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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Well Organized, Based on the Latest California Board Test Plan and NCEES Exam Specifications, Detailed Tables of Contents, Computer Generated Index (12 pages), Simplified Concepts, 104 Practice Problems with Detailed Solutions.

The that has: · A comprehensive summary of equations, tables, and charts you need for the exam. All what you need at one location and at your fingertips. · Separate AM and PM topics. Focus and study only the sections you need.

only book

Transportaion

Engineering Module

for

Civil PE License

Separate Breadth (AM) & Depth (PM) Topics Per NCEES

A Concise & Comprehensive Summary of Construction Engineering Equations (Code & Non-Code), Tables, Charts, and Figures is Provided for a Quick Access in the Exam

**Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE
**

First Edition

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Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

ISBN ????????? © 2011 Professional Engineering Services (PES)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, without a written permission from the author. The author can be reached by email: info@passpe.com

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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Preface

O

ur next generation of Civil PE books were carefully developed by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E., a nationally recognized expert in PE Exam Preparation courses and founder of Professional Engineering Services, Inc., (PES). This generation is quickly becoming the Best in Class solution for engineering professionals working to pass upcoming California Board and NCEES exams. Each and every book in this comprehensive collection has been prepared with your readiness in mind and will serve as a powerful guide throughout your PE Exam Preparation studies in Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying concentrations. Dr. Mansour has taught and spoken to thousands of engineers and has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying, and EIT/FE classes for the past 22 years enabling his products, classes, and seminars to continuously evolve and adapt to the changing demands of this challenging field. His real-world experience and intercommunication with so many engineers throughout America has greatly improved his ability to craft concise and knowledgeable resources that work for professionals striving to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam and other California special exams. One of the primary advantages of PES preparation books is their compact and succinct format. The experiences and feedback of engineering students and professionals that have worked with these materials affirms our effective use of good, factual diagrams and illustrations to more fully explain concepts throughout each text. In fact, Dr. Mansour makes great use of this style of teaching through figures, comparative tables, charts, and illustrations to concisely convey important information to engineers preparing for the exam. The primary focus of each book in our collection is targeted on subjects that are directly relevant to the PE exam. This method provides substantial time savings to students that simply don t have the wherewithal to digest leading competitive volumes, which typically exceed 1,000 pages. Another strong asset of these next generation books is the separation of Breadth (a.m.) and Depth (p.m.) topics. Each Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying book is organized in accordance with the most current exam specifications and has matured since their inception through the inputs, complaints, wishes, and other feedback given from course participants and colleagues for over 22 years. Recent changes in the format of the Civil PE exam have made it necessary to address the change from essay to multiple choice problems, separation of a.m. and p.m. sections, and the introduction of the construction module. The books improved organization is completed with a very detailed Table of Contents, which addresses both the a.m. and p.m. subjects and more, making them a favored resource for preparation as well as exam time. The best part in all this growth and continuous improvement is the ability to apply this knowledge and experience to our supplemental products developed to give you the best head start for passing your Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Every book, DVD, seminar, and accompanying Problems & Solutions workbooks are designed with all relevant codes, topics, board test plans, and NCEES exam specifications. And, these study materials and seminars, also manage to cover these fields of study in the same order as listed in the latest exam specifications for easy reference at-a-glance. Not only are our next generation books written to be current and well-organized to save you time during exam preparation and test taking; they are also affordable and authored by a highly qualified and nationally recognized Civil Engineering Professor. Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. His easy, step-bystep approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. We hope that you ll find the many resources at Professional Engineering Services, Inc. to be exceptional textbooks, DVDs, and seminars and as valuable a resource as we believe them to be.

5. Surveying and EIT courses for the last 22 years. The following is a suggested strategy preparation for the exam: 1. or in the way they are interpreted by the registrants or others. and suggestions and the use of this material in preparation for the exam or using it during the exam. Las Cruces.Work on questions that require lengthy calculations and record your answers on the answer sheet.www. DIFFICULT. CA.passpe. solutions. This publication expresses the opinion of the author.com. PES and the author at their discretion. those will be posted on the PES web site at http:// www. Mansour has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Errata Notification PES and the author have made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this publication is accurate.Never leave an answer blank 7. information. and suggestions are as accurate as possible. PES and the author welcome comments or corrections which can be emailed to info@passpe. His easy. step-by-step approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages.Mansour. Fresno. Dr. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. Dr. Professional Engineering Services (PES) and the author are in no way responsible for the failure of registrants in the exam. Shahin A. 3. 4 NCEES Exam Specifications . The author cannot assume or accept the responsibility or liability for errors in the data.Have all references organized before you start. 4. OR UNFAMILAR PROBLEM About the Author Dr. solutions.Read the questions and ALL answers carefully and look for KEY WORDS in the question and the 4 possible answers. Seismic. Mansour. Also. Every effort and care has been taken to ensure that all data.Solve the easy questions first (ones that need no or minimum calculations) and record your answers on the answer sheet. NM. information. concepts. he has been teaching Civil and Construction Engineering Courses (graduate & undergraduate) at CSU. Also. for the last 20 years. has been teaching PE. familiarize yourself with the comprehensive summary provided in this book. Shahin A. PE Disclaimer This publication is to help the candidates for the Transportation Module for PE Civil License. or liable for errors or omission in the solutions.com How to Use This Book This book was written to help you prepare for the PE-Civil. Also. may or may not issue written errata. USA. Mansour taught Civil Engineering Courses for 7 years at New Mexico State University (NMSU). PE.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe. 2. concepts.Questions that seem difficult or not familiar to you and may need considerable time in searching in your references should be left to the end 6.Remember the D3 rule: DO NOT EXPECT THE EXAM TO BE EASY DO NOT PANIC DO NOT WASTE TOO MUCH TIME ON A SIGNLE EASY.

.www. Shahin A. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow Hydrology 1.. Depth (P..M.g. .. Horizontal curves Vertical curves Sight distance Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration . Traffic impact studies .) Topics 1. 12. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs General Table of Contents 5 19.) Topics 1. 13.. Intersection analysis . Speed studies . .. Traffic volume studies . 6... Traffic capacity studies . Driver behavior and/or performance ..M.. 3. 10..Mansour. Sight distance evaluation . .. Capacity analysis (future conditions) . ..passpe. Culvert design 2... 9. Traffic signals . 15. Roadside clearance analysis Conflict analysis Work zone safety Accident analysis Hydraulics 1. 4.. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e... 2. . PE TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Study Tips and Suggested Exam Strategy NCEES New Format for the PE (Civil) Exam List of References per NCEES Summary of the Equations Breadth (A. transportation route A or transportation route B) . . . 16. 11. 17. 3. . 4. 18. 8.. 2. 6. 7.. Traffic control devices Pedestrian facilities .. 14. Intersections and/or interchanges . 5. 5.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr.

identification of types of soils. boring logs) . Soil mechanics analysis (e.g.g.Mansour.g.g. PE 20. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e.) Topics 24 Topics Total Number of Topics = 30 6 NCEES Exam Specifications .www. Value engineering and costing . Pavement structures (e.. soil classification soil compaction) 22.M.. flexible and rigid pavement design) . excavation / embankment) 24. suitable or unsuitable.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Breadth (A. Construction operations and methods (e.passpe. Soil behavior.M. 21. erosion control measures. 23. Engineering economics 1.) Topics 6 Topics Depth (P. index properties. Shahin A.

14th edition. 7th edition. 2000 edition. DC. Washington. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials.PCA 8. Asphalt Institute. Washington. 1. Lexington . PE The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination TRANSPORTATION Design Standards Effective Beginning with the April 2011 Examinations ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE 1. The Asphalt Handbook (MS-4). Roadside Design Guide.AASHTO 4-AI 5.S..www. Transportation Research Board National Research Council. DC. Traffic Engineering Handbook.ITE Notes Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Shahin A. 2002. Portland Cement Association.AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2007. DC. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. 2007.MUTCD 7. IL. Skokie. Institute of Transportation Engineers. and 1998 supplement. Washington. DC. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. DC. 2009. 2 6. 2009.passpe. 6th edition. Including all changes adopted through November 14. Washington. NCEES Exam Specifications 7 . 3rd edition with 2006 Chapter 6 Update. Washington. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (GDPS-4-M)1993. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. KY 2. U.HCM 1 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000). 2004 edition (5th edition).AASHTO 3. Washington.Mansour. DC. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures.

Site layout and control B. Material testing (e. Shahin A. analysis.passpe. Some problems may require knowledge of engineering economics. and application. and 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour PM session. and water resources and environmental. CIVIL BREADTH Exam Specifications Approximate Percentage of Examination I. The exam is developed with questions that will require a variety of approaches and methodologies.g. Time-cost trade-off D. Scheduling 1. PE NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering CIVIL BREADTH and TRANSPORTATION DEPTH Exam Specifications Effective Beginning with the April 2008 Examinations The civil exam is a breadth and depth examination. The specifications for the AM exam and the Transportation PM exam are included here. The five areas covered in the civil examination are construction. The exam is an 8-hour open-book exam. Temporary Structures 1. transportation. soil. The knowledge areas specified as examples of kinds of knowledge are not exclusive or exhaustive categories.Mansour. Material Quality Control and Production 1. concrete. Cost estimating C. Excavation and embankment (cut and fill) 2.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. This means that examinees work the breadth (AM) exam and one of the five depth (PM) exams. Construction loads 8 NCEES Exam Specifications . asphalt) E. geotechnical. The breadth exam contains questions from all five areas of civil engineering.www. Borrow pit volumes 3. structural. The exam uses both the International System of Units (SI) and the US Customary System (USCS). Examinees work all questions in the morning session and all questions in the afternoon module they have chosen. Quantity take-off methods 2. Construction sequencing 2. Estimating Quantities and Costs 1. including design.. Earthwork Construction and Layout 1. Resource scheduling 3. CONSTRUCTION 20% A. It contains 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour AM session. The depth exams focus more closely on a single area of practice in civil engineering. Depth results are combined with breadth results for final score. The design standards applicable to the Transportation PM exam are shown on the last page.

g.Mansour. Cantilever walls 3. Footings 20% 20% NCEES Exam Specifications 9 . Soil classification 2. Consolidation 4. Member Design 1. reinforced) 2. Pressure distribution 2. Earth Structures 1. Engineering Properties of Soils and Materials 1. Gravity walls 2. Materials 1. Slabs 3. Effective and total stresses D. Dead loads 2. Determinate analysis C.www. Bearing capacity 2. Subsurface Exploration and Sampling 1. Loadings 1. Structural steel (structural. Earth Retaining Structures 1. Lateral earth pressure 3. Flexure 4. Beams 2. Compression 7. Analysis 1. PE II. GEOTECHNICAL A. Tension 6. Shear 5. soil profile) B. Compaction 5. Concrete (plain. Permeability 2.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A.. reinforcing) E. Settlement F. Construction loads B. light gage.passpe. Slabs-on-grade E. Mechanics of Materials 1. STRUCTURAL A. Shear diagrams 2. Moment diagrams 3. Stability analysis 4. Deflection D. Boring log interpretation (e. Pavement design criteria C. Soil Mechanics Analysis 1. Shallow Foundations 1. Braced and anchored excavations III. Combined stresses 8. Live loads 3. Slope stability 2.

Acceleration and deceleration V. Detention/retention ponds D. Pipe network analysis (e.g. and frequency (IDF) curves 5. Runoff analysis including Rational and SCS methods 7.g. branch networks. Water Treatment 1. inflow) E. Darcy-Weisbach Equation 4.passpe.. duration. Pump application and analysis B. stormwater inlets. Erosion 8.www. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances 6. street flow.g.g. hydraulic jump... storm sewer pipes) 6.g. Energy and/or continuity equation (e. lift stations. Wastewater Treatment 1. Open-channel flow (e.g. Culvert design 3. Hydraulic loading 2.. Flow measurement open channel C. Distribution systems Total 100% 10 NCEES Exam Specifications . Manning s equation) 2. Hydraulics Open Channel 1.Mansour. Hydraulics Closed Conduit 1. Flood plains/floodways 7. Spillway capacity 4.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Closed pipe flow equations including Hazen-Williams. Stormwater collection (e.. Horizontal curves 2.g. Hydrographs application 4. Pressure conduit (e. pipeline design. Storm characterization (e. Energy dissipation (e. loop networks) 6.g. Hydrology 1. Geometric Design 1. force mains) 3. Shahin A. gutter flow.. single pipe. Vertical curves 3. Superelevation 5. Storm frequency 3. Bernoulli) 2. Sight distance 4. PE IV. sewer networks. WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 20% 20% A. Collection systems (e. infiltration. Rainfall intensity. Friction and/or minor losses 5.. Time of concentration 6.. TRANSPORTATION A. velocity control) 5. rainfall measurement and distribution) 2.

TRANSPORTATION Depth Exam Specifications A competent transportation engineer should have a basic knowledge in drainage. Culvert design and pavement design are knowledges that have not been tested previously under the current Civil exam specifications. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. Sight distance D. and pavement design.g.www. Driver behavior and/or performance II. Shahin A. Horizontal curves B. Accident analysis 15% NCEES Exam Specifications 11 . Traffic capacity studies B. Capacity analysis (future conditions) IV.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. transportation route A or transportation route B) B.5% 30% 7. Beginning with the April 2010 exam.Mansour. Traffic impact studies C. Acceleration and deceleration G. Roadside clearance analysis B. Traffic signals C. soils. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances F. Traffic volume studies F. Traffic Analysis A. Traffic Safety A. Vertical curves C. Pedestrian facilities I. Intersection analysis E. Intersections and/or interchanges III. Conflict analysis C. Transportation Planning 22. PE National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Civil .5% A.. Approximate Percentage of Examination I. Speed studies D. Section V of the Transportation module has been broadened to permit testing in these important transportation knowledges. Sight distance evaluation G. Work zone safety D.passpe. Traffic control devices H. Superelevation E. Geometric Design A.

Hydraulics 1. Other Topics A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. soil classification. soil compaction) E.passpe. flexible and rigid pavement design) 12 NCEES Exam Specifications . Hydrology 1. Boring logs) D. soil behavior. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e..g. Construction operations and methods (e. suitable or unsuitable soil. Engineering economics 1. identification of types of soils. Value engineering and costing F. Soil mechanics analysis (e. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow B.g. excavation/embankment) G. Culvert design 2. index properties. Pavement structures (e.Mansour.www.g. PE V. erosion control measures. Shahin A. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs 25% C.g.

Tables. Flow Charts. and Figures Per NCEES List of Topics and Exam Specifications Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 13 . PE A CONCISE & COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY Of TRANSPORTATION MODULE EQUATIONS & TOPICS Codes Equations.passpe.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Non-Code Equations.www. Shahin A.

M.5% (9 questions) 14 Part I.passpe. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour.) .www. PE I. Traffic Analysis 22.

Mansour.www. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe.Geometric Design 30% (12 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 15 . PE II.

M. Shahin A.5% (3 questions) 16 Part I.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Transportation Planning 7. PE III.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) .

Shahin A.Mansour. Traffic Safety 15% (6 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 17 .www.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE IV.

Mansour. Shahin A. Other Topics 25% (10 questions) 18 Part I.M. PE V.www.) .passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

Mansour.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 19 .passpe. Shahin A.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.M. PE 20 Part I.com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr. Shahin A.) .www.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. Shahin A. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 21 .www.passpe.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A.) .M.Mansour.passpe. PE PART 1 Civil BREADTH (A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) Exam Specifications TRANSPORTATION 22 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design .www.

5. 6. 2.. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 23 .) Topics Chapter A: Geometric Design 1. .passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A... Horizontal curves Vertical curves .. 4. Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration 24 .84 .M.. Shahin A.... Part I.M..) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www.57 .92 99 . Sight distance .46 . PE Transportation Breadth (A.. 3.

For safety reasons.Mansour. PE Chapter A: Geometric Design A. or spiral.Chapter A: Geometric Design .1 HORIZONTAL CURVES A. whereas the spiral curve is based on a varying radius.). Horizontal curves may be simple. but curving in the same direction.1 Introduction: Horizontal curves are required for connecting tangents in route surveying. compound.) . reverse. this curve is seldom used in highway construction as it would tend to send an automobile off the road.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe. The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve. railroads. whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp. It is used on railroads and some modern highways. This type of curve is the most often used. large radius curves are relatively flat. Spiral Curves The spiral is a curve which has a varying radius.M. This curve normally consists of two simple curves joined together. but curving in opposite directions.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. the flatter the curve.www. a) Simple Circular (b) Compound (c) Reverse (d) Spiral Figure A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves The sharpness of the curve is determined by the choice of the radius (R).etc. . Circular Curves Compound Frequently the terrain will necessitate the use of a compound curve. The following table explains the differences between types of horizontal curves. Shahin A. The larger the radius. Its purpose is to provide a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve 24 Part I. Route surveying is the type of surveying to establish horizontal and vertical alignment for transportation facilities (highways. streets.1. Table A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves Simple The simple curve is an arc of a circle. Compound and reverse curves are treated as a combination of two or more simple curves. Reverse A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined together.

and financial impact.Chapter A: Geometric Design 25 . superelevation. ) with minimal social.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.1.) . Figure A-2 Horizontal (top) and Vertical (bottom) Alignments A. Shahin A. The horizontal alignment of a transportation facility consists of series of straight lines (tangents) and circular curves as shown below.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The route of a highway or a street is chosen to satisfy all design requirements (speed. Mansour. sight distance.1. PE A. as follows: Part I.passpe.2 Horizontal Circular Curves: Circular curves are common in highways and streets design. environmental.3 Degree of Curve for Horizontal Circular Curves: The degree of curve (for horizontal circular curves only) (D) defines the "sharpness" or "flatness" of the curve. There are two definitions for degree of curve.M.www.

This definition is used primarily for highways and streets.passpe.5 3.28084° curve in the metric system.56 8. The chord definition is used primarily for civilian railroad construction and is used by the military for both roads and railroads.92 6. The following equation gives the relationship between the two systems.28084 ft. Dmetric = D foot ´ 3.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.28 4. PE Table A-2 Chord and Arc Definitions for Horizontal Circular Curves Chord Definition (D c ) The chord definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of a chord of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m chord).5 2.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 26 (A-3) 3.M. Table A-3 Degree-of-Curve Conversions Foot Definition (D foot ) Metric Definition (D metric ) 1. Notice that the larger the degree of curve.3048° curve in the foot system.Mansour.) .578o Da = = 2pR R (A-2) Since one meter equals 3. Arc Definition (D a) The arc definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of an arc of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m arc).Chapter A: Geometric Design .20 9. Shahin A. the "sharper" the curve and the shorter the radius.www.28 The following table shows the comparable values in both systems. degrees of curve in the two systems (SI and English) differ by the same proportion. D Sin æ c ç 2 è ö = 50 ft ÷ ø R ( A-1) (360o )(100 ft ) 5729.0 1.0 2. a 1° curve in the foot system is the same curve as a 3. Therefore. And a 1° curve in the metric system is the same curve as a 0.84 Part I.

it is the straight line that connects the PC (BC) to the PI Forward Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.Chapter A: Geometric Design 27 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www. Shahin A. Mansour.passpe.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. it is the straight line that connects the PI to the PT (EC) Point of Curvature (PC) = Beginning of Curve (BC): the beginning point of the curve Point of Tangency (PT) = End of Curve (EC): the end point of the curve Tangent Distance (T): the distance from the PC (BC) to PI or from the PI to PT (EC) External Distance (E): the distance from the PI to the middle point of the curve Middle Ordinate (M): the distance from the middle point of the curve to the middle of the chord (long chord) joining the PC (BC) and PT (EC) Long Chord (C or LC): the distance along the line joining the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Length of Curve (L): the difference in stationing along the curve (arc length) between the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Part I. PE Figure A-3 Circular Horizontal Curve Terminology · Point of Intersection (PI): the point at which the two tangents to the curve intersect · Delta Angle ( ) : the angle between the tangents is also equal to the angle at the center of · · · · · · · · · the curve Back Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.M.

PE A.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û (A-4) (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) (A-9) Notes: R R i.58 o Da Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 æ Do ö Lc = (100 m)ç o ÷ çD ÷ è cø 5729.passpe.1.Chapter A: Geometric Design .cos Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .versed sine (vers) vers ( /2) = 1 Cos ( /2) 3.58 R ( feet ) = o Da M = R (1 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan (A-9) o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û 28 Part I.) . the stationing (chainage) must reflect the fact that the centerline no longer goes through the PI .65 R (meter ) = o DC Same Same M = R (1 .cos é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .M.www. Table A-4 Arc and Chord Definitions Equations Arc Definition T = R tan D 2 o Chord Definition (A-4) Do = 2 T cos( Do 2) 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø Same Same LC = C = 2 R sin (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) æ Do æ Do ö La = 2p Rç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ç è ø è a R ( feet ) = 5729.e D = 2 Cos -1 ( ) (from the geometry shown in the previous page) 1. Shahin A. Although the EC is physically a distance of T from the PI .A common mistake is to determine the station of the EC by adding the T distance to the PI .external secant (exsec) exsec ( /2) = Sec ( /2) 1 4.Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.4 Geometry of Horizontal Circular Curves (Arc Definition): Do T = R tan 2 Do LC = C = 2 R sin = 2 T cos(Do 2) 2 o æ Do ö æ D ö La = 2p R ç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø è aø 5729.Cos D 2 = R+ E R+E 2.

70 7 + 70. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-1 to A-4 A horizontal circular curve for a new conventional highway has the following data: D = 16 o 38¢ .30 ft 289. + T).18 4 + 80. Note: Answer (A) is (PI Sta.49 ft 189.) .31 7 + 70.M.39 D = 1000 tan 8. Mansour.57 1 + 46.3167o = 146.70 Ü Answer: (B) L = 2 + 90.29 ft 572. Shahin A.passpe.70 .39 . R = 1000 ft.39 .31 Sta. 4 + 80. 7 + 70.75 4 + 80.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 29 .18 ft 2 Do æDö L = 2p R = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ 360 o èDø L = 2p ´1000 ´ 16.www. Sample Problem A-2: Long Chord for Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The length of the long chord is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 150.39 7 + 72.6333 = 290.57 Sample Problem A-1: Horizontal Circular Curve Calculations Find: BC and EC stations are most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: T = R tan 4 + 80. 7 + 72.3167 o = 289. and PI Station at 6 + 26.49 ft C = 2 R Sin D = 2 T Cos (D 2) = 2 ×1000 × Sin 8. 4 + 80. which is wrong (common mistake).29 ft Ü 2 Answer: (C) Part I.39 Ü 2 + 90.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.31 ft 360 PI at T BC = +L EC = 6 + 26.75 .

Cos D M = R(1 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.43 ft 10.) .www.5 ft.1) = 1000 ( .00 ft Solution: (Continued on next page) 30 Part I.Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Sample Problem A-3: External Distance for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The external distance (E) for the given curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: E = R( 1 1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design .45 ft 400.61 ft 265.52 ft 10.63 2) Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-4: Middle Ordinate for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The middle ordinate for the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Refer to Figure A-3 for the definition of M 10.passpe.43 ft 10.63 ft Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .1) =10.3167 o) = 10.54 ft 315.M.63 ft Ü Cos (D 2) Cos (16.52 ft 10. Find: The length of the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 257.52 ft Ü Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-5: Length a Horizontal Circular Curve Given: A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 500 ft.Cos ) = 1000 (1 2 D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos Ü which relationship ? 2 2 4 2 Cos 8.63 ft 10. Shahin A.23 ft 10. and mid-ordinate of 16.23 ft 10.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 31 .) .5 D =1 = 0.e.5 = 500 ( 1 Cos D -1 o = Cos (0.passpe.www.M.52 o L = 2p R = 2 ´ p ´ 500´ = 257.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. BC to EC ) : L = 2p R Do 29. Shahin A.76 2 D ) 2 Cos M 16. Mansour.52º Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø Curve Length (i.Cos D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos 2 2 4 2 Ü select the appropriate relationship D M = R (1 .61 ft 360o 360o Answer: (A) Part I. PE Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .967 = 1R 500 2 = 29.Cos ) 2 16.967) =14.

5 Deflection Angles..e. i.passpe. PE A. Abbreviations: BC PC TC EC PT CT = = = = = = Beginning of curve Point of curvature Tangent to curve End of curve Point of tangency Curve to tangent Figure A-4 Deflection.. the angle A-BC-B is ½ the central angle A-O-B.Mansour. i.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.e. The following two rules apply for the deflection angles for circular curves: Rule 1: The deflection angle between a tangent and a chord is half the central angle subtended by the arc.M. the angle between the tangent BC-PI and the chord PCA is ½ the central angle BC-O-A. i. & 2 .1. & 2 .. and Chord Calculations for Horizontal Circular Curves: The deflection angle is defined as the angle between the tangent and a chord.www. i. Central Angle.) . Rule 2: The angle between two chords is ½ the central angle subtended by the arc between the two chords. Central Angles and Chord Calculations æ arc length öæ D ö deflection angle = ç ÷ç ÷ L è øè 2 ø Chord Length ( BC to A) = 2R Sin a arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180 0 a= 2p R 2 a arc length ( BC to A) = D L 32 Part I. Shahin A..e.e.Chapter A: Geometric Design (A-10) (A-11) (A-12) (A-13) .

www.41º 12.20º 16. A drainage inlet (DI) is required to be staked out at station 15 4 + 60. Mansour. Shahin A.25º 32.29º.passpe. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-6 to A-8 A horizontal circular curve for a new urban highway has a radius of 2500 ft and a degree of curve (arc definition) of 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design 33 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.85 Sta.50º Arc length = (DI Station arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 2p R BC Station) = (154 + 60) (150 + 75) = 3.41° 2p R 2 ´ p ´ 2500 ft Answer: (A) Part I. = 385 ft a= a= arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 385 ft ´ 180° = = 4. The beginning of the curve is at station 150 + 75 and the central angle is 30º.) . Sample Problem A-6: Deflection Angle Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The deflection angle between the back tangent and the chord to the drainage inlet station is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The deflection angle is given by the following equation: 4.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

154. The central angle that should be turned to the right from the first DI is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The following relationship could be established (by proportion): 1.78º 5.Chapter A: Geometric Design .90º 3.30 ft 254.M. i.60) Sta.47 ft Chord Length ( BC to DI .www.e. = 3.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Sample Problem A-7: Chord Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The length of the chord connecting the BC and the drainage inlet is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 175. BC to A) = 2R Sin a = 2 ´ 2500 ft ´ Sin 4.´ arc length A to B 2g = D ´ = 30° ´ L 1310 ft 100 ft Sta.25 .90º 2.41° = 384.passpe.00 ft ÷ è ø (156.15 ft 384.78° Answer: (C) 34 Part I.50º 2g arc length A to B = D L And the curve length is given by : L = 2p R Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø æ 30 o ö = (100 ft ) ç ç 2.47 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-8: Deflection Angle & Central Angle Relationship Find: The design calls for another DI at station 156 + 25.) .Mansour.52 ft 325.29o ÷ = 1310.

800 2 .cos q ) X q = arcsin R X = R sin q (A-14) (A-15) (A-16) (A-17) Figure A-5 Tangent Offset Sample Problem A-9: Tangent Offset Method Given: In the diagram (Figure A-5).X 2 Y = R .300 2 = 58. PE A. Shahin A. The four tangent offset method equations are given as follows: Y = R . These methods are: (1) tangent offset-TO. Solution: Find: Calculate the distance Y from tangent to curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.R2 .Chapter A: Geometric Design 35 . and (4) ordinates from the long chord.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Y =R- R2 .passpe. (2) chord offset-CO.1. one of four offset-type methods can be used for laying out circular curves. when a total station instrument is not available.www.R Cos q = R (1 .38 ft Part I.6 Tangent Offset Calculations: For short curves. Mansour. (3) middle ordinates-MO.) .M. and for checking purposes.X 2 Y = 800 . if the curve has a radius R = 800 feet and the distance X = 300 ft.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Sample Problem A-10: Geometrics of Circular Curves Given: When set up the instrument at the BC of a simple curve.M.Mansour. Shahin A. Find: This perpendicular bisector passes through which of the following: (A) (B) (C) (D) Radius point The Point of Intersection of the two tangents The centre of the curve All of the above It is clear from the figure to the right that all of the above is the correct answer.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Answer: (D) 36 Part I.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe.www.) . The angle measured from the PI to the center is always 90o Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-11: Geometry of Horizontal Curves Given: A perpendicular bisector of the long chord (LC) was drawn for a circular horizontal curve. Find: the angles to turn off the PI to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) The central angle plus the deflection angle Half the central angle The deflection angle Exactly right angle Solution: Radius point is another name for the center of a circle.

Answer: (C) A. as shown. the correct answer is C. the subscript 1 refers to the curve of smaller radius. Mansour. PE Sample Problem A-12: Moving up on a curve Given: When moving up on a horizontal curve to the right (i. Figure A-6 Compound Circular Curve The following equations are used to solve the unknown parameters for a compound curve: Part I. Find: The clockwise angle to turn off to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) Half the central angle.e. Shahin A. Deflection angle measured from PC to that point plus 90o Deflection angle measured from PC to that point minus 90o Solution: From the Figure shown.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design 37 .) . Normally. GH is a common tangent. Deflection angle measured from PC (BC) to that point. and in terrain where simple curves cannot be fitted to the ground without excessive construction cost.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.1.7 Compound Circular Curves: Often two curves of different radii are joined together. set up anywhere on point on curve POC).Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The point connecting the two curves together is called point of compound curve or curvature (PCC).passpe.www. Compound curves should be used only for low-speed traffic routes.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.passpe.66 ft Do1 L1 = 2p R1 = R1 D1 ( radians ) = 500 (1.www.9931 è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 = 312.1695 ) = 247.95 38 Part I.3389 o t1 = R1 tan t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 D1 2 Þ 500 tan (31.17 ft o o GH = t1 + t 2 = 302.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.+ L2 = (15 + 59.1861 ) = 302.46 ft 360 PC Station = PI Sta. R2 o o = 800 ft.31 ft ÷ è ø 549.+ L1 = (10 + 15.Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .D 2 t1 = R1 tan D1 2 OR & D 2 = D .19) +(5 + 44.49 ft ÷ = (0.28 + 302.49) +(4 + 79.M.17 = 737.D1 = 96 o 4 2¢40¢¢ 62 o 22¢20¢¢ = 34.65 ft Þ 800 tan (17.82 æ GH ö ) = 490.5993) = 479.19 PCC Station = PC Sta.8859) ( VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ 0.12 Find: PC.49 PT Station = PCC Sta. D = 96 42¢40¢¢ .93) = 10 + 15.65 + 247.30 ft 360 Do2 L2 = 2p R2 = R2 D 2 (radians ) = 800(0. D1 = 62 22¢20¢¢ & PI station = 16 + 30.65 = 614.82 ft æ GH ö 549 . PT & PCC stations Solution: D 2 = D .9931 ) = 312.D1 t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 (A-18) (A-19) (A-20) (A-21) (A-22) (A-23) (A-24) GH = t1 + t 2 æ GH ö VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø æ GH ö VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 T2 = VB = VH + t2 Sample Problem A-13: Compound Curve Given: A compound curve with the following data: R1 = 500 ft.46) = 20 + 38.0886 ) = 544.82 VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ = (0. PE D1 = D .5641) ( 0.30) = 15 + 59.) .93 ft T2 = VB = VH + t2 = 490. T1 = (16 + 30.49 + 247.17 = 549.12) (6 + 14.

Additionally.1. T2). PE A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems. The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point of reversed curvature (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems. T1. the superelevation rate of change per station should be within the acceptable standards. there is no room to provide superelevation transition from cross-slope right to cross-slope left. 1. 2. Reverse curves may have parallel or non-parallel tangents as shown below. Shahin A.8 Reverse Circular Curves: Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment.) . since the change in curvature is instantaneous.Chapter A: Geometric Design 39 .M. R2 .www. Figure A-7 Reverse Curves: Parallel Tangents (top) and Non-Parallel Tangent (bottom) Part I. reverse curves have six independent parameters (R1.passpe. the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown. If reverse circular curves have to be used. As with compound curves.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.

C. at the point where the circular curve begins (S.passpe. : point of change from circle to spiral S. Figure A-8 Spiral Curve It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T. : point of change from spiral to tangent : spiral arc length from T.Mansour. PE A.T. : point of change from spiral to circle C.S.M. : central angle of spiral arc L s : the spiral angle = central angle of spiral arc Ls Part I. to S.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. or S. and vice versa.9 Spiral Curves: Spiral curves (also known as transition curves) are used in highway and railroad horizontal alignment to overcome the abrupt change in direction that occurs when the alignment changes from tangent to circular curve. the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve.) .S.C.S. Shahin A. : point of change from tangent to spiral S. X : distance along tangent from T. and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until.S.1. Spiral Curves Notation: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40 T.C.S.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. there is an initial radius rather than an infinite value. = spiral to curve).S. to any point on the spiral s Ls : total length of spiral from T.= tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large).C.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Figure A-8 illustrates how the spiral curve with a length of Ls is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment. to point at right angle to S. Ts : total tangent distance = distance from PI to T.S.T.C.www. Lc : length of circular curve LT : long tangent (Spiral) ST : short tangent (Spiral) : total central angle of the circular curve c : central angle of circular arc of Lc extending from the SC to the CS Y : right Angle Distance from Tangent to S. In case of a spiral curve that connects two circular curves having different radii.

) .Chapter A: Geometric Design 41 .passpe. Shahin A. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE Figure A-9 Spiral Curve Part I.www.M.

page 185) (A-32) V = design speed.58 (5729. mph R = radius of circular curve.M.58)(100) = D Ls ´ K The ratio of the two radii is: R= (A-28) r Ls = R ls The length of the spiral is: (A-29) (200)(D s ) D The deflection angle is: Ls = (A-30) l s2 D s as = 2 ´ 3 Ls (A-31) The following equation.58)(100) = Dp ls ´ K The radius at the S. H. ft C = maximum rate of change in lateral acceleration.) .S. Shahin A.C. is the basic expression used by some highway agencies for computing minimum length of a spiral transition curve: (Ls )min where 3..Mansour.C.58 (5729.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Selected formulas for spiral curves: Because the degree of curvature for a spiral increases from 0 at the T. is: 5729.15 V 3 = RC (AASHTO Eq. to D (Da) at the S.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 1 to 3 ft/s3 is recommended by AASHTO for highways and 1 ft/s3 is generally accepted for railroad operation 42 Part I.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 3-27. the rate of change of curvature of a spiral in degrees per station (K) is: K= 100D Ls (A-25) The degree Dp and the radius r of the spiral curve at any point P along the curve are given as follows: Dp = r= ls K 100 (A-26) (A-27) 5729.passpe. Shortt. developed in 1909 by W.

ft/s3 Answer: (B) Sample Problem A-15: Deflection Angle of a Spiral Curve Given: The coordinates of point P on a highway spiral relative to TS are 200 & 5 for x & y respectively. ft. 2004 edition. R = curve radius. PE (Page 185.15 V 3 RC (3-27) where: L = minimum length of spiral.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 43 . V = design speed. ft. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. V = design speed. 5th edition) Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Table A-5 Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Metric US Customary L= 0. m. m/s3 where: L = minimum length of spiral. R = curve radius.0214V 3 RC L= 3. mph. The minimum spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) 100 ft (B) 110 ft (C) 140 ft (D) 150 ft Solution: 3. R = curve radius. km/h. Mansour.38 ft (3-27) RC 1200 ´ 3 where: L = minimum length of spiral. ft.15V 3 3.M. Solution: tan q = Find: The deflection angle from TS to point P is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 00 01 02 04 28 25 50 05 38 55 00 02 5 Þ q = tan -1 5 = 1. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. ft/s3 Sample Problem A-14: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. m.4321o 200 200 ( ) Answer: (B) Part I. V = design speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. ft.15 ´ 50 3 L= = =109. mph. Shahin A.passpe.

PE Desirable Length for spiral curves: Based on recent operational studies.passpe. The desirable spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 100 ft 110 ft 147 ft 161 ft Solution: Using Exhibit 3-37. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.0 s of travel time at the design speed of the roadway. Shahin A. page 189.Mansour. AASHTO Exhibit 3-37 (page 189) lists the desirable lengths of spiral transition curves. page 189. (Exhibit 3-37.) . Answer: (C) 44 Part I.www. the desirable length is 147 ft.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 5th edition) Table A-6 Desirable Length of Spiral Curve Transition Metric US Customary Design speed (km/h) Spiral Length (m) Design speed (mph) Spiral Length (ft) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 11 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67 72 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 44 59 74 88 103 117 132 147 161 176 191 205 220 235 Sample Problem A-16: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition. The travel time has been found to be representative of the natural spiral path for most drivers.Chapter A: Geometric Design . These lengths correspond to 2. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.

) . 5th edition) Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 45 .www.passpe. (Exhibit 3-35. 2004 edition. page 186.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Shahin A. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M. PE Figure A-10 Curve with and without spiral transition. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. The sharp corners at the juncture of curve and straight line in the top view are quite obvious from the driver s seat.

5% or 2%). adjacent segments of differing grade are connected by a curve.1 Why Vertical Curves are Used? Roads made up of a series of straight lines (or tangents) are not practical.g. As a general rule. A road that is designed for 70 mph can have a vertical curve whose tangents have a grade of only 3 to 5 percent.2 Vertical Curves Terminology: Figure A-11 Vertical Curve Terminology Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines. Shahin A. The geometric curve used in vertical alignment design is the parabola curve. which permits easily computed curve elevations. Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in grade-line slope. To prevent abrupt changes in the vertical direction of moving vehicles. which contributes to smooth L A.. whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into the alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (e.M. g 2 .2.2. 1. For example.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. and (2) ease of computation of vertical offsets. PE A.2 VERTICAL CURVES A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 46 Part I. a road designed for a maximum speed of 30 miles per hour (mph) may have a vertical curve with the tangents to the curve arc having a grade as high as 6 to 8 percent. The parabola has these two desirable characteristics of: (1) a constant rate of change of grade ( r = alignment transition. the smaller the percent of grade that is allowed.g1 ).www.passpe.Mansour. the higher the speed the road is designed for.) . This curve in the vertical plane is called a vertical curve.

Ø They are also called equal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. Ø They connect downgrade ( ) tangent to an upgrade (+) tangent (type III).g1 r= 2 is a positive quantity.passpe. L Crest Vertical Curves (g2 < g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. EVC is the end of the vertical curve. Ø They used when a specific elevation at a certain station (point) is required and the grades of the grade lines are fixed. and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent grade lines. L 47 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. The length of vertical curve ( L ) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and as such corresponds to plan distance. Mansour.www. Asymmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is not located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve. A. Table A-7 Types of Vertical Curves Symmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC.2.g1 r= 2 is a negative quantity. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . Shahin A.M.3 Types of Vertical Curves: Vertical curves may be classified based on the location of the vertex with respect to the BVC and EVC as symmetrical and asymmetrical. Ø They are also called unequal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. Ø They are used mostly in every project where no minimum vertical clearance or cover is needed. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula (two vertical curves). g2 is the slope of the exiting grade line. Ø They connect an upgrade (+) tangent to a downgrade ( ) tangent (type I). Another classification is crest and sag vertical curves. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE In Figure A-11. Table A-8 Types of Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves (g2 > g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) . vertical curve terminology is introduced: g1 is the slope (percent) of the entering grade line.

M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-13 Types of Vertical Curves . 5th edition) 48 Part I.Mansour. 2004 edition.www. PE Figure A-12 Sag and Crest Vertical Curves (Exhibit 3-69 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe.) . Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

Shahin A.2. K = (Rate of Vertical Curvature) distance required to achieve a 1% change in grade.www. The elevation of the curve at distance x from the BVC is given by: y = ax 2 + bx + c (general equation for a parabola) y x = y BVC rx 2 + g1x + 2 (A-32) (A-33) (A-34) r= g 2 .passpe. where x is the horizontal distance from the BVC (PVC).4 Geometric Properties of the Parabola: 1.g1 sections related to sag and crest vertical curves.) . The tangent offset between the grade line and the curve is given by ax2. Mansour. PE AASHTO lists FOUR requirements for vertical curves as follows: 1234safe (ample sight distances).Chapter A: Geometric Design 49 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. tangent offsets are proportional to the squares of the horizontal distances. that is.g1 L where: x = the distance from BVC to a point on the curve r = rate of grade change per station 1 L K = = L/ A = Note: The rate of vertical curvature will be used in subsequent r g 2 . 3.30% are minimum grades in snow country and other locations respectively) A.50% and 0. The difference in elevation between the BVC and a point on the g 1 grade line at a distance x units (feet or meters) is g 1 x (g 1 is expressed as a decimal).M. Figure A-11 (repeated) Geometric of a Parabola 2. Part I. comfortable in operation (gravitational force versus vertical centripetal force) pleasing in appearance (long versus short vertical curves). and adequate for drainage (0.

Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour.g 2 ) 8.g1 L 8 = A L ( sta. in percentage.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M. BVC to PVI = ½ L = PVI to EVC. 5.) A L ( feet ) = 8 800 (A-35) 6.www. This is only true for symmetrical vertical curves.The distance between the curve and the grade line (tangent) d is given as (A-37) d = offset = rx 2 x 2 ( g 2 .passpe.g1 ) = (L curve length in feet) 2 200 L (A-38) 50 Part I. The slope S. The distance D in feet from Vertex to P is given as: 100(YH . The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord. Shahin A.) . that is.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. A B = B PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: either: do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (elevation of BVC + elevation of EVC) Or: do= g 2 . PE 4.g 2 ) L (A-36) Figure A-12 (repeated) Crest and Sag Vertical Curves Terminology 7. The grade lines (g 1 and g 2 ) intersect midway between the BVC and the EVC.YP¢ ) D= ( g1 . that is. of the tangent to the curve at any point on the curve is given by the following formula: S = g1 - x ( g1 .

Also.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.2.g1 L g1 L X = = = r g 2 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. (A-39) (A-40) It should be noted that the distance X (upper case X) in equation (A-40) is different from distance x (lower case x) in all other equations i. The minimum cover over a utility pipe would require the determination of low points along the profile of the road.passpe.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 51 .) . Part I. Figure A-14 Sag Vertical Curve in Relation to Minimum Clearance and Cover dy From equation (A-33). Mansour. PE A.g 2 Where X is the distance from BVC to the low or high points.5 High and Low Points on Vertical Curves: The locations of curve high and low points are important for drainage considerations.g1 g1 . equation the slope ( ) to zero and solving for X: dx g1 + rX = 0 . on curbed streets catch basins or drainage inlets (DI) must be installed precisely at the drainage low point. the location of low and high points are required for the vertical clearance calculations between a bridge and a roadway.e.M. Shahin A.g1 . it is a unique point (high or low) on vertical curves. for example.

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**The following information is to be used for problems A-17 to A-21
**

A sag vertical curve has a length (L) of 300 ft. The entering and exiting grades are g1 = 3.2% and g2 = +1.8% respectively. The PVI is located at station 30 + 30 and has an elevation of 485.92 ft.

Sample Problem A-17: Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The station of the low point is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 30 + 72.00 30 + 30.00 29 + 00.00 28 + 72.00

X =

- g1 - g1 L g1 L - ( -3.2)(3) = = = = 1.92 Sta. = 192.00 ft r g 2 - g1 g1 - g 2 ( +1.8) - ( -3.2)

This means that the low point is located at a distance of 192.00 ft from BVC i.e., at Station = [(30 + 30.00) (1+ 50.00)] + (1 + 92.00) = 30 + 72.00 Notes: 1) All distances used to locate a low or a high point or used to calculate an elevation of any point on a vertical curve are measured from BVC. 2) The point on the curve at the PVI station is not necessarily to be the low or high points. Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-18: Elevation of the Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of the low point is most nearly: (A) 480.65 ft (B) 487.65 ft (C) 493.55 ft (D) 498.24 ft

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52 Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

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Solution:

y x = y BVC

rx 2 + g1x + 2

1.8 - ( -3.2) 1.92 2 = [485.92 + (1.5)(3.2) ] + (-3.2)(1.92) + ( )( ) = 487.65 ft @ Sta 30 + 72.00 3.00 2 Answer: (B)

Sample Problem A-19: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: Which of the following is NOT true for symmetrical vertical curves: (A) The elevation of the mid-chord point is the average of the elevations of the BVC and EVC (B) The vertical curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord (C) The low point on a sag vertical curve is always at the PVI station (D) All of the above Solution: (A) is true (B) is true (C) is NOT true. This statement is true only if g1 = g2 and the vertical curve is symmetrical i.e., PVI at L/2

Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-20: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of point A ( mid-chord point) is most nearly: (A) 490.72 ft (B) 488.62 ft (C) 489.00 ft (D) 489.67 ft

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Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 53

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Solution: mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-21: Middle Ordinate Distance for a Vertical Curve Find: The middle ordinate distance for the given vertical curve is most nearly: (A) 1.275 ft (B) 1.375 ft (C) 1.675 ft (D) 1.875 ft Solution: The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord; that is, A to B = B to PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: a) mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (489.67 485.92) = 1.875 ft

b) do (middle ordinate distance) =

g1 - g 2 L 8

=

- 3.2 - ( +1.8) ´ 3 8

= 1.875 ft

(L = curve length in stations & g1 - g 2 = absolute value in percent) Answer: (B) Note: the middle ordinate (m = do) may be written as:

g1 - g 2 L 800

( L in feet)

54

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

The vertex for unequal tangent curve is not in the middle between the BVC and EVC.60) = 752.(-2.16 = + 0. PE A. Elevation at second difference at full V = 743. Figure A-15 Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Given: g1 = 2 %.2.60 .24 + 4(2.) .24 + 2(0.00) = 747. 87 + 00 and 93 + 00 respectively.16) = 747.84 ft 743.24 ft.54% / sta & r2 = = + 0. are encountered in practice where certain limitations are exist as fixed tangent grades.M.0.16 .6 %. g2 = +1.passpe.24 + 2(2. also called unequal tangent vertical curves. The same basic equation for the symmetrical curves will be used for the unsymmetrical curves.00) = 751.00) 1.24 ft 743.04 .24 ö ÷ = + 0.16 % =ç 5 è ø = 747.60) = 748. first & are 83 + 00.24 ft 743. An unequal tangent vertical curve is simply a pair of equal tangent curves.24 + 3(1. vertical clearance or minimum cover.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. where the EVC of the first is the BVC of the second. BCV. Shahin A.24% / sta 4 6 (continued on next page) Part I.7 Asymmetrical (Unsymmetrical) Vertical Curves: Asymmetrical vertical curves.www. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V and EVC stations Find: Elevations.747.Chapter A: Geometric Design 55 . point of compound vertical curvature.56 ft r1 = 0. This point is called CVC.24 + 6 (1.17 stations Solution: The following steps will be followed: Step 1: YBVC YA YEVC YB (Grade)AB YCVC Step 2: = = = = 743. See Figure A.04 ft æ 748..

M.) Station 83 + 00 (BVC) 84 + 00 85 + 00 86 + 00 87 + 00 (CVC) 88 + 00 89 + 00 90 + 00 91 + 00 92 + 00 93 + 00 (EVC) x (sta.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .00 2.12 751.52 0.73 1.passpe.56 747.24 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .54 0.48 2nd Difference 0.12 0. PE Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve (cont.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.48 1.11 0.65 0.51 748.32 747.32 0.80 0.00 0.) 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 g1 x 0.64 0.36 752.84 748.54 0.24 0.00 8.24 0.92 3.08 2.Mansour.48 0.www.28 0.16 0.54 0.00 4.76 1.00 1.24 56 Part I.32 0.00 6. Shahin A.00 4.27 1.00 0.24 749.19 0.24 0.08 1.84 1st Difference 1.43 4.32 yx 751.96 rx2/2 0.36 749.67 747.24 1.12 750.

off-ramp noses. in the context of road design. is how far a driver can see before the line of sight is blocked by a hill crest.3 SIGHT DISTANCES Sight distance.Decision 4.. Shahin A.M. Mansour. PE A.Intersection (Corner) Sight Distance Sight Distance (CSD) (DSD) · Used at major · Used at intersections decision points e.Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) 2. Table A-9 Four Types of Sight Distances (For Any Given Speed (say 50 mph) PSD > DSD > SSD 1835 ft > 465 ft A-1030 ft E > 425 ft) 1.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.g.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.e.) . or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal curve or intersection i.passpe. sight distance is the continuous length of highway ahead visible to the driver. · Used on multilane · Used where an highways and on opposing lane 2-lane roads when can provide passing sight distance passing is not economically opportunities obtainable. . Insufficient sight distance can have implications for the safety or operations of a roadway or intersection. (two-lane roads) Where Stopping Sight Distance (ALL ROADS) Passing Sight Distance (TWO-LANE ROADS) Figure A-16 Stopping and Passing Sight Distances Part I.Passing Sight Distance (PSD) 3.www. branch connections.Chapter A: Geometric Design 57 .

the time to engage the brakes. PE A. applies the brake. and numerous other factors. a conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle traveling at design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path.0') The perception-reaction time for a driver is often broken down into the four components that are assumed to make up the perception reaction time. Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during the brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Figure A-17 Stopping Sight Distance (Driver s Eye Height =3. These are referred to as the PIEV time or process.M.passpe. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book).com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Typically the design sight distance allows a below-average driver to stop in time to avoid a collision. and iv) Volition the time to initiate the action.1 Stopping Sight Distance: Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled while the vehicle driver perceives a situation requiring a stop.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. and comes to a stop. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights). that is. ii) Intellection the time to understand the implications of the object s presence or event.www. the mass of the car. iii) Emotion the time to decide how to react.5' and Object Height= 2.3. 58 Part I.5 sec operations/control 1.0 sec These perception reaction times were based on observed behavior for the 85th percentile driver. For design. the incline of the road. PIEV Process: i) Perception the time to see or discern an object or event. Human factors research defined the required perception-reaction times as follows: design 2.5 feet) above the pavement. for example. More recent research has shown these times to be conservative for design.Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour. 85% of drivers could react in that time or less. Shahin A.) . realizes that stopping is necessary. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3. Actual stopping distances are also affected by road conditions.

deceleration rate of 3.4 m/s2 [11. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.9 115 151.9 27.2 202.6 69. 2004 edition.4 m/s2) V2 d = 1.7 138. V = design speed.8 34.5 55.6 730 815.6 305 359.4 28.5 405.5 s.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. km/h. Part I.0 570 644.8 165.9 20. page 112.2 250 300.5 76.9 155 196.7 80 111.8 160 50 184.4 117.Chapter A: Geometric Design 59 .www.4 90. 5th edition) Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Brake reaction distance (m) 13.3 Stopping sight distance Calculated Design (ft) (ft) 76.3 56. 2.3 539.6 10.3 220.4 60. Mansour.3 285 70 275.5 35 20 46.4 495 566. V = design speed.075 (3-2) a where: t = brake reaction time.8 Stopping sight Brake Design reaction distance speed distance Calculated Design (mph) (ft) (m) (m) 18. a = deceleration rate.1 Stopping Sight Distance On A Flat Grade: The following equations will be used to calculate the stopping distance on a flat grade facilities: (Page 113.8 425 492.9 147.8 41.5 s.0 105 40 129.0 165. PE A.2 91.6 85 35 104. 2.5 110.passpe. m/s2 (3.4 240.1. 5th edition) Table A-10 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on Flat Grades Metric US Customary Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) V2 d = 0.8 360 423.7 48. Table A-11 Stopping Sight Distance on Flat Grades (Exhibit 3-1.7 55.3.5 220 60 248.9 114.5 83.0 290.2 193.4 92.5 183.2 73.4 130 45 155.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.3 910 Note: Brake reaction distance predicated on a time of 2.9 50 25 63.4 645 727.3 345.2 ft/s2] used to determine calculated sight distance.0 128.5 820 908. Shahin A. 2004 edition.47 Vt + 1.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.9 614. mph.2 257. a = deceleration rate.6 62. ft/s2 (11.5 s.2 ft/s2) The above equations are used to generate the following table for wet-pavement conditions.9 250 65 284.0 80 US Customary Braking distance on level (ft) 21.278 Vt + 0.2 73.7 200 246.4 Braking distance on level (m) 4.3 65 30 83.6 194.5 470.039 a where: t = brake reaction time.6 153.M.7 41.6 38.1 185 55 215.3 18.1 20 15 31.6 238.0 86.6 75 294.

2 Stopping Sight Distance On a Grade: When a highway is on a grade. mph.47 (60)(2. 2004 edition. V = design speed.3.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe.075 AASHTO (3-2) a 60 2 d = 1.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø (3-3 mod. m/s2 (3.50 + 345. PE Sample Problem A-23: Stopping Sight Distance on a Flat Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a flat grade.4 m/s2) V2 d= (3-3) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. km/h.2 ft/s2) Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Table A-13 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary d = 0. V = design speed. Solution V2 d = 1.) where: t = brake reaction time.2 ft/s2) Part I. G = percent of grade divided by 100. m/s2 (3.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2. 2.5) + 1.54 = 566.4 m/s2) 60 where: t = brake reaction time. 5th edition) Table A-12 Braking Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary V d= ææ a ö ö 2.0 ft given in AASHTO 11.M.) .04 ft versus 566.www.075 = 220.5 s.2 A.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.54 ç ç ç 9. a = deceleration rate.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø d = 1.54 ç ç ç 9.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. a = deceleration rate.47 Vt + 1. a = deceleration rate. G = percent of grade divided by 100. the equation for braking distance should be modified as follows: (Page 114. ft/s2 (11. km/h.5 s. V = design speed. a = deceleration rate. Shahin A. ft/s2 (11.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100.1.Chapter A: Geometric Design .278Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 2.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100. mph. V = design speed.

www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. and those on down grades are longer.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 60 2 = 637.100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.Chapter A: Geometric Design 61 .5) + versus 638 ft (above table) Part I.2 ÷ . 2004 edition.passpe. Shahin A. Mansour. PE As can be seen from the above equations that.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. the stopping distances needed on upgrades are shorter than the one on level roadways.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.2 ö 6 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.47 (60)(2. Solution: d = 1. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) Table A-14 Stopping Sight Distance on Grades Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 20 32 50 66 87 110 136 164 194 227 263 302 6% 20 35 50 70 92 116 144 174 207 243 281 323 9% 20 35 53 74 97 124 154 187 223 262 304 350 3% 19 31 45 61 80 100 123 148 174 203 234 267 6% 18 30 44 59 77 97 118 141 167 194 223 254 9% 18 29 43 58 75 93 114 136 160 186 214 243 Design speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 80 116 158 205 257 315 378 446 520 598 682 771 866 965 6% 82 120 165 215 271 333 400 474 553 638 728 825 927 1035 9% 85 126 173 227 287 354 427 507 593 686 785 891 1003 1211 3% 75 109 147 200 237 289 344 405 469 538 612 690 772 859 6% 74 107 143 184 229 278 331 388 450 515 584 658 76 81 9% 73 104 140 179 222 269 320 375 433 495 561 631 704 782 Sample Problem A-24: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 6%.42 ft æ æ 11.) d = 1.M. (Exhibit 3-2. page 115.

Mansour.47Vt + AASHTO (3-3 mod.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 62.5% is most nearly: (A) 638 ft (B) 628 ft (C) 617 ft (D) 598 ft Solution: d = 1. 62 Part I.5) + = 527.) 60 2 d = 1.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ÷ ± G÷ ç 32.passpe.5 d = 1.) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5)(2.5) + = 616. Shahin A. Sample Problem A-26: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 62.www.2 ÷ 100 ÷ ø èè ø versus 618 ft (linear interpolation between 3% and 6% from the above table).2 ö 9 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.5 ö 30 ç ç ÷ ç 32.2 ö 4.M.47 (60)(2. PE Sample Problem A-25: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 4.5 mph and an upgrade of 9% is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 495 ft 528 ft 561 ft 631 ft V2 d = 1.2 ÷ + 100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø versus 528 ft (linear interpolation between 60 mph and 65 mph from the above table) Note: Design speed normally reported in a 5 mph increments.2 ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .08 ft Answer: (B) æ æ 11.47 (62.77 ft Answer: (C) æ æ 11.

However.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. especially the larger and heavier units.M. Mansour.passpe.) .1. Trucks as a whole.3 Variations for Trucks: The recommended stopping sight distances given in the previous table and the equations are based on passenger car operation and don not explicitly consider design for truck operation.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The truck driver is able to see substantially farther beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher position of the seat in the vehicle. PE A. need longer stopping distances for a given speed than passenger vehicles.www. there is one factor that tends to balance the additional barking lengths for trucks with those for passenger cars. Part I.3. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 63 .

PE A. Figure A-18 Elements of Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-4 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.2 Passing Sight Distance: Passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required for the driver of one vehicle to pass another vehicle safely and comfortably.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. or of d2 above. 5th edition) Part I.passpe. d2 = Distance traveled while the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. after the overtaking maneuver is started.Chapter A: Geometric Design 64 .3. 2004 edition. without reduction.) . d3 = Distance between the passing vehicle at the end of its maneuver and the opposing vehicle.M. Shahin A.www. d4 = Distance traversed by the opposing vehicle for two-thirds of the time the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. Per AASHTO Standards.Mansour. the minimum passing sight distance for two lane highways is determined as the sum of the following four distances: d1 = Distance traversed during perception and reaction time during the initial acceleration to the point of encroachment on the left lane. Passing must be accomplished assuming an oncoming vehicle comes into view and maintains the design speed.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5 113 11.Chapter A: Geometric Design 65 .25 3. observe values adjusted slightly. d3.3 289 10.47 4. PE Table A-15 Elements of Safe Passing Sight Distance for Design of two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-5.6 45 9. acceleration rates in km/h/s.9 43. and distances are in meters. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 195 55 130 446 2.M. Shahin A.8 2.0 216 10. customary portion of the table.0 1.41 4.0 84. page 120. In the U. speed values are in km/h.5 366 11.passpe. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.43 4. Note: In the metric portion of the table.S.0 66 10. 2004 edition.50 4.5 99.) . Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. page 124.3 477 100 318 1040 1. = d1+ d2 + d3 + d4 a Metric Speed range (km/h) 50-65 66-80 81-95 96-110 Average passing speed (km/h) 56.3 1030 300 687 2383 For consistent speed relation.d2.3 89 10.8 52.3 145 30 97 317 2. speed values are in mph.6 62.61 145 9.www. 5th edition) Table A-16 Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways Metric Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (km/h) (m) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (km/h) Exhibit for vehicle vehicle 3-6 design 29 44 200 200 30 36 51 266 270 40 44 59 341 345 50 51 66 407 410 60 59 74 482 485 70 65 80 538 540 80 73 88 613 615 90 79 94 670 670 100 85 100 727 730 110 90 105 774 775 120 94 109 812 815 130 US Customary Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (mph) (ft) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (mph) Exhibit 3for vehicle vehicle 6a design 18 28 706 710 20 22 32 897 900 25 26 36 1088 1090 30 30 40 1279 1280 35 34 44 1470 1470 40 37 47 1625 1625 45 41 51 1832 1835 50 44 54 1984 1985 55 47 57 2133 2135 60 50 60 2281 2285 65 54 64 2479 2480 70 56 66 2578 2580 75 58 68 2677 2680 80 a Exhibit 3-6 is the graph showing the total passing sight distance and its components (d1 .0 643 180 429 1468 1.40 3.3 314 90 209 726 US Customary Speed range (mph) 30-40 40-50 56-60 60-70 Average passing speed (mph) 34. acceleration rates in mph/sec.7 827 250 552 1918 1.37 4. and d4 for two-lane highways Part I. and distances are in feet (Exhibit 3-7.30 4. 5th edition) Component of passing maneuver Initial maneuver a =average accelerationa t1=time (sec)a d1=distance traveled Occupation of left lane: t2 = time (sec)a d2 = distance traveled Clearance length: d3 = distance traveleda Opposing vehicle: d4 = distance traveled Total dist.2 70.7 251 75 168 583 2.

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Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Per ASSHTO, the minimum passing sight distances presented in Exhibit 3-7 (page124) are generally conservative for modern vehicles. Notice that the difference in speed between the passed and passing vehicles which is 10 mph.

**Figure A-19 Total Passing Sight Distance and Its Components for Two-Lane Highways
**

(Exhibit 3-6 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 66

www.passpe.com

Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License ©

Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE

Sample Problem A-27: Passing Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The passing sight distance for a design speed of 55 mph assumed the passed vehicle is at 44 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-7 (Table A-19), the passing sight distance is 1985 ft. Answer: (B) 1835 ft 1985 ft 2135 ft 2285 ft

**A.3.3 Length of Crest Vertical Curves and Sight Distances:
**

Minimum lengths of crest vertical curves based on sight distance criteria generally are satisfactory from the standpoint of safety, comfort, and appearance.

(Page 267- AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Table A-17 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Sight Distances Metric

US Customary Where S is less than L, (S < L)

Crest Vertical Curve Length & Sight Distances (SSD & PSD)

Where S is less than L, (S < L)

L=

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

L=

2

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

2

(3-41)

Where S is greater than L, (S > L)

**Where S is greater than L, (S > L)
**

2

L = 2S -

200 ( h1 + h2 ) A

200 ( h1 + h2 ) 2 L = 2S A

(3-42)

where: L = length of vertical curve, m; S = sight distance, m; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, m; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, m

where: L = length of vertical curve, ft; S = sight distance, ft; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, ft; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, ft

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

67

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Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

**Figure A-20 Parameters Considered in Determining the Length of a Crest Vertical Curve to Provide Sight Distances
**

(Exhibit 3-70 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

68

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. ft. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Passing Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. m. A = algebraic difference in grades.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. m. S = sight distance.M. ft. m. percent When the height of eyes of the two drivers is 3.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 69 . S = sight distance. PE When the height of eye and the height of object are 3.5 ft (eye) for Both Drivers (Page 270. Mansour. ft.5 ft is used for passing sight distance. S = sight distance. ft. percent where: L = length of vertical curve. the equations become: Table A-19 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Passing Sight Distance for Height of 3.0 ft respectively. AS 2 L= 864 Where S is greater than L. m.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. percent where: L = length of vertical curve. (3-43) L = 2S - 658 A L = 2S - 2158 A (3-44) where: L = length of vertical curve.) . percent Part I. 2004 edition. 2004 edition.5 ft (eye) and 2. US Customary Where S is less than L (S < L).passpe. AS 2 L= 658 Where S is greater than L. US Customary Where S is less than L. A = algebraic difference in grades. (3-45) L = 2S - 864 A L = 2S - 2800 A (3-46) where: L = length of vertical curve. the equations become: Table A-18 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Stopping Sight Distance for Heights of 3.0 ft (object) (Page 268. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Stopping Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. AS 2 L= 2158 Where S is greater than L (S > L). A = algebraic difference in grades. A = algebraic difference in grades.5 ft and 2. AS 2 L= 2800 Where S is greater than L. are used for stopping sight distance. Shahin A. S = sight distance.

7 113.4 11.9 311.4 Design 1 2 4 7 11 17 26 39 52 74 95 124 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.0 123. 2004 edition. K.M.) .8 25.passpe.0 6. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).6 383.Mansour. K = L/A= 1/r Table A-21 Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-73 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Ka Calculated 0. Ka Calculated 3.6 192. PE Table A-20 Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-72 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 16. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature.0 73.1 83.1 18.8 6. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).9 52.Chapter A: Geometric Design 70 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. K* design 180 289 424 585 772 943 1203 1407 1628 1865 2197 2377 2565 a Rate of vertical curvature.8 246.5 150.5 29.7 Design 3 7 12 19 29 44 61 84 114 151 193 247 312 384 a Rate of vertical curvature. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance (PSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Passing sight distance (m) 200 270 345 410 485 540 615 670 730 775 815 Rate of vertical curvature. Shahin A.9 3.6 95.1 11.0 43.www. K.6 1. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.7 38.1 60. K* design 46 84 138 195 272 338 438 520 617 695 769 Design Speed (mph) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Passing sight distance (ft) 710 900 1090 1280 1470 1625 1835 1985 2135 2285 2480 2580 2680 Rate of vertical curvature.

) . page 271. 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-71: Part I. PE Figure A-21 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-71.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. 2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design 71 .M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www. Shahin A. Mansour.

www. the vertical curve is a crest Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-43) A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. page 112.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length. where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V).Civil Breadth (Transportation A. S = sight distance.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. Sample Problem A-28: Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on a Grade Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are + 4% ascending grade.M. Table A-11) 72 Part I. ft. (A) 940 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. 2.) .6V. percent Note: If S > L is assumed and equation (3-44) is used. A = algebraic difference in grades.33 ft > 650 ft = S A 6 Not Good (3-44) Answer: (B) Question: Can we use Figure A-21 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-71) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. Shahin A. the following result will be obtained: L = 2S - 2158 2158 = 2 ´ 650 = 940.passpe. percent = g2 g1 = ( 2) (+4) = 6% OK (3-43) A S 2 6 ´ 650 2 L= = =1174 ft > SSD = 650 ft 2158 2158 where: L = length of vertical curve.6V).Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour. and 3. PE 1.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. and 2% descending grade.

and general appearance Figure A-22 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for Sag Vertical Curves The following equation show the relationships between S.Chapter A: Geometric Design . passenger comfort. Mansour. A = algebraic difference in grades. S = light beam distance. ft. Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves US Customary When S is less than L( S < L). Table A-22 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves for 1-Degree Upward Angle (Page 273. AS2 L= 400 + 3. m. and A.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. AS 2 L= 200 2. AS 2 L= 200 0. (3-48) 200 [ 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Shahin A.5 S ö L= 2S .0 + S (tan1o )] L= 2 S A or.6 + S (tan 1o )] L= 2S A or.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). 200[ 2. S = light beam distance.ç ÷ A è ø (3-50) where: L = length of sag vertical curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). L.www. m.3. using S as the distance between the vehicle and point where the 1-degree (1 ) upward angle of the light beam intersects the surface of the roadway.M. [ ( )] (3-47) AS 2 L= 120 + 3.passpe. 2004 edition. drainage control.ç ÷ A è ø where: L = length of sag vertical curve. PE A. (3-49) æ 120 + 3.) . percent 73 Part I. 5th edition) Metric When S is less than L ( S < L).5 S ö L= 2 S . A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. percent æ 400 + 3.6 + S tan 1o [ ( )] or.4 Length of Sag Vertical Curves and Sight Distances: There are four different criteria for establishing lengths of sag vertical curves as follows: 1234headlight sight distance.0 + S tan 1o or.

A = algebraic difference in grades.0 63. A = algebraic difference in grades. mph * The length of sag vertical curves are based on centripetal acceleration does not exceed 1 ft/s2 [0. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.1 8.9 135. km/h where: L = length of sag vertical curve.5 36. rather than in the same direction.Mansour.7 114.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Ka Calculated 2. 2004 edition.3 m/s2] (Exhibit 3-75. Percent.www. V = design speed.3 22.7 Design 3 6 9 13 18 23 30 38 45 55 63 73 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. V = design speed.6 54.6 44.passpe.4 78.4 62. 5th edition) Table A-24 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves Metric Design Controls for Sag Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature. K. page 277. Percent.6 29. Shahin A.) .2 17.4 16.6 231.7 156. 5th edition) Table A-23 Length of Sag Vertical Curves Considering Comfort* Metric US Customary Length of Sag Vertical Curves for Comfort L= AV 2 395 L= AV 2 46.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.3 205. PE The effect on passenger comfort of the change in vertical curve direction is greater on sag than on crest vertical curves because gravitational and centripetal forces are in opposite directions.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 25.1 5.1 95. The following table gives the sag vertical curve length taken into consideration the comfort of the driver of sag curves.Chapter A: Geometric Design 74 .0 Design 10 17 26 37 49 64 79 96 115 136 157 181 206 231 a Rate of vertical curvature.4 37.5 (3-51) where: L = length of sag vertical curve.4 49. (Page 274. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A). m. ft.5 12. Ka Calculated 9.M. 2004 edition.5 180.8 72.

5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-74: Part I.) . Shahin A.M. 2004 edition. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. page 275.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 75 . PE Figure A-23 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-74.www.passpe.

AV 2 6 ´ 652 = = 545.) . PE 1.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. Sample Problem A-29: Vertical Curve Length and SSD Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are 4% ascending grade.M.G. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0.6V). where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V). the following result will be obtained: æ 400 + 3. the vertical curve is sag Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-48) A = algebraic difference in grades. A-22 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-74.5 Answer: (A) Question: Can we use Fig. ft.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0. Table A-11) 76 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design .66 ft > 650 ft 400 + 3. 2. and 3.5 S ö æ 400 + 3.5 S 400 + 3.passpe.www.ç ÷ = 854.5 ´ 650 where: L = length of vertical curve.5 ´ 650 ö L= 2S .Check the curve length for comfort: L = 46. (A) 950 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. A = algebraic difference in grades.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. percent L= OK (3-48) Notes: 1.5 46. page 275) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. and + 2% descending grade.If S > L is assumed and equation (3-50) is used. Shahin A.42 ft (3-51) 2. percent = G1 G2 = 4 (+2) = 6% AS2 6 ´ 6502 = = 947.ç ÷ = 2 ´ 650 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.42 ft > SSD = 650 ft ® N .2 ft < 854. ft. S = sight distance.6V.Mansour.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length.42 ft A 6 è ø è ø (3-50) But 854.

recognize the hazard or its threat potential. 2004 edition. s (see types of maneuvers above).M.2 s 4. Shahin A.075 V2 a (3-4) Where: t = pre-maneuver time.5 feet) above the pavement. m/s2 (3.2 ft/s2) Table A 26.1 and 12.1 s 3. It is longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the distance traveled while making a more complex decision. 2004 edition.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers A and B (Page 117.278 Vt + 0. V = design speed. s (see types of maneuvers above). Mansour.039 a Where: t = pre-maneuver time. D & E US Customary d = 0. km/h.www. and E (Page 117.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. mph 77 Part I.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers C. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed.9 s 5.47 Vt (3-5) Where: t = pre-maneuver time.278 Vt Where: t = pre-maneuver time. ft/s2 (11.Avoidance Maneuver A: Stop on rural road t = 3. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers C.3.2 and 11.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed. km/h d = 1.Avoidance Maneuver D: Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.passpe. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book). The decision sight distance is "distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered.5 Decision Sight Distance: Decision sight distance is used when drivers must make decisions more complex than stop or don't stop.) . mph. a = deceleration rate.0 s 2.Avoidance Maneuver E: Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.Avoidance Maneuver B: Stop on urban road t = 9.Avoidance Maneuver C: Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10.5 s Table A 25. a = deceleration rate. PE A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. There are five maneuvers as follows: 1. V = design speed.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.0 and 14. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights). D. select an appropriate speed and path. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers A&B US Customary V2 d = 0.47 Vt + 1.4 m/s2) d = 1. and initiate and complete the required maneuver safely and efficiently.

2 s Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.1 s Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10. 2004 edition.2 and 11.2 Using Table: 910 ft (from the above table) Answer: (D) 78 Part I. 5th edition) Table A-27 Decision Sight Distance Decision Sight Distance (DSD) Design speed (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Metric US Customary Decision sight distance (m) Design Decision sight distance (ft) speed Avoidance maneuver Avoidance maneuver (mph) A A B C D E B C D E 70 155 145 170 195 220 490 450 535 620 30 95 195 170 205 235 275 590 525 625 720 35 115 235 200 235 275 330 690 600 715 825 40 140 280 230 270 315 395 800 675 800 930 45 170 325 270 315 360 465 910 750 890 1030 50 200 370 315 355 400 535 1030 865 980 1135 55 235 420 330 380 430 610 1150 990 1125 1280 60 265 470 360 415 470 695 1275 1050 1220 1365 65 305 525 390 450 510 780 1410 1105 1275 1445 70 875 1545 1180 1365 1545 75 970 1685 1260 1455 1650 80 Avoidance Maneuver A: Avoidance Maneuver B: Avoidance Maneuver C: Avoidance Maneuver D: Avoidance Maneuver E: Stop on rural road t = 3.Mansour.1 and 12.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. page 116.81 ft 11.1 s (3-4) 50 2 d = 1.47 (50)(9.0 and 14.Chapter A: Geometric Design . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.075 = 908.) .5 s Sample Problem A-31: Decision Sight Distance Given: The decision sight distance for a speed of 50 mph and a maneuver B is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO equation (3-4): 435 ft 690 ft 800 ft 910 ft V2 d = 1. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 s Stop on urban road t = 9.passpe.075 a For maneuver B: t is 9.47 Vt + 1.www.1) + 1.9 s Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14. PE (Exhibit 3-3.M.

which is assumed to be 8 ft L = length of vehicle.039 sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (m) sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (m) speed of the vehicle (km/h) speed of the train (km/h) perception/reaction time. 5th edition) Table A-28 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safely Cross or Stop Railroad Crossing Metric US Customary B Vv2 d H = AVv t + + D + de a B Vv2 V d T = T [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a where: A = B = dH = constant = 0.) D = distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail. The distance needed depends on the type of traffic control at the intersection.2 ft/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. Shahin A. which is assumed to be 65 ft W = distance between outer rails (for a single track.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.075 dH = sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (ft) dT = sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (ft) Vv = speed of the vehicle (mph) VT = speed of the train (mph) t = perception/reaction time. this value is 5 ft) 79 Part I. this value is 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design . which is assumed to be 20 m distance between outer rails (for a single track. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.47 B = constant = 1.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.5 m distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle. which is assumed to be 11.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. which is assumed to be 3.) a = driver deceleration.M.4 Intersection Sight Distance: Intersection sight distance is the decision needed to safely proceed through an intersection.278 constant = 0. which is assumed to be 2.) distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail. (Exhibit 9-103. which is assumed to be 2.3.4 m/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. which is assumed to be 4.www.) .4 m length of vehicle.passpe. which is assumed to be 2.) driver deceleration. page 734-735. which is assumed to be 15 ft de = distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle.5 m) B Vv2 d H = AVvt + + D + de a dT = (9-3) VT B Vv2 [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a dT = Vv = VT = t = a = D = de = L = W = where: A = constant = 1. Mansour. or proceeding straight). 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. right turn. and the maneuver (left turn. PE A.

www.M.Mansour. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) Figure A-24 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safety or Stop at Railroad Crossing 80 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) . PE (Exhibit 9-103. page 735.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 2004 edition.passpe. Shahin A.

2004 edition.5 m J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift.47) Part I.5m V2 da = G 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (2.8) 2 = = 26.0 s W = distance between outer rails for a single track.d a dT = AVT ê G + + Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 0.passpe. which is assumed to be 2.7) 2 = = 8. which is assumed to be 4.45 m/s2 L = length of vehicle. this value is 1.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. which is assumed to be 20 m D = distance from stop to nearest rail.Chapter A: Geometric Design 81 . which is assumed to be 65ft D = distance from stop to nearest rail. 5th edition) Metric US Customary éV ù L +2 D + W .47 ft/s2 L = length of vehicle.M.3 ft 2a1 (2)(1.278 dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (m) VT = speed of train (km/h) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. which is assumed to be 2.7 m/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear.www.) . Mansour.45) W = distance between outer rails for a single track.d a dT =AVT ê G + +Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 1. which is assumed to be 2.8 ft/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear.1m 2a1 (2)(0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. which is assumed to be 0.0 s éV ù L +2 D + W . PE Table A-29 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. which is assumed to be 15 ft J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift. Shahin A. which is assumed to be 8.47 (9-4) dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (ft) VT = speed of train (mph) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. this value is 5 ft 2 VG da = 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (8. which is assumed to be 1.

Shahin A. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M.www. 5th edition) 82 Part I. page 738.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe. PE Figure A-25 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105.) .Mansour.

) .5) + + 15 + 5 = 380 ft a 11.075 ( 45) 2 d H = AVv t + + D + d e = (1. Assume AASHTOrecommended design values for perception reaction time. The required sight triangle distance (ft) along the highway for a vehicle to stop at the stop line for an approaching train is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Equation 9-3 (page 734): 360 380 440 560 B Vv2 1. The stop line is located 15 ft from the near side rail.Chapter A: Geometric Design 83 .passpe.M. and the driver is located 5 ft back from the front bumper of the vehicle. PE Sample Problem A-32: Triangle Sight Distance Given: A vehicle is approaching a railroad track at a speed of 45 mph.www. Shahin A.2 Alternate Solution (short cut): Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-1(page 112): Stopping sight distance (SSD) for 45 mph = 360 ft (design SSD) The total distance = SSD + D + de = 360 + 15 + 5 = 380 ft (9-3) Answer: (B) Part I. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.47) (45)(2.

81 m/s2 V = design speed.067 V 2 V 2 Centrifugal Force = e + f = = R 15 R (A-41) e = Superelevation slope in feet per foot emax = Maximum superelevation rate for a given condition f = Side friction factor R = Curve radius in feet V = Velocity in miles per hour The parameters that affect the superelevation formula are shown in the following table which are derived from the law of mechanics: (Page 131.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 32. when a vehicle travels on a curve it is forced outward by centrifugal force. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity.4-1 Introduction: According to the laws of mechanics. The purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve.01 e + f v 2 0.4 SUPERELEVATION A.079 V 2 V2 = = = 1 . f = side friction (demand) factor. because for any given curve radius a certain superelevation rate is exactly correct for only one driving speed. Shahin A.) . It is impractical to balance centrifugal force by superelevation alone. ft/s. If the vehicle is not skidding. m 84 0.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. At all other speeds there will be a side thrust either outward or inward. g = gravitational constant. 5th edition) Table A-30 Formula for Vehicle Operation on a Curve Metric US Customary 0.M. v = vehicle speed.01 e + f v 2 0.01 ef gR R 15R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation.Chapter A: Geometric Design . mph. which must be offset by side friction. g = gravitational constant.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0. relative to the curve center.www. which is used to design a curve for a comfortable operation at a particular speed: 0. 9. ft (3-8) Part I. m/s. percent. the centrifugal force is resisted by the vehicle weight component parallel to the superelevated surface and side friction between the tires and pavement.0.2 ft/s2 V = design speed. 2004 edition.Mansour. f = side friction (demand) factor. percent. mph. v = vehicle speed. PE A.067 V 2 V 2 = = = 1 . R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity. these forces are in equilibrium as represented by the following equation.passpe.01 ef gR R 127 R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation. On a superelevated highway.

AASHTO.www.5 at 20 mph to approximately 0.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Chapter A: Geometric Design 85 . Mansour.35 at 60 mph.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .M. PE Side friction factors tabulated on by AASHTO for design purposes. therefore. about one-third the values that occur when side skidding is imminent. 5th edition) Table A -31 Minimum Radius Using emax and fmax Metric US Customary 2 Rmin V = 127 (0.passpe. 5th edition) (Page 146." The design side friction factors are. 2004 edition. 2004 edition. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Figure A-26 Geometry for Ball-Bank Indicator (Top: Manual & Electronic Ball Bank) (Exhibit 3-9. page 134. "In general.01 emax + f max ) (3-10) Part I. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. states.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Shahin A. studies show that the maximum side friction factors developed between new tires and wet concrete pavements range from about 0.01emax + f max ) Rmin V2 = 15 (0.

21 0.0 4.3 1061.0 203.0 4.5 80.6 Rounded Radius (ft) 16 42 86 154 250 371 533 711 926 1190 1500 15 39 81 144 231 340 485 643 833 1060 1330 1660 2040 2500 3050 e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 4.9 41.0 4.2 533.20 0.08 0.0 3047.8 642.3 250.38 0.14 0.0 4.0 4.13 0.0 6.2 492.9 1186.0 4.4 560.36 0.0 6.0 4.0 6.17 0.24 0.09 0.0 8.0 6.41 0.8 340.12 0.passpe.44 0.18 0.18 0.14 0.31 0.40 0.0 4.27 0.0 4.5 4 8 22 47 86 135 203 280 375 492 4 8 21 43 79 123 184 252 336 437 560 756 951 4. 5th edition) Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f METRIC Maximum f Maximum Maximum US Customary Maximum Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 f Total (e/100+f) Calculated Radius (ft) 15.13 0.0 4.9 2041.19 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .19 0.1 46.16 0.32 0.15 0.0 371.20 0.23 0.0 4.38 0.7 2500.0 6.19 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.0 375.0 6.2 39.09 0.29 0.5 925.16 0.0 6.10 0.22 0.27 0.0 6.7 123.14 86 Part I.2 183.18 0.25 0.0 6.0 4.44 0.9 833. 2004 edition.0 e (%) 0.17 0.42 0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.12 0.15 0.11 0.23 0. Shahin A.19 0.21 0.46 0.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.26 0.20 0.32 0.7 252.18 0.7 20.9 950.0 4.0 6.7 86.12 0.08 0.17 0.0 6.32 0.23 0.0 4.27 0.4 78.20 0.0 6.0 6.0 154.29 0.0 6.11 0.18 0.38 0.4 755.13 0.0 6.23 0.39 0.21 0.0 6.0 6.16 0.8 143.23 0.17 0.0 6. PE (Exhibit 3-15.23 0.M.16 0.27 0.1 3.0 6.35 0.8 43.0 335.19 0.0 6.20 0.9 7.40 0.4 1333.0 4.33 0.0 4. page 147.18 0.7 437.6 135.22 0.15 0.0 0.24 0.0 15.1 280.0 6.15 0.3 484.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .0 4.1 22.17 0.28 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.28 0.7 230.0 6.34 0.3 1656.0 6.16 0.12 0.Mansour.19 0.14 0.7 85.3 710.www.14 4.3 1500.0 4.0 6.35 0.0 6.

4 119.08 0.0 12.18 0.20 14.0 12.9 665.3 540.0 12.9 35.0 e (%) 0.0 12.08 0.0 8.08 0.26 0.16 3.20 0.14 0.19 0.09 0.0 12.0 757.8 739.0 12.5 97.0 187.35 0.0 0.0 12.7 17.0 8.0 12.0 1224.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.08 0.25 0.27 0.24 0.0 10.15 0.0 10.9 1341.23 0.38 0.37 0.38 0.17 0.32 0.24 0.0 8.0 8.13 0.19 0.39 0.13 0.20 0.31 0.0 8.0 8.9 2666.15 0.7 596.0 10.27 0.4 6.27 0.7 410.29 0.27 0.14 0.5 667.24 0.0 12.7 501.27 0.0 12.0 10.19 0.14 0.0 12.0 8.09 0.09 0.1 414.0 0.0 10.6 1484.passpe.4 214.9 105.20 0.0 806.38 0.7 393.0 8.08 0.20 0.0 10.0 12.0 8.23 0.50 0.15 0.28 0.23 0.36 0.7 36.11 0.43 0.46 0.23 0.0 10.0 694.27 0.11 0.3 34.1 68.13 0.21 0.3 210.5 37.31 0.0 8.3 4 7 19 38 68 105 154 210 277 358 454 597 739 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 12.16 0.0 10.40 0.0 154.26 0.48 0.11 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .19 0.0 277.0 10.8 1090.10 0.13 0.0 10.22 0.10 0.24 0.25 0.6 960.28 0.3 357.2 134.0 10.12 0.0 8.0 8.0 12.30 0.26 0.0 10.19 0.26 0.6 72.0 8.0 12.7 4 7 20 41 73 113 168 229 304 394 501 667 832 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 10.7 40.8 255.09 0.28 0.7 7.18 0.0 8.20 3.0 12.0 18.0 12.23 0.23 0.21 0.9 453.21 0.0 12.0 8.0 0.11 0.www.0 12.22 0.0 831.21 0.0 8.48 0.0 8.0 10.14 0.35 0.24 0.11 0.0 12.5 76.7 2133.12 0.0 8.7 2370.13 0.0 63.19 0.3 1973.23 0.17 0.21 0.0 10.0 500.0 291.40 0.22 0.0 10.33 0. PE Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f (Continued) METRIC Maximum Maximum f Maximum US Customary Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) Calculate d Radius (ft) Maximum f Total (e/100+f) Rounded Radius (ft) e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 8.19 0.3 1633.32 0.0 8.4 876.9 113.7 72.40 0.3 200.16 0.15 0.1 444.44 0.25 0.35 0.42 0.08 0.14 0.16 0.11 0.47 0.20 0. Shahin A.40 0.0 12.15 0.28 0.5 272.10 0.2 381.0 10.23 0.32 0.22 0.) .0 641.28 0.0 10.45 0.0 10.0 10.0 8.0 8.32 0.23 0.0 8.1 303.50 0.0 10.1 126.12 0.5 1814.38 0.7 142.2 67.0 10.40 0.29 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5 7.52 0.14 0.31 0.4 13.0 8.25 0.0 10.09 0.0 8.0 12.18 3.4 167.0 12.16 0.0 10.18 0.12 0.18 0.0 10.17 0.33 0.0 12.23 0.28 0.0 8.3 19.0 12.27 0.23 0.1 328.13 0.23 0.17 0.0 12.35 0.0 10.12 0.4 3 7 18 36 64 98 143 194 255 328 414 540 665 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 8.0 10.0 12.9 193.3 1200.7 1000.14 0.M.2 539.35 0.7 13.0 12.30 0.8 1785.22 0.6 38.17 0.12 0.0 1482.35 0.18 0.4 587.8 229.8 2205.3 14 38 76 134 214 314 444 587 758 960 1200 1480 1810 2210 2670 14 36 72 126 200 292 410 540 694 877 1090 1340 1630 1970 2370 13 34 68 119 188 272 381 500 641 807 1000 1220 1480 1790 2130 87 Part I.0 8.0 10.20 0.21 0. Mansour.25 0.09 0.3 314.

passpe.01emax + 0.9ft) and V of 60 mph. Shahin A. PE Sample Problem A-33: Superelevation Rate Given: A horizontal curve on a two-lane rural highway has the following characteristics: Design speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.12 The rate of superelevation required for this curve is almost nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 6% 8% 10% 33% Solution: Ø Using AASHTO Equation 3-10 (Note: emax in the following equation is a percentage): Rmin V2 = 15 (0.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. V = 60 mph Radius (minimum safe) =1.) . 5th edition) Look for a radius of 1090 ft (1090. the corresponding superelevation rate is 10% for a maximum friction of 0.M. 2004 edition.12) Solve the above equation for emax gives 10% (3-10) Ø Using Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f Table (Exhibit 3-15.12 Answer: (C) 88 Part I.01emax + f max ) 60 2 1091 = 15(0.091 ft Coefficient of side friction = 0. page 147.Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

and the upper rail is said to be "superelevated. In curves. In the case of highways. superelevation is expressed as a slope.) . These forces are represented by two components: the normal forces N1. The term itself comes from railroad practice.M.passpe. and N2 and the lateral forces F1 and F2. and. PE A. the superelevations are given as the difference in elevation between the upper and lower rail.Chapter A: Geometric Design 89 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. For highway vehicles F1 and F2 are friction forces.www. where the top of the rail is the profile grade. the purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve. there will be a radial acceleration toward the center of the curve (toward the left in the diagram) of v2/ R. which will be opposed by a force of: Force = mass × acceleration = m×a = W/g) v2/ R (A-42) Other forces acting on the vehicle are its weight W and the forces exerted against the wheels by the roadway surface. somewhat more complicated modifications of the cross section are required. because widths vary.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.4-2 Superelevation Runoff and Superelevation Diagram: As mentioned before. Figure A-27 Force Diagram for Superelevation Part I. so that: F1 £ m N1 £ f N1 F2 £ m N 2 £ f N 2 where m or f is the coefficient of friction between tires and roadway. the profile grade line follows the lower rail. If the vehicle is traveling around a curve with a radius R at a constant speed v. Consider the force diagram in Figure A-27." Since most railways are built to a standard gage. Shahin A.

the following parameters must be determined: 1. Where the ultimate median width is greater than 65 feet. (ii) Conventional Highways-The axis of rotation should be considered on an individual project basis and the most appropriate case for the conditions should 2.Mansour. Where the initial median width is greater than 65 feet and the ultimate median width is 65 feet or less. (b) Ramps and Freeway-to-freeway Connections: The axis of rotation may be about either edge of traveled way or centerline if multilane. the axis of rotation. the plane of superelevation may be rotated about the inside edge of traveled way to improve perception of the curve. in special cases such as desert roads where curves are preceded by long relatively level tangents.M.www. comfort and pleasing appearance. PE In order to construct the superelevation diagram. A superelevation transition should be designed to satisfy the requirements of safety. if not already on centerline. In the latter case.Superelevation Transition: The superelevation transition generally consists of the crown runoff and the superelevation runoff as shown on Figure A-28. drainage pockets caused by superelevation may be avoided by changing the axis of rotation from the centerline to the inside edge of traveled way. Shahin A.Axis of Rotation 2. To avoid sawtooth on bridges with decked medians. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline. the axis of rotation should normally be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. In flat country. However. Appearance and drainage considerations should always be taken into account in selection of the axis of rotation. (c) Divided Highways. except where the resulting initial median slope would be steeper than 10: 1.Axis of Rotation (a) Undivided Highways: For undivided highways the axis of rotation for superelevation is usually the centerline of the roadbed.) .passpe. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline.Superelevation Transition 1. (i) Freeways-Where the initial median width is 65 feet or less. 90 Part I. the axis of rotation should be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way.Chapter A: Geometric Design . should be shifted to the centerline. The length of superelevation transition should be based upon the combination of superelevation rate and width of rotated plane.

www. Shahin A.passpe. This results in two-thirds of the full superelevation rate at the beginning or ending of a curve. PE Runoff. This may be altered as required to adjust for flat spots or unsightly sags and humps.) . Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 91 . Figure A-28 Superelevation Diagram and Roadway Cross Sections Figure A-29 Superelevation Transition (Elements) for a Curve to the right Part I.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.M. or when conforming to existing roadway. Two-thirds of the superelevation runoff should be on the tangent and one-third within the curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-31 Sight Distance at Undercrossing .) . 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) 92 Part I.M. Shahin A.1 Vertical Curves Under or Over An Obstruction: Sometimes it necessarily to construct a vertical curve under a structure or over a utility pipe.5.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5 VERTICAL AND/OR HORIZONTAL CLEARANCES A. The equation shown below will give the curve length in stations to meet certain cover or vertical clearance. page 278. Figure A-30 Vertical Curve Length Under or Over Obstruction 2 2y ö æ b´ y æ y ö b+ +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç DG ø DG è DG ø è (A-43) where: L b y G = = = = length of vertical curve (stations) distance from vertex to point (stations) tangent offset to curve (ft) the absolute value of g 2 .g 1 A.passpe. (Exhibit 3-76. PE A.2 Sight Distance at Undercrossing: Sight distance on the highway through a grade separation should be at least as long as the minimum stopping sight distance and preferably longer. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Mansour.5.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 93 . ft. m. m. PE The following two tables show two cases for calculating the sag vertical curve length: Case 1: Sight distance > curve length .Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. height of object. ft Part I. S < L Table A-33 Case 1.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.) . height of eye. ft. percent C = vertical clearance. percent vertical clearance.passpe.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. percent vertical clearance. Shahin A. ft.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C = h1 = h2 = length of vertical curve. A = algebraic difference in grades. m. ft. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S<L US Customary AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . sight distance.www.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: L = length of vertical curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. m. Mansour. i. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S>L US Customary æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . m. percent C = vertical clearance.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 278. h2 = height of object. algebraic difference in grades. S > L Case 2: Sight distance < curve length . S = sight distance.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. h1 = height of eye. ft. h1 = height of eye. m. m AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C .ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: (3-52) L = length of vertical curve. i. A = algebraic difference in grades. h2 = height of object. S = sight distance. 2004 edition. ft. m. algebraic difference in grades. 2004 edition. ft Table A-34 Case 2. ft. sight distance.M.e.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C= h1 = h2 = (3-53) length of vertical curve.e. m æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . ft. m. height of eye. height of object.

ft. percent C = vertical clearance. ft Table A-36 Case 2. 2004 edition. ft.Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour. S = sight distance. A = algebraic difference in grades. percent C = vertical clearance.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. S>L Metric US Customary L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C . = sight distance.1. A = algebraic difference in grades.www. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. m.1. Shahin A. percent = vertical clearance.6 m] for the taillights of a vehicle. 94 Part I.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 ft [2. m.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5) Where: L = length of vertical curve.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. = sight distance.0 ft [0.M. m = length of vertical curve. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. PE Using an eye height of 8.4 m] for a truck driver and an object 2. S<L Metric US Customary AS 2 L= 800 (C .Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 279.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. percent = vertical clearance. 2004 edition. ft. ft.5) Where: (3-55) L = length of vertical curve. m. = algebraic difference in grades. the following equations for the sag vertical curve length can be derived: Table A-35 Case 1.passpe. m. AS 2 L= 800 (C . m.5) A L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C .) . ft. = algebraic difference in grades.5) A (3-54) = length of vertical curve. S = sight distance.

The entering grade is 3.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3. the curve length should be 1700 ft (17 Sta. % and the exiting grade is + 3.0 = 6.00 × 1.5 ft and if a 1800 ft (18 Sta.5 ø = 17. Answer is A Part I.6(9.5.80 ft 2 1.00.0 ft (B) 17.6 Sta. Therefore.5 ft.89 and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is (C) 18.00 16.00 8 + 90. crosses the grade line at right angles at station (A) 17.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. A pipeline Express the answer in full station.6) = 9.8) ö æ +ç ÷ L = 2 ç1. Shahin A.5 + 3.5 3 16. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3. PE Sample Problem A-35: vertical curve length UNDER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at Find: The sag vertical curve that passes an elevation of 80.89 Solution: 2( y ) ö b( y ) æ y ö æ +ç L = 2ç A + ÷ +4 ÷ DG ø DG è DG ø è 2 (A-32) b G y = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.00 %.M.89 Sta.5 6.5) (80. the minimum clearance required will be reduced.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.4 + 3.8 ö 2(9.passpe.00 114. = curve elevation tangent elevation = (114.50 ft (D) 18. Mansour.8) æ 9.) .50 ft below the bottom of the pipe.5 ø è è 6 .Chapter A: Geometric Design 95 . rounded to full station) curve is selected.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a clearance of 16.6 + ÷ +4 6. Here the minimum vertical clearance is 16.40 ft.

00 ft 2(3) ö æ 1.2 + 60 inches × ft/12 inches) (80.5 ø 6 .M.passpe. PE Sample Problem A-36: vertical curve length OVER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at an elevation of 80.00 (D) 9. the minimum cover required will be reduced.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a cover of 60 inches (5 ft).84 Solution: 2( y ) ö æ b( y ) æ y ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç A+ DG ø DG è DG ø è b G y 2 (A-32) = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.94 (C) 9.5 + 3.4 + 3. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. L = 2 ç1.20 ft.6) = 3.50 %. the curve length should be 900 ft (9 Sta.Chapter A: Geometric Design .0 ft and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is 83. = Curve elevation Tangent elevation = (83.0 = 6.) .6(3) æ 3 ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ = 8. Therefore.www.5 ø è 2 Here the minimum cover is 60 inches (5 ft) and if a 800 ft (8 Sta. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3.00 (B) 8. Shahin A. Answer: (C) NOTE: This is opposite to the previous sample problem where a smaller curve was selected compared to the calculated value to ensure minimum vertical clearance 96 Part I. Find: Determine the vertical curve length rounded to the nearest full station that will provide the 60.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. (A) 8. The entering grade is 3.40 ft.00. A pipeline crosses the grade line at right angles at station 8 + 90.6 + 6.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.5 è 6 .6 Sta.94 Sta.) curve is selected.00 ×1.00 % and the exiting grade is + 3.0 inches clearance (cover) over the pipe.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE A.2 Horizontal Sight Distance: Figure A-32 Diagram Illustrating Components for Determining Horizontal Sight Distance (Exhibit 3-54.www. 2004 edition. ft Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) (Page 227. ft R = Radius of curve. m éæ 28. Mansour.passpe. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. page 227. m HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.Chapter A: Geometric Design 97 .Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. Shahin A.M.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û (3-38) where: S = Stopping sight distance. 5th edition) Table A-26 Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) Metric Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) US Customary éæ 28.5. 2004 edition.) . ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. m R = Radius of curve.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .

65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .Mansour.61 ft R øû 844 øû ëè ëè The distance from the edge of pavement = HSO ½ (lane width) = 26.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. éæ 28. ft Note: R is measured to the centerline of the inside lane.65 S öù 28.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A.Cos ÷ú = 844 êç1 . R = 850 ft 12ft/2 = 844 ft (3-38) S = 425 ft ( AASHTO Exhibit 3-1. PE Sample Problem A-37: Horizontal Sight Distance Given: A two lane conventional highway is Find: The house should be placed at from designed for 50 mph with a 850 ft centerline radius the edge of pavement at distance (in feet) and 12 ft lanes.65 ´ 425 öù HSO = R êç1 . The property owner adjacent to the of: highway wants to build a house on his land. (A ) 21 (B) 26 (C) 27 (D) 32 Solution: The house should be placed away from the sight distance as required per AASHTO Exh.) .Cos ÷ú = 26. 3-54.61 ft 6 ft = 20.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. ft R = Radius of curve. page 112) éæ éæ 28.passpe. ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.www.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design .61 ft Answer: (A) 98 Part I.

Mansour.6.1 Definitions and Terms Related to Acceleration and Deceleration: (Exhibit 10-59. PE A. 5th edition) Figure A-33 Typical Gore Area Characteristics Part I. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.6 ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION A.) .passpe.M. page 833.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 99 . 2004 edition. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.

page 833. 3. THE VALUE OF La OR L g.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE 1. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE.M. 5th edition) Figure A-34 Typical Single Lane Entrance Ramps 100 Part I. 4.passpe. L a SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE.Mansour.) . L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH.Chapter A: Geometric Design . (Exhibit 10-69. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 m [2 ft]. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71.www. 2004 edition. Shahin A. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0. 2.

2004 edition. L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH.M.6 m [2 ft]. 2. 4. Mansour. Shahin A.passpe. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71.www. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. page 858. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE. 5th edition) Figure A-35 Typical Two-Lane Entrance Ramps Part I.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 101 . 3. (Exhibit 10-76. La SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. THE VALUE OF La OR L g.) .

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A. V reached.passpe.) . page 847. Va 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 (mph) (mph) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 50 53 55 180 280 360 560 720 960 1200 1410 1620 1790 140 220 300 490 660 900 1140 1350 1560 1730 160 270 440 610 810 1100 1310 1520 1630 50 44 210 120 380 280 160 550 450 350 130 780 670 550 320 150 1020 910 800 550 420 1220 1120 1000 770 600 1420 1350 1230 1000 820 1580 1510 1420 1160 1040 180 370 580 780 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 1. V a¢ (mph) speed. Va 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 (km/h) (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 37 45 53 60 67 74 81 88 60 95 150 200 260 345 430 545 50 80 130 180 245 325 410 530 30 65 110 165 225 305 390 515 45 90 145 205 285 370 490 80 70 65 115 175 255 340 460 65 125 205 290 410 35 110 200 325 40 125 245 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 400 m. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) Part I.Mansour. V a¢ (km/h) speed.M. L(m) for entrance curve design speed (km/h) Stop Highway 20 30 40 50 60 70 condition Design Speed and initial speed.300 ft V = design speed of highway (km/h) Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on entrance curve (km/h) Figure A-36 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-70. US Customary Acceleration length.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V reached. 2004 edition. PE Metric Acceleration length.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 102 . L(ft) for entrance curve design speed (mph) Stop Highway 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 condition Design Speed and initial speed.

page 851.) .passpe. V a¢ (mph) speed. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. VN (mph) Stop condition 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve. Va (mph) (mph) 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 44 30 28 35 32 40 36 45 40 50 44 55 48 60 52 65 55 70 58 75 61 V = design speed of highway (mph) VN = design speed of exit curve (mph) 235 280 320 385 435 480 530 570 615 660 200 170 140 250 210 185 150 295 265 235 185 155 350 325 295 250 220 405 385 355 315 285 225 175 455 440 410 380 350 285 235 500 480 460 430 405 350 300 540 520 500 470 440 390 340 590 570 550 520 490 440 390 635 620 600 575 535 490 440 Va = average running speed on highway (mph) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (mph) 240 280 340 390 Figure A-37 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-73.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. V reached.Chapter A: Geometric Design 103 . Mansour. L(m) for design speed of exit curve VN (km/h) Stop condition 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve V a¢ (km/h) speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition. L(ft) for design speed of exit curve.M. 5th edition) Part I. Shahin A. PE Metric Deceleration length. Va (km/h) (km/h) 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 70 50 47 60 55 70 63 80 70 90 77 100 85 110 91 120 98 V = design speed of highway (km/h) VN = design speed of exit curve (km/h) 75 70 60 45 95 90 80 65 55 110 105 95 85 70 55 130 125 115 100 90 80 55 145 140 135 120 110 100 75 60 170 165 155 145 135 120 100 85 180 180 170 160 150 140 120 105 200 195 185 175 170 155 140 120 Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (km/h) US Customary Deceleration length.www. V reached.

5 1.55 1.4 2.7 1.4 1.3 1.75 3.6 0.45 1.6 5 to 6% downgrade 0.6 50 All speeds 3 to 4% downgrade 0.0 3.5 0.8 2.4 1. 5th edition) Part I.9 2.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.55 0.5 1.4 1.5 1.65 0.6 0.7 0. page 848.5 1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.55 0.5 1.5 3.5 1.3 1.6 2.3 1.Mansour.9 2.7 0.3 1.5 0.5 1.passpe.7 1.4 1.7 1.2 2.3 1.35 1.M.675 0.6 1.6 1.45 1.5 0.6 1.85 2.5 1.8 1.6 1.6 0.05 1.7 5 to 6% upgrade 1.9 1.6 1.55 0.5 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.9 1.5 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.6 1.www.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 20 30 40 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.) .5 50 60 70 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.7 1.35 1.6 0.6 1.4 1.7 1.7 1. PE Metric Design speed of highway (km/h) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (km/h) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.7 5 to 6 % upgrade 1.6 5 to 6 % downgrade 0.5 1.5 1.8 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1.05 2.6 0.3 1.6 0.4 2.7 2. 2004 edition.6 0.5 1.1 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.5 1.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.6 1.4 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 104 .7 1.5 1.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.5 1.2 2.7 1.0 2.7 1.5 3.0 2.7 1.525 0.45 1.8 1.0 3.625 0.3 1. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 40 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 a US Customary Design Speed of highway (mph) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (mph) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.5 1.8 2.2 80 All speeds 3 to 4 % downgrade 0. Shahin A.4 1.5 1.5 2.6 1.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.65 0.2 2.0 1.6 1.65 0.8 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 0.8 2.6 1.8 2.575 0.2 2.5 2.2 2.0 Ratio from this table multiplied by the length in Exhibit 10-70 or Exhibit 10-73 gives length of speed change lane on grades Figure A-38 Speed Change Lane Adjustment Factors as a Function of Grade (G > 2%) (Exhibit 10-71.5 1.6 1.5 0.

60 = 810 ft Answer: (D) Civil Transportation Depth (P.0% and the grade of the freeway (B) 1. The entrance A) 1.0%.390 at the merging point is 2%. D) 810 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. and the highway speed is 70 mph. The grade of C) 910 the ramp is 4.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph.350 of the ramp is +1. PE Sample Problem A-38: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a tangent Find: The minimum acceleration section of freeway mainline as a parallel-type length L (ft) needed for the entrance. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 0.580 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr. Shahin A.passpe. The entrance ramp design speed is 30 entrance is most nearly: mph.www. (C) 1.420 (D) 1. The grade (A) 1. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-39: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance. and the B) 1.120 highway speed is 70 mph.M.) Practice Problems Solutions 105 . Mansour.

) Practice Problems Solutions .160 grade of the ramp is +4.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 1. D) 2. The entrance A) 1. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed = 30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 1. and the B) 1.passpe.0%.970 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.M.580 freeway mainline speed is 70 mph. The C) 2. Mansour.www. Shahin A. PE Sample Problem A-40: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph.60 = 2160 ft Answer: (C) 106 Civil Transportation Depth (P.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.

) Practice Problems Solutions 107 .www.M.passpe. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr. PE Civil Transportation Depth (P. Mansour.

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