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# - 1 - Tm tt cng thc

- 1 - XSTK
Tm tt cng thc Xc Sut - Thng K
I. Phn Xc Sut
1. Xc sut c in
- Cng thc cng xc sut: P(A+B)=P(A)+P(B)-P(AB).
- A
1
, A
2
,, A
n
xung khc tng i P(A
1
+A
2
++A
n
)=P(A
1
)+P(A
2
)++P(A
n
).
- Ta c
o A, B xung khc P(A+B)=P(A)+P(B).
o A, B, C xung khc tng i P(A+B+C)=P(A)+P(B)+P(C).
o ( ) 1 ( ) P A P A = .
- Cng thc xc sut c iu kin:
( )
( / )
( )
P AB
P A B
P B
= ,
( )
( / )
( )
P AB
P B A
P A
= .
- Cng thc nhn xc sut: P(AB)=P(A).P(B/A)=P(B).P(A/B).
- A
1
, A
2
,, A
n
c lp vi nhau P(A
1
.A
2.
.A
n
)=P(A
1
).P(A
2
)..P( A
n
).
- Ta c
o A, B c lp P(AB)=P(A).P(B).
o A, B, C c lp vi nhau P(A.B.C)=P(A).P(B).P(C).
- Cng thc Bernoulli: ( ; ; )
k k n k
n
B k n p C p q

= , vi p=P(A): xc sut bin c A
xy ra mi php th v q=1-p.
- Cng thc xc sut y - Cng thc Bayes
o H bin c gm n phn t A
1
, A
2
,, A
n
c gi l mt php phn
hoch ca O
1 2
. ; , 1,
...
i j
n
A A i j i j n
A A A

= u, = e

+ + + = O

o Cng thc xc sut y :
1 1 2 2
1
( ) ( ). ( / ) ( ). ( / ) ( ). ( / ) ... ( ). ( / )
n
i i n n
i
P B P A P B A P A P B A P A P B A P A P B A
=
= = + + +

o Cng thc Bayes:
( ). ( / )
( / )
( )
i i
i
P A P B A
P A B
P B
=
vi
1 1 2 2
( ) ( ). ( / ) ( ). ( / ) ... ( ). ( / )
n n
P B P A P B A P A P B A P A P B A = + + +
2. Bin ngu nhin
a. Bin ngu nhin ri rc
- Lut phn phi xc sut

vi ( ), 1, .
i i
p P X x i n = = =
Ta c:
1
1
n
i
i
p
=
=

v
f(
{a f(X) b}=
i
i
a x b
P p
s )s
s s

X x
1
x
2
x
n

P p
1
p
2
p
n

- 2 - Tm tt cng thc
- 2 - XSTK
- Hm phn phi xc sut
( ) ( )
i
X i
x x
F x P X x p
<
= < =

- Mode
0 0
ModX max{ : 1, }
i
x p p i n = = =
- Median
0, 5
( ) 0, 5
MedX
( ) 0, 5 0, 5
i e
i e
i
x x
e
e
e i
x x
p
P X x
x
P X x p
<
>
s
< s
=

> s s

- K vng
1 1 2 2
1
( . ) . . ... .
n
i i n n
i
EX x p x p x p x p
=
= = + + +

1 1 2 2
1
( ( )) ( ( ). ) ( ). ( ). ... ( ).
n
i i n n
i
E X x p x p x p x p
=
= = + + +

- Phng sai
2 2
( ) ( ) VarX E X EX =
vi
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 2 2
1
( ) ( . ) . . ... .
n
i i n n
i
E X x p x p x p x p
=
= = + + +

b. Bin ngu nhin lin tc.
- f(x) l hm mt xc sut ca X ( ) 1
+

=
}
f x dx ,
{a X b} ( ).
b
a
P f x dx s s =
}

- Hm phn phi xc sut
( ) ( ) ( )
x
X
F x P X x f t dt

= < =
}

- Mode
0
ModX x = Hm mt xc sut f(x) ca X t cc i ti x
0
.
- Median
1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
e
x
e X e
MedX x F x f x dx

= = =
}
.
- K vng
EX . ( ) x f x dx
+

=
}
.
( ( )) ( ). ( ) E X x f x dx
+

=
}

- 3 - Tm tt cng thc
- 3 - XSTK
- Phng sai
2 2
( ) ( ) VarX E X EX = vi
2 2
EX . ( ) x f x dx
+

=
}
.
c. Tnh cht
- ( ) , ( ) 0 E C C Var C = = , C l mt hng s.
-
2
( ) , ( ) E kX kEX Var kX k VarX = =
- ( ) E aX bY aEX bEY + = +
- Nu X, Y c lp th
2 2
( ) . , ( ) E XY EX EY Var aX bY a VarX b VarY = + = +
- ( ) X VarX = : lch chun ca X, c cng th nguyn vi X v EX.
3. Lut phn phi xc sut
a. Phn phi Chun
2
( ~ ( ; )) X N o
- ( ) X O = , EX=ModX=MedX= ,
2
VarX =
- Hm mxs
2
2
( )
2
1
( , , )
2
x
f x e

= Vi 0, 1: = =
2
2
1
( )
2
x
f x e

= (Hm Gauss)
- (a X b) ( ) ( )
b a
P

s s =
o o
vi
2
2
0
1
( )
2
t
x
x e dt

=
}
(Hm Laplace)
- Cch s dng my tnh b ti tnh gi tr hm Laplace, hm phn phi
xc sut ca phn phi chun chun tc
Tc v My CASIO 570MS My CASIO 570ES
Khi ng gi Thng k Mode(tm)SD Mode(tm)STAT 1-Var
Tnh
2
2
0
1
( )
2
t
x
x e dt

=
}

2
2
1
( )
2

=
}
t
x
F x e dt

Shift 3 2 x ) =

Shift 3 1 x ) =

Shift 1 7 2 x ) =

Shift 1 7 1 x ) =
Thot khi gi Thng k Mode 1 Mode 1

Lu : ( ) 0, 5 ( ) = + F x x

b. Phn phi Poisson ( ~ ( )) X P
- ( ) X O = , EX . odX=k -1 k VarX M = = s s
- (X=k)=e ,
!
k
P k
k

e
- 4 - Tm tt cng thc
- 4 - XSTK
c. Phn phi Nh thc ( ~ ( ; )) X B n p
- ( ) {0..n} X O = , EX=np, VarX=npq, ModX=k ( 1) 1 ( 1) n p k n p + s s +
- (X=k)=C . . , q p 0 ,
k k n k
n
P p q k n k

=1 , s s e
- Nu ( 30; 0,1 0, 9; 5, 5) > < < > > n p np nq th
2
~ ( ; ) ( ; ) ~ o X B n p N vi
. , n p npq = o =

1
(X=k) ( ), 0 ,
k
P f k n k

~ s s e
o o

(a X<b) ( ) ( )
b a
P

s ~
o o

- Nu ( 30, 5) > s 0,1, < n p np th ~ ( ; ) ( ) ~ X B n p P vi np =
(X=k) e ,
!
k
P k
k

~ e
- Nu ( 30, 0, 9, 5) > > < n p nq
(X=k) e ,
( )!
n k
P k
n k

~ e

vi nq =

d. Phn phi Siu bi ( ~ ( ; ; ))
A
X H N N n
- ( ) {max{0; ( )}..min{n;N }}
A A
X n N N O =
- EX=np, VarX=npq
1
N n
N

vi
A
N
p
N
= , q=1-p.
-
( 1)( 1) 2 ( 1)( 1) 2
1
2 2
A A
N n N n
ModX k k
N N
+ + + + + +
= s s
+ +
.
- (X=k)= , ( )
A A
k n k
N N N
n
N
C C
P k X
C

e O
- Nu 20
N
n
> th ~ ( ; ; ) ( ; )
A
X H N N n B n p ~ vi
A
N
p
N
= .
(X=k) C . . , ( ), 1
k k n k
n
P p q k X q p

~ e O = .

- 5 - Tm tt cng thc
- 5 - XSTK
X
Y

=

S tm tt cc dng phn phi xc sut thng
dng:

n30, np<5
p0,1
=np
N>20n
p=
A
N
N
, q=1-p
n30, np 5 > , nq 5 >
0,1<p<0,9
1
( ) ( )
k
P X k f

= ~
( ) ( ) ( )
b a
P a X b

s < ~
vi , np npq = =
Siu bi: X~H(N;N
A
;n)

.
( )
A A
k n k
N N N
n
N
C C
P X k
C

= =
Poisson: X~ ( ) P
( )
!
k
P X k e
k

= =

Nh thc: X~B(n;p)

( ) . .
k k n k
n
P X k C p q

= =
Chun: X~
2
( ; ) N
2
2
( )
2
1
( ; ; ) .
2
x
f x e

=
Chun chun tc: Y~ N(0;1)
2
2
1
( ) .
2
y
f y e

=
- 6 - Tm tt cng thc
- 6 - XSTK

II. Phn Thng K.
1. L thuyt mu.
a. Cc cng thc c bn.
Cc gi tr c trng Mu ngu nhin Mu c th
Gi tr trung bnh
1
...
n
X X
X
n
+ +
=
1
...
n
x x
x
n
+ +
=
Phng sai khng hiu chnh

2 2
2 1
( ) ... ( )

+ +
=
n
X
X X X X
S
n

2 2
2 1
( ) ... ( )

+ +
=
n
x
x x x x
s
n

Phng sai hiu chnh
2 2
2 1
( ) ... ( )
1
+ +
=

n
X
X X X X
S
n

2 2
2 1
( ) ... ( )
1
+ +
=

n
x
x x x x
s
n

b. d x l ta vit s liu ca mu c th di dng tn s nh sau:

Khi
Cc gi tr c trng Mu c th
Gi tr trung bnh
1 1
...
k k
x n x n
x
n
+ +
=
Phng sai khng hiu chnh

2 2
2 1 1
( ) ... ( )

+ +
=
k k
x
x x n x x n
s
n

Phng sai hiu chnh
2 2
2 1 1
( ) ... ( )
1
+ +
=

k k
x
x x n x x n
s
n

c. Cch s dng my tnh b ti tnh cc gi tr c trng mu

- Nu s liu thng k thu thp theo min [ ; ) a b hay ( ; ] a b th ta s dng gi
tr i din cho min l
2
a b +
tnh ton.

Tc v Dng CASIO MS Dng CASIO ES
Bt ch nhp tn s Khng cn
Shift Mode + 4 1
Khi ng gi Thng k Mode(tm)SD Mode(tm)STAT 1-Var
Nhp s liu
1
x Shift ,
1
n M+

k
x Shift ,
k
n M+

Nu 1
i
n = th ch cn
nhn
i
x M+

X FREQ
1
x =

k
x =
1
n =

k
n =
i
x
1
x
2
x

k
x
i
n
1
n
2
n

k
n
- 7 - Tm tt cng thc
- 7 - XSTK
Xa mn hnh hin th AC AC
Xc nh:
- Kch thc mu (n)
- Gi tr trung bnh
( x )
- lch chun khng
hiu chnh (
x
s )
- lch chun hiu
chnh (
x
s )

Shift 1 3 =

Shift 2 1 =

Shift 2 2 =

Shift 2 3 =

Shift 1 5 1 =

Shift 1 5 2 =

Shift 1 5 3 =

Shift 1 5 4 =
Thot khi gi Thng k Mode 1 Mode 1

2. c lng khong.
a) Khong tin cy cho gi tr trung bnh.
Trng hp 1. ( o bit)
- c lng i xng.
2 2 2
1
( ) . ; )
2
z z z x x
n

o o
o o
= c = ( c + c
- c lng chch tri.
( ) 0, 5 . ; ) z z z x
n

o o
o
= o c = ( + c
- c lng chch phi.
( ) 0, 5 . ) z z z x
n

o o
o
= o c = ( c;+
Trng hp 2. ( o cha bit, 30 n > )
- c lng i xng.
2 2 2
1
( ) . ; )
2
s
z z z x x
n

o o
o
= c = ( c + c
- c lng chch tri.
( ) 0, 5 . ; )
s
z z z x
n

o o
= o c = ( + c
- c lng chch phi.
( ) 0, 5 . )
s
z z z x
n

o o
= o c = ( c;+
Trng hp 3. ( o cha bit, n<30)
- c lng i xng.
( 1; ) ( 1; )
2 2
1 . ; )
2 n n
s
t t x x
n
o o

o
o c = ( c + c
- c lng chch tri.
( 1; ) ( 1; )
1 . ; )
n n
s
t t x
n
o o
o o c = ( + c
- 8 - Tm tt cng thc
- 8 - XSTK
- c lng chch phi.
( 1; ) ( 1; )
1 . ; )
n n
s
t t x
n
o o
o o c = ( c +
b) Khong tin cy cho t l.
- c lng i xng.
2 2 2
(1 ) 1
( ) . ; )
2
f f
z z z f f
n

o o
o
= c = ( c + c
- c lng chch tri.
(1 )
( ) 0, 5 . ; )
f f
z z z f
n

o o

= o c = (0 + c
- c lng chch phi.
(1 )
( ) 0, 5 . )
f f
z z z f
n

o o

= o c = ( c;1
c) Khong tin cy cho phng sai.
Trng hp 1. ( cha bit)
- Nu bi cha cho s m cho mu c th th phi xc nh s (bng my
tnh).
- c lng khng chch.
2
2
( 1; )
2
1
2
o

o
o _ = _
n
,
1
2
( 1;1 )
2
1 1
2
o

o
o _ = _
n

2 2
2 1
( 1) ( 1)
( ; )

_ _
n s n s

- c lng chch tri.
2
2
1 ( 1;1 )
1
( 1)
1 (0; )
n
n s
o

o _ = _
_

- c lng chch phi.
2
2
2 ( 1; )
2
( 1)
1 ( ; )
n
n s
o

o o _ = _ +
_

Trng hp 2. ( bit)
- Tnh
2 2
1
( 1) .( )
k
i i
i
n s n x
=
=

- c lng khng chch.
2
2
( ; )
2
1
2
o
o
o _ = _
n
,
2
1
( ;1 )
2
1 1
2
o

o
o _ = _
n

2 2
2 1
( 1) ( 1)
( ; )

_ _
n s n s

- 9 - Tm tt cng thc
- 9 - XSTK
- c lng chch tri.
2
2
1 ( ;1 )
1
( 1)
1 (0; )
o

o _ = _
_
n
n s

- c lng chch phi.
2
2
2 ( ; )
2
( 1)
1 ( ; )
o

o o _ = _ +
_
n
n s

3. Kim nh tham s.
a) Kim nh gi tr trung bnh.
Trng hp 1. ( o bit)
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = =
2 2
1
( ) , .
2
o
x
z z z n

o
o
= =
o

- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = <
( ) 0, 5 , .
o
x
z z z n

o

= o =
o

- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = >
( ) 0, 5 , .
o
x
z z z n

o

= o =
o

- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
Trng hp 2. ( o cha bit, 30 n > )
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = =
2 2
1
( ) , .
2
o
x
z z z n
s

o
o
= =
- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = <
( ) 0, 5 , .
o
x
z z z n
s

o

= o =
- 10 - Tm tt cng thc
- 10 - XSTK
- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = >
( ) 0, 5 , .
o
x
z z z n
s

o

= o =
- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
Trng hp 3. ( o cha bit, n<30)
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = =
( 1; )
2
, .
2
o
n
x
t t n
s
o

o
o =
- Nu
( 1; )
2
n
t t
o

> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
( 1; )
2
n
t t
o

s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = <
( 1; )
, .
o
n
x
t t n
s
o

o =
- Nu
( 1; ) n
t t
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
( 1; ) n
t t
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H H = >
( 1; )
, .
o
n
x
t t n
s
o

o =
- Nu
( 1; ) n
t t
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
( 1; ) n
t t
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
b) Kim nh t l.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H p p H p p = =
2 2
1
( ) , , .
2 (1 )
o
o o
f p k
z z f z n
n p p

o
o
= = =

- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H p p H p p = <
( ) 0, 5 , , .
(1 )
o
o o
f p k
z z f z n
n p p

o

= o = =

- 11 - Tm tt cng thc
- 11 - XSTK
- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1
: , :
o o o
H p p H p p = >
( ) 0, 5 , , .
(1 )
o
o o
f p k
z z f z n
n p p

o

= o = =

- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
c) Kim nh phng sai.
Trng hp 1. ( cha bit)
- Nu cha cho s m cho mu c th th phi s dng my tnh xc
nh s.
-
2 2 2 2
1
: , :
o o o
H H o = o o = o
2 2
1
( 1;1 )
2
1
2 n
o

o
o _ = _ ,
2 2
2
( 1; )
2
2 n
o

o
o _ = _ ,
2
2
2
( 1)
o
n s

=
o

- Nu
2 2
2
2 2
1

_ > _

_ < _

: Bc b H
0
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2 2 2
1 2
_ s _ s _ : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
2 2 2 2
1
: , :
o o o
H H o = o o < o
2 2
1 ( 1;1 )
1
n o
o o _ = _ ,
2
2
2
( 1)
o
n s
_ =
o

- Nu
2 2
1
_ < _ : Bc b H
0
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2 2
1
_ > _ : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
2 2 2 2
1
: , :
o o o
H H o = o o > o
2 2
2 ( 1; ) n o
o _ = _ ,
2
2
2
( 1)
o
n s
_ =
o

- Nu
2 2
2
_ > _ : Bc b H
0
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2 2
2
_ s _ : Chp nhn H
o
.
4. Kim nh so snh tham s.
a) Kim nh so snh gi tr trung bnh.
Trng hp 1. (
1 2
, o o bit)
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = =
1 2
2 2
2 2 1 2
1 2
1
( ) ,
2
x x
z z z
n n

o
o
= =
o o
+

- 12 - Tm tt cng thc
- 12 - XSTK
- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = <
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
x x
z z z
n n

o

= o =
o o
+

- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = >
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
x x
z z z
n n

o

= o =
o o
+

- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
Trng hp 2. (
1 2
, o o cha bit,
1 2
30 n n , > )
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = =
1 2
2 2
2 2 1 2
1 2
1
( ) ,
2
x x
z z z
s s
n n

o
o
= =
+

- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = <
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
x x
z z z
s s
n n

o

= o =
+

- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = >
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
x x
z z z
s s
n n

o

= o =
+

- 13 - Tm tt cng thc
- 13 - XSTK
- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
Trng hp 3. (
1 2
o = o cha bit,
1 2
, 30 n n < )
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = =
1 2
1 2
( 2; )
2
2
1 2
,
2 1 1
( )
n n
x x
t t
s
n n
o
+
o
o =
+
, vi
2 2
2 1 1 2 2
1 2
( 1). ( 1).
2
n s n s
s
n n
+
=
+

- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = <
1 2
1 2
( 2; )
2
1 2
,
1 1
( )
n n
x x
t t
s
n n
+ o

o =
+
, vi
2 2
2 1 1 2 2
1 2
( 1). ( 1).
2
n s n s
s
n n
+
=
+

- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.

- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H = >
1 2
1 2
( 2; )
2
1 2
,
1 1
( )
n n
x x
t t
s
n n
+ o

o =
+
, vi
2 2
2 1 1 2 2
1 2
( 1). ( 1).
2
n s n s
s
n n
+
=
+

- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu
1 2
( 2; )
2
n n
t t
o
+
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
b) Kim nh so snh t l.
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
, ,
k k k k
f f f
n n n n
+
= = =
+

-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H p p H p p = =
1 2
2 2
1 2
1
( ) ,
2 1 1
(1 ).( )
f f
z z z
f f
n n

o
o
= =
+

- Nu
2
z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu
2
z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o.

- 14 - Tm tt cng thc
- 14 - XSTK
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H p p H p p = <
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
1 1
(1 ).( )
f f
z z z
f f
n n

o

= o =
+

- Nu z z
o
< : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu z z
o
> : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H p p H p p = >
1 2
1 2
( ) 0, 5 ,
1 1
(1 ).( )
f f
z z z
f f
n n

o

= o =
+

- Nu z z
o
> : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu z z
o
s : Chp nhn H
o
.
c. Kim nh so snh phng sai.
-
1 2
, cha bit nn tnh s
1
v s
2
t mu (s dng my tnh) nu bi cha
cho.
-
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H o = o o = o
-
2
1
1 1 2 2 1 2
2
2
, ( 1; 1;1 ) , ( 1; 1; )
2 2
s
f f f n n f f n n
s
o o
= = =
- Nu
1
2
f f
f f
<

>

: Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu
1 2
f f f s s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H o = o o < o
-
2
1
1 1 2
2
2
, ( 1; 1;1 )
s
f f f n n
s
= = o
- Nu
1
f f < : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu
1
f f s : Chp nhn H
o
.
-
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2
: , :
o
H H o = o o > o
-
2
1
2 1 2
2
2
, ( 1; 1; )
s
f f f n n
s
= =
- Nu
2
f f > : Bc b H
o
, chp nhn H
1
.
- Nu
2
f f s : Chp nhn H
o
.
5. H s tng quan mu v phng trnh hi quy tuyn tnh mu.

- 15 - Tm tt cng thc
- 15 - XSTK
a. H s tng quan mu:
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
( ) ( )
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n n n
i i i i
i i i i
n x y x y
r
n x x n y y
= = =
= = = =

=

Phng trnh hi quy tuyn tnh mu: x
x
y A B = + vi
1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( )
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n
i i
i i
n x y x y
B
n x x
= = =
= =

v
1 1
.
n n
i i
i i
y B x
A
n
= =

=

.

b. Trong trng hp s dng bng tn s:

Ta tnh theo cng thc thu gn nh sau:
H s tng quan mu:
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
( ) ( )
k k k
i i i i i i i
i i i
k k k k
i i i i i i i i
i i i i
n n x y n x n y
r
n n x n x n n y n y
= = =
= = = =

=

Phng trnh hi quy tuyn tnh mu: x
x
y A B = + vi
1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( )
k k k
i i i i i i i
i i i
k k
i i i i
i i
n n x y n x n y
B
n n x n x
= = =
= =

v
1 1
.
k k
i i i i
i i
n y B n x
A
n
= =

=

.

i
x
1
x
2
x

k
x
i
y
1
y
2
y

k
y
i
n
1
n
2
n

k
n
- 16 - Tm tt cng thc
- 16 - XSTK
c. S dng my tnh b ti tnh h s tng quan mu v phng trnh hi quy
tuyn tnh mu:

Tc v Dng CASIO MS Dng CASIO ES
Bt ch nhp tn s Khng cn
Shift Mode + 4 1
Khi ng gi Hi quy
tuyn tnh
Mode(tm)REG
Lin
Mode(tm)STAT
A+BX
Nhp s liu
1
x ,
1
y Shift ,
1
n M+

k
x ,
k
y Shift ,
k
n M+

1
i
n = th ch cn nhn
i
x ,
i
y M+

X Y FREQ
1
x =

k
x =
1
y =

k
y =
1
n =

k
n =
Xa mn hnh hin th AC AC
Xc nh:
- H s tng quan
mu (r)
- H s hng: A
- H s n (x): B

Shift 2 3 =

Shift 2 1 =
Shift 2 2 =

Shift 1 7 3 =

Shift 1 7 1 =
Shift 1 7 2 =

Thot khi gi Hi quy Mode 1 Mode 1

Lu : My ES nu kch hot ch nhp tn s phn L thuyt mu ri th
khng cn kch hot na.
.