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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are indebted to our Environmental Science Teacher, Dr. Nidhi Gauba for her whole hearted support in the making of this project.

CONTENTS
S No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Topic Report Introduction Main Study Conclusion Bibliography Remarks Pg No

REPORT

INTRODUCTION
Local, regional, and global environmental degradationsuch as loss of biodiversity, greenhouse gas emissions, worldwide deforestation, depletion of stratospheric ozone, urban air pollution, acid rain, pollution of freshwater and the oceans, contamination of arable land and loss of topsoil and shortages of water, food, materials, and fuels in many parts of the worldare of growing international concern. While there are great uncertainties about the causes and effects of global environmental changes, the consequences of these changes for national economies, human health, and quality of life could be severe. The development and use of technologies that do not harm the environment is critical to maintaining and improving quality of life. We also recognize that the wise use of technology is a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for sustainable development. We are convinced, however, that socially compatible and environmentally sound economic development is possible only by charting a course that makes full use of environmentally advantageous technologies. By this, we mean technologies that utilize resources as efficiently as possible and minimize environmental harm while increasing industrial productivity and improving quality of life. Historically, new technologies have evolved in response to population and economic pressures and demands for increased safety, better health, more nutritious food, economic welfare, security, and a sound environment. Technological advances have made possible new sources of energy, new materials, improved health care, increased industrial productivity and food supplies, global communications, and remediation of environmental damage. These achievements, in turn, have helped rural areas, cities, and nations around the world to improve their standards of living and support growing populations. Many aspects of economic development and environmental protection would not be possible without technology. Water-resources management, sanitation, transportation, energy production and use, manufacturing, communication, agriculture and aquaculture, education, and health care all have a significant technological basis. Similarly, the means to manage population growth have been made possible by pharmaceutical technologiesdrugs and medical devices that have helped reduce birth rates in many parts of the world.

One important aspect of global technological advance is the transfer of technology from developed to developing nations. Power generation is a good example. Plants already technically established and economical in the industrialized world offer potential for increasing energy efficiency in the emerging, densely populated areas of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. While the technology clearly exists, investment incentives are called for if these capital intensive processes are to replace less efficient ones in the developing world as well as in the developed world. To harness technologies for environmentally sustainable development, effective national and multilateral economic policies and management strategies that have sustainability as their primary objective are needed. In every region, the most important first step is to build indigenous technological capacity, which includes trained experts who can understand and take advantage of existing technological knowledge. While governments play a critical part in the attainment of sustainable development, the extensive capabilities of the private sectorparticularly in relation to technology development and technology transferalso have a key role. For example, industry is designing and producing products that consume less energy and make systematic use and re-use of materials to contain them within the economic system. Industry is also developing technologies to restore, protect, and manage natural ecosystems. To encourage the participation of the private sector, markets need to be open and intellectual property must be protected.

Role of Information Technology in Environment Among the modern technologies, Information Technology has changed the human lifestyle. Development of sophisticated instruments like computers, satellites, telecommunication instruments etc have resulted in total revolution in almost all spheres of life. The important role of information technology in environment and human health are as follows:

1. REMOTE SENSING Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has proved to be very effective tool in environment management. Now, the ongoing changes in the environment can be assessed easily through satellites by remote sensing techniques. The occurrence of a number of natural calamities like droughts, floods, volcanic erruptions etc., can also be predicted well in advance. Such assessments help the environmentalists and planners to take ameliorative measure to minimise the effects of these extreme natural events. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has created an information system called Environmental Information System (ENVIS) with its headquarters in Delhi. It provides a network database in environmental issues like pollution control, renewable energy, desertification, biodiversity etc.

2. DATABASE Database is the collection of interrelated data on various subjects in computerized form which can be retreived whenever required. Now the data regarding birth and death rates, immunisation and sanitation programmes can be maintained more accurately than before in computers at health centers. Database is also available about the diseases like malaria, fluorosis, AIDS etc. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India has taken up the task of compiling a database on various environmental issues like wildlife, forests cover, wasteland etc.

3. HUMAN HEALTH Information technology also plays a key role in human health. It helps the doctors to monitor the health of people of that area. The information regarding outbreak of epidemic diseases from remote areas can be sent more quickly to the district administration to take corrective measures. Now, patients can seek help of a super specialist doctor placed at far off distance. Many hospitals now, take on-line help of experts to provide better treatment and services to their patients. This has become possible only because of advancement of IT in the recent times.

4. ONLINE INFORMATION It provides vast quantum of information on different subjects including human health and environment.

Remote Sensing Technologies

The traditional techniques focused on mapping and aerial photography. Prior to the introduction of computers, aerial photographs were acquired, processed, and interpreted manually and/or by mechanical devices. Application of maps and aerial photography has been a valuable tool for environmental conservation. The introduction and proliferation of computers in the Field of remote sensing, in addition to satellites, has changed the way data is acquired, processed, and analysed. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a tool in environmental conservation is increasing. Geographic Information Systems are systems where geographic data describing features on the earth's surface are managed, displayed, manipulated, and analysed. Digital remote sensing and the use of GIS make it possible to rapidly collect and analyse spatial data, yielding a powerful set of tools for the analysis of the source, extent, and transport of various types of contamination. The ability to analyse complex, spatial data makes GIS technology interesting to a growing number of users within the environmental sciences community. Applications include environmental monitoring and analysis, modeling nonpoint runoff, landscape ecology, flood control modeling, enforcement actions, and emergency response support.

Using GIS, a scientist is able to present a complete picture of a site location, tiering maps of streams, geopolitical boundaries, transportation routes, topography, and examine the spatial relationships between them. In addition, GIS display tools allow these relationships to be communicated to others in a meaningful way.

Some other remote sensing technologies include: Satellites It obtains and uses high-resolution satellite data (e.g. Ikonos, Quickbird, Spot) to generate terrain models, make classifications, generate orthophotos or carry out photogrammetric measurements. HRSC It uses high-resolution stereo cameras, like the HRSC-A system, to provide digital orthophotos and multispectral data (RGB + IR) as well as digital height models (grid size= 0.3m to 0.8m) in a short period of time. The resolution of this camera is 15cm in location and height. Radar Weather-independent flights over regions and stretches of water with aeroplane-supported Interferomatetric Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR). The collection of data for processing customer and project-specific tasks occurs in various polarisations and frequencies, e.g. in the P, L, C and/or X bands. The microwaves in the P band frequency range penetrate the vegetation, meaning the terrain surface (e.g. forest floor) is photographed. Geophysics Geophysics is the branch of science concerned with investigating the physical properties of the earth. Geophysical engineering measuring methods use these properties and parameters, e.g. the magnetic field, electrical field, field of gravity as well as geological and morphological characteristics of the subsoil. LIDAR A particularly economical method for creating digital terrain models is use airsupported laserscan technology (LIDAR).

MAIN STUDY

Among the many projects out there using IT and computers for environmental conservation, we found ENVIS the most ideal.

Introduction

Realising the importance of Environmental Information, the Government of India, in December, 1982, established an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme. The focus of ENVIS since inception has been on providing environmental information to decision makers, policy planners, scientists and engineers, research workers, etc. all over the country.

Since environment is a broad-ranging, multi-disciplinary subject, a comprehensive information system on environment would necessarily involve effective participation of concerned institutions/ organisations in the country that are actively engaged in work relating to different subject areas of environment. ENVIS has, therefore, developed itself with a network of such participating institutions/organisations for the programme to be meaningful. A large number of nodes, known as ENVIS Centres, have been established in the network to cover the broad subject areas of environment with a Focal Point in the Ministry of Environment & Forests.

ENVIS due to its comprehensive network has been designed as the National Focal Point (NFP) for INFOTERRA, a global environmental information network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In order to strengthen the information activities of the NFP, ENVIS was designated as the Regional Service Centre (RSC) of INFOTERRA of UNEP in 1985 for the South Asia Sub-Region countries.

What Is It Exactly?

ENVIS is a decentralised system with a network of distributed subject oriented Centres ensuring integration of national efforts in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to all concerned. Presently the ENVIS network consists of Focal Point at the Ministry of Environment and Forest and ENVIS Centres setup in different organisations/establishments in the country in selected areas of environment. These Centres have been set up in the areas of pollution control, toxic chemicals, central and offshore ecology, environmentally sound and appropriate technology, bio-degradation of wastes and environment management, etc. ENVIS focal point ensures integration of national efforts in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to all concerned.

Objectives of Environmental Information System

Long-term objectives:

1. to build up a repository and dissemination centre in Environmental Science and Engineering; 2. to gear up the modern technologies of acquistion, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information of environmental nature; and 3. to support and promote research, development and innovation in environmental information technology.

Short-term objectives:

1. to provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of develoment to meet the future needs of the users, originators, processors and disseminators of information; 2. to build up storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objectives of disseminating information speedily to the users; 3. to promote, national and international cooperation and liasion for exchange of environment related information; 4. to promote, support and assist education and personnel training programmes designed to enhance environmental information processing and utilisation capabilities; 5. to promote exchange of information amongst developing countries.

ENVIS Network

Presently, the ENVIS network consist of 76 ENVIS centres apart from the focal point, out of which, 29 ENVIS Centres are on State Government Departments dealing with the Status of Environment and related issues of the concerned State Government and the remaining 47 have been set up on various environmental disciplines covering from air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, biodiversity, solid waste management, ecology and ecosystems, environmental education, NGOs, media and even environmental parliament, coastal ecosystem, clean technology, etc. ENVIS-Nodes

To strengthen ENVIS in disseminating information pertaining to environment and sustainable development, ENVIS India is in the process of establishing Eighty Five ENVIS Nodes by involving Organizations, institutions, Universities and Government departments working in diverse areas of environment. ENVIS India has already established Eighty One partner nodes, which include Thirty government departments, Thirty Six Institutions and Fifteen NGOs. These nodes are supposed to create websites on specific environment related subject areas. The responsibility of the ENVIS Centres and Nodes are : Establishment of linkages with all information sources, and creation of data bank on selected parameters in the subject area assigned. Identification of information gaps. Publish newsletters and Bulletins. Develop library facility and provide support to the focal point on the subject area.

Most importantly serve as interface for the users on the assigned subject.

The following will be discussed in detail:

I. FOCAL POINT:

II. AN ENVIS CENTRE:

S.No.

Name & Address

Subject Area

Sub network Area

Central Pollution Control Board(CPCB) Parivesh Bhawan, CBD-Cum Office Complex East Arjun Nagar Delhi-110 032, Delhi URL: http://cpcbenvis.nic.in/

Control of Pollution (Water, Air and Noise)

Chemicals, Wastes and Toxicology

III. A GOVT NODE:

Department of Environment - Govt. of NCT of Delhi Status of Level-6, Wing-C, Environment Delhi Secretariat, and Related New Delhi-110 002, Delhi Issues URL: http://www.dpcc.delhigovt.nic.in

Status of Environment

ENVIS - Focal Point The ENVIS has built up a reasonably good information base in the form of publications, reports, reprints, bibliographies, abstracts, data bases etc., as well as numerical data i.e. statistics relating to environment. The information base/repository is being continuously strengthened. This involves regular collection, collation and storage of scientific and technical information on environment and related areas. The establishment of several ENVIS Centres, located in different organisations/institutuions in the country in selected areas of environment, as part of ENVIS Network has considerably assisted in building up and strengthening of this information base. The focal point located in the Ministry of Environment and Forests.: Its various services include: 1. Query/Answer Service The ENVIS network as a whole responds to various requests for information on diverse areas related to environment from different user groups. Besides receiving several National/International queries, ENVIS as the National Focal Point of INFOTERRA/UNEP and Regional Service Centre of INFOTERRA has also been receiving queries from INFOTERRA users and from South Asian Sub-Region countries. All such queries are responded to by supplying substantive information in the form of bibliographies of reprints/reports etc. In order that ENVIS as also the NFP of INFOTERRA is capable of responding effectively to the users queries on different scientific and technical aspects of environment, the system is building up a mechanism to acquire comprehensive documents, technical reports, state of art reports, directories, bibliographies, data bases, etc. ENVIS is thus constantly engaged in building up its information resources and in establishing its linkages with other national and international information systems. Besides, it is also engaged in identifying institutions/organisations, where new ENVIS Centres on areas of environment not covered so far will be set up so as to provide comprehensive coverage on environment related subject areas.

2. Referral Service In some cases where ENVIS Focal Point is unable to provide substantive information, referral service are provided to users. Referral means receiving requests for information and referring enquiries to the source most likely to be able to provide the desired information. For responding to the queries, focal point makes use of the ENVIS network. INFOTERRA network as well as other potential sources of information in the country.

3. Abstracting Service The Focal Point regularly brings out a quarterly abstracting journal Paryavaran Abstracts containing information about the Indian Research Inputs in the area of environment. The journal has a circulation of over 2000. More than 500 environment related journals are referred to in the compilation of these abstracts. The abstracts are arranged under major subject categories i.e.

Environmental Management, Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Noise Pollution, Ecology, Nature and Natural Resources Conservation, Health and Toxicology, Wastes, Forestry and Environment, Wildlife, Energy and Plants and Pollution, etc.

For precise retrieval of information, subject key words index is also given at the end of each issue. The language of the database is English and the frequency of updation is quarterly. The number of records available are 4000 and the annual growth rate is 1000. The operating system is MS-DOS and the software is CDS-ISIS.

ENVIS CENTRE: CPCB

(i)

About the Host Organization

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is a statutory organisation constituted in September,1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. CPCB was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It serves as a field formation and provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests for the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Principal functions of the CPCB, as per the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, are to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.

(ii)

Activities of the Centre

Distributed Information Centre (DIC): The centre was set up in the year 1983 to act as a network partner of the Environmental Information System (ENVIS). Initially the centre was designated to provide information on air and water pollution. But, it provides data and information on all aspects of environmental pollution. Scanning Journals: The journals received in the CPCB library are scanned for disseminating information internally to its scientific & technical personnel. News Clippings: Providing daily in-house paper clipping service for disseminating information internally to its scientific & technical personnel. Information Brochures and Pamphlets: Publishes information booklets and pamphlets in Hindi and English on topics related to control of pollution and protection of environment.

ENVIS NODE DPCC

Delhi Pollution Control Committee by virtue of delegation of statutory powers and functions by Central Board, has to carry out all the duties cast upon it under Water Act and Air Act. It has also been entrusted with Statutory duties under Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 for assessment/levy/collection of Cess from local authorities and specified industries. Under the above mentioned Acts and Rules, the main functions of the Delhi Pollution Control Committee specified by Government of India as per the Water, Air and Noise Pollution Act are as follows: 1. Advise the Delhi Government on any matter concerning prevention and control of water and air pollution and improvement of the quality of air 2. Organize through mass media, a comprehensive mass awareness programme on the prevention, control or abatement of water and air pollution; 3. Collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data relating to water and air pollution and the measures devised for their effective prevention, control or abatement; 4. Disseminate information in respect of matters relating to water and air pollution and their prevention and control; 5. Lay down standards for treatment of sewage and trade effluents and for emissions from automobiles, industrial plants, and any other polluting source; 6. Develop reliable and economically viable methods of treatment of sewage, trade effluent and air pollution control equipment.

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Online Sources: ww.epa.gov www.envis.nic.in/ www.envis.mse.ac.in/ www. envis.frlht.org.in http://www.nap.edu

Books:

Technology and Environment By Jesse H. Ausubel and Hedy E. Sladovich

REMARKS