Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) . In GMAW the consumable is a wire spool, which is continuously fed by a motor. This consumable as well as the shielding gas come out through a hand held torch and the torch is moved manually.

This method thus combines the flexibility of manual methods with the high productivity of motorised consumable wire movement. The method has two commonly used variants :

(a) Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding (an example is the welding of aluminium bus ducts at site) (b) Metal Active Gas (MAG) welding (an example is steel chimney fabrication at site) While Argon is almost always used in MIG welding for shielding the arc, Carbon Dioxide or Carbon Dioxide with Argon is used for MAG welding. 2. ADVANTAGES OF GMAW The advantages of GMAW over SMAW are : (a) High welding speed due to continuous feed of filler metal and high deposition rate (b) No slag removal and no slag inclusion (c) Higher deposition efficiency (d) Higher arcing time (e) Low hydrogen content in weld metal 3. VARIABLES AFFECTING WELD QUALITY The variables which affect weld quality in GMAW ARE: (a) Welding current (b) Polarity (c) Arc Voltage (d) Travel speed (e) Electrode extension (f) Weld joint position (g) Electrode diameter (h) Shielding gas composition (i) Gas flow rate

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The optimum process variables, however, depend on type of base metal, electrode composition, welding position and the specified quality requirements. Some suggestive areas where this process can be used to great advantages are CW piping, Power House Structurals, Ceiling Girders, Condenser etc. The relevant information from welding techniques and welding procedure data used in one of the BHEL sites in construction of steel chimney is given below for guidance. If site wants to adopt GMAW process, procedure shall be developed at site and get it vetted by respective Engineering centres / Manufacturing units.

WELDING TECHNIQUES Joint details :


8mm

8 mm Fillet

8 mm

Current range Voltage range Electrode consumed (cm / M) Current AC or DC Polarity Size of reinforcement Whether removed Inspection and test schedules

: 120 to 160 Amps : 19 to 22 Volts : 3 to 3.8 M / Min. : DC : EP : 1.5 to 2 mm : No : As per IS 7307 PT-1

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WELDING PROCEDURE DATA SHEET


Welding Process Material specification Thickness Plate Pipe diameter Filler metal specification Weld metal analysis : Semi-Auto : IS 2062 Gr.A

: 8 mm : -: IS-6419 84-C504 (ER-7086) : NA

FLUX OR SHIELDING GAS


Flux trade Name or composition Shielding gas composition Trade Name Flow rate Backing strip used Pre-heat temperature range Interpass temperature range Post Weld Heat Treatment : NA : 99.7% CO2 : NA : 10-15 LPM : NA : 10C Min. : 265C Max. : NA

WELDING PROCEDURE
Single or Multi-pass Single or Multiple Arc Welding position(s) : Multi-pass : Single : Horizontal Vertical

FOR INFORMATION ONLY


Electrode and filler wire diameter Trade Name Type of backing Fore hand and back hand : 1.2 mm : CTTOFIL(ADVANI) : NA : NA

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CHAPTER B 10

ORBITAL WELDING

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ORBITAL WELDING
( FOR INFORMATION ONLY )

WHAT IS ORBITAL WELDING 1. Definition

The term Orbital-Welding is based on the Latin word ORBIS = circle. This has been adopted primarily by aerospace and used in terms of Orbit (n.) or Orbital (adj.) for the trajectory of a manmade or natural satellite or around a celestial body.

The combination Orbital and Welding specifies a process by which an arc travels circumferentially around a work piece (usually a tube or pipe).

The concept Orbital Welding is basically a loosely defined term that is usually used for process only, where the arc travels at least 360 degrees around the work piece without interruption.

Consequently, processes, which interrupt the full 360-weld sequence such as for better puddle control (often used for MIG/MAG welding, using the down-hand welding sequence in 2 halfcircles), can not truly be called orbital welding.

Orbital Tube Welding Understanding the basic principles behind orbital tube welding may help you arrive more rapidly at the optimum weld procedure for your specific application. by Bernard Mannion and Jack Heinzmann III Orbital welding was first used in the 1960s, when the aerospace industry recognized the need for a superior joining technique for aerospace hydraulic lines. A mechanism was developed in which the arc from a Tungsten electrode was rotated around the tubing weld joint. The arc welding current was regulated with a control system thus automating the entire process. The result was a more precision and reliable method than the manual welding method it replaced. In the early 1980s, Orbital welding became practical for many industries when combination power supply/control systems were developed that operated from 110 VAC. These systems were physically small enough to be carried from place-to-place on a construction site for multiple in-place welds Modern day orbital welding systems offer computer control, where welding parameters for a variety of applications can be stored in memory and later called up for a specific application. Hence, the skills of a certified welder are thus built into the welding system,

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producing enormous numbers of identical welds and leaving significantly less room for error or defects. Orbital Welding Equipment In the orbital welding process, tubes/pipes are clamped in place, and an orbital weldhead rotates an electrode and electric arc around the weld joint to make the required weld. An orbital welding system consists of a power supply and an orbital weldhead. The power supply/control system supplies and controls the welding parameters according to the specific weld program created or recalled from memory. This supply provides the control parameters, the arc welding current, the power to drive the motor in the weldhead, and switches the shield gas(es) on/off as necessary. Orbital weld heads are normally of the enclosed type, and provide an inert atmosphere chamber that surrounds the weld joint. Standard enclosed orbital weld heads are practical in welding tube sizes from 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) with wall thicknesses of up to .154 inches (3.9 mm). Larger diameters and wall thicknesses can be accommodated with open style weld heads. Reasons for Using Orbital Welding Equipment There are many reasons for using orbital welding equipment. The ability to make high quality, consistent welds repeatedly, at a speed close to the maximum weld speed, offer many benefits to the user: 1. Productivity. An orbital welding system will drastically outperform manual welders, many times paying for the cost of the orbital equipment in a single job. 2. Quality. The quality of a weld created by an orbital welding system (with the correct weld program) will be superior to that of manual welding. In applications such as semiconductor or pharmaceutical tube welding, orbital welding is the only means to reach the weld quality requirements. 3. Consistency. Once a weld program has been established, an orbital welding system can repeatedly perform the same weld hundreds of times, eliminating the normal variability, inconsistencies, errors, and defects of manual welding. 4. Skill level. Certified welders are increasingly hard to find. With orbital welding equipment, you don't need a certified welding operator. All it takes is a skilled mechanic with some weld training.

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5.

Versatility. Orbital welding may be used in applications where a tube or pipe to be welded cannot be rotated or where rotation of the part is not practical. In addition, orbital welding may be used in applications where access space restrictions limit the physical size of the welding device. Weld heads may be used in rows of boiler tubing, where it would be difficult for a manual welder to use a welding torch or view the weld joint.

Many other reasons exist for the use of orbital equipment over manual welding. For example, applications where inspection of the internal weld is not practical for each weld created. By making a sample weld coupon that passes certification, the logic holds that if the sample weld is acceptable, that successive welds created by an automatic machine with the same input parameters should also be sound. General Guidelines for Orbital Tube Welding For orbital welding in many precision or high purity applications, the base material to be welded; the tube diameter(s); weld joint and part fit-up requirements; shield gas type and purity; arc length; and Tungsten electrode material, tip geometry, and surface condition may already be written into a specification covering the application. Each orbital welding equipment supplier differs slightly in recommended welding practices and procedures. Where possible, follow the recommendations of your orbital equipment supplier for equipment set-up and use, especially in areas that pertain to warranty issues. Note that, this section is only intended as a guideline for those applications where no specification exists. The engineer responsible for the welding must create the welding setup, and derive the welding parameters, in order to arrive at the optimum welding solution. WELDING BASICS AND SET-UP The Physics of the GTAW Process The orbital welding process uses the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW), as the source of the electric arc that melts the base material and forms the weld. In the GTAW process (also referred to as the Tungsten Inert Gas process - TIG) an electric arc is established between a Tungsten electrode and the part to be welded. To start the arc, an RF or high voltage signal (usually 3.5 to 7 KV) is used to break down (ionize) the insulating properties of the shield gas and make it electrically conductive in order to pass through a tiny amount of current. A capacitor dumps current into this electrical path, which reduces the arc voltage to a level where the power supply can then supply current for the arc. The power supply responds to the demand and provides weld current to keep the arc

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established. The metal to be welded is melted by the intense heat of the arc and fuses together. Material Weldability The material selected varies according to the application and environment the tubing must survive. The mechanical, thermal, stability, and corrosion resistance requirements of the application will dictate the material chosen. For complex applications, a significant amount of testing will be necessary to ensure the long-term suitability of the chosen material from a functionality and cost viewpoint. In general, the most commonly used 300 series stainless steels have a high degree of weldability with the exception of 303/303SE, which contain additives for ease of machining. Four hundred series stainless steels are often weldable, but may require post weld heat treatment. Accommodation must be made for the potential differences of different material heats. The chemical composition of each heat batch number will have minor differences in the concentration of alloying and trace elements. These trace elements can vary the conductivity and melting characteristics slightly for each heat. When a change in heat number is made, a test coupon should be made for the new heat. Minor changes in amperage may be required to return the weld to its original profile. It is important that certain elements of the material be held to close tolerances. Minor deviations in elements, such as sulfur, can vary the fluid flow in the weld pool, completely changing the weld profile and causing arc wander. Weld Joint Fit-Up Weld joint fit-up is dependent on the weld specification requirements on tube straightness, weld concavity, reinforcement, and drop through. If no specification exists, the laws of physics will require that the molten material flow and compensate for tube mismatch and any gap in the weld joint. Tubing is produced according to tolerances that are rigid or loose according to the application for which the tube was purchased. It is important that the wall thickness is repeatable at the weld joint from part to part. Differences in tube diameter or out-ofroundness will cause weld joint mismatch and arc gap variations from one welding set up to another.

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Tube and pipe end prep facing equipment is recommended in order to help ensure end squareness and end flatness. Both the I.D. and O.D. should be burr free with no chamfer.When two tubes are butted together for welding, two of the main considerations are mismatch and gaps. In general, the following rules apply: Any gap should be less than five percent of the wall thickness. It is possible to weld with gaps of up to 10 percent (or greater) of wall thickness, but the resultant quality of weld will suffer greatly, and repeatability will also become a significant challenge. Wall thickness variations at the weld zone should be +/- five percent of nominal wall thickness. Again, the laws of physics will allow welding with mismatch of up to 25 percent of wall thickness if this is the only challenge. Again, the resultant quality of weld will suffer greatly, and repeatability will become an issue. Alignment mismatch (high-low) should be avoided by using engineering stands and clamps to align the two tubes to be welded. This system also removes the mechanical requirement of aligning the tubes from the orbital weld head. Shield Gas (es) An inert gas is required on the tube O.D. and I.D. during welding to prevent the molten material from combining with the oxygen in the ambient atmosphere. The objective of the welder should be to create a weld that has zero tint at the weld zone I.D. Argon is the most commonly used shield gas (for the O.D. of the tube) and the purge gas (for the I.D. of the tube). Helium is often used for welding on copper material. Mixed gases, such as 98 percent Argon/two percent Hydrogen; 95 percent Argon/five percent Hydrogen; 90 percent Argon/10 percent Hydrogen; or 75 percent Helium/25 percent Argon may be used when the wall thickness to be welded is heavy (.1" or above). Using mixtures of 95 percent Argon/five percent Hydrogen is incompatible with carbon steels and some exotic alloys, often causing hydrogen embrittlement in the resultant weld. As a general rule, for simplicity and reduction of shield gas cost, use 100 percent Argon gas. Gas purity is dictated by the application. For high purity situations, where the concern for micro-contamination is paramount, such as semiconductor and pharmaceutical

applications, the shield and purge gases must minimize the heat tint that could otherwise be undesirable. In these applications, ultra high purity gas or gas with a local purifier is employed. For non-critical applications, commercial grade argon gas may be used. Tungsten Electrode The Tungsten welding electrode, the source of the welding arc, is one of the most important elements of the welding system that is commonly ignored by welding systems

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users. Users continue to manually grind and wonder why they produce inconsistent results. Whether in manual or automatic welding, this is the area where manufacturing organizations can improve the consistency of their welding output with minor effort. Basically, the objective for the choice of Tungsten parameters is to balance the benefits of a clean arc start and reduced arc wander with good weld penetration and a satisfactory electrode life. Electrode Materials For quite some time, Tungsten manufacturers have added an oxide to pure Tungsten to improve the arc starting characteristics and longevity of pure Tungsten electrodes. In the orbital welding industry, the most commonly used electrode materials are two percent thoriated Tungsten and two percent ceriated Tungsten.

Safety The safety issues of Tungsten electrode material are now being looked at more closely. Many users of the TIG welding process do not realize that the welding electrode they use contains Thorium, a radioactive element added to the Tungsten. While the radioactivity is of a low level, it brings an issue of danger, especially with the radioactive dust that is generated when grinding the electrodes to a point for welding. Alternative, non-radioactive Tungsten materials are now available, such as two percent ceriated electrodes, which often offer superior arc welding. While these materials are commercially available they have been largely ignored until recently. Recommended

Electrode Materials Cerium, as a base material, has a lower work function than Thorium, offering superior emission characteristics. So, not only do ceriated electrodes offer an advance in electrode safety, they also improve the arc starting ability of the orbital equipment. However, as mentioned earlier, it is always best to follow the advice of your orbital equipment manufacturer. Electrode Tip Geometry Given the ever-increasing weld quality requirements of the final weld, more and more companies are looking for ways to ensure that their weld quality is up to par. Consistency and repeatability are key to welding applications. The shape and quality of the Tungsten electrode tip is also being recognized as a vital process variable. Once a weld procedure has been established, it is important that consistent electrode material, tip geometry, and surface condition be used.

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Welders should follow an equipment supplier's suggested procedures and dimensions first, because they have usually performed a significant amount of qualifying and troubleshooting work to optimize electrode preparation for their equipment. However, where these specifications do not exist, or the welder or engineer would like to change those settings to possibly improve and optimize their welding, the following guidelines apply: Electrode Taper This is usually called out in degrees of included angle (usually anywhere between 14 and 60). Below is a summary chart that illustrates how different tapers offer different arc shapes and features: Sharper Electrodes Last less than blunt Less weld penetration Wider arc shape Handle less amperage Less arc wander More consistent arc Blunter Electrodes Last longer Better weld penetration Narrower arc shape Handle more amperage Potential for more arc wander Less consistent arc

To demonstrate graphically how the taper selection will effect the size of the weld bead and the amount of penetration, the following drawing shows typical representations of the arc shape and resultant weld profile for different tapers. Electrode Tip Diameter Grinding an electrode to a point is sometimes desirable for certain applications, especially where arc starting is difficult or short duration welds on small parts are performed. In most cases, however, it is best for a welder to leave a flat spot or tip diameter at the end of electrode. This reduces erosion at the thin part of a point, and reduces the concern that the tip may fall into the weld. Larger and smaller tip diameters offer the following trade-offs: Smaller Tip Easier to start Less arc wander Less electrode life Less weld penetration Larger Tip Usually harder to start More chance of arc wander More electrode life More weld penetration

Tungsten Electrode Grinders and Pre-Ground Electrodes

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Using electrodes pre-ground to requirements or a dedicated commercial electrode grinder to provide electrode tip quality and consistency, offers the following benefits to the user in their welding process: Improved arc starting, increased arc stability, and more consistent weld penetration. Longer electrode life before electrode wear or contamination. Reduction of Tungsten shedding. This minimizes the possibility of Tungsten inclusions in the weld. A dedicated electrode grinder helps ensure that the welding electrodes will not become contaminated by residue or material left on a standard shop grinder wheel. Tungsten electrode grinding equipment requires less skill to ensure that the Tungsten electrode is ground correctly and with more consistency. Pre-Ground Electrodes

Rather than risk electrode radioactivity issues, and constantly endure the variability of each operator grinding the electrodes with a slightly different touch, many manufacturing organizations have chosen to purchase electrodes pre-ground. Since a small difference in the dimensions of an orbital electrode can produce a big difference in the weld results, preground electrodes are the preferred electrode choice to maintain the consistency of your welding. This low-cost option ensures that the electrode material quality, tip geometry, and ground electrode surface input to the welding process is constant. Consult electrode charts or a pre-ground electrode supplier to obtain the electrode diameter and tip geometry that is most suitable for your welding application. Conclusion In conclusion, the important points to remember are: Orbital welding has been used by many industries to improve the quality and quantity of tube welding when compared to what can be accomplished by manual welders. The effective cost of an employee computes to be significantly more than just his base salary. The output of a $20 per hour skilled welder actually costs over $72,000 per year (almost twice his yearly base wage). If a complete orbital welding system costs between $15,000 and $20,000 and can output over twice the amount of welding that a manual welder can produce then the equipment will pay for itself in a matter of months.

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Finally, the volume of welds that are produced by an automated welding system will far exceed that of a manual welder. In addition to weld quality improvements, this will bring two additional financial benefits: One, increased output per day at lower cost. Two, lowered scrap and rework costs due to improved weld consistency.

Tubesheet Weld Heads - Orbital Welding Equipment


/ Automated Welding Equipment

These Magnatech weld heads are specifically designed for making tube-totubesheet welds. Configured for fast and simple operation, the Head is inserted into the tube to be welded, and the operator pushes the START WELD switch. Multiple torch positioning adjustments allow virtually all tubesheet joint designs to be welded. All three models weld a wide range of tube sizes and operate in any position. For welds requiring filler wire addition, an optional wire feeder can be mounted on the weld head. A standard wire spool, mounted directly on the Head, provides precise and positive wire feeding, not possible with floormounted feeders. These weld Heads bring the productivity and repetitive precision of machine welding to the fabrication and repair of steam generators and heat exchangers. All three weld Heads models are used with Magnatech power sources, ranging form simple to operate analog models to microprocessor-based systems with program storage capability. TUBE GEOMETRIES Model 424 is ideal for all tubesheet geometries. Model 425 with AVC is for multipass welding Model 426 is ideal for fusion welding where preheat is not required. GTAW Open arc.

Process: Weld Head Type: Tube Size

Model 424: 10mm - 78mm (0.4" - 3.07") OD

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Range:

Model 425: 10mm - 140.2mm (0.4" - 5.52") OD Model 426: 10mm - 70.1mm (0.4" - 2.76") OD

Water-cooled torch and weld Head body (models 425 & 426 only) allow use on pre-heated tubesheets

Features:

Lifting eye allows use on a counterbalance for weightless operation

Multiple torch angle and wire feed positioning mechanism allow optimum torch position and wire entry angle

Simple centering cartridge design allows quick installation without requiring prior installation of expensive custom-fabricated locating fixtures

Inexpensive centering cartridges fit the exact tube ID Filler wire spool rotates with the torch - eliminating wire entry problems common with floor-mounted feeders (Models 424 & 425)

No cable wrap-up

Options:

Filler Wire feeder using standard 1kg (2lbs.) spools Three point standoff for welding "extended tube" geometries

Transparent purge gas chamber for titanium floods the enclosed weld area independent of torch shielding gas, reducing purge time and weld oxidation

Arc Voltage Control parallel to tungsten electrode - even when the torch is angled for a fillet weld

Torches for internal bore welding Extension Cables Dual Head Switcher allows two Heads to be used alternately maximizing "arc on" duty cycle

Applications:

Heat exchanger seal and strength welds Power generation Petrochemical Sanitary Food and beverage @@@@

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CHAPTER B11

EDGE PREPARATION DETAILS FOR PIPES

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CHAPTER B12 Erection Procedure for Rear Water Box & Rear water Chamber

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Erection Procedure for Rear Water Box & Rear water Chamber

Condensers supplied by Haridwar for 210/250/500 MW ratings are having flanged connection between water box and water chamber at both the ends. (Front & rear). This is to facilitate retubing in case it is required. With the use of stainless steel, reliability of condenser tube material has increased and chances of failures and re-tubing has reduced tremendously. In Amarkantak 210 MW, flanges have been removed from rear water box & water chamber and both have been directly welded together. Space for re-tubing has been kept on front water box side. A- Pre assembly 1. Place both Rear water chambers on horizontal surface with water side surface of tube plate on top position. Level the water chambers w.r.t tube plate. Mark top & bottom position of water chambers. Weld backing strip on all four walls of water chambers as shown in Fig.I. In Rear water chamber (GS) backing strip will be welded inside on all the four walls and on Rear water chamber (TS) it will be welded inside on three walls and outside on vertical wall near condenser centre line. Measure tube sheet flatness as per recommended procedure and record the dimensions in log sheet L-02. Water box inside length & width and corresponding dimensions of water chamber to be checked w.r.t. horizontal & vertical centre lines and recorded in log sheet to ascertain trueness of dimensions. If logged dimensions indicate any mismatch, same may be corrected Match Rear water Box (TS/GS) by lowering it over respective water chamber / backing strip such that the weld edges of water chamber and water box match for proper welding. In case of mismatch, the same to be rectified.

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

B - Assembly : Assembly can be done in two ways as per sites convenience. Option 1 1. Remove the water box after completing the activity as per A (6) above.

2. Weld 4 number channels (2 horizontal & 2 vertical) of size 100x50 along the length and width to stiffen the water chamber. Refer Fig. I. Holes in the tube plate to be suitably protected.

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3. Lower the water chamber (without water box) on bottom plate for erection as per standard procedure. 4. Tack weld / final weld water chamber with side walls and bottom plate. 5. Carry out tubing. 6. Weld the water boxes using proper welding sequence as given (C ) below. Option II (Refer Fig.-2) 1. Weld water box and chamber with the help of technological plates (12 x 100 x 250) as shown in the drawing. 2. Lower water box and chamber together for erection. 3. Tack weld / Final weld water chamber with side walls and bottom plate. 4. Remove water box to facilitate tubing & expansion by cutting stiffening plates. 5. Carry out tubing. 6. Weld the water boxes using proper welding sequence as given (C ) below. C- Welding sequence for water box & water chamber (Refer Fig-3) 1. Tack weld Water box (GS) and Chamber(GS) -100 (200). 2. Root run on all sides. 3. Final welding to be done as per Detail-I. 4. Welding of Generator side water box-Water chamber to be completed first as it has all welds from outside. 5. Bring Turbine side water box in position. Repeat steps 1-4 indicated above. 6. All welding is from outside except vertical welding of Rear water box & water chamber (TS) near condenser centerline which is from inside. 7. Direction of welding shall be as indicated in the drawing. 8. Over head welding is required for carrying out bottom welding of water boxes and water chambers. (Naveen Prakash) (S.K.Baveja) (Lalit Kishore)

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CHAPTER B13

WELDING & HT DETAILS OF THERMOCOUPLE PAD & CLAMPS FOR SH & RH

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WELDING & HT DETAILS OF THERMOCOUPLE PAD & CLAMPS FOR SH & RH Pad / Clamp Material : SS 304, 316, 321, 310
Sl.No Tube Material (SH & RH) Thickness in mm (t max). Thermocouple pad Material SS 304, 316, 321, 310 SS 304, 316, 321, 310 SS 304, 316, 321, 310 SS 304, 316, 321 SS 310 Pre-heat (min) Post-weld heat Consumable Treatment Electrode

SA210 Gr. A1

7.6

NIL 1250C 1500C NIL 1500C ON T22 Side 2200C ON T91 Side

NIL

E7018 A1

SA213 T11

8.6

NIL

E7018 A1

t<8.0 SA213 T22 8.0 to 12.0 8.0 to 12.0

NIL NIL NIL 7500C to 7700C (min, 30 minutes) NIL NIL

E7018 A1 E 309 E 309 E 309

4 SA213 T91 ALL THICKNESS SS 304, 316, 321, 310

5 6

SA213 TP347 H ALL THICKNESS SS 304, 316, 321 SA213 TP347 H 12.0 (max.) SS 310

NIL NIL

E 347 E 309

NOTE :

1 2 3

The above can be taken as the general guidelines for all the boilers. Electrode size : 2.50 mm Welder shall strike ARC on Thermocouple pad or "Run-on Run-off" Block and bring arc up to side of thermocouple pad using as low a current as possible to avoid burn-through.

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CHAPTER B14
WELDING AND PWHT SEQUENCE FOR LOWER RING HEADER

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WELDING AND PWHT SEQUENCE FOR LOWER RING HEADER 1.0 1.1 PURPOSE To describe the welding, NDE and Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) sequences for the four field welds in the lower ring header assembly. WELDING & INTERSTAGE RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) One of the sequence 2.1.1 or 2.1.2 given below is to be followed while welding the four joints in the lower ring header assembly.

2.0 2.1

2.1.1 All four corner joints are to be welded simultaneously upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken. After inter stage RT clearance, balance welding of all four corner joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. 2.1.2 Diagonally opposite two joints are to be welded simultaneously upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken. After inter stage RT clearance, balance welding of first two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. Then balance two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed upto 60 mm thickness and inter stage RT shall be taken. After inter stage RT clearance, balance welding of last two joints are to be welded simultaneously and completed. Note: To reduce cycle time, last two joints welding upto 60 mm shall be taken up immediately after completing first two joints welding upto 60 mm. 3.1 3.1 ULTRASONIC TESTING All weld joints shall be dressed smoothly for UT and ultrasonic testing shall be carried out for all four joints. PWHT PWHT of each weld joint shall be done individually or in any other order.

4.0 4.1

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CHAPTER B 15

DEMAGNETISATION PROCEDURE

Refer NDE Manual Chapter 1.11

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CHAPTER B 16

ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL

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ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL 1.0 1.1 Scope : This document details salient practices to be adopted during welding of SA213 T91 material. 2.0 2.1 2.2 MATERIAL SA213 T91 Dia, and thickness will be as per Erection Welding Schedule for the site When any defect like crack, lamination, deposit noticed during visual examination, the same shall be confirmed by Liquid Penetrant Inspection. If confirmed, it shall be referred to unit. 3.0 3.1 ERECTION EDGE PREPARATION AND FIT UP

3.1.1

Cutting of T-91 material shall be done by band saw/hacksaw/machining/ grinding only. Edge preparation (EP) shall be done only by machining. In extreme cases, grinding can be done with prior approval of Welding Engineer/ Quality Assurance Engineer. During machining/ grinding, care should be taken to avoid excessive pressure to prevent heating up of to the tube edges.

3.1.2

All Edge Preparations done at site shall be subjected to Liquid Penetrate Inspection (LPI). Weld build-up on Edge Preparation is prohibited.

3.1.3

The weld fit-up shall be carried out properly to ensure proper alignment and root gap. Neither tack welds nor bridge piece shall be used to secure alignment. Fit-up by a clamping arrangement is recommended. Coil load to be transferred to crown plate/ end bar assembly. Ensure that coil load should not come on stubs/header. Use site fabricated clamps for fit up. The necessary preheat and purging shall be done as per clause 4.1 and 3.2.2 ref. WPS No. 1036 Rev 04 dt 02 04 04.

3.1.4 3.2.0

The fit-up and root gap shall be as per drawing. FIXING OF THERMOCOUPLE (T/C), DURING PREHEATING AND PWHT

3.2.1

No. Preheating is required for fixing T/C with resistance spot welding. Following are the equipment/ facilities required for heating cycles. (1) Heating methods: Resistance heating (2) Thermo couples: Ni-Cr/ Ni-Al of 0.5mm. (3) Temp. Recorders: 6 Points/12 Points.

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3.2.2 ARRANGEMENT FOR PURGING: Argon gas with requisite quality shall be used for purging the root side of weld. The purging dam (water soluble paper) shall be fixed on HDR Nipple side of the weld bevel prior to fit-up and pre-heating. Purging is to be done from cross over tube down stream end. (Sketch 3). Ensure that atmosphere air is completely purged out through the root gap before starting welding and welding can be continued with Argon backing. The flow rate is to be maintained for purging is 6 to 8 litres/ minute and for GTAW is 812 litres/ minute. 3.2.3 When root temperature reaches 220oC, start purging through cross over tube down stream end for 5 minutes. Then the root gap to be covered by asbestos rope. Provide continuous and adequate argon gas to ensure complete purging in the root area. Only water-soluble paper is to be used. Plastic foils that are water-soluble are NOT acceptable. 3.2.4 USING OF WATER SOLUBLE PAPER The dams can be made of water-soluble paper for creating the purging chamber. The advantage in such dam arrangement is that the dissolving paper dam gets flushed during hydraulic test. The following is the method to be used: Simply stuff water-soluble paper into the Header Nipples at specified distance from the weld as per attached sketch 1

SKETCH - 1

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4.0

WELDING/WELDERS QUALIFICATION: Only qualified welding procedure is to be used. Welders qualified as per ASME Sec IX and IBR and on T91 material shall be engaged. Welders log book shall be maintained and welders performance to be monitored by site welding engineer/ Quality assurance engineer. The applicable WPS for T91+T91 shall be WPS No. 1036/04 dt. 02/04/04.

4.1

PREHEATING (Bunching of tubes can be followed): Prior to start of pre heating ensure that surface are clean and free from grease, oil and dirt. Preheating temp shall be maintained at 220oC (min) by using resistance heating. Sufficient number of thermo couples shall be fixed on both coils and header nipples away from the EP. The thermocouple shall be welded with the condenser discharge portable spot welding machine. The pre heating arrangements shall be inspected and cleared by welding engineer/ Quality Assurance Engineer before start of preheating. Ref . Sketch 2

4.2.1 WELDING: Welding shall be done using GTAW process (as per WPS). Filler wire shall be clean and free from rust or oil. Argon Purging shall be continued till completion of welding. 5.0 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT (PWHT) RESISTANCE HEATING METHOD (Bunching of tubes can be followed): Arrangements: Sufficient number of thermocouples shall be placed covering weld and the base material. The width of the heated circumferential band on either side of the weld must be at least 100mm. ( Sketch 2) 5.1 Obtain the clearance for PWHT cycle from QAE/ Welding Engineer. The PWHT temp for T91 with T91 material shall be 760 10oC and the soaking time shall be 90 minutes. 5.2 Welding and Heat treatment chart given in ( Sketch 4) shall be followed for pre-hating, welding, PWHT, rate of heating/ cooling etc. 6.0 7.0 NDE: Carry out Non-Destructive Examination (RT) as per Field Welding Schedule. HARDNESS SURVEY: 100% hardness survey shall be conducted on welds and parent material in first five coils. Based on satisfactory results, the hardness survey can be reduced to 10% covering all the heat treatment cycles. The equipment recommended to measure the hardness is EQUOTIP or equivalent. Portable equipment used in the hardness measurement shall be calibrated . The surface shall be cleaned and prepared as per hardness test instrument manufactures recommendation prior to hardness survey. Hardness survey of weld and parent metal (both tubes) shall be carried out. All the hardness values shall be recorded. The maximum allowable hardness at

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weld and parent material shall be 300HV10.

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ERECTION WELDING PRACTICE FOR SA 213 T 91 MATERIAL . WELDING AND HEAT TREATMENT CHART
Temp C

760 10C

350 220 100 80 HT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Operation

Temp C

Rate of cooling/Heating

Preheat 220C (Min.) 120C /hr (Max.) Welding by GTAW 350C (Interpass-Max.) Cooling 80- 100C 120C /hr (Max.) Holding at 80-100 C to minimum 30 minutes. Holding shall continue till the start of PWHT Heating to PWHT Soaking at PWHT Cooling Cooling Reach 760 10C 760 10C for 90 minutes (Min.) Cooling to 350C Cooling to Room temperature under insulation. 120C /hr (Max.)

120C /hr (Max.)

SKETCH- 4

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B-17 SELECTION CHART FOR DUMMY END COVERS

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B-18

SCHEDULE OF PIPES

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