You are on page 1of 36

# Application of DC & AC Theory

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

TABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................2 TASK 1................................................................................5 1.1 Two storage batteries, A and B, are connected in parallel for charging from a DC source having an open circuit voltage of 14V and an internal resistance of 0.15 Ohms. The opencircuit voltage of A is 11V and that of B is 11.5V; the internal resistances are 0.06 Ohms and 0.05 Ohms respectively. Calculate the initial charging currents. ................................5 Solution:-.........................................................................................5 Check:-.............................................................................................7 1.2 In the diagram below find the current through the 8 Ohm resistor. ............................................................................8 Solution (Circuit 1):-.........................................................................8 Check (Circuit 1):-..........................................................................10 Solution (Circuit 2):-.......................................................................11 Check (Circuit 2):-..........................................................................13 Solution (Overall Circuit):-..............................................................14 Check (Overall Circuit):-.................................................................14 TASK 2..............................................................................15 2.1 Explain how complex waveforms are produced from sinusoidal waveforms........................................................15 Solution:-.......................................................................................15 2.2 Synthesise the following complex waveform graphically using a spreadsheet: .......................................................15 Solution:-.......................................................................................15 2.3 Plot a minimum of 100 points at intervals of (Periodic Time T)/100 Seconds.......................................................15 Solution:-.......................................................................................15 2.4 Produce a print out of the graph and data.....................15 Solution:-.......................................................................................15 2.5 Describe how electrical and electronic devices produce complex waveforms...........................................................16 Solution:-.......................................................................................16 2.6 Describe the effects of complex waveforms on electrical and electronic systems......................................................16 Solution:-.......................................................................................16

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

TASK 3..............................................................................17 A circuit consists of three branches in parallel. Branch A is a 10 Ohm resistor, Branch B is a coil of resistance 4 Ohms and inductance of 0.02H, and Branch C is an 8 Ohm resistor in series with a 200uF capacitor. The combination is connected to a 100V, 50Hz supply. Find the various branch currents and then, by resolving into in-phase and quadrature components, determine the total current taken from the supply..............17 Solution:-.......................................................................................17 Check:-...........................................................................................20 A 31.8uF capacitor, a 127.5mH inductor of resistance 30 Ohms and a 100 Ohms resistor are all connected in parallel to a 200V, 50 Hz supply. Find the various branch currents and the, by resolving into in-phase and quadrature components, determine the total current taken from the supply..............22 Solution:-.......................................................................................22 Check:-...........................................................................................25 TASK 4..............................................................................27 4.1 A 1kOhm resistor is connected across the secondary windings of an ideal transformer whose secondary voltage is 100 Volts. The current in the primary windings is 10mA......27 (a) Draw a circuit diagram.................................................27 Solution:-.......................................................................................27 (b) Determine the secondary current..................................27 Solution:-.......................................................................................27 (c) Determine the primary voltage......................................28 Solution:-.......................................................................................28 (d) Determine the transformer turns ratio..........................28 Solution:-.......................................................................................28 Check (Overall Circuit):-.................................................................29 4.2 An ideal transformer has 1000 primary turns and 100 secondary turns. If the primary winding is connected to a 230V AC supply the secondary is connected to a 100 Ohms resistive load:...................................................................30 (a) Draw a circuit diagram.................................................30 Solution:.........................................................................................30 (b) Determine the secondary voltage..................................30 Solution:.........................................................................................30 (c) Determine the secondary current..................................31 Solution:.........................................................................................31 3

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

(d) Determine the power supplied in the primary circuit......31 Solution:.........................................................................................31 Check:-...........................................................................................31 Check (Overall Circuit):-.................................................................32 APPENDIX 1......................................................................33 EVALUATION.....................................................................34 CONCLUSION.....................................................................35 Books...............................................................................36 Catalogues........................................................................36 Websites...........................................................................36

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1.1 Two storage batteries, A and B, are connected in parallel for charging from a DC source having an open circuit voltage of 14V and an internal resistance of 0.15 Ohms. The open-circuit voltage of A is 11V and that of B is 11.5V; the internal resistances are 0.06 Ohms and 0.05 Ohms respectively. Calculate the initial charging currents.

Solution:-

IO C

= A + B u to I I E ai n q

_1

Loop A: EOC I OC ROC I A RA E A = 0 14 0.15 I OC 0.06 I A 11 = 0 3 0.15 I OC 0.06 I A = 0 0.15 I OC + 0.06 I A = 3 Multiply _ both _ sides _ by _
2.5 I O + A =0 u to I 5 E ai n q C

50 3

_ 2

Loop B: EB + I B RB I A RA E A = 0 11.5 + 0.05 I B 0.06 I A 11 = 0 0.5 + 0.05 I B 0.06 I A = 0 0.05 I B 0.06 I A = 0.5 Multiply _ both _ sides _ by _
5 25 IB I A = Equation 6 3

50 3

_3

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

I A shows up in Equations 2 and 3, therefore substituting Equation 1 into Equations 2 and 3, as follows, gives: I A = I OC I B Equation _ 1 2.5 I OC + ( I OC I B ) = 50 Equation _ 4 5 25 I B ( I OC I B ) = Equation _ 5 6 3 Simplifying Equations 4 and 5 leaves:
3.5I OC I B = 50 Equation _ 4 I OC + 11 25 IB = Equation _ 5 6 3

## Multiply Equation 4 by 77 11 275 I OC I B = 12 6 3 Then add Equation 5: 77 11 275 I OC I B = 12 6 3 + 11 25 I OC + I B = 6 3 = 65 250 I OC = 12 3 I OC =

IO C

11 : 6

200 13 Amps

= 5 .3 4 1 3 1 8658

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Substituting I OC into Equation 5, gives: 200 11 25 + IB = 13 6 3 11 200 25 IB = 6 13 3 11 275 IB = 6 39 275 11 IB = 39 6 IB = 50 13 Amps

I B = .8 6 5 8 6 3 413 4

## Substituting I OC and I B into Equation 1, gives: IA = 200 50 13 13 150 13 Amps

IA =

I A =1 .5 8 6 5 1 3414

Check:-

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1.2

In the diagram below find the current through the 8 Ohm resistor.

## Solution (Circuit 1):Redraw the circuit with one Voltage Source:

Alternative Circuit:

## 1 1 1 5 = + = R A R5 R4 24 R A = 4.8 1 1 1 149 = + = RB R2 R3 + R A 1110 RB = 7.44966443 RT = R1 + RB RT = 12.44966443 I1 = E1 4 = RT 12.44966443

A

I1 = .3 19 8 0 0 2 23 0 5

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Voltage drop across R1 is represented by: V1 = I1 R1 V1 = 0.3212938005 5

V1 = .6 6 6 0 3 1 0 4 90 V

## Voltage drop across R2 is represented by: V2 = E1 V1 V2 = 4 1.606469003

V2 = .33 3 97 2 9 50 9 V

I2 =

V2 2.392530997 = R2 15
A

I 2 = .19 6 73 0 5 58 31

I 3 = I1 I 2 I 3 = 0.3212938005 0.1595687331
I 3 = .1 1 2 0 7 0 67564 A

## Voltage drop across R3 is represented by: V3 = I 3 R3 V3 = 0.1617250674 10

V 3 = .6 7 5 6 4 1 1207 V

## Voltage drop across R4 is represented by: V4 = V2 V3 V4 = 2.393530997 1.617250674

V 4 = .7 6 8 3 3 0 72 0 2 V

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

I5 =

V4 0.776280323 = R5 12
2A

I 5 = .0 4 9 0 6 0 66029

I4 =

V4 0.776280323 = R4 8
8A

I 4 = . 07 3 0 0 0 90 5 43

## Check (Circuit 1):Therefore, I1 = I 2 + I 4 + I 5 :

I1 = 0.1595687331 + 0.0970350403 8 + 0.0646900269 2 I1 = 0.3212938005 A

10

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Solution (Circuit 2):Redraw with second Voltage Source:

Alternative Circuit:

## 1 1 1 4 = + = R A R1 R2 15 R A = 3.75 1 1 1 87 = + = RB R4 R3 + R A 440 RB = 5.057471264 RT = R5 + RB RT = 17.05747126 I5 = E2 6 = RT 17.05747126

A

I 5 = .3 1 5 0 1 0 57226

11

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Voltage drop across R5 is represented by: V1 = I 5 R5 V1 = 0.3517520216 12

V1 = .21 2 2 9 4 2 04 5 V

## Voltage drop across R4 is represented by: V4 = E2 V1 V4 = 6 4.221024259

V4 = .78 7 7 1 1 7954 V

I4 =

V4 1.778975741 = R4 8
A

I 4 = .2 2 7 9 7 0 2316 6

I3 = I5 I4 I 3 = 0.3517520216 0.2223719676
I 3 = .1 9 8 0 4 0 2305 A

## Voltage drop across R3 is represented by: V3 = I 3 R3 V3 = 0.129380054 10

V3 = .2 3 0 5 1 9804 V

## Voltage drop across R2 is represented by: V2 = V4 V3 V2 = 1.778975741 1.29380054

V2 = .4 57 2 1 0 8150 V

12

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

I1 =

V2 0.485175201 = R1 5
A

I1 = .0 7 30 0 0 9 05 4 2

I2 =

V2 0.485175201 = R1 15
A

I 2 = .0 2 4 0 3 0 3351 4

## Check (Circuit 2):Therefore, I 5 = I1 + I 2 + I 4 :

I 5 = 0.0970350402 + 0.0323450134 + 0.2223719676 I 5 = 0.3517520216 A

13

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

Solution (Overall Circuit):By merging the two circuits together we get: I1 = I1( Circuit1) I1(Circuit 2) I1 = 0.3212938005 0.0970350402
I 1 = .2 45 70 0 2 28 6 3 A

## I 2 = I 2 ( Circuit1) + I 2 ( Circuit 2 ) I 2 = 0.1595687331 + 0.0323450134

I 2 = .1 11 7 6 0 99 34 5 A

## I 3 = I 3( Circuit1) I 3( Circuit 2) I 3 = 0.1617250674 0.129380054

I 3 = .0 2 4 0 3 0 33514 A

## I 4 = I 4 ( Circuit1) + I 4 (Circuit 2 ) I 4 = 0.0970350403 8 + 0.2223719676

I 4 = .3 9 0 0 8 0 1 470 A

## I 5 = I 5( Circuit1) I 5( Circuit 2 ) I 5 = 0.0646900269 2 0.3517520216

I 5 = 0.2 7 6 9 4 80197 A

14

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

2.1 Explain how complex waveforms are produced from sinusoidal waveforms.

Solution:Complex waveforms are comprised of a fundamental component together with a number of harmonic components, each of which have a specific amplitude and phase relative to the fundamental. When a fundamental signal receives a harmonic they are added together. This deforms the shape of the overall waveform which is directly related to the sum of the two waveforms. 2.2 Synthesise the following complex waveform graphically using a spreadsheet: v = 200 sin t + 30 sin t .

Solution:See Appendix 1 2.3 Plot a minimum of 100 points at intervals of (Periodic Time T)/100 Seconds.

Solution:See Appendix 1 2.4 Produce a print out of the graph and data.

Solution:See Appendix 1

15

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

2.5

## Describe how electrical and electronic devices produce complex waveforms.

Solution:Electrical and electronic devices can produce complex waveforms (due to creating Harmonics), in many different ways. The main cause of harmonics being created is due to the mechanical properties of the device, for example tooth ripple in AC Generators, caused by the effect of the slots that accommodate the windings, or because of the non-sinusoidal air-gap flux distribution. For a rectifier to create a half cycle the waveform needs to be removed of its negative cycle, due to the low impedance in one direction and a high impedance in the opposite, diodes create complex waveforms. Harmonics are produced in devices that have a non-linear response to their inputs. Non-linear circuit element (i.e. those in which the current flowing through them is not proportional to the applied voltage) include rectifiers and any large-signal electronic amplifier in which diodes, transistors, valves or iron-cored inductors are used. 2.6 Describe the effects of complex waveforms on electrical and electronic systems.

Solution:If a complex waveform is fed into electrical and electronic devices then the device may fail to work correctly. This is because the amplitude of the waveform is altered, so may damage the device if too much voltage/current is fed into it. The input waveform will also have a possible phase shift which will mean that the device may not operate to the required time response and affect output. The output would also be irregular as the components will produce even more of a complex waveform, as explained above, and therefore the overall effect could be something that is extremely difficult to calculate/predict.

16

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

A circuit consists of three branches in parallel. Branch A is a 10 Ohm resistor, Branch B is a coil of resistance 4 Ohms and inductance of 0.02H, and Branch C is an 8 Ohm resistor in series with a 200uF capacitor. The combination is connected to a 100V, 50Hz supply. Find the various branch currents and then, by resolving into in-phase and quadrature components, determine the total current taken from the supply. Solution:-

BRANCH A =

ZA = 0 1

BRANCH B = Z B = 4 + j ( 2 50 0.02 )
Z B = +j 2 4

1 BRANCH C = Z C = 8 j 2 50 200 10 6

Z C = j1 .9 5 9 3 8 5 1 4 41

Current, I =

V Z

17

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1 : ZA

Y1 =

Y1 = 0.1

## Siemens (Rectangular) Siemens (Polar) 1 : ZB

OR
Y1 =0.1 O 0

Admittance, Y2 = 1 4 + j 2

Y2 =

Y2 =

1 4 j 2 4 + j 2 4 j 2 4 j 2 2 42 + ( 2 ) 4 j 2 55.4784176
9 0.1 3 5 5 7 j 1 2 48 6

Y2 =

Y2 =

Y2 = .0 2 0 1 9 0 7 10 07

Siemens (Rectangular)

OR
Y2 = .1 4 5 3 8 0 32 7 1 5 .5 8 6 4 7 1 3 3
O

Siemens (Polar)

18

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1 : ZC

Y3 =

## 1 8 j15.91549431 1 8 + j15.91549431 8 j15.91549431 8 + j15.91549431 8 + j15.91549431 82 + 15.915494312 8 + j15.91549431 317.3029591

+ 0.00569 j 51866 3

Y3 =

Y3 =

Y3 =

Y3 = .05147 0 22293

Siemens (Rectangular)

OR
Y3 = .0 6 3 7 5 0 51879 .3 3 8 8 6 3 1 398
O

Siemens (Polar)

I A = 0 +j 0 1

) (

OR
IA = 0 O 1 0

## Current BRANCH B, is given by: I B = V Y2 I B = 1000O 0.134257318 57.5183634 O

I B = .2 01 98 7 1 0 07 1 .35 5 7 j 1 24 8 6

) (

Amps (Rectangular)

OR
I B =3 .45 38 1 271 5 .5 8 6 4 7 1 3 3
O

Amps (Polar)

19

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Current BRANCH C, is given by: I C = V Y3 I C = 1000O 0.0561387758 63.31338988 O

I C = .5 1 47 6 2 2 29 2 + 5.0 5 6 9 4 j 1865

) (

Amps (Rectangular)
O

OR
I C = .6 3 7 5 5 1878 .3 3 8 8 6 3 1398

Amps (Polar)

Total Admittance, Y = Y1 + Y2 + Y3 : Y = ( 0.1) + ( 0.0721001097 9 j 0.1132545876 ) + ( 0.0252124973 + j 0.0501586696 3) Y = .17167 0 93201 0.03997 j 60519 7 Siemens (Rectangular) OR Y = .27540 0 01501 7 .7352 1 3009 Siemens (Polar)
O

## Total Current is given by: Total Current, I = V = VY Z I = 1000O 0.2071554001 17.73305029 O

) (

I = .7167 1 9 3201

6.39976 j 0519

Amps (Rectangular)
O

OR
I = .7540 2 0 1501 7 .7352 1 3009

Amps (Polar)

## Check:I = I A + I B + I C = (10 + j 0 ) + ( 7.210010978 j11 .32545876

+ ( 2.521249726 + j 5.015866954

)
O

## I = 19 .73126072 j 6.309591806 20 .71554002 17 .73305031

On the following Graph: The Red Waveform represents Total Current ( I ) in Polar. The Blue Waveform represents BRANCH A ( I A ) in Polar. The Magenta Waveform represents BRANCH B ( I B ) in Polar. The Dark Green Waveform represents BRANCH C ( I C ) in Polar.

20

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

21

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

A 31.8uF capacitor, a 127.5mH inductor of resistance 30 Ohms and a 100 Ohms resistor are all connected in parallel to a 200V, 50 Hz supply. Find the various branch currents and the, by resolving into in-phase and quadrature components, determine the total current taken from the supply. Solution:-

1 BRANCH A = Z A = 0 j 2 50 31.8 10 6

= 10 .0745 0 j 0 948

BRANCH B = Z B = 30 + j 2 50 127.5 10 3
Z B =0 + 4 .0503 3 j 0 5363

))

BRANCH C= Current, I = V Z

ZC = 0 10

22

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1 : ZA

Y1 =

## 1 0 j100.0974485 1 0 + j100.0974485 0 j100.0974485 0 + j100.0974485 0 + j100.0974485 02 + 100.0974485 2 0 + j100.0974485 10019 .4992

3 3

Y1 =

Y1 =

Y1 =

Y1 = +j 0.09924 0 09066

## Siemens (Rectangular) Siemens (Polar)

OR
Y = .0 9 9 2 4 0 0 90 66 1 3 3 9 0
O

1 : ZB

Y2 =

## 1 30 + j 40.05530633 1 30 j 40.05530633 30 + j 40.05530633 30 j 40.05530633 30 j 40.05530633 30 2 + 40.05530633 2 30 j 40.05530633 2504.427565

6 0.05977 j 19391

Y2 =

Y2 =

Y2 =

Y2 = .01775 0 19882

Siemens (Rectangular)
O

OR
Y2 = .09833 0 19 2 1 2 5 .1895 3 6046

Siemens (Polar)

23

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

1 : ZA

Y3 =

Y3 = 0.01

OR
Y3 =0.0 O 1 0

## Current for BRANCH A, is given by: I A = V Y1 I A = 2000O 0.0099902646 3390O

I A = + 1.98596 0 j 9022

) (

Amps (Rectangular)
9 0
O

OR
I A = .9 8 5 9 6 1 9022

Amps (Polar)

## Current BRANCH B, is given by: I B = V Y2 I B = 2000O 0.0199823132 53.16809456 O

I B = .20198 7 1007 1 .3557 j1 2486

) (

Amps (Rectangular)
O

OR
I B = .96 6 6 3 94 2 4 5 .1 8 9 5 3 6 0 4 6

Amps (Polar)

IC = 2

) (

OR
I C = 2 O 0

24

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

## Total Admittance, Y = Y1 + Y2 + Y3 : Y = ( 0 + j 0.0099902646 33) + ( 0.0119787852 6 j 0.0159937971 ) + ( 0.01)

Y = .01775 0 29882 6 0.06052 j 00334 6 3

Siemens (Rectangular)

OR
Y = .02892 0 27375 5 .2721 1 7763
O

Siemens (Polar)

## Total Current is given by: Total Current, I = V = VY Z I = 2000O 0.0227839725 15.27772613 O

) (

I = .35509 4 8774

1.20043 j 0769

Amps (Rectangular)
O

OR
I = .5695 4 574 5 .2721 1 7763

Amps (Polar)

Check:On the following Graph: The Red Waveform represents Total Current ( I ) in Polar. The Blue Waveform represents BRANCH A ( I A ) in Polar. The Magenta Waveform represents BRANCH B ( I B ) in Polar. The Dark Green Waveform represents BRANCH C ( I C ) in Polar.

25

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

26

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

4.1 A 1kOhm resistor is connected across the secondary windings of an ideal transformer whose secondary voltage is 100 Volts. The current in the primary windings is 10mA. Draw a circuit diagram

(a)

Solution:-

(b)

i2 =

i2 = 0.1

27

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

(c)

V1 =1,0 0 0

Volts

(d)

N = 1 :1 0

28

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

29

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

4.2

An ideal transformer has 1000 primary turns and 100 secondary turns. If the primary winding is connected to a 230V AC supply the secondary is connected to a 100 Ohms resistive load: Draw a circuit diagram

(a)

Solution:

(b)

V2 = 23

30

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

(c)

## Determine the secondary current

Solution: V2 = i2 RL 23 = i2 100
i 2 =0.2 3

Amps

(d)

P =5.2 9 IN

Watts

31

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

32

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

Appendix 1

33

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

Evaluation

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

Finishing the assignment with Task 4, I felt that this Task went very quickly. I have already done similar problems to this through the EEP Unit and therefore could understand it immediately. I worked out each answer and checked them accordingly by using Croc Clips, this method was also used for my overall check as shown above.

Conclusion
To conclude, I am pleased with the outcome of this assignment. I am confident that I have correctly and appropriately answered the Tasks, due to my extensive checking methods. This assignment has also taken a lot of time to ensure it is accurate and I feel it meets the standard of my other two assignments in this Unit. I have received absolutely no help on this assignment, and will therefore be looking to achieve a good mark. I have one assignment left for this unit which is entirely research based and is already underway.

35

## Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Application of DC & AC Theory

Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and websites I was able to complete this assignment: Books BTEC National Engineering (Mike Tooley & Lloyd Dingle) ISBN: 978-0-7506-8521-4 Success in Electronics (Tom Duncan & John Murray) ISBN: 0-7195-4015-1 Higher Engineering Mathematics (John Bird) ISBN: 0-7506-8152-7 Engineering Science (John Bird) ISBN: 0-7506-4991-7 Catalogues N/A Websites N/A

36