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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Well Organized, Based on the Latest California Board Test Plan and NCEES Exam Specifications, Detailed Tables of Contents, Computer Generated Index (12 pages), Simplified Concepts, 104 Practice Problems with Detailed Solutions.

The that has: · A comprehensive summary of equations, tables, and charts you need for the exam. All what you need at one location and at your fingertips. · Separate AM and PM topics. Focus and study only the sections you need.

only book

Transportaion

Engineering Module

for

Civil PE License

Separate Breadth (AM) & Depth (PM) Topics Per NCEES

A Concise & Comprehensive Summary of Construction Engineering Equations (Code & Non-Code), Tables, Charts, and Figures is Provided for a Quick Access in the Exam

**Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE
**

First Edition

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Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

ISBN ????????? © 2011 Professional Engineering Services (PES)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, without a written permission from the author. The author can be reached by email: info@passpe.com

Current printing of this edition 1

Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Control Number:

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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Preface

O

ur next generation of Civil PE books were carefully developed by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E., a nationally recognized expert in PE Exam Preparation courses and founder of Professional Engineering Services, Inc., (PES). This generation is quickly becoming the Best in Class solution for engineering professionals working to pass upcoming California Board and NCEES exams. Each and every book in this comprehensive collection has been prepared with your readiness in mind and will serve as a powerful guide throughout your PE Exam Preparation studies in Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying concentrations. Dr. Mansour has taught and spoken to thousands of engineers and has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying, and EIT/FE classes for the past 22 years enabling his products, classes, and seminars to continuously evolve and adapt to the changing demands of this challenging field. His real-world experience and intercommunication with so many engineers throughout America has greatly improved his ability to craft concise and knowledgeable resources that work for professionals striving to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam and other California special exams. One of the primary advantages of PES preparation books is their compact and succinct format. The experiences and feedback of engineering students and professionals that have worked with these materials affirms our effective use of good, factual diagrams and illustrations to more fully explain concepts throughout each text. In fact, Dr. Mansour makes great use of this style of teaching through figures, comparative tables, charts, and illustrations to concisely convey important information to engineers preparing for the exam. The primary focus of each book in our collection is targeted on subjects that are directly relevant to the PE exam. This method provides substantial time savings to students that simply don t have the wherewithal to digest leading competitive volumes, which typically exceed 1,000 pages. Another strong asset of these next generation books is the separation of Breadth (a.m.) and Depth (p.m.) topics. Each Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying book is organized in accordance with the most current exam specifications and has matured since their inception through the inputs, complaints, wishes, and other feedback given from course participants and colleagues for over 22 years. Recent changes in the format of the Civil PE exam have made it necessary to address the change from essay to multiple choice problems, separation of a.m. and p.m. sections, and the introduction of the construction module. The books improved organization is completed with a very detailed Table of Contents, which addresses both the a.m. and p.m. subjects and more, making them a favored resource for preparation as well as exam time. The best part in all this growth and continuous improvement is the ability to apply this knowledge and experience to our supplemental products developed to give you the best head start for passing your Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Every book, DVD, seminar, and accompanying Problems & Solutions workbooks are designed with all relevant codes, topics, board test plans, and NCEES exam specifications. And, these study materials and seminars, also manage to cover these fields of study in the same order as listed in the latest exam specifications for easy reference at-a-glance. Not only are our next generation books written to be current and well-organized to save you time during exam preparation and test taking; they are also affordable and authored by a highly qualified and nationally recognized Civil Engineering Professor. Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. His easy, step-bystep approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. We hope that you ll find the many resources at Professional Engineering Services, Inc. to be exceptional textbooks, DVDs, and seminars and as valuable a resource as we believe them to be.

solutions.passpe.Mansour. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. PE. for the last 20 years. those will be posted on the PES web site at http:// www. Fresno. PE Disclaimer This publication is to help the candidates for the Transportation Module for PE Civil License.passpe. Mansour has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam.Read the questions and ALL answers carefully and look for KEY WORDS in the question and the 4 possible answers. 2. Professional Engineering Services (PES) and the author are in no way responsible for the failure of registrants in the exam. Shahin A.com How to Use This Book This book was written to help you prepare for the PE-Civil. step-by-step approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. PES and the author welcome comments or corrections which can be emailed to info@passpe. Also. or in the way they are interpreted by the registrants or others. and suggestions are as accurate as possible. Also. The author cannot assume or accept the responsibility or liability for errors in the data. 3. Mansour taught Civil Engineering Courses for 7 years at New Mexico State University (NMSU). His easy. and suggestions and the use of this material in preparation for the exam or using it during the exam. OR UNFAMILAR PROBLEM About the Author Dr. Seismic. information.Solve the easy questions first (ones that need no or minimum calculations) and record your answers on the answer sheet. This publication expresses the opinion of the author. he has been teaching Civil and Construction Engineering Courses (graduate & undergraduate) at CSU. or liable for errors or omission in the solutions. Surveying and EIT courses for the last 22 years. Errata Notification PES and the author have made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this publication is accurate. Mansour. PES and the author at their discretion. may or may not issue written errata.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 4 NCEES Exam Specifications . DIFFICULT.Remember the D3 rule: DO NOT EXPECT THE EXAM TO BE EASY DO NOT PANIC DO NOT WASTE TOO MUCH TIME ON A SIGNLE EASY.Never leave an answer blank 7. Shahin A. Every effort and care has been taken to ensure that all data. Dr. Also. Las Cruces. solutions. Dr. 5.Work on questions that require lengthy calculations and record your answers on the answer sheet. CA. familiarize yourself with the comprehensive summary provided in this book. NM. 4. concepts.com. concepts.Questions that seem difficult or not familiar to you and may need considerable time in searching in your references should be left to the end 6.Have all references organized before you start. has been teaching PE.www. information. USA. The following is a suggested strategy preparation for the exam: 1.

Sight distance evaluation . Traffic capacity studies . . 9. 4. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs General Table of Contents 5 19. Traffic impact studies .passpe. Traffic signals . .M. Roadside clearance analysis Conflict analysis Work zone safety Accident analysis Hydraulics 1.. . Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. PE TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Study Tips and Suggested Exam Strategy NCEES New Format for the PE (Civil) Exam List of References per NCEES Summary of the Equations Breadth (A. Depth (P. Traffic control devices Pedestrian facilities . 18. 2.) Topics 1.. Horizontal curves Vertical curves Sight distance Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration .) Topics 1..Mansour....com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Culvert design 2. . 16. . Shahin A. Traffic volume studies . 3. 17. 15.M. 13.. 6... 14... . Driver behavior and/or performance ... 11. Speed studies . 2.g.. 12..... 5. 10. 4. Capacity analysis (future conditions) . 5. transportation route A or transportation route B) . 6. 3.. 7.. . Intersections and/or interchanges . 8. Intersection analysis . Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow Hydrology 1.www.. .

suitable or unsuitable.passpe. Engineering economics 1. Construction operations and methods (e.g. excavation / embankment) 24. 23. Pavement structures (e. Soil mechanics analysis (e.) Topics 6 Topics Depth (P. Value engineering and costing .Mansour. Soil behavior. index properties.g. Breadth (A.M. erosion control measures.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A. PE 20. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e. 21..M. identification of types of soils.g. soil classification soil compaction) 22..g.) Topics 24 Topics Total Number of Topics = 30 6 NCEES Exam Specifications . flexible and rigid pavement design) .www. boring logs) .

Asphalt Institute. Lexington . Washington. IL.www. Washington. Including all changes adopted through November 14. 2009. 2007.HCM 1 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000). PE The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination TRANSPORTATION Design Standards Effective Beginning with the April 2011 Examinations ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE 1.AASHTO 3. DC. DC. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 2007. 3rd edition with 2006 Chapter 6 Update. DC.MUTCD 7.S. DC. DC. The Asphalt Handbook (MS-4). Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 2004 edition (5th edition). Washington. 6th edition. KY 2.ITE Notes Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. 1.passpe.Mansour. Portland Cement Association. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (GDPS-4-M)1993. Skokie. Washington. and 1998 supplement. U.PCA 8. Shahin A.AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2002. 14th edition. Roadside Design Guide. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 2 6. Traffic Engineering Handbook. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures.. DC. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. Washington. 2000 edition. 2009. 7th edition. Washington.AASHTO 4-AI 5. NCEES Exam Specifications 7 . Transportation Research Board National Research Council.

Excavation and embankment (cut and fill) 2.www. It contains 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour AM session. The exam is developed with questions that will require a variety of approaches and methodologies.Mansour.g.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Estimating Quantities and Costs 1. transportation. and water resources and environmental. Some problems may require knowledge of engineering economics. Shahin A. Material Quality Control and Production 1. The five areas covered in the civil examination are construction. concrete. CONSTRUCTION 20% A. and application.passpe. soil. The breadth exam contains questions from all five areas of civil engineering. CIVIL BREADTH Exam Specifications Approximate Percentage of Examination I. Temporary Structures 1. Time-cost trade-off D. This means that examinees work the breadth (AM) exam and one of the five depth (PM) exams. The exam uses both the International System of Units (SI) and the US Customary System (USCS). The design standards applicable to the Transportation PM exam are shown on the last page. and 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour PM session. asphalt) E. Construction loads 8 NCEES Exam Specifications . The knowledge areas specified as examples of kinds of knowledge are not exclusive or exhaustive categories. Borrow pit volumes 3. Examinees work all questions in the morning session and all questions in the afternoon module they have chosen. analysis. structural. geotechnical. Earthwork Construction and Layout 1. Material testing (e. The exam is an 8-hour open-book exam. Scheduling 1. Resource scheduling 3. including design.. PE NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering CIVIL BREADTH and TRANSPORTATION DEPTH Exam Specifications Effective Beginning with the April 2008 Examinations The civil exam is a breadth and depth examination. Site layout and control B. Construction sequencing 2. Depth results are combined with breadth results for final score. The depth exams focus more closely on a single area of practice in civil engineering. Cost estimating C. Quantity take-off methods 2. The specifications for the AM exam and the Transportation PM exam are included here.

Slope stability 2. reinforcing) E. Live loads 3.passpe. Slabs-on-grade E. Cantilever walls 3. Tension 6. Dead loads 2. Slabs 3.g. soil profile) B.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Boring log interpretation (e. Pavement design criteria C. Member Design 1. Construction loads B. Lateral earth pressure 3. Compression 7. GEOTECHNICAL A. Moment diagrams 3. Analysis 1. Soil classification 2. Earth Structures 1. Pressure distribution 2. Concrete (plain. Mechanics of Materials 1. Bearing capacity 2. Subsurface Exploration and Sampling 1. light gage. Effective and total stresses D. Determinate analysis C. Loadings 1. Structural steel (structural. Compaction 5. Beams 2. reinforced) 2. Shear 5. PE II. Shear diagrams 2. Footings 20% 20% NCEES Exam Specifications 9 . Shallow Foundations 1.Mansour. Shahin A. Materials 1. Permeability 2. Deflection D. Stability analysis 4. STRUCTURAL A. Engineering Properties of Soils and Materials 1. Braced and anchored excavations III. Gravity walls 2.www. Soil Mechanics Analysis 1.. Consolidation 4. Combined stresses 8. Earth Retaining Structures 1. Flexure 4. Settlement F.

PE IV. Detention/retention ponds D.. Vertical curves 3.Mansour.g. Pump application and analysis B. and frequency (IDF) curves 5. storm sewer pipes) 6. Pipe network analysis (e. force mains) 3..g. inflow) E..com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. loop networks) 6... Water Treatment 1. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances 6. stormwater inlets. Distribution systems Total 100% 10 NCEES Exam Specifications . Spillway capacity 4.g.g. Bernoulli) 2. sewer networks. WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 20% 20% A. Hydraulics Closed Conduit 1. Runoff analysis including Rational and SCS methods 7. Storm characterization (e. Erosion 8. Closed pipe flow equations including Hazen-Williams. Wastewater Treatment 1. lift stations. Hydraulics Open Channel 1. Time of concentration 6.g.. TRANSPORTATION A. Flow measurement open channel C. duration. Storm frequency 3. Rainfall intensity. Geometric Design 1. Horizontal curves 2.g.www. Manning s equation) 2. Pressure conduit (e. single pipe. Hydraulic loading 2. infiltration. Superelevation 5.passpe.. Collection systems (e. Acceleration and deceleration V. street flow. Hydrology 1. gutter flow. Stormwater collection (e. hydraulic jump.g. Culvert design 3. Hydrographs application 4. Shahin A. pipeline design. Energy and/or continuity equation (e. Friction and/or minor losses 5. Open-channel flow (e.g.. Flood plains/floodways 7. Energy dissipation (e. Darcy-Weisbach Equation 4. Sight distance 4. rainfall measurement and distribution) 2. velocity control) 5. branch networks.

Traffic control devices H.TRANSPORTATION Depth Exam Specifications A competent transportation engineer should have a basic knowledge in drainage. Intersection analysis E. Approximate Percentage of Examination I. Superelevation E. Section V of the Transportation module has been broadened to permit testing in these important transportation knowledges.5% 30% 7. Geometric Design A.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Acceleration and deceleration G. Pedestrian facilities I.passpe. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. Traffic Analysis A. Work zone safety D.. Shahin A.5% A. Accident analysis 15% NCEES Exam Specifications 11 .Mansour. Speed studies D.www. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances F. Sight distance D.g. Traffic signals C. Culvert design and pavement design are knowledges that have not been tested previously under the current Civil exam specifications. Traffic Safety A. Traffic capacity studies B. Traffic volume studies F. Conflict analysis C. Vertical curves C. Sight distance evaluation G. Roadside clearance analysis B. Driver behavior and/or performance II. transportation route A or transportation route B) B. Traffic impact studies C. Beginning with the April 2010 exam. soils. Transportation Planning 22. PE National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Civil . and pavement design. Horizontal curves B. Intersections and/or interchanges III. Capacity analysis (future conditions) IV.

Mansour. Value engineering and costing F. erosion control measures.g. soil classification. suitable or unsuitable soil. PE V.passpe. Shahin A.g. Soil mechanics analysis (e. Engineering economics 1. Hydraulics 1. Construction operations and methods (e. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs 25% C. excavation/embankment) G. Hydrology 1.. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e. Boring logs) D. flexible and rigid pavement design) 12 NCEES Exam Specifications .g. Other Topics A. identification of types of soils. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow B.g. index properties.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www. soil compaction) E. Culvert design 2. Pavement structures (e. soil behavior.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. and Figures Per NCEES List of Topics and Exam Specifications Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 13 . Shahin A. Flow Charts.Mansour. PE A CONCISE & COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY Of TRANSPORTATION MODULE EQUATIONS & TOPICS Codes Equations.www.passpe. Non-Code Equations. Tables.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .passpe.5% (9 questions) 14 Part I. PE I.M.Mansour. Traffic Analysis 22.) .

Mansour. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Geometric Design 30% (12 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 15 .www.passpe. PE II.

) .Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe.5% (3 questions) 16 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.www. Transportation Planning 7. PE III.

PE IV.www. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Traffic Safety 15% (6 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 17 .Mansour.passpe.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) .passpe.M. PE V.Mansour.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Other Topics 25% (10 questions) 18 Part I.

Shahin A.www.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr.passpe. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 19 .

Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design .www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE 20 Part I.) .M.Mansour.passpe.

www.passpe. Shahin A. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 21 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour.

Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www. Shahin A.) .M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.M. PE PART 1 Civil BREADTH (A.) Exam Specifications TRANSPORTATION 22 Part I.passpe.

.passpe. 6. Horizontal curves Vertical curves .M. Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration 24 . PE Transportation Breadth (A.. Sight distance .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr..84 . 5..www... 4. 2.M.. 3. Part I..46 ..57 . Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 23 .92 99 ..) . Shahin A.) Topics Chapter A: Geometric Design 1. .

but curving in opposite directions.1 Introduction: Horizontal curves are required for connecting tangents in route surveying. compound. The larger the radius. PE Chapter A: Geometric Design A. Circular Curves Compound Frequently the terrain will necessitate the use of a compound curve. large radius curves are relatively flat. Spiral Curves The spiral is a curve which has a varying radius. Shahin A. Reverse A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined together.passpe. Its purpose is to provide a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve 24 Part I.M. but curving in the same direction.1 HORIZONTAL CURVES A. The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve. whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp.1. railroads. reverse. Route surveying is the type of surveying to establish horizontal and vertical alignment for transportation facilities (highways. the flatter the curve. a) Simple Circular (b) Compound (c) Reverse (d) Spiral Figure A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves The sharpness of the curve is determined by the choice of the radius (R). It is used on railroads and some modern highways. streets. Compound and reverse curves are treated as a combination of two or more simple curves. this curve is seldom used in highway construction as it would tend to send an automobile off the road.etc.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. This type of curve is the most often used.) . The following table explains the differences between types of horizontal curves.).Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. . This curve normally consists of two simple curves joined together. Table A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves Simple The simple curve is an arc of a circle. Horizontal curves may be simple. or spiral. whereas the spiral curve is based on a varying radius. For safety reasons.www.

M.2 Horizontal Circular Curves: Circular curves are common in highways and streets design.) . The horizontal alignment of a transportation facility consists of series of straight lines (tangents) and circular curves as shown below. The route of a highway or a street is chosen to satisfy all design requirements (speed. as follows: Part I. environmental.1. Figure A-2 Horizontal (top) and Vertical (bottom) Alignments A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 25 . PE A. There are two definitions for degree of curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.3 Degree of Curve for Horizontal Circular Curves: The degree of curve (for horizontal circular curves only) (D) defines the "sharpness" or "flatness" of the curve.passpe. Mansour. superelevation. Shahin A. sight distance.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. and financial impact. ) with minimal social.1.

0 1.28 4.92 6. Therefore. Arc Definition (D a) The arc definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of an arc of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m arc). The following equation gives the relationship between the two systems.www. And a 1° curve in the metric system is the same curve as a 0. degrees of curve in the two systems (SI and English) differ by the same proportion. the "sharper" the curve and the shorter the radius.84 Part I. Notice that the larger the degree of curve. The chord definition is used primarily for civilian railroad construction and is used by the military for both roads and railroads. PE Table A-2 Chord and Arc Definitions for Horizontal Circular Curves Chord Definition (D c ) The chord definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of a chord of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m chord).56 8. Shahin A.0 2.28084 ft.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.578o Da = = 2pR R (A-2) Since one meter equals 3.5 2.Mansour. This definition is used primarily for highways and streets.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.3048° curve in the foot system.0 26 (A-3) 3.) .5 3. a 1° curve in the foot system is the same curve as a 3.28 The following table shows the comparable values in both systems.28084° curve in the metric system. Table A-3 Degree-of-Curve Conversions Foot Definition (D foot ) Metric Definition (D metric ) 1.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Dmetric = D foot ´ 3.20 9. D Sin æ c ç 2 è ö = 50 ft ÷ ø R ( A-1) (360o )(100 ft ) 5729.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 27 . PE Figure A-3 Circular Horizontal Curve Terminology · Point of Intersection (PI): the point at which the two tangents to the curve intersect · Delta Angle ( ) : the angle between the tangents is also equal to the angle at the center of · · · · · · · · · the curve Back Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. it is the straight line that connects the PC (BC) to the PI Forward Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right. Shahin A.passpe.M. Mansour.) .www. it is the straight line that connects the PI to the PT (EC) Point of Curvature (PC) = Beginning of Curve (BC): the beginning point of the curve Point of Tangency (PT) = End of Curve (EC): the end point of the curve Tangent Distance (T): the distance from the PC (BC) to PI or from the PI to PT (EC) External Distance (E): the distance from the PI to the middle point of the curve Middle Ordinate (M): the distance from the middle point of the curve to the middle of the chord (long chord) joining the PC (BC) and PT (EC) Long Chord (C or LC): the distance along the line joining the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Length of Curve (L): the difference in stationing along the curve (arc length) between the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Part I.

Chapter A: Geometric Design .58 R ( feet ) = o Da M = R (1 .1.) .1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan (A-9) o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û 28 Part I.58 o Da Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 æ Do ö Lc = (100 m)ç o ÷ çD ÷ è cø 5729.Mansour.www.Cos D 2 = R+ E R+E 2. Although the EC is physically a distance of T from the PI .versed sine (vers) vers ( /2) = 1 Cos ( /2) 3. Table A-4 Arc and Chord Definitions Equations Arc Definition T = R tan D 2 o Chord Definition (A-4) Do = 2 T cos( Do 2) 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø Same Same LC = C = 2 R sin (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) æ Do æ Do ö La = 2p Rç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ç è ø è a R ( feet ) = 5729. PE A.e D = 2 Cos -1 ( ) (from the geometry shown in the previous page) 1.passpe.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û (A-4) (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) (A-9) Notes: R R i.external secant (exsec) exsec ( /2) = Sec ( /2) 1 4.A common mistake is to determine the station of the EC by adding the T distance to the PI . the stationing (chainage) must reflect the fact that the centerline no longer goes through the PI .cos Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .65 R (meter ) = o DC Same Same M = R (1 .4 Geometry of Horizontal Circular Curves (Arc Definition): Do T = R tan 2 Do LC = C = 2 R sin = 2 T cos(Do 2) 2 o æ Do ö æ D ö La = 2p R ç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø è aø 5729.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.cos é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê . Shahin A.M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

Sample Problem A-2: Long Chord for Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The length of the long chord is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 150.57 Sample Problem A-1: Horizontal Circular Curve Calculations Find: BC and EC stations are most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: T = R tan 4 + 80.30 ft 289. Note: Answer (A) is (PI Sta. Mansour.70 .M.49 ft 189.29 ft Ü 2 Answer: (C) Part I.3167 o = 289. and PI Station at 6 + 26. 7 + 72. Shahin A.75 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-1 to A-4 A horizontal circular curve for a new conventional highway has the following data: D = 16 o 38¢ .70 Ü Answer: (B) L = 2 + 90.passpe.39 Ü 2 + 90.70 7 + 70. 4 + 80.www.6333 = 290.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.49 ft C = 2 R Sin D = 2 T Cos (D 2) = 2 ×1000 × Sin 8.3167o = 146.75 4 + 80.39 D = 1000 tan 8.29 ft 572.31 Sta.39 7 + 72.Chapter A: Geometric Design 29 .31 ft 360 PI at T BC = +L EC = 6 + 26. + T). 4 + 80. R = 1000 ft.39 .18 ft 2 Do æDö L = 2p R = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ 360 o èDø L = 2p ´1000 ´ 16.57 1 + 46.18 4 + 80. which is wrong (common mistake).) . 7 + 70.39 .31 7 + 70.

61 ft 265.1) = 1000 ( .www. PE Sample Problem A-3: External Distance for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The external distance (E) for the given curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: E = R( 1 1 .23 ft 10.Cos D M = R(1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.45 ft 400.63 2) Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-4: Middle Ordinate for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The middle ordinate for the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Refer to Figure A-3 for the definition of M 10.52 ft 10.) .43 ft 10.52 ft 10.63 ft Ü Cos (D 2) Cos (16.63 ft 10.passpe.63 ft Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .Cos ) = 1000 (1 2 D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos Ü which relationship ? 2 2 4 2 Cos 8. and mid-ordinate of 16.1) =10.54 ft 315.5 ft. Shahin A.23 ft 10.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.52 ft Ü Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-5: Length a Horizontal Circular Curve Given: A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 500 ft.43 ft 10. Find: The length of the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 257.M.3167 o) = 10.00 ft Solution: (Continued on next page) 30 Part I.

) .Chapter A: Geometric Design 31 .967 = 1R 500 2 = 29.www.76 2 D ) 2 Cos M 16. Shahin A.5 = 500 ( 1 Cos D -1 o = Cos (0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Cos D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos 2 2 4 2 Ü select the appropriate relationship D M = R (1 .52º Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø Curve Length (i. BC to EC ) : L = 2p R Do 29.5 D =1 = 0.Cos ) 2 16.passpe.967) =14.e.52 o L = 2p R = 2 ´ p ´ 500´ = 257.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .M.61 ft 360o 360o Answer: (A) Part I. Mansour.

M.Mansour.www..passpe. Abbreviations: BC PC TC EC PT CT = = = = = = Beginning of curve Point of curvature Tangent to curve End of curve Point of tangency Curve to tangent Figure A-4 Deflection. & 2 . The following two rules apply for the deflection angles for circular curves: Rule 1: The deflection angle between a tangent and a chord is half the central angle subtended by the arc. Central Angles and Chord Calculations æ arc length öæ D ö deflection angle = ç ÷ç ÷ L è øè 2 ø Chord Length ( BC to A) = 2R Sin a arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180 0 a= 2p R 2 a arc length ( BC to A) = D L 32 Part I... i.) . PE A. Central Angle. & 2 . i.1.5 Deflection Angles. i. the angle A-BC-B is ½ the central angle A-O-B.e.. Rule 2: The angle between two chords is ½ the central angle subtended by the arc between the two chords.e.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. and Chord Calculations for Horizontal Circular Curves: The deflection angle is defined as the angle between the tangent and a chord.e.Chapter A: Geometric Design (A-10) (A-11) (A-12) (A-13) . the angle between the tangent BC-PI and the chord PCA is ½ the central angle BC-O-A. Shahin A. i.e.

85 Sta. Sample Problem A-6: Deflection Angle Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The deflection angle between the back tangent and the chord to the drainage inlet station is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The deflection angle is given by the following equation: 4. Mansour. Shahin A.) .M.41° 2p R 2 ´ p ´ 2500 ft Answer: (A) Part I.50º Arc length = (DI Station arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 2p R BC Station) = (154 + 60) (150 + 75) = 3. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-6 to A-8 A horizontal circular curve for a new urban highway has a radius of 2500 ft and a degree of curve (arc definition) of 2.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 33 . A drainage inlet (DI) is required to be staked out at station 15 4 + 60.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.25º 32.29º.20º 16.41º 12.passpe. The beginning of the curve is at station 150 + 75 and the central angle is 30º. = 385 ft a= a= arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 385 ft ´ 180° = = 4.

25 .30 ft 254. BC to A) = 2R Sin a = 2 ´ 2500 ft ´ Sin 4. The central angle that should be turned to the right from the first DI is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The following relationship could be established (by proportion): 1.) .e. = 3.90º 2.Mansour.52 ft 325.47 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-8: Deflection Angle & Central Angle Relationship Find: The design calls for another DI at station 156 + 25.29o ÷ = 1310.41° = 384.60) Sta.passpe.78º 5.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.15 ft 384.´ arc length A to B 2g = D ´ = 30° ´ L 1310 ft 100 ft Sta.154.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M. i.Chapter A: Geometric Design .47 ft Chord Length ( BC to DI . Shahin A.00 ft ÷ è ø (156.www. PE Sample Problem A-7: Chord Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The length of the chord connecting the BC and the drainage inlet is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 175.90º 3.78° Answer: (C) 34 Part I.50º 2g arc length A to B = D L And the curve length is given by : L = 2p R Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø æ 30 o ö = (100 ft ) ç ç 2.

1.38 ft Part I.R Cos q = R (1 . These methods are: (1) tangent offset-TO. Solution: Find: Calculate the distance Y from tangent to curve. PE A.www. Y =R- R2 .cos q ) X q = arcsin R X = R sin q (A-14) (A-15) (A-16) (A-17) Figure A-5 Tangent Offset Sample Problem A-9: Tangent Offset Method Given: In the diagram (Figure A-5). (2) chord offset-CO.800 2 . when a total station instrument is not available. Shahin A. The four tangent offset method equations are given as follows: Y = R . and for checking purposes.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. and (4) ordinates from the long chord. (3) middle ordinates-MO.R2 .X 2 Y = R .M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe.X 2 Y = 800 .300 2 = 58. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 35 . one of four offset-type methods can be used for laying out circular curves. if the curve has a radius R = 800 feet and the distance X = 300 ft.6 Tangent Offset Calculations: For short curves.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.passpe. Find: the angles to turn off the PI to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) The central angle plus the deflection angle Half the central angle The deflection angle Exactly right angle Solution: Radius point is another name for the center of a circle.) . The angle measured from the PI to the center is always 90o Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-11: Geometry of Horizontal Curves Given: A perpendicular bisector of the long chord (LC) was drawn for a circular horizontal curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Sample Problem A-10: Geometrics of Circular Curves Given: When set up the instrument at the BC of a simple curve.M.Mansour. Answer: (D) 36 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Find: This perpendicular bisector passes through which of the following: (A) (B) (C) (D) Radius point The Point of Intersection of the two tangents The centre of the curve All of the above It is clear from the figure to the right that all of the above is the correct answer. Shahin A.

passpe. Compound curves should be used only for low-speed traffic routes. Deflection angle measured from PC (BC) to that point. Mansour. set up anywhere on point on curve POC).com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. Normally. Find: The clockwise angle to turn off to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) Half the central angle.7 Compound Circular Curves: Often two curves of different radii are joined together.1.e.M. the subscript 1 refers to the curve of smaller radius. Figure A-6 Compound Circular Curve The following equations are used to solve the unknown parameters for a compound curve: Part I. Shahin A.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design 37 . PE Sample Problem A-12: Moving up on a curve Given: When moving up on a horizontal curve to the right (i. Deflection angle measured from PC to that point plus 90o Deflection angle measured from PC to that point minus 90o Solution: From the Figure shown. GH is a common tangent. Answer: (C) A. the correct answer is C. and in terrain where simple curves cannot be fitted to the ground without excessive construction cost. The point connecting the two curves together is called point of compound curve or curvature (PCC).Civil Breadth (Transportation A. as shown.

R2 o o = 800 ft.5993) = 479.D1 = 96 o 4 2¢40¢¢ 62 o 22¢20¢¢ = 34.9931 ) = 312.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.D 2 t1 = R1 tan D1 2 OR & D 2 = D . Shahin A.19 PCC Station = PC Sta.28 + 302.) .5641) ( 0.17 = 549.www.1861 ) = 302.+ L2 = (15 + 59.49 + 247.12 Find: PC.82 VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ = (0.31 ft ÷ è ø 549.65 = 614.+ L1 = (10 + 15.12) (6 + 14.17 = 737.M. PT & PCC stations Solution: D 2 = D . T1 = (16 + 30.65 ft Þ 800 tan (17.49 ft ÷ = (0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .82 ft æ GH ö 549 .Mansour.19) +(5 + 44.46 ft 360 PC Station = PI Sta.1695 ) = 247.65 + 247. D = 96 42¢40¢¢ .0886 ) = 544.93) = 10 + 15.82 æ GH ö ) = 490.95 38 Part I.passpe.17 ft o o GH = t1 + t 2 = 302.8859) ( VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ 0.9931 è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 = 312.49 PT Station = PCC Sta. PE D1 = D .30) = 15 + 59.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.30 ft 360 Do2 L2 = 2p R2 = R2 D 2 (radians ) = 800(0.46) = 20 + 38.49) +(4 + 79.93 ft T2 = VB = VH + t2 = 490.D1 t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 (A-18) (A-19) (A-20) (A-21) (A-22) (A-23) (A-24) GH = t1 + t 2 æ GH ö VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø æ GH ö VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 T2 = VB = VH + t2 Sample Problem A-13: Compound Curve Given: A compound curve with the following data: R1 = 500 ft.66 ft Do1 L1 = 2p R1 = R1 D1 ( radians ) = 500 (1.3389 o t1 = R1 tan t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 D1 2 Þ 500 tan (31. D1 = 62 22¢20¢¢ & PI station = 16 + 30.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. As with compound curves. R2 . the superelevation rate of change per station should be within the acceptable standards. and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems.1. Additionally. since the change in curvature is instantaneous.Chapter A: Geometric Design 39 . the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown. PE A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. 2. T2). Figure A-7 Reverse Curves: Parallel Tangents (top) and Non-Parallel Tangent (bottom) Part I. T1.M. 1. The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point of reversed curvature (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems. Reverse curves may have parallel or non-parallel tangents as shown below. If reverse circular curves have to be used. there is no room to provide superelevation transition from cross-slope right to cross-slope left.passpe.8 Reverse Circular Curves: Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment.) .www. Shahin A. Mansour. reverse curves have six independent parameters (R1.

= tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large). and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until. In case of a spiral curve that connects two circular curves having different radii. PE A. Shahin A.9 Spiral Curves: Spiral curves (also known as transition curves) are used in highway and railroad horizontal alignment to overcome the abrupt change in direction that occurs when the alignment changes from tangent to circular curve. to any point on the spiral s Ls : total length of spiral from T.T.1.www.S. : point of change from spiral to circle C. X : distance along tangent from T. Lc : length of circular curve LT : long tangent (Spiral) ST : short tangent (Spiral) : total central angle of the circular curve c : central angle of circular arc of Lc extending from the SC to the CS Y : right Angle Distance from Tangent to S. Figure A-8 Spiral Curve It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T. : central angle of spiral arc L s : the spiral angle = central angle of spiral arc Ls Part I.C. to point at right angle to S.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.T.C.S. : point of change from spiral to tangent : spiral arc length from T. at the point where the circular curve begins (S. and vice versa. Figure A-8 illustrates how the spiral curve with a length of Ls is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment.S. Ts : total tangent distance = distance from PI to T. there is an initial radius rather than an infinite value. Spiral Curves Notation: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40 T.M.S. = spiral to curve).S. : point of change from tangent to spiral S. or S.C.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) .S. to S.Chapter A: Geometric Design .C. the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve.S.C. : point of change from circle to spiral S.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 41 .M.passpe. Shahin A.) . PE Figure A-9 Spiral Curve Part I. Mansour.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.

www. developed in 1909 by W.Mansour.S.58 (5729.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 3-27. Shortt. H. 1 to 3 ft/s3 is recommended by AASHTO for highways and 1 ft/s3 is generally accepted for railroad operation 42 Part I.. PE Selected formulas for spiral curves: Because the degree of curvature for a spiral increases from 0 at the T.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. is the basic expression used by some highway agencies for computing minimum length of a spiral transition curve: (Ls )min where 3.C.) .passpe.C. Shahin A.58)(100) = D Ls ´ K The ratio of the two radii is: R= (A-28) r Ls = R ls The length of the spiral is: (A-29) (200)(D s ) D The deflection angle is: Ls = (A-30) l s2 D s as = 2 ´ 3 Ls (A-31) The following equation.M. page 185) (A-32) V = design speed.15 V 3 = RC (AASHTO Eq. the rate of change of curvature of a spiral in degrees per station (K) is: K= 100D Ls (A-25) The degree Dp and the radius r of the spiral curve at any point P along the curve are given as follows: Dp = r= ls K 100 (A-26) (A-27) 5729.58 (5729. to D (Da) at the S.Chapter A: Geometric Design . ft C = maximum rate of change in lateral acceleration. mph R = radius of circular curve. is: 5729.58)(100) = Dp ls ´ K The radius at the S.

Shahin A. R = curve radius.) .passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration.Chapter A: Geometric Design 43 . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.M. ft/s3 Sample Problem A-14: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration. 5th edition) Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Table A-5 Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Metric US Customary L= 0. ft. V = design speed. R = curve radius. m/s3 where: L = minimum length of spiral.15V 3 3. V = design speed.www. Solution: tan q = Find: The deflection angle from TS to point P is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 00 01 02 04 28 25 50 05 38 55 00 02 5 Þ q = tan -1 5 = 1. mph. The minimum spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) 100 ft (B) 110 ft (C) 140 ft (D) 150 ft Solution: 3. mph. m.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. ft/s3 Answer: (B) Sample Problem A-15: Deflection Angle of a Spiral Curve Given: The coordinates of point P on a highway spiral relative to TS are 200 & 5 for x & y respectively. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration.15 ´ 50 3 L= = =109. PE (Page 185. Mansour. ft. R = curve radius.0214V 3 RC L= 3. ft.38 ft (3-27) RC 1200 ´ 3 where: L = minimum length of spiral.4321o 200 200 ( ) Answer: (B) Part I. V = design speed. ft. m. km/h.15 V 3 RC (3-27) where: L = minimum length of spiral. 2004 edition.

passpe. AASHTO Exhibit 3-37 (page 189) lists the desirable lengths of spiral transition curves.Mansour. These lengths correspond to 2. 5th edition) Table A-6 Desirable Length of Spiral Curve Transition Metric US Customary Design speed (km/h) Spiral Length (m) Design speed (mph) Spiral Length (ft) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 11 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67 72 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 44 59 74 88 103 117 132 147 161 176 191 205 220 235 Sample Problem A-16: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration.Chapter A: Geometric Design . page 189.www. page 189.M.0 s of travel time at the design speed of the roadway. Shahin A. 5th edition.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE Desirable Length for spiral curves: Based on recent operational studies.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. The travel time has been found to be representative of the natural spiral path for most drivers. (Exhibit 3-37. 2004 edition. the desirable length is 147 ft. The desirable spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 100 ft 110 ft 147 ft 161 ft Solution: Using Exhibit 3-37. Answer: (C) 44 Part I.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.

) . Shahin A. 2004 edition. PE Figure A-10 Curve with and without spiral transition. page 186.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design 45 . (Exhibit 3-35.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) Part I.passpe. Mansour.www. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. The sharp corners at the juncture of curve and straight line in the top view are quite obvious from the driver s seat.

The geometric curve used in vertical alignment design is the parabola curve.Chapter A: Geometric Design . which permits easily computed curve elevations.g1 ).1 Why Vertical Curves are Used? Roads made up of a series of straight lines (or tangents) are not practical. For example.2 Vertical Curves Terminology: Figure A-11 Vertical Curve Terminology Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines. Shahin A. The parabola has these two desirable characteristics of: (1) a constant rate of change of grade ( r = alignment transition. 1.5% or 2%). Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in grade-line slope.2. the higher the speed the road is designed for.2.) . 46 Part I. adjacent segments of differing grade are connected by a curve.g. and (2) ease of computation of vertical offsets. the smaller the percent of grade that is allowed.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. This curve in the vertical plane is called a vertical curve.2 VERTICAL CURVES A. a road designed for a maximum speed of 30 miles per hour (mph) may have a vertical curve with the tangents to the curve arc having a grade as high as 6 to 8 percent. PE A. which contributes to smooth L A.www.. g 2 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.Mansour. whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into the alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (e.passpe. A road that is designed for 70 mph can have a vertical curve whose tangents have a grade of only 3 to 5 percent. To prevent abrupt changes in the vertical direction of moving vehicles. As a general rule.

Ø They are also called equal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. Ø They are used mostly in every project where no minimum vertical clearance or cover is needed. Table A-7 Types of Vertical Curves Symmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC. BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . A.passpe. Ø They used when a specific elevation at a certain station (point) is required and the grades of the grade lines are fixed. Mansour. Ø The rate of grade change per station g .www. Ø They connect an upgrade (+) tangent to a downgrade ( ) tangent (type I).2.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design . g2 is the slope of the exiting grade line.M. EVC is the end of the vertical curve. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula. Asymmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is not located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A. Ø They are also called unequal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. PE In Figure A-11.g1 r= 2 is a positive quantity.g1 r= 2 is a negative quantity. L Crest Vertical Curves (g2 < g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Another classification is crest and sag vertical curves. Ø They connect downgrade ( ) tangent to an upgrade (+) tangent (type III). Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula (two vertical curves). Table A-8 Types of Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves (g2 > g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. vertical curve terminology is introduced: g1 is the slope (percent) of the entering grade line. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent grade lines.3 Types of Vertical Curves: Vertical curves may be classified based on the location of the vertex with respect to the BVC and EVC as symmetrical and asymmetrical. The length of vertical curve ( L ) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and as such corresponds to plan distance. L 47 Part I.

Shahin A.www. 5th edition) 48 Part I.passpe.) .Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-13 Types of Vertical Curves .M. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE Figure A-12 Sag and Crest Vertical Curves (Exhibit 3-69 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

50% and 0.M. 3. K = (Rate of Vertical Curvature) distance required to achieve a 1% change in grade. PE AASHTO lists FOUR requirements for vertical curves as follows: 1234safe (ample sight distances).30% are minimum grades in snow country and other locations respectively) A. The elevation of the curve at distance x from the BVC is given by: y = ax 2 + bx + c (general equation for a parabola) y x = y BVC rx 2 + g1x + 2 (A-32) (A-33) (A-34) r= g 2 . Part I. and adequate for drainage (0.www.passpe. Figure A-11 (repeated) Geometric of a Parabola 2. The tangent offset between the grade line and the curve is given by ax2.g1 L where: x = the distance from BVC to a point on the curve r = rate of grade change per station 1 L K = = L/ A = Note: The rate of vertical curvature will be used in subsequent r g 2 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The difference in elevation between the BVC and a point on the g 1 grade line at a distance x units (feet or meters) is g 1 x (g 1 is expressed as a decimal). that is. where x is the horizontal distance from the BVC (PVC). comfortable in operation (gravitational force versus vertical centripetal force) pleasing in appearance (long versus short vertical curves).4 Geometric Properties of the Parabola: 1. tangent offsets are proportional to the squares of the horizontal distances.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.g1 sections related to sag and crest vertical curves.2.Chapter A: Geometric Design 49 . Mansour. Shahin A.

The grade lines (g 1 and g 2 ) intersect midway between the BVC and the EVC. The slope S. 5.) . PE 4.g1 ) = (L curve length in feet) 2 200 L (A-38) 50 Part I. BVC to PVI = ½ L = PVI to EVC.M. Shahin A. The distance D in feet from Vertex to P is given as: 100(YH .g 2 ) L (A-36) Figure A-12 (repeated) Crest and Sag Vertical Curves Terminology 7. A B = B PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: either: do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (elevation of BVC + elevation of EVC) Or: do= g 2 .g 2 ) 8.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.YP¢ ) D= ( g1 .g1 L 8 = A L ( sta.Mansour. This is only true for symmetrical vertical curves. in percentage.The distance between the curve and the grade line (tangent) d is given as (A-37) d = offset = rx 2 x 2 ( g 2 .passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. of the tangent to the curve at any point on the curve is given by the following formula: S = g1 - x ( g1 . that is.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) A L ( feet ) = 8 800 (A-35) 6. that is. The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord.

Figure A-14 Sag Vertical Curve in Relation to Minimum Clearance and Cover dy From equation (A-33). The minimum cover over a utility pipe would require the determination of low points along the profile of the road. it is a unique point (high or low) on vertical curves. PE A.g 2 Where X is the distance from BVC to the low or high points.M.) . the location of low and high points are required for the vertical clearance calculations between a bridge and a roadway.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Also.g1 L g1 L X = = = r g 2 . Mansour.e.g1 . on curbed streets catch basins or drainage inlets (DI) must be installed precisely at the drainage low point.5 High and Low Points on Vertical Curves: The locations of curve high and low points are important for drainage considerations. equation the slope ( ) to zero and solving for X: dx g1 + rX = 0 . for example.2. (A-39) (A-40) It should be noted that the distance X (upper case X) in equation (A-40) is different from distance x (lower case x) in all other equations i. Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 51 .g1 g1 .www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.passpe.

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**The following information is to be used for problems A-17 to A-21
**

A sag vertical curve has a length (L) of 300 ft. The entering and exiting grades are g1 = 3.2% and g2 = +1.8% respectively. The PVI is located at station 30 + 30 and has an elevation of 485.92 ft.

Sample Problem A-17: Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The station of the low point is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 30 + 72.00 30 + 30.00 29 + 00.00 28 + 72.00

X =

- g1 - g1 L g1 L - ( -3.2)(3) = = = = 1.92 Sta. = 192.00 ft r g 2 - g1 g1 - g 2 ( +1.8) - ( -3.2)

This means that the low point is located at a distance of 192.00 ft from BVC i.e., at Station = [(30 + 30.00) (1+ 50.00)] + (1 + 92.00) = 30 + 72.00 Notes: 1) All distances used to locate a low or a high point or used to calculate an elevation of any point on a vertical curve are measured from BVC. 2) The point on the curve at the PVI station is not necessarily to be the low or high points. Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-18: Elevation of the Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of the low point is most nearly: (A) 480.65 ft (B) 487.65 ft (C) 493.55 ft (D) 498.24 ft

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Solution:

y x = y BVC

rx 2 + g1x + 2

1.8 - ( -3.2) 1.92 2 = [485.92 + (1.5)(3.2) ] + (-3.2)(1.92) + ( )( ) = 487.65 ft @ Sta 30 + 72.00 3.00 2 Answer: (B)

Sample Problem A-19: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: Which of the following is NOT true for symmetrical vertical curves: (A) The elevation of the mid-chord point is the average of the elevations of the BVC and EVC (B) The vertical curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord (C) The low point on a sag vertical curve is always at the PVI station (D) All of the above Solution: (A) is true (B) is true (C) is NOT true. This statement is true only if g1 = g2 and the vertical curve is symmetrical i.e., PVI at L/2

Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-20: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of point A ( mid-chord point) is most nearly: (A) 490.72 ft (B) 488.62 ft (C) 489.00 ft (D) 489.67 ft

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Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 53

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Solution: mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-21: Middle Ordinate Distance for a Vertical Curve Find: The middle ordinate distance for the given vertical curve is most nearly: (A) 1.275 ft (B) 1.375 ft (C) 1.675 ft (D) 1.875 ft Solution: The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord; that is, A to B = B to PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: a) mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (489.67 485.92) = 1.875 ft

b) do (middle ordinate distance) =

g1 - g 2 L 8

=

- 3.2 - ( +1.8) ´ 3 8

= 1.875 ft

(L = curve length in stations & g1 - g 2 = absolute value in percent) Answer: (B) Note: the middle ordinate (m = do) may be written as:

g1 - g 2 L 800

( L in feet)

54

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

17 stations Solution: The following steps will be followed: Step 1: YBVC YA YEVC YB (Grade)AB YCVC Step 2: = = = = 743.24 + 3(1.24% / sta 4 6 (continued on next page) Part I. are encountered in practice where certain limitations are exist as fixed tangent grades.24 ft.2.. Figure A-15 Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Given: g1 = 2 %.) .04 .00) = 751. 87 + 00 and 93 + 00 respectively.84 ft 743.passpe.60 .24 ft 743. An unequal tangent vertical curve is simply a pair of equal tangent curves.60) = 748. where the EVC of the first is the BVC of the second.16 % =ç 5 è ø = 747. V and EVC stations Find: Elevations.24 ö ÷ = + 0.24 + 2(0.7 Asymmetrical (Unsymmetrical) Vertical Curves: Asymmetrical vertical curves. g2 = +1.(-2. point of compound vertical curvature.54% / sta & r2 = = + 0. PE A. Elevation at second difference at full V = 743.24 + 4(2.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.747. See Figure A. The same basic equation for the symmetrical curves will be used for the unsymmetrical curves.56 ft r1 = 0.24 + 6 (1. The vertex for unequal tangent curve is not in the middle between the BVC and EVC. Mansour.04 ft æ 748. vertical clearance or minimum cover.6 %.00) 1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 55 . Shahin A. This point is called CVC.M. also called unequal tangent vertical curves.60) = 752. BCV.24 + 2(2.16 = + 0.24 ft 743.00) = 747.16) = 747.0. first & are 83 + 00.16 .

64 0.32 yx 751.92 3.24 0.11 0.12 0.54 0.00 8.24 1.84 748.73 1.16 0.51 748.00 4.56 747.24 56 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.28 0.52 0.passpe.00 1.) Station 83 + 00 (BVC) 84 + 00 85 + 00 86 + 00 87 + 00 (CVC) 88 + 00 89 + 00 90 + 00 91 + 00 92 + 00 93 + 00 (EVC) x (sta.) .00 0.24 0.67 747.43 4.08 1.48 1.32 0.24 749.) 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 g1 x 0.32 747.48 2nd Difference 0.76 1.32 0.65 0.84 1st Difference 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design .48 0.00 6.00 0.36 752.Mansour.24 0.54 0.08 2.00 4.12 750.36 749.M. Shahin A.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.27 1. PE Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve (cont.96 rx2/2 0.12 751.24 0.54 0.80 0.00 2.19 0.

Decision 4. or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal curve or intersection i. Insufficient sight distance can have implications for the safety or operations of a roadway or intersection. .Chapter A: Geometric Design 57 .www. branch connections. Table A-9 Four Types of Sight Distances (For Any Given Speed (say 50 mph) PSD > DSD > SSD 1835 ft > 465 ft A-1030 ft E > 425 ft) 1.g.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour.Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) 2. sight distance is the continuous length of highway ahead visible to the driver.e. is how far a driver can see before the line of sight is blocked by a hill crest. (two-lane roads) Where Stopping Sight Distance (ALL ROADS) Passing Sight Distance (TWO-LANE ROADS) Figure A-16 Stopping and Passing Sight Distances Part I. in the context of road design.M.3 SIGHT DISTANCES Sight distance.Intersection (Corner) Sight Distance Sight Distance (CSD) (DSD) · Used at major · Used at intersections decision points e.) . off-ramp noses.. PE A. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe. · Used on multilane · Used where an highways and on opposing lane 2-lane roads when can provide passing sight distance passing is not economically opportunities obtainable.Passing Sight Distance (PSD) 3.

Chapter A: Geometric Design . applies the brake. the mass of the car. These are referred to as the PIEV time or process. Actual stopping distances are also affected by road conditions. for example. the time to engage the brakes.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PIEV Process: i) Perception the time to see or discern an object or event.0') The perception-reaction time for a driver is often broken down into the four components that are assumed to make up the perception reaction time. More recent research has shown these times to be conservative for design.0 sec These perception reaction times were based on observed behavior for the 85th percentile driver. Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during the brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Figure A-17 Stopping Sight Distance (Driver s Eye Height =3. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book). ii) Intellection the time to understand the implications of the object s presence or event. 85% of drivers could react in that time or less.passpe. and numerous other factors. and iv) Volition the time to initiate the action. 58 Part I. Typically the design sight distance allows a below-average driver to stop in time to avoid a collision. the incline of the road. that is. iii) Emotion the time to decide how to react. realizes that stopping is necessary.5 feet) above the pavement.M.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.3. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights). Shahin A. For design.5' and Object Height= 2. and comes to a stop. Human factors research defined the required perception-reaction times as follows: design 2. a conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle traveling at design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path.Mansour.5 sec operations/control 1. PE A.1 Stopping Sight Distance: Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled while the vehicle driver perceives a situation requiring a stop. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3.www.

8 360 423.9 614.4 240.2 73.7 200 246.9 147.4 117.2 ft/s2) The above equations are used to generate the following table for wet-pavement conditions.4 m/s2) V2 d = 1. PE A.6 69.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.8 Stopping sight Brake Design reaction distance speed distance Calculated Design (mph) (ft) (m) (m) 18.) . 2004 edition.0 86.2 257.0 80 US Customary Braking distance on level (ft) 21.0 570 644.9 115 151.0 290. Part I.6 10. Shahin A.6 238.2 250 300.2 91.8 165.passpe.4 92.5 76.1.3 18.6 153.5 220 60 248.M.7 138. page 112.4 495 566.0 105 40 129.039 a where: t = brake reaction time. 2004 edition.4 28.5 405.2 202.47 Vt + 1. Mansour.6 75 294.8 160 50 184.3 539.7 55.6 62. 5th edition) Table A-10 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on Flat Grades Metric US Customary Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) V2 d = 0.9 250 65 284. a = deceleration rate. V = design speed. m/s2 (3.4 Braking distance on level (m) 4.4 645 727.8 425 492.1 20 15 31. mph.6 730 815.5 s.5 110.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5 183.6 194.5 820 908.8 34. V = design speed.5 83.4 60.5 s.075 (3-2) a where: t = brake reaction time. 2.9 27. Table A-11 Stopping Sight Distance on Flat Grades (Exhibit 3-1.6 38.8 41.0 128.1 Stopping Sight Distance On A Flat Grade: The following equations will be used to calculate the stopping distance on a flat grade facilities: (Page 113.6 85 35 104.4 130 45 155.3 65 30 83.4 90.3 220. km/h.2 ft/s2] used to determine calculated sight distance.1 185 55 215. ft/s2 (11. 5th edition) Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Brake reaction distance (m) 13.9 155 196.3 56.9 50 25 63. a = deceleration rate. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.7 41.2 73.2 193.7 48.3 Stopping sight distance Calculated Design (ft) (ft) 76.9 114.0 165.5 s.5 55. deceleration rate of 3.3 345.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 59 .3 910 Note: Brake reaction distance predicated on a time of 2.7 80 111.6 305 359.4 m/s2 [11.9 20. 2.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 35 20 46.3 285 70 275.3.5 470.278 Vt + 0.

m/s2 (3. mph.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø d = 1.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø (3-3 mod.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. V = design speed.54 ç ç ç 9.278Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 2.5) + 1. the equation for braking distance should be modified as follows: (Page 114. PE Sample Problem A-23: Stopping Sight Distance on a Flat Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a flat grade. 5th edition) Table A-12 Braking Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary V d= ææ a ö ö 2.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.Mansour.) where: t = brake reaction time. a = deceleration rate.5 s. km/h.47 (60)(2. 2.) .0 ft given in AASHTO 11. ft/s2 (11. 2.075 = 220.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. V = design speed.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100.passpe. km/h. Shahin A.54 ç ç ç 9. m/s2 (3. G = percent of grade divided by 100.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100. a = deceleration rate. a = deceleration rate. Solution V2 d = 1.2 ft/s2) Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Table A-13 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary d = 0.47 Vt + 1.M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. G = percent of grade divided by 100.04 ft versus 566. mph. 2004 edition. V = design speed. a = deceleration rate.1.2 A.54 = 566.2 ft/s2) Part I.4 m/s2) 60 where: t = brake reaction time. ft/s2 (11.3.Chapter A: Geometric Design .4 m/s2) V2 d= (3-3) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.075 AASHTO (3-2) a 60 2 d = 1.5 s.50 + 345.2 Stopping Sight Distance On a Grade: When a highway is on a grade. V = design speed.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.M. page 115.Chapter A: Geometric Design 61 . 2004 edition.passpe. the stopping distances needed on upgrades are shorter than the one on level roadways.2 ö 6 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.) d = 1.) . Mansour. Shahin A.www.5) + versus 638 ft (above table) Part I.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. (Exhibit 3-2. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.42 ft æ æ 11.100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod. Solution: d = 1. 5th edition) Table A-14 Stopping Sight Distance on Grades Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 20 32 50 66 87 110 136 164 194 227 263 302 6% 20 35 50 70 92 116 144 174 207 243 281 323 9% 20 35 53 74 97 124 154 187 223 262 304 350 3% 19 31 45 61 80 100 123 148 174 203 234 267 6% 18 30 44 59 77 97 118 141 167 194 223 254 9% 18 29 43 58 75 93 114 136 160 186 214 243 Design speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 80 116 158 205 257 315 378 446 520 598 682 771 866 965 6% 82 120 165 215 271 333 400 474 553 638 728 825 927 1035 9% 85 126 173 227 287 354 427 507 593 686 785 891 1003 1211 3% 75 109 147 200 237 289 344 405 469 538 612 690 772 859 6% 74 107 143 184 229 278 331 388 450 515 584 658 76 81 9% 73 104 140 179 222 269 320 375 433 495 561 631 704 782 Sample Problem A-24: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 6%.47 (60)(2. and those on down grades are longer.2 ÷ .2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 60 2 = 637. PE As can be seen from the above equations that.

M.2 ö 9 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.5 mph and an upgrade of 9% is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 495 ft 528 ft 561 ft 631 ft V2 d = 1.5 ö 30 ç ç ÷ ç 32.08 ft Answer: (B) æ æ 11. Sample Problem A-26: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 62.47Vt + AASHTO (3-3 mod.) 60 2 d = 1.passpe.5) + = 527.5) + = 616.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Sample Problem A-25: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 4.47 (62.77 ft Answer: (C) æ æ 11.2 ö 4.2 ÷ 100 ÷ ø èè ø versus 618 ft (linear interpolation between 3% and 6% from the above table).com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.47 (60)(2.Mansour.2 ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.5 d = 1.www.) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.2 ÷ + 100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø versus 528 ft (linear interpolation between 60 mph and 65 mph from the above table) Note: Design speed normally reported in a 5 mph increments.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ÷ ± G÷ ç 32.) . 62 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 62.5)(2.5% is most nearly: (A) 638 ft (B) 628 ft (C) 617 ft (D) 598 ft Solution: d = 1.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. The truck driver is able to see substantially farther beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher position of the seat in the vehicle. especially the larger and heavier units. Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Trucks as a whole.M. need longer stopping distances for a given speed than passenger vehicles.www.passpe.) .1. Mansour. Shahin A. However.3.Chapter A: Geometric Design 63 .3 Variations for Trucks: The recommended stopping sight distances given in the previous table and the equations are based on passenger car operation and don not explicitly consider design for truck operation. there is one factor that tends to balance the additional barking lengths for trucks with those for passenger cars. PE A.

www. Figure A-18 Elements of Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-4 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. the minimum passing sight distance for two lane highways is determined as the sum of the following four distances: d1 = Distance traversed during perception and reaction time during the initial acceleration to the point of encroachment on the left lane. PE A.3.Mansour. or of d2 above. 5th edition) Part I. Passing must be accomplished assuming an oncoming vehicle comes into view and maintains the design speed. after the overtaking maneuver is started. d4 = Distance traversed by the opposing vehicle for two-thirds of the time the passing vehicle occupies the left lane.passpe.M. Shahin A.) . without reduction. d3 = Distance between the passing vehicle at the end of its maneuver and the opposing vehicle. d2 = Distance traveled while the passing vehicle occupies the left lane.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Per AASHTO Standards.2 Passing Sight Distance: Passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required for the driver of one vehicle to pass another vehicle safely and comfortably. 2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design 64 .

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.5 99. acceleration rates in mph/sec. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 45 9.25 3.3 314 90 209 726 US Customary Speed range (mph) 30-40 40-50 56-60 60-70 Average passing speed (mph) 34. Mansour. acceleration rates in km/h/s. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. speed values are in km/h. Shahin A.0 66 10. observe values adjusted slightly. speed values are in mph.40 3.3 289 10.30 4.9 43.8 52.Chapter A: Geometric Design 65 .7 827 250 552 1918 1.0 84.7 251 75 168 583 2.M. Note: In the metric portion of the table. In the U. customary portion of the table.47 4. 2004 edition.0 643 180 429 1468 1.www. and distances are in meters.5 113 11. d3.3 477 100 318 1040 1.3 89 10.0 1.43 4.passpe.0 216 10. and d4 for two-lane highways Part I.) . page 124.50 4.8 2.37 4.0 195 55 130 446 2.3 145 30 97 317 2. 5th edition) Component of passing maneuver Initial maneuver a =average accelerationa t1=time (sec)a d1=distance traveled Occupation of left lane: t2 = time (sec)a d2 = distance traveled Clearance length: d3 = distance traveleda Opposing vehicle: d4 = distance traveled Total dist. 5th edition) Table A-16 Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways Metric Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (km/h) (m) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (km/h) Exhibit for vehicle vehicle 3-6 design 29 44 200 200 30 36 51 266 270 40 44 59 341 345 50 51 66 407 410 60 59 74 482 485 70 65 80 538 540 80 73 88 613 615 90 79 94 670 670 100 85 100 727 730 110 90 105 774 775 120 94 109 812 815 130 US Customary Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (mph) (ft) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (mph) Exhibit 3for vehicle vehicle 6a design 18 28 706 710 20 22 32 897 900 25 26 36 1088 1090 30 30 40 1279 1280 35 34 44 1470 1470 40 37 47 1625 1625 45 41 51 1832 1835 50 44 54 1984 1985 55 47 57 2133 2135 60 50 60 2281 2285 65 54 64 2479 2480 70 56 66 2578 2580 75 58 68 2677 2680 80 a Exhibit 3-6 is the graph showing the total passing sight distance and its components (d1 .3 1030 300 687 2383 For consistent speed relation.61 145 9. page 120. 2004 edition.2 70.41 4.6 62.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5 366 11.d2. = d1+ d2 + d3 + d4 a Metric Speed range (km/h) 50-65 66-80 81-95 96-110 Average passing speed (km/h) 56. and distances are in feet (Exhibit 3-7. PE Table A-15 Elements of Safe Passing Sight Distance for Design of two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-5.S.

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Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Per ASSHTO, the minimum passing sight distances presented in Exhibit 3-7 (page124) are generally conservative for modern vehicles. Notice that the difference in speed between the passed and passing vehicles which is 10 mph.

**Figure A-19 Total Passing Sight Distance and Its Components for Two-Lane Highways
**

(Exhibit 3-6 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 66

www.passpe.com

Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License ©

Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE

Sample Problem A-27: Passing Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The passing sight distance for a design speed of 55 mph assumed the passed vehicle is at 44 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-7 (Table A-19), the passing sight distance is 1985 ft. Answer: (B) 1835 ft 1985 ft 2135 ft 2285 ft

**A.3.3 Length of Crest Vertical Curves and Sight Distances:
**

Minimum lengths of crest vertical curves based on sight distance criteria generally are satisfactory from the standpoint of safety, comfort, and appearance.

(Page 267- AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Table A-17 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Sight Distances Metric

US Customary Where S is less than L, (S < L)

Crest Vertical Curve Length & Sight Distances (SSD & PSD)

Where S is less than L, (S < L)

L=

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

L=

2

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

2

(3-41)

Where S is greater than L, (S > L)

**Where S is greater than L, (S > L)
**

2

L = 2S -

200 ( h1 + h2 ) A

200 ( h1 + h2 ) 2 L = 2S A

(3-42)

where: L = length of vertical curve, m; S = sight distance, m; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, m; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, m

where: L = length of vertical curve, ft; S = sight distance, ft; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, ft; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, ft

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

67

www.passpe.com

Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

**Figure A-20 Parameters Considered in Determining the Length of a Crest Vertical Curve to Provide Sight Distances
**

(Exhibit 3-70 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

68

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

A = algebraic difference in grades. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Passing Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. m. US Customary Where S is less than L (S < L). percent Part I. A = algebraic difference in grades. percent where: L = length of vertical curve.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 ft (object) (Page 268. A = algebraic difference in grades. (3-45) L = 2S - 864 A L = 2S - 2800 A (3-46) where: L = length of vertical curve. the equations become: Table A-18 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Stopping Sight Distance for Heights of 3. AS 2 L= 658 Where S is greater than L. 2004 edition.5 ft is used for passing sight distance.passpe. AS 2 L= 864 Where S is greater than L. are used for stopping sight distance.) . 2004 edition. US Customary Where S is less than L. S = sight distance. m. AS 2 L= 2158 Where S is greater than L (S > L). S = sight distance. ft. Shahin A.5 ft (eye) for Both Drivers (Page 270. AS 2 L= 2800 Where S is greater than L.Chapter A: Geometric Design 69 . the equations become: Table A-19 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Passing Sight Distance for Height of 3.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. percent When the height of eyes of the two drivers is 3.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.5 ft (eye) and 2. m. S = sight distance.www. (3-43) L = 2S - 658 A L = 2S - 2158 A (3-44) where: L = length of vertical curve. PE When the height of eye and the height of object are 3.5 ft and 2. m.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. A = algebraic difference in grades. Mansour.0 ft respectively. percent where: L = length of vertical curve. ft. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Stopping Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. ft. S = sight distance. ft.

K = L/A= 1/r Table A-21 Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-73 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.1 83.6 383.passpe.6 1.0 6.9 52.1 18. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance (PSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Passing sight distance (m) 200 270 345 410 485 540 615 670 730 775 815 Rate of vertical curvature.6 95. Ka Calculated 0. 2004 edition.4 Design 1 2 4 7 11 17 26 39 52 74 95 124 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.7 38.0 123.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 43. K* design 46 84 138 195 272 338 438 520 617 695 769 Design Speed (mph) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Passing sight distance (ft) 710 900 1090 1280 1470 1625 1835 1985 2135 2285 2480 2580 2680 Rate of vertical curvature.Chapter A: Geometric Design 70 . Shahin A.5 29.1 60.M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Ka Calculated 3. 2004 edition.0 73. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.9 3.Mansour.7 113. PE Table A-20 Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-72 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 16. K.7 Design 3 7 12 19 29 44 61 84 114 151 193 247 312 384 a Rate of vertical curvature.8 25.8 6.9 311.www.6 192. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature.4 11. K* design 180 289 424 585 772 943 1203 1407 1628 1865 2197 2377 2565 a Rate of vertical curvature. K.5 150. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).) . is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).8 246.1 11.

www. PE Figure A-21 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-71.Chapter A: Geometric Design 71 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.) . 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-71: Part I. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe. 2004 edition. Mansour. page 271. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.

percent Note: If S > L is assumed and equation (3-44) is used.) . where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V).The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. PE 1.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length. and 2% descending grade. Sample Problem A-28: Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on a Grade Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are + 4% ascending grade.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.6V). Table A-11) 72 Part I. (A) 940 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades.Chapter A: Geometric Design .passpe. S = sight distance.Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. ft. and 3. the following result will be obtained: L = 2S - 2158 2158 = 2 ´ 650 = 940. page 112.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. ft. 2. percent = g2 g1 = ( 2) (+4) = 6% OK (3-43) A S 2 6 ´ 650 2 L= = =1174 ft > SSD = 650 ft 2158 2158 where: L = length of vertical curve. the vertical curve is a crest Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-43) A = algebraic difference in grades. A = algebraic difference in grades.www.6V.M. Shahin A.33 ft > 650 ft = S A 6 Not Good (3-44) Answer: (B) Question: Can we use Figure A-21 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-71) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1.

5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). (3-48) 200 [ 0.4 Length of Sag Vertical Curves and Sight Distances: There are four different criteria for establishing lengths of sag vertical curves as follows: 1234headlight sight distance.6 + S tan 1o [ ( )] or.passpe.5 S ö L= 2 S . L. S = light beam distance.5 S ö L= 2S . A = algebraic difference in grades.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AS2 L= 400 + 3. Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves US Customary When S is less than L( S < L). PE A. m. Shahin A.0 + S tan 1o or.3. ft. and A.) . percent 73 Part I.6 + S (tan 1o )] L= 2S A or.ç ÷ A è ø (3-50) where: L = length of sag vertical curve. percent æ 400 + 3. 200[ 2. Mansour. drainage control. and general appearance Figure A-22 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for Sag Vertical Curves The following equation show the relationships between S.0 + S (tan1o )] L= 2 S A or.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L).Chapter A: Geometric Design . using S as the distance between the vehicle and point where the 1-degree (1 ) upward angle of the light beam intersects the surface of the roadway. (3-49) æ 120 + 3.ç ÷ A è ø where: L = length of sag vertical curve. 5th edition) Metric When S is less than L ( S < L). ft. AS 2 L= 200 0. m. Table A-22 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves for 1-Degree Upward Angle (Page 273.M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AS 2 L= 200 2. passenger comfort.www. 2004 edition. A = algebraic difference in grades. [ ( )] (3-47) AS 2 L= 120 + 3.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. S = light beam distance.

rather than in the same direction.1 95.7 114.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Ka Calculated 2. m. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A). AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 54.www. mph * The length of sag vertical curves are based on centripetal acceleration does not exceed 1 ft/s2 [0. Percent.8 72. V = design speed.4 62.3 m/s2] (Exhibit 3-75. Ka Calculated 9. Percent. V = design speed.M. 5th edition) Table A-24 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves Metric Design Controls for Sag Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature. The following table gives the sag vertical curve length taken into consideration the comfort of the driver of sag curves.6 29.6 231.4 16. PE The effect on passenger comfort of the change in vertical curve direction is greater on sag than on crest vertical curves because gravitational and centripetal forces are in opposite directions.7 Design 3 6 9 13 18 23 30 38 45 55 63 73 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.1 5.Mansour.5 (3-51) where: L = length of sag vertical curve. A = algebraic difference in grades.5 36.4 49.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 63. page 277.4 78. 2004 edition.3 205.5 25.passpe.1 8.) . ft. A = algebraic difference in grades. 2004 edition. (Page 274.3 22. 5th edition) Table A-23 Length of Sag Vertical Curves Considering Comfort* Metric US Customary Length of Sag Vertical Curves for Comfort L= AV 2 395 L= AV 2 46. Shahin A.5 12. K.6 44. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.4 37.Chapter A: Geometric Design 74 .2 17.9 135.7 156.5 180. km/h where: L = length of sag vertical curve.0 Design 10 17 26 37 49 64 79 96 115 136 157 181 206 231 a Rate of vertical curvature.

passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A. PE Figure A-23 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-74.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition. Mansour. page 275.M.www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 75 . 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-74: Part I.

(A) 950 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. the following result will be obtained: æ 400 + 3. percent = G1 G2 = 4 (+2) = 6% AS2 6 ´ 6502 = = 947.G.5 S 400 + 3. ft. Table A-11) 76 Part I.) .M. AV 2 6 ´ 652 = = 545.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5 ´ 650 where: L = length of vertical curve.passpe.ç ÷ = 2 ´ 650 . where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V).If S > L is assumed and equation (3-50) is used.www.5 Answer: (A) Question: Can we use Fig. ft. and 3. A-22 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-74.Mansour.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V.42 ft A 6 è ø è ø (3-50) But 854.42 ft > SSD = 650 ft ® N .66 ft > 650 ft 400 + 3.6V).The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length.2 ft < 854.5 46.Chapter A: Geometric Design .Check the curve length for comfort: L = 46. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. page 275) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. A = algebraic difference in grades. Sample Problem A-29: Vertical Curve Length and SSD Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are 4% ascending grade.5 ´ 650 ö L= 2S .6V. S = sight distance. 2.ç ÷ = 854. percent L= OK (3-48) Notes: 1.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0. the vertical curve is sag Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-48) A = algebraic difference in grades. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.5 S ö æ 400 + 3.42 ft (3-51) 2. PE 1. and + 2% descending grade.

) . select an appropriate speed and path.039 a Where: t = pre-maneuver time.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Avoidance Maneuver D: Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.0 s 2.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.M. a = deceleration rate.passpe.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers C.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers A and B (Page 117. km/h d = 1. km/h.www. mph 77 Part I. D & E US Customary d = 0. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book).278 Vt + 0. 2004 edition. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights).Avoidance Maneuver C: Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10. s (see types of maneuvers above).9 s 5. m/s2 (3. D. It is longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the distance traveled while making a more complex decision. Mansour.47 Vt (3-5) Where: t = pre-maneuver time. mph.1 s 3.278 Vt Where: t = pre-maneuver time.Avoidance Maneuver A: Stop on rural road t = 3. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3.075 V2 a (3-4) Where: t = pre-maneuver time. There are five maneuvers as follows: 1. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed.5 s Table A 25.5 feet) above the pavement.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed.3. The decision sight distance is "distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered.2 s 4.47 Vt + 1. PE A. V = design speed.1 and 12. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers C. V = design speed.4 m/s2) d = 1.2 and 11. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers A&B US Customary V2 d = 0. and E (Page 117. a = deceleration rate.Avoidance Maneuver E: Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.Chapter A: Geometric Design . s (see types of maneuvers above).5 Decision Sight Distance: Decision sight distance is used when drivers must make decisions more complex than stop or don't stop. and initiate and complete the required maneuver safely and efficiently.2 ft/s2) Table A 26.Avoidance Maneuver B: Stop on urban road t = 9.0 and 14. ft/s2 (11. recognize the hazard or its threat potential.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition. Shahin A.

PE (Exhibit 3-3.1 s (3-4) 50 2 d = 1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.9 s Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.Chapter A: Geometric Design .1) + 1.M.47 (50)(9.0 and 14.2 and 11.47 Vt + 1.Mansour.) .81 ft 11. Shahin A. 2004 edition.1 and 12. 5th edition) Table A-27 Decision Sight Distance Decision Sight Distance (DSD) Design speed (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Metric US Customary Decision sight distance (m) Design Decision sight distance (ft) speed Avoidance maneuver Avoidance maneuver (mph) A A B C D E B C D E 70 155 145 170 195 220 490 450 535 620 30 95 195 170 205 235 275 590 525 625 720 35 115 235 200 235 275 330 690 600 715 825 40 140 280 230 270 315 395 800 675 800 930 45 170 325 270 315 360 465 910 750 890 1030 50 200 370 315 355 400 535 1030 865 980 1135 55 235 420 330 380 430 610 1150 990 1125 1280 60 265 470 360 415 470 695 1275 1050 1220 1365 65 305 525 390 450 510 780 1410 1105 1275 1445 70 875 1545 1180 1365 1545 75 970 1685 1260 1455 1650 80 Avoidance Maneuver A: Avoidance Maneuver B: Avoidance Maneuver C: Avoidance Maneuver D: Avoidance Maneuver E: Stop on rural road t = 3.passpe.0 s Stop on urban road t = 9.075 = 908.5 s Sample Problem A-31: Decision Sight Distance Given: The decision sight distance for a speed of 50 mph and a maneuver B is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO equation (3-4): 435 ft 690 ft 800 ft 910 ft V2 d = 1.1 s Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www.2 s Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.2 Using Table: 910 ft (from the above table) Answer: (D) 78 Part I. page 116.075 a For maneuver B: t is 9.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

) D = distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail.2 ft/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.) driver deceleration.M. this value is 5 ft) 79 Part I.039 sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (m) sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (m) speed of the vehicle (km/h) speed of the train (km/h) perception/reaction time. which is assumed to be 2. which is assumed to be 65 ft W = distance between outer rails (for a single track. Mansour. which is assumed to be 20 m distance between outer rails (for a single track.) a = driver deceleration.5 m distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle.) distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail. which is assumed to be 2.4 Intersection Sight Distance: Intersection sight distance is the decision needed to safely proceed through an intersection. which is assumed to be 3. right turn. PE A. this value is 1. page 734-735.www.47 B = constant = 1. which is assumed to be 8 ft L = length of vehicle. and the maneuver (left turn.4 m/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.278 constant = 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.Chapter A: Geometric Design .5 m) B Vv2 d H = AVvt + + D + de a dT = (9-3) VT B Vv2 [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a dT = Vv = VT = t = a = D = de = L = W = where: A = constant = 1.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. which is assumed to be 4.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. which is assumed to be 15 ft de = distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle. which is assumed to be 2.passpe. or proceeding straight).com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.4 m length of vehicle. Shahin A. The distance needed depends on the type of traffic control at the intersection.3. (Exhibit 9-103. which is assumed to be 11. 5th edition) Table A-28 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safely Cross or Stop Railroad Crossing Metric US Customary B Vv2 d H = AVv t + + D + de a B Vv2 V d T = T [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a where: A = B = dH = constant = 0.075 dH = sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (ft) dT = sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (ft) Vv = speed of the vehicle (mph) VT = speed of the train (mph) t = perception/reaction time.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 2004 edition.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) Figure A-24 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safety or Stop at Railroad Crossing 80 Part I. PE (Exhibit 9-103.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design . page 735.M. Shahin A.

3 ft 2a1 (2)(1.45) W = distance between outer rails for a single track.5m V2 da = G 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (2.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. which is assumed to be 2.47 (9-4) dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (ft) VT = speed of train (mph) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. 2004 edition.www. which is assumed to be 2. which is assumed to be 4.1m 2a1 (2)(0. Shahin A.278 dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (m) VT = speed of train (km/h) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. this value is 5 ft 2 VG da = 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (8. which is assumed to be 15 ft J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift. 5th edition) Metric US Customary éV ù L +2 D + W .8) 2 = = 26. Mansour. which is assumed to be 65ft D = distance from stop to nearest rail. which is assumed to be 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 81 .d a dT =AVT ê G + +Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 1.47 ft/s2 L = length of vehicle.47) Part I. which is assumed to be 2.7 m/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear.0 s W = distance between outer rails for a single track. this value is 1.passpe.8 ft/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear. which is assumed to be 0.45 m/s2 L = length of vehicle.5 m J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift.M.d a dT = AVT ê G + + Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 0. which is assumed to be 8.7) 2 = = 8.) .0 s éV ù L +2 D + W . which is assumed to be 20 m D = distance from stop to nearest rail.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE Table A-29 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) .M. page 738. 5th edition) 82 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .passpe.Mansour. Shahin A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www. 2004 edition. PE Figure A-25 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105.

5) + + 15 + 5 = 380 ft a 11.2 Alternate Solution (short cut): Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-1(page 112): Stopping sight distance (SSD) for 45 mph = 360 ft (design SSD) The total distance = SSD + D + de = 360 + 15 + 5 = 380 ft (9-3) Answer: (B) Part I.47) (45)(2.075 ( 45) 2 d H = AVv t + + D + d e = (1. Shahin A. and the driver is located 5 ft back from the front bumper of the vehicle. The stop line is located 15 ft from the near side rail.M.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Assume AASHTOrecommended design values for perception reaction time.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. The required sight triangle distance (ft) along the highway for a vehicle to stop at the stop line for an approaching train is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Equation 9-3 (page 734): 360 380 440 560 B Vv2 1. PE Sample Problem A-32: Triangle Sight Distance Given: A vehicle is approaching a railroad track at a speed of 45 mph.Chapter A: Geometric Design 83 .passpe.

g = gravitational constant. ft/s. m 84 0. PE A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.01 ef gR R 15R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation. Shahin A. v = vehicle speed. mph. g = gravitational constant. the centrifugal force is resisted by the vehicle weight component parallel to the superelevated surface and side friction between the tires and pavement. f = side friction (demand) factor. which must be offset by side friction.www. 5th edition) Table A-30 Formula for Vehicle Operation on a Curve Metric US Customary 0.4-1 Introduction: According to the laws of mechanics.0.01 e + f v 2 0. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity.passpe. The purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve. percent.067 V 2 V 2 = = = 1 .2 ft/s2 V = design speed. If the vehicle is not skidding. mph. when a vehicle travels on a curve it is forced outward by centrifugal force. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.01 ef gR R 127 R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation. these forces are in equilibrium as represented by the following equation.81 m/s2 V = design speed. m/s. because for any given curve radius a certain superelevation rate is exactly correct for only one driving speed. It is impractical to balance centrifugal force by superelevation alone.Mansour.01 e + f v 2 0. 32.) .4 SUPERELEVATION A.0. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity.079 V 2 V2 = = = 1 . ft (3-8) Part I.067 V 2 V 2 Centrifugal Force = e + f = = R 15 R (A-41) e = Superelevation slope in feet per foot emax = Maximum superelevation rate for a given condition f = Side friction factor R = Curve radius in feet V = Velocity in miles per hour The parameters that affect the superelevation formula are shown in the following table which are derived from the law of mechanics: (Page 131.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 9.M. which is used to design a curve for a comfortable operation at a particular speed: 0. f = side friction (demand) factor. percent. At all other speeds there will be a side thrust either outward or inward. On a superelevated highway. v = vehicle speed.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. relative to the curve center.

Shahin A. page 134.M. states. PE Side friction factors tabulated on by AASHTO for design purposes.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe. Figure A-26 Geometry for Ball-Bank Indicator (Top: Manual & Electronic Ball Bank) (Exhibit 3-9. 5th edition) (Page 146." The design side friction factors are. AASHTO. Mansour.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.01 emax + f max ) (3-10) Part I. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.01emax + f max ) Rmin V2 = 15 (0.Chapter A: Geometric Design 85 . therefore. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www. 5th edition) Table A -31 Minimum Radius Using emax and fmax Metric US Customary 2 Rmin V = 127 (0.) .35 at 60 mph. about one-third the values that occur when side skidding is imminent. studies show that the maximum side friction factors developed between new tires and wet concrete pavements range from about 0.5 at 20 mph to approximately 0. "In general.

17 0.13 0.0 371.0 6.2 533.7 230.15 0.0 203.1 280.09 0.9 833.7 437.0 6.16 0.12 0.0 6.19 0.0 3047.0 375.13 0.16 0.23 0.27 0.08 0.5 4 8 22 47 86 135 203 280 375 492 4 8 21 43 79 123 184 252 336 437 560 756 951 4.23 0.0 6.7 20.26 0.13 0.2 39.18 0.6 Rounded Radius (ft) 16 42 86 154 250 371 533 711 926 1190 1500 15 39 81 144 231 340 485 643 833 1060 1330 1660 2040 2500 3050 e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 4.0 6.46 0.32 0.12 0.0 4.14 4. 2004 edition.0 6.0 4.25 0.21 0.24 0.0 4.) .1 46.16 0.18 0.20 0.0 4.0 4.42 0.7 252.0 6.14 0.6 135.0 335.23 0.M.0 6.9 7.44 0.0 4.15 0.0 4.0 4.0 6.passpe.11 0.3 1656.0 6.23 0.0 6.15 0.12 0.0 154.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 6.9 1186.0 6.35 0.3 1500.8 340.29 0.16 0.44 0.9 2041.17 0.0 6.0 6.4 78.0 6.18 0.0 4.18 0.8 43.0 e (%) 0.27 0.38 0.0 6.0 4.0 6.0 4.0 4.7 2500.0 4.27 0.20 0.0 6.7 86.0 6.39 0.4 755.21 0.22 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .1 22.20 0.0 6.38 0.10 0.18 0.0 4.1 3. PE (Exhibit 3-15. 5th edition) Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f METRIC Maximum f Maximum Maximum US Customary Maximum Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 f Total (e/100+f) Calculated Radius (ft) 15.14 0.12 0.41 0.14 0.0 6.0 4.Mansour.33 0.19 0.8 143.0 15.14 86 Part I.17 0.0 6.17 0.16 0.9 950.36 0.08 0.24 0.0 6.34 0.09 0.23 0.17 0.www.2 492.19 0.0 4.3 484.19 0.32 0.40 0.4 1333.18 0.28 0.4 560.17 0.0 8.38 0.28 0.40 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.14 0. page 147.3 250.2 183.15 0.11 0.27 0.7 123.0 6.21 0.0 4.35 0.0 4.8 642.19 0.23 0.13 0.3 710.9 41.0 6.19 0.20 0.32 0.15 0.5 925.0 0.0 4.29 0.20 0.3 1061.0 6. Shahin A.15 0.5 80.22 0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.7 85.0 6.31 0.

08 0.5 97.0 8.32 0.3 14 38 76 134 214 314 444 587 758 960 1200 1480 1810 2210 2670 14 36 72 126 200 292 410 540 694 877 1090 1340 1630 1970 2370 13 34 68 119 188 272 381 500 641 807 1000 1220 1480 1790 2130 87 Part I.48 0.8 2205.0 10.13 0.11 0.22 0.10 0.0 8.23 0.5 667.4 13.31 0.0 1482.3 1633.22 0.0 8.19 0.0 10.16 0.09 0.12 0.0 12.23 0.08 0.15 0.16 0.2 67.7 410.17 0.0 18.12 0.09 0.3 357.35 0.0 694.3 4 7 19 38 68 105 154 210 277 358 454 597 739 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 12.0 8.0 12.www.1 444.0 10.40 0.3 200.0 10.4 6.3 1200.28 0.35 0.30 0.3 314.26 0.24 0.7 17.18 0.0 10.0 8.11 0.27 0.0 12.0 8.35 0.15 0. PE Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f (Continued) METRIC Maximum Maximum f Maximum US Customary Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) Calculate d Radius (ft) Maximum f Total (e/100+f) Rounded Radius (ft) e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 8.0 8.5 7.20 0.4 214.27 0.23 0.31 0.0 10.1 68.20 0.21 0.42 0.0 10.23 0.11 0.24 0.7 501.14 0.0 10.18 0.14 0.0 8.4 587.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.9 2666.9 1341.7 393.12 0.0 8.0 12.0 10.14 0.20 14.17 0.10 0.09 0.4 876.14 0.52 0.12 0.2 539.26 0.21 0.0 e (%) 0.44 0.0 10.7 13.0 8.21 0.08 0.47 0.3 210.23 0.09 0.0 8.27 0.0 8.0 12.0 10.5 37.0 10.19 0.0 12.0 8.40 0.3 34.9 113.7 7.0 10.0 12.9 105.37 0.18 0.29 0.2 134.12 0.0 12.) .9 453.0 12.35 0.15 0.27 0.16 0.0 0.13 0.15 0.0 8.27 0.40 0.3 19.32 0.28 0.0 12.0 12.0 8.passpe.4 119.08 0.0 12.36 0.23 0.17 0.43 0.0 10.28 0.0 1224.8 1785.17 0.26 0.9 193.0 10.40 0.0 831.20 0.0 10.22 0.0 10.11 0.7 2133.30 0.6 1484.46 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 8.19 0.4 3 7 18 36 64 98 143 194 255 328 414 540 665 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 8.1 126.0 10.27 0.3 1973.8 739.0 8.0 291.22 0.0 8.35 0.14 0.09 0.0 12.0 12.0 12.33 0.18 0.24 0.24 0.0 187.28 0.0 0.7 72.38 0.8 1090.11 0.25 0.0 12.0 8.09 0.20 0.15 0.7 4 7 20 41 73 113 168 229 304 394 501 667 832 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 10.40 0.0 154.45 0.0 12.0 0.0 12.7 142.7 596.20 0.0 12.35 0.0 10.24 0.18 3.0 8.3 540.19 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.28 0.9 665.8 255.0 10.16 0.0 8.19 0.48 0.23 0.50 0.13 0.10 0.6 960.0 12.0 12.5 76.08 0.28 0.23 0.13 0. Shahin A.0 757.17 0.0 8.6 38.31 0.1 414.23 0.5 272.11 0.27 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M.0 8.14 0.0 12.5 1814.21 0.26 0.0 8.16 3.6 72.0 12.0 500.38 0.23 0.4 167.0 12.32 0.39 0.21 0.12 0.38 0.7 1000.2 381.25 0.0 12.0 641.0 10.13 0.7 36.0 277.0 63.08 0.7 40.19 0.18 0.38 0.9 35.25 0.0 10.8 229.0 8.0 12.0 10.32 0.20 0.1 328.0 10.0 12.25 0.19 0.13 0.23 0.20 3.0 10. Mansour.7 2370.0 806.33 0.21 0.0 10.50 0.1 303.0 10.29 0.0 8.14 0.

www. 5th edition) Look for a radius of 1090 ft (1090. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Mansour. 2004 edition.12 The rate of superelevation required for this curve is almost nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 6% 8% 10% 33% Solution: Ø Using AASHTO Equation 3-10 (Note: emax in the following equation is a percentage): Rmin V2 = 15 (0.01emax + f max ) 60 2 1091 = 15(0. V = 60 mph Radius (minimum safe) =1. Shahin A.M.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. the corresponding superelevation rate is 10% for a maximum friction of 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .12 Answer: (C) 88 Part I.01emax + 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.12) Solve the above equation for emax gives 10% (3-10) Ø Using Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f Table (Exhibit 3-15. page 147.9ft) and V of 60 mph.passpe. PE Sample Problem A-33: Superelevation Rate Given: A horizontal curve on a two-lane rural highway has the following characteristics: Design speed.091 ft Coefficient of side friction = 0.

because widths vary.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. In the case of highways. there will be a radial acceleration toward the center of the curve (toward the left in the diagram) of v2/ R. These forces are represented by two components: the normal forces N1. and. the profile grade line follows the lower rail. superelevation is expressed as a slope. PE A. Consider the force diagram in Figure A-27. and N2 and the lateral forces F1 and F2.passpe. In curves.M. Shahin A." Since most railways are built to a standard gage. the superelevations are given as the difference in elevation between the upper and lower rail. Mansour. Figure A-27 Force Diagram for Superelevation Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. For highway vehicles F1 and F2 are friction forces. so that: F1 £ m N1 £ f N1 F2 £ m N 2 £ f N 2 where m or f is the coefficient of friction between tires and roadway.4-2 Superelevation Runoff and Superelevation Diagram: As mentioned before. somewhat more complicated modifications of the cross section are required. If the vehicle is traveling around a curve with a radius R at a constant speed v.Chapter A: Geometric Design 89 . The term itself comes from railroad practice. where the top of the rail is the profile grade.) . the purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve. and the upper rail is said to be "superelevated. which will be opposed by a force of: Force = mass × acceleration = m×a = W/g) v2/ R (A-42) Other forces acting on the vehicle are its weight W and the forces exerted against the wheels by the roadway surface.

In flat country. comfort and pleasing appearance. the plane of superelevation may be rotated about the inside edge of traveled way to improve perception of the curve.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. Where the ultimate median width is greater than 65 feet. if not already on centerline. the axis of rotation should be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way. (ii) Conventional Highways-The axis of rotation should be considered on an individual project basis and the most appropriate case for the conditions should 2.M.passpe. In the latter case.www. However.Axis of Rotation (a) Undivided Highways: For undivided highways the axis of rotation for superelevation is usually the centerline of the roadbed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. (c) Divided Highways. Where the initial median width is greater than 65 feet and the ultimate median width is 65 feet or less. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline.Axis of Rotation 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design . the following parameters must be determined: 1. Shahin A. A superelevation transition should be designed to satisfy the requirements of safety. (b) Ramps and Freeway-to-freeway Connections: The axis of rotation may be about either edge of traveled way or centerline if multilane.Superelevation Transition: The superelevation transition generally consists of the crown runoff and the superelevation runoff as shown on Figure A-28. 90 Part I. To avoid sawtooth on bridges with decked medians. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline. PE In order to construct the superelevation diagram.) . the axis of rotation.Superelevation Transition 1. The length of superelevation transition should be based upon the combination of superelevation rate and width of rotated plane. the axis of rotation should normally be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way. in special cases such as desert roads where curves are preceded by long relatively level tangents. should be shifted to the centerline. (i) Freeways-Where the initial median width is 65 feet or less. except where the resulting initial median slope would be steeper than 10: 1. Appearance and drainage considerations should always be taken into account in selection of the axis of rotation. drainage pockets caused by superelevation may be avoided by changing the axis of rotation from the centerline to the inside edge of traveled way.

or when conforming to existing roadway.www. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 91 .) . This may be altered as required to adjust for flat spots or unsightly sags and humps.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Figure A-28 Superelevation Diagram and Roadway Cross Sections Figure A-29 Superelevation Transition (Elements) for a Curve to the right Part I. Mansour. This results in two-thirds of the full superelevation rate at the beginning or ending of a curve.M.passpe. PE Runoff. Two-thirds of the superelevation runoff should be on the tangent and one-third within the curve.

(Exhibit 3-76. 2004 edition.5 VERTICAL AND/OR HORIZONTAL CLEARANCES A. 5th edition) 92 Part I.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-31 Sight Distance at Undercrossing .M. The equation shown below will give the curve length in stations to meet certain cover or vertical clearance.5. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Shahin A.g 1 A. Figure A-30 Vertical Curve Length Under or Over Obstruction 2 2y ö æ b´ y æ y ö b+ +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç DG ø DG è DG ø è (A-43) where: L b y G = = = = length of vertical curve (stations) distance from vertex to point (stations) tangent offset to curve (ft) the absolute value of g 2 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE A.www.5. page 278.1 Vertical Curves Under or Over An Obstruction: Sometimes it necessarily to construct a vertical curve under a structure or over a utility pipe.2 Sight Distance at Undercrossing: Sight distance on the highway through a grade separation should be at least as long as the minimum stopping sight distance and preferably longer.

Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. h1 = height of eye.M. 2004 edition. m. ft. ft. ft. percent vertical clearance.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: L = length of vertical curve. ft.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. i. percent C = vertical clearance. height of object. ft. algebraic difference in grades.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C = h1 = h2 = length of vertical curve. S > L Case 2: Sight distance < curve length .e. percent C = vertical clearance. m. ft Table A-34 Case 2. S < L Table A-33 Case 1. h1 = height of eye. height of eye.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. S = sight distance.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C= h1 = h2 = (3-53) length of vertical curve. m AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . algebraic difference in grades. m æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. m. m. height of eye. S = sight distance. A = algebraic difference in grades. percent vertical clearance. Mansour. h2 = height of object. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S<L US Customary AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . 2004 edition. m. h2 = height of object. ft.www. ft. PE The following two tables show two cases for calculating the sag vertical curve length: Case 1: Sight distance > curve length . i. m. m. ft.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: (3-52) L = length of vertical curve. sight distance.) . 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S>L US Customary æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . m.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. height of object. A = algebraic difference in grades. ft Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 93 .e. Shahin A.passpe.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 278. sight distance.

S = sight distance. m. Shahin A. 94 Part I. A = algebraic difference in grades.Mansour.6 m] for the taillights of a vehicle.Chapter A: Geometric Design .passpe.M.0 ft [0.4 m] for a truck driver and an object 2. m. PE Using an eye height of 8.5) Where: (3-55) L = length of vertical curve. percent = vertical clearance. percent C = vertical clearance. = algebraic difference in grades. S = sight distance. the following equations for the sag vertical curve length can be derived: Table A-35 Case 1. AS 2 L= 800 (C . 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. m = length of vertical curve. ft. ft. m.1.) . = sight distance. 2004 edition. = algebraic difference in grades.5) A (3-54) = length of vertical curve. 2004 edition.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. S<L Metric US Customary AS 2 L= 800 (C . percent C = vertical clearance.5) A L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C . ft Table A-36 Case 2. percent = vertical clearance. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. ft.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. ft.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.1. A = algebraic difference in grades.0 ft [2.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 279. = sight distance.www. S>L Metric US Customary L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C . ft.5) Where: L = length of vertical curve. m. m.

M. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.89 Sta.00 114.5 ft. A pipeline Express the answer in full station.4 + 3.8) ö æ +ç ÷ L = 2 ç1.00. Answer is A Part I.00 %.5 ø è è 6 .40 ft.6) = 9.6 Sta.) .5.5 + 3. Shahin A.50 ft below the bottom of the pipe.89 Solution: 2( y ) ö b( y ) æ y ö æ +ç L = 2ç A + ÷ +4 ÷ DG ø DG è DG ø è 2 (A-32) b G y = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.8) æ 9. = curve elevation tangent elevation = (114.6(9.89 and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is (C) 18. Mansour.5 3 16. the curve length should be 1700 ft (17 Sta.0 ft (B) 17.0 = 6. The entering grade is 3.6 + ÷ +4 6. the minimum clearance required will be reduced. rounded to full station) curve is selected.5 ø = 17.passpe.www. % and the exiting grade is + 3.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a clearance of 16.80 ft 2 1.8 ö 2(9.Chapter A: Geometric Design 95 .5) (80.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. Here the minimum vertical clearance is 16.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. crosses the grade line at right angles at station (A) 17.50 ft (D) 18. Therefore.00 8 + 90.00 × 1.5 ft and if a 1800 ft (18 Sta.00 16.5 6. PE Sample Problem A-35: vertical curve length UNDER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at Find: The sag vertical curve that passes an elevation of 80.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) curve is selected.0 ft and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is 83.00. the curve length should be 900 ft (9 Sta.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location.00 (B) 8.40 ft.Chapter A: Geometric Design .6) = 3.6(3) æ 3 ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ = 8. L = 2 ç1.2 + 60 inches × ft/12 inches) (80.5 + 3. the minimum cover required will be reduced.94 Sta.) .M.www.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a cover of 60 inches (5 ft).5 ø è 2 Here the minimum cover is 60 inches (5 ft) and if a 800 ft (8 Sta.5 è 6 .94 (C) 9.6 + 6. Therefore.4 + 3. (A) 8. Find: Determine the vertical curve length rounded to the nearest full station that will provide the 60.00 (D) 9. PE Sample Problem A-36: vertical curve length OVER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at an elevation of 80.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.50 %. The entering grade is 3. = Curve elevation Tangent elevation = (83.passpe.00 ×1.6 Sta. Shahin A.00 ft 2(3) ö æ 1.5 ø 6 .20 ft. Answer: (C) NOTE: This is opposite to the previous sample problem where a smaller curve was selected compared to the calculated value to ensure minimum vertical clearance 96 Part I.Mansour. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3. A pipeline crosses the grade line at right angles at station 8 + 90.00 % and the exiting grade is + 3.0 inches clearance (cover) over the pipe. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3.84 Solution: 2( y ) ö æ b( y ) æ y ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç A+ DG ø DG è DG ø è b G y 2 (A-32) = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.0 = 6.

ft Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 . PE A.2 Horizontal Sight Distance: Figure A-32 Diagram Illustrating Components for Determining Horizontal Sight Distance (Exhibit 3-54.Chapter A: Geometric Design 97 . page 227. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance.M. ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset. 2004 edition. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Table A-26 Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) Metric Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) US Customary éæ 28. Shahin A.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û (3-38) where: S = Stopping sight distance. m HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5.www. ft R = Radius of curve. m R = Radius of curve.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .passpe.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. m éæ 28. Mansour. 5th edition) (Page 227.

Cos ÷ú = 844 êç1 .Cos ÷ú = 26.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design .61 ft Answer: (A) 98 Part I. Shahin A.65 S öù 28. éæ 28.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.M.Mansour. 3-54. ft Note: R is measured to the centerline of the inside lane. ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.) .65 ´ 425 öù HSO = R êç1 . The property owner adjacent to the of: highway wants to build a house on his land. ft R = Radius of curve.passpe.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. R = 850 ft 12ft/2 = 844 ft (3-38) S = 425 ft ( AASHTO Exhibit 3-1.www. PE Sample Problem A-37: Horizontal Sight Distance Given: A two lane conventional highway is Find: The house should be placed at from designed for 50 mph with a 850 ft centerline radius the edge of pavement at distance (in feet) and 12 ft lanes.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. (A ) 21 (B) 26 (C) 27 (D) 32 Solution: The house should be placed away from the sight distance as required per AASHTO Exh.61 ft 6 ft = 20.61 ft R øû 844 øû ëè ëè The distance from the edge of pavement = HSO ½ (lane width) = 26. page 112) éæ éæ 28.

passpe. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.6 ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION A. 2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design 99 .6. Mansour. page 833. 5th edition) Figure A-33 Typical Gore Area Characteristics Part I.1 Definitions and Terms Related to Acceleration and Deceleration: (Exhibit 10-59.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Shahin A.www. PE A.M.

L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH. Shahin A.6 m [2 ft]. 3. 5th edition) Figure A-34 Typical Single Lane Entrance Ramps 100 Part I. (Exhibit 10-69.passpe. page 833. 2. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. 4. PE 1. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. THE VALUE OF La OR L g. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Chapter A: Geometric Design . WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.www. 2004 edition. L a SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP.) .Mansour.

Shahin A. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP. page 858. 2.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. 3. L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH.) .M. (Exhibit 10-76. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.www. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 101 . 4. 2004 edition.6 m [2 ft].Civil Breadth (Transportation A. THE VALUE OF La OR L g. La SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. 5th edition) Figure A-35 Typical Two-Lane Entrance Ramps Part I. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE. PE 1.passpe.

2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design 102 .www. Va 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 (km/h) (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 37 45 53 60 67 74 81 88 60 95 150 200 260 345 430 545 50 80 130 180 245 325 410 530 30 65 110 165 225 305 390 515 45 90 145 205 285 370 490 80 70 65 115 175 255 340 460 65 125 205 290 410 35 110 200 325 40 125 245 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 400 m.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. L(ft) for entrance curve design speed (mph) Stop Highway 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 condition Design Speed and initial speed.) .M. V reached.passpe. V a¢ (km/h) speed. V reached. V a¢ (mph) speed. page 847. L(m) for entrance curve design speed (km/h) Stop Highway 20 30 40 50 60 70 condition Design Speed and initial speed.Mansour. US Customary Acceleration length. 5th edition) Part I. Shahin A. PE Metric Acceleration length.300 ft V = design speed of highway (km/h) Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on entrance curve (km/h) Figure A-36 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-70. Va 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 (mph) (mph) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 50 53 55 180 280 360 560 720 960 1200 1410 1620 1790 140 220 300 490 660 900 1140 1350 1560 1730 160 270 440 610 810 1100 1310 1520 1630 50 44 210 120 380 280 160 550 450 350 130 780 670 550 320 150 1020 910 800 550 420 1220 1120 1000 770 600 1420 1350 1230 1000 820 1580 1510 1420 1160 1040 180 370 580 780 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 1.

) . page 851. PE Metric Deceleration length.passpe. V reached. Mansour. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Part I. VN (mph) Stop condition 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Va (km/h) (km/h) 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 70 50 47 60 55 70 63 80 70 90 77 100 85 110 91 120 98 V = design speed of highway (km/h) VN = design speed of exit curve (km/h) 75 70 60 45 95 90 80 65 55 110 105 95 85 70 55 130 125 115 100 90 80 55 145 140 135 120 110 100 75 60 170 165 155 145 135 120 100 85 180 180 170 160 150 140 120 105 200 195 185 175 170 155 140 120 Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (km/h) US Customary Deceleration length. Va (mph) (mph) 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 44 30 28 35 32 40 36 45 40 50 44 55 48 60 52 65 55 70 58 75 61 V = design speed of highway (mph) VN = design speed of exit curve (mph) 235 280 320 385 435 480 530 570 615 660 200 170 140 250 210 185 150 295 265 235 185 155 350 325 295 250 220 405 385 355 315 285 225 175 455 440 410 380 350 285 235 500 480 460 430 405 350 300 540 520 500 470 440 390 340 590 570 550 520 490 440 390 635 620 600 575 535 490 440 Va = average running speed on highway (mph) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (mph) 240 280 340 390 Figure A-37 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-73.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 103 . L(m) for design speed of exit curve VN (km/h) Stop condition 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve V a¢ (km/h) speed. V a¢ (mph) speed.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V reached. Shahin A. L(ft) for design speed of exit curve.

85 2.3 1.4 1.4 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.4 2.3 1.5 1.9 1.www. page 848.45 1.5 0.M.2 2.65 0.3 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5 0.6 0.8 2.2 80 All speeds 3 to 4 % downgrade 0.6 1.35 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.8 2.1 1.passpe.6 1.6 5 to 6 % downgrade 0.7 0.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Part I.8 2.5 1.55 0.7 1.5 1.4 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design 104 .5 1.6 1.55 1.9 2.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 20 30 40 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.5 1.6 1.5 50 60 70 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.675 0.6 0.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.2 2.5 1.6 0.5 1.6 5 to 6% downgrade 0.05 2.7 1.2 2.8 1.0 3.6 2.0 3.8 2.2 2.9 1.6 0.3 1.5 1.55 0.5 2.8 1.7 5 to 6% upgrade 1.) .4 1.0 2.7 5 to 6 % upgrade 1.8 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1. PE Metric Design speed of highway (km/h) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (km/h) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.2 2.6 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 0.7 1.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.65 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.35 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.0 Ratio from this table multiplied by the length in Exhibit 10-70 or Exhibit 10-73 gives length of speed change lane on grades Figure A-38 Speed Change Lane Adjustment Factors as a Function of Grade (G > 2%) (Exhibit 10-71.0 2.575 0.6 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.6 0.4 1.45 1.5 3. Shahin A.9 2.6 50 All speeds 3 to 4% downgrade 0.625 0.0 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.525 0.65 0.6 1.5 2.5 0.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.8 1.7 1.Mansour.5 3.6 0.75 3.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 40 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 a US Customary Design Speed of highway (mph) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (mph) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.7 1.05 1.55 0.3 1.5 0.6 1.7 2.7 1.7 1.7 0.3 1.6 0.45 1.

D) 810 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.www.M.passpe. The grade (A) 1.120 highway speed is 70 mph. (C) 1.420 (D) 1. and the highway speed is 70 mph.390 at the merging point is 2%. and the B) 1.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 0. Shahin A. PE Sample Problem A-38: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a tangent Find: The minimum acceleration section of freeway mainline as a parallel-type length L (ft) needed for the entrance.60 = 810 ft Answer: (D) Civil Transportation Depth (P.) Practice Problems Solutions 105 . Mansour.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.350 of the ramp is +1.580 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. The entrance A) 1.0%.0% and the grade of the freeway (B) 1. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 0. The entrance ramp design speed is 30 entrance is most nearly: mph. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-39: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance. The grade of C) 910 the ramp is 4.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph.

The C) 2. Mansour. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed = 30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 1. PE Sample Problem A-40: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance.160 grade of the ramp is +4.970 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 1.) Practice Problems Solutions . Shahin A.60 = 2160 ft Answer: (C) 106 Civil Transportation Depth (P.0%.passpe.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr. The entrance A) 1.M.580 freeway mainline speed is 70 mph.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph. and the B) 1.www. D) 2.

www. PE Civil Transportation Depth (P.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr. Shahin A. Mansour.passpe.) Practice Problems Solutions 107 .M.

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