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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Well Organized, Based on the Latest California Board Test Plan and NCEES Exam Specifications, Detailed Tables of Contents, Computer Generated Index (12 pages), Simplified Concepts, 104 Practice Problems with Detailed Solutions.

The that has: · A comprehensive summary of equations, tables, and charts you need for the exam. All what you need at one location and at your fingertips. · Separate AM and PM topics. Focus and study only the sections you need.

only book

Transportaion

Engineering Module

for

Civil PE License

Separate Breadth (AM) & Depth (PM) Topics Per NCEES

A Concise & Comprehensive Summary of Construction Engineering Equations (Code & Non-Code), Tables, Charts, and Figures is Provided for a Quick Access in the Exam

**Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE
**

First Edition

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Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

ISBN ????????? © 2011 Professional Engineering Services (PES)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, without a written permission from the author. The author can be reached by email: info@passpe.com

Current printing of this edition 1

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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Preface

O

ur next generation of Civil PE books were carefully developed by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E., a nationally recognized expert in PE Exam Preparation courses and founder of Professional Engineering Services, Inc., (PES). This generation is quickly becoming the Best in Class solution for engineering professionals working to pass upcoming California Board and NCEES exams. Each and every book in this comprehensive collection has been prepared with your readiness in mind and will serve as a powerful guide throughout your PE Exam Preparation studies in Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying concentrations. Dr. Mansour has taught and spoken to thousands of engineers and has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying, and EIT/FE classes for the past 22 years enabling his products, classes, and seminars to continuously evolve and adapt to the changing demands of this challenging field. His real-world experience and intercommunication with so many engineers throughout America has greatly improved his ability to craft concise and knowledgeable resources that work for professionals striving to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam and other California special exams. One of the primary advantages of PES preparation books is their compact and succinct format. The experiences and feedback of engineering students and professionals that have worked with these materials affirms our effective use of good, factual diagrams and illustrations to more fully explain concepts throughout each text. In fact, Dr. Mansour makes great use of this style of teaching through figures, comparative tables, charts, and illustrations to concisely convey important information to engineers preparing for the exam. The primary focus of each book in our collection is targeted on subjects that are directly relevant to the PE exam. This method provides substantial time savings to students that simply don t have the wherewithal to digest leading competitive volumes, which typically exceed 1,000 pages. Another strong asset of these next generation books is the separation of Breadth (a.m.) and Depth (p.m.) topics. Each Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying book is organized in accordance with the most current exam specifications and has matured since their inception through the inputs, complaints, wishes, and other feedback given from course participants and colleagues for over 22 years. Recent changes in the format of the Civil PE exam have made it necessary to address the change from essay to multiple choice problems, separation of a.m. and p.m. sections, and the introduction of the construction module. The books improved organization is completed with a very detailed Table of Contents, which addresses both the a.m. and p.m. subjects and more, making them a favored resource for preparation as well as exam time. The best part in all this growth and continuous improvement is the ability to apply this knowledge and experience to our supplemental products developed to give you the best head start for passing your Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Every book, DVD, seminar, and accompanying Problems & Solutions workbooks are designed with all relevant codes, topics, board test plans, and NCEES exam specifications. And, these study materials and seminars, also manage to cover these fields of study in the same order as listed in the latest exam specifications for easy reference at-a-glance. Not only are our next generation books written to be current and well-organized to save you time during exam preparation and test taking; they are also affordable and authored by a highly qualified and nationally recognized Civil Engineering Professor. Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. His easy, step-bystep approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. We hope that you ll find the many resources at Professional Engineering Services, Inc. to be exceptional textbooks, DVDs, and seminars and as valuable a resource as we believe them to be.

for the last 20 years. concepts. His easy. 2. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. Mansour taught Civil Engineering Courses for 7 years at New Mexico State University (NMSU). The following is a suggested strategy preparation for the exam: 1. has been teaching PE. Dr. Fresno. Professional Engineering Services (PES) and the author are in no way responsible for the failure of registrants in the exam. PE Disclaimer This publication is to help the candidates for the Transportation Module for PE Civil License.Have all references organized before you start. concepts. step-by-step approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages.Remember the D3 rule: DO NOT EXPECT THE EXAM TO BE EASY DO NOT PANIC DO NOT WASTE TOO MUCH TIME ON A SIGNLE EASY. Also.Read the questions and ALL answers carefully and look for KEY WORDS in the question and the 4 possible answers. PES and the author at their discretion. 5.Work on questions that require lengthy calculations and record your answers on the answer sheet.Never leave an answer blank 7. Errata Notification PES and the author have made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this publication is accurate.Mansour. may or may not issue written errata. Seismic. or in the way they are interpreted by the registrants or others.www. Mansour.com How to Use This Book This book was written to help you prepare for the PE-Civil.Solve the easy questions first (ones that need no or minimum calculations) and record your answers on the answer sheet. Shahin A. 4. This publication expresses the opinion of the author.passpe.Questions that seem difficult or not familiar to you and may need considerable time in searching in your references should be left to the end 6. familiarize yourself with the comprehensive summary provided in this book. CA. information. information. Las Cruces. he has been teaching Civil and Construction Engineering Courses (graduate & undergraduate) at CSU. USA.com. 3. and suggestions and the use of this material in preparation for the exam or using it during the exam. PE. those will be posted on the PES web site at http:// www. DIFFICULT. Also. NM.passpe. Surveying and EIT courses for the last 22 years. PES and the author welcome comments or corrections which can be emailed to info@passpe. 4 NCEES Exam Specifications . OR UNFAMILAR PROBLEM About the Author Dr. solutions. Every effort and care has been taken to ensure that all data. The author cannot assume or accept the responsibility or liability for errors in the data.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. and suggestions are as accurate as possible. solutions. Mansour has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Also. or liable for errors or omission in the solutions. Dr. Shahin A.

14.Mansour. .) Topics 1.www. 5... 8. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. .. 3. Shahin A. .. 3. 6.. ..M.. Intersection analysis ..) Topics 1. 10.. 7. Driver behavior and/or performance . Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs General Table of Contents 5 19.. 16. Traffic volume studies . . 4. Culvert design 2.. 13. transportation route A or transportation route B) .. Traffic control devices Pedestrian facilities .. Depth (P. 9.. PE TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Study Tips and Suggested Exam Strategy NCEES New Format for the PE (Civil) Exam List of References per NCEES Summary of the Equations Breadth (A. .M.g. Capacity analysis (future conditions) .. 11. Intersections and/or interchanges . Traffic impact studies . 5. Roadside clearance analysis Conflict analysis Work zone safety Accident analysis Hydraulics 1. 2.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. . 17. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow Hydrology 1. 2..passpe.. 12. Traffic signals .. 4. 15. . Horizontal curves Vertical curves Sight distance Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration . Speed studies .. Sight distance evaluation . Traffic capacity studies . 18. 6...

Mansour. Soil behavior.passpe. Engineering economics 1. Construction operations and methods (e.g. index properties.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Breadth (A. 21. soil classification soil compaction) 22. 23.. excavation / embankment) 24. flexible and rigid pavement design) .www.) Topics 24 Topics Total Number of Topics = 30 6 NCEES Exam Specifications . Engineering properties of soils and materials (e. Pavement structures (e.) Topics 6 Topics Depth (P. boring logs) .g.g. identification of types of soils. suitable or unsuitable.M. Shahin A..g. Soil mechanics analysis (e. PE 20. erosion control measures. Value engineering and costing .M.

com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. 7th edition.www. Washington. 2004 edition (5th edition). Washington. Traffic Engineering Handbook. DC. DC. Washington. Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. U. Roadside Design Guide. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials.PCA 8. Lexington . NCEES Exam Specifications 7 . PE The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination TRANSPORTATION Design Standards Effective Beginning with the April 2011 Examinations ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE 1. 2007. 2009. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. KY 2. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 3rd edition with 2006 Chapter 6 Update.ITE Notes Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Shahin A.S. 6th edition. Asphalt Institute. IL. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. DC. 14th edition. and 1998 supplement. DC. Including all changes adopted through November 14.MUTCD 7.Mansour.AASHTO 4-AI 5. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (GDPS-4-M)1993. Washington. 2009.. Transportation Research Board National Research Council.passpe.AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 2002. Washington. DC. Washington. Skokie. 2007.HCM 1 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000). DC. 2000 edition. Portland Cement Association. 2 6. The Asphalt Handbook (MS-4). 1.AASHTO 3.

PE NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering CIVIL BREADTH and TRANSPORTATION DEPTH Exam Specifications Effective Beginning with the April 2008 Examinations The civil exam is a breadth and depth examination. Construction sequencing 2. The exam uses both the International System of Units (SI) and the US Customary System (USCS).passpe. transportation. Estimating Quantities and Costs 1.Mansour. The exam is an 8-hour open-book exam. Examinees work all questions in the morning session and all questions in the afternoon module they have chosen. and application. Material testing (e. Shahin A. Resource scheduling 3. CONSTRUCTION 20% A. Cost estimating C. Earthwork Construction and Layout 1. It contains 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour AM session. asphalt) E. soil. and 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour PM session. including design. Some problems may require knowledge of engineering economics. Material Quality Control and Production 1. concrete.www. analysis. The design standards applicable to the Transportation PM exam are shown on the last page. Construction loads 8 NCEES Exam Specifications . Site layout and control B. The five areas covered in the civil examination are construction. The breadth exam contains questions from all five areas of civil engineering. structural.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Time-cost trade-off D. and water resources and environmental. Depth results are combined with breadth results for final score. The exam is developed with questions that will require a variety of approaches and methodologies. The depth exams focus more closely on a single area of practice in civil engineering. CIVIL BREADTH Exam Specifications Approximate Percentage of Examination I. Borrow pit volumes 3. Quantity take-off methods 2. The specifications for the AM exam and the Transportation PM exam are included here.g. Temporary Structures 1. Scheduling 1. The knowledge areas specified as examples of kinds of knowledge are not exclusive or exhaustive categories.. This means that examinees work the breadth (AM) exam and one of the five depth (PM) exams. geotechnical. Excavation and embankment (cut and fill) 2.

Engineering Properties of Soils and Materials 1. Pavement design criteria C. reinforcing) E. Boring log interpretation (e. Compaction 5. STRUCTURAL A. Braced and anchored excavations III. Compression 7. Shear diagrams 2. PE II. Stability analysis 4. Analysis 1. Consolidation 4. Soil classification 2. Materials 1. Loadings 1. Tension 6. Pressure distribution 2. Settlement F. Deflection D. Concrete (plain.Mansour.www. Combined stresses 8.. Shahin A. Bearing capacity 2. Flexure 4. Member Design 1. Live loads 3. Construction loads B. Shallow Foundations 1. Slabs-on-grade E. Earth Structures 1. Determinate analysis C. Mechanics of Materials 1. Subsurface Exploration and Sampling 1. Effective and total stresses D. Moment diagrams 3. GEOTECHNICAL A. Slope stability 2.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Slabs 3. Shear 5. Earth Retaining Structures 1.g. Footings 20% 20% NCEES Exam Specifications 9 . Structural steel (structural. Dead loads 2. Cantilever walls 3. Beams 2. Gravity walls 2. reinforced) 2. light gage. Lateral earth pressure 3. soil profile) B.passpe. Permeability 2. Soil Mechanics Analysis 1.

Detention/retention ponds D. duration. Collection systems (e. branch networks. Energy dissipation (e. WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 20% 20% A. Energy and/or continuity equation (e.g. TRANSPORTATION A. Geometric Design 1. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances 6.g.g. lift stations.g. Open-channel flow (e. Flow measurement open channel C. Stormwater collection (e. Manning s equation) 2.. stormwater inlets.. Flood plains/floodways 7.g..g. Pressure conduit (e. Water Treatment 1. Sight distance 4.. Hydraulics Open Channel 1. Superelevation 5. velocity control) 5. and frequency (IDF) curves 5.www. Hydraulic loading 2. Erosion 8. Friction and/or minor losses 5. Hydrographs application 4. Darcy-Weisbach Equation 4. single pipe. Hydrology 1. force mains) 3. Hydraulics Closed Conduit 1. Horizontal curves 2. Time of concentration 6. Pipe network analysis (e. Pump application and analysis B. gutter flow.g. Culvert design 3.passpe. Distribution systems Total 100% 10 NCEES Exam Specifications .. Spillway capacity 4.g.. Rainfall intensity. PE IV. pipeline design. infiltration. Storm characterization (e. street flow. Runoff analysis including Rational and SCS methods 7. Bernoulli) 2. hydraulic jump. rainfall measurement and distribution) 2. storm sewer pipes) 6. inflow) E. Wastewater Treatment 1. sewer networks. Closed pipe flow equations including Hazen-Williams.. Vertical curves 3. Shahin A. Storm frequency 3.Mansour. Acceleration and deceleration V..com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. loop networks) 6.

Conflict analysis C. Traffic control devices H.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Roadside clearance analysis B. Geometric Design A.Mansour. Accident analysis 15% NCEES Exam Specifications 11 . Speed studies D. and pavement design. Sight distance D. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances F.. Beginning with the April 2010 exam. Transportation Planning 22. Section V of the Transportation module has been broadened to permit testing in these important transportation knowledges. Approximate Percentage of Examination I.g. Traffic signals C.www. Driver behavior and/or performance II. Vertical curves C. Traffic Analysis A. Acceleration and deceleration G. transportation route A or transportation route B) B. Shahin A. PE National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Civil . Capacity analysis (future conditions) IV.passpe. Culvert design and pavement design are knowledges that have not been tested previously under the current Civil exam specifications. Traffic Safety A. Traffic capacity studies B. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. Intersection analysis E.5% A. Horizontal curves B. Work zone safety D. soils. Pedestrian facilities I. Sight distance evaluation G. Superelevation E. Traffic impact studies C.TRANSPORTATION Depth Exam Specifications A competent transportation engineer should have a basic knowledge in drainage. Intersections and/or interchanges III. Traffic volume studies F.5% 30% 7.

Culvert design 2. Boring logs) D. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow B. soil compaction) E. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs 25% C. soil behavior. Value engineering and costing F. Construction operations and methods (e. Engineering economics 1.g.. erosion control measures.g. PE V. Other Topics A. Hydraulics 1.Mansour. index properties.www. excavation/embankment) G. Shahin A. identification of types of soils.g. soil classification. Hydrology 1. flexible and rigid pavement design) 12 NCEES Exam Specifications . Pavement structures (e. suitable or unsuitable soil.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.g. Soil mechanics analysis (e. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e.

Mansour.passpe. Flow Charts.www. and Figures Per NCEES List of Topics and Exam Specifications Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 13 . Non-Code Equations. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Tables. PE A CONCISE & COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY Of TRANSPORTATION MODULE EQUATIONS & TOPICS Codes Equations.

Mansour.M.5% (9 questions) 14 Part I.www.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Traffic Analysis 22. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. PE I.

Mansour. PE II. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.Geometric Design 30% (12 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 15 .passpe.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Transportation Planning 7.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www. Shahin A.M.5% (3 questions) 16 Part I. PE III.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) .Mansour.

passpe.www. Shahin A. Traffic Safety 15% (6 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 17 .Mansour. PE IV.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

www.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Other Topics 25% (10 questions) 18 Part I.M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) .Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. PE V. Shahin A.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr. Shahin A.passpe.www.Mansour. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 19 .

Chapter A: Geometric Design .passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.www. Shahin A.M.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr. PE 20 Part I.

passpe.www.Mansour. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 21 . Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

Chapter A: Geometric Design . PE PART 1 Civil BREADTH (A.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.M. Shahin A.M.passpe.) Exam Specifications TRANSPORTATION 22 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.) .

5. Shahin A.M. Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration 24 .. . PE Transportation Breadth (A.46 .92 99 .. 2.) . Sight distance .www.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. Horizontal curves Vertical curves . 6.. Mansour. Part I.. 4... 3.84 .57 ..Chapter A: Geometric Design 23 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr..) Topics Chapter A: Geometric Design 1...

etc.Mansour. It is used on railroads and some modern highways. Circular Curves Compound Frequently the terrain will necessitate the use of a compound curve. Route surveying is the type of surveying to establish horizontal and vertical alignment for transportation facilities (highways. reverse. streets. the flatter the curve.Chapter A: Geometric Design . compound. Horizontal curves may be simple. whereas the spiral curve is based on a varying radius. This type of curve is the most often used. For safety reasons.www. Compound and reverse curves are treated as a combination of two or more simple curves. or spiral.1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A. railroads. . Spiral Curves The spiral is a curve which has a varying radius.).1 HORIZONTAL CURVES A. The following table explains the differences between types of horizontal curves. but curving in the same direction. Table A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves Simple The simple curve is an arc of a circle. This curve normally consists of two simple curves joined together. The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve. whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp. but curving in opposite directions.M. The larger the radius. this curve is seldom used in highway construction as it would tend to send an automobile off the road. a) Simple Circular (b) Compound (c) Reverse (d) Spiral Figure A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves The sharpness of the curve is determined by the choice of the radius (R).passpe. large radius curves are relatively flat. PE Chapter A: Geometric Design A. Reverse A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined together.1 Introduction: Horizontal curves are required for connecting tangents in route surveying. Its purpose is to provide a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve 24 Part I.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

1. Mansour.www. ) with minimal social. PE A.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design 25 . There are two definitions for degree of curve. Figure A-2 Horizontal (top) and Vertical (bottom) Alignments A. Shahin A. and financial impact. The horizontal alignment of a transportation facility consists of series of straight lines (tangents) and circular curves as shown below. sight distance.3 Degree of Curve for Horizontal Circular Curves: The degree of curve (for horizontal circular curves only) (D) defines the "sharpness" or "flatness" of the curve.M. as follows: Part I.passpe.2 Horizontal Circular Curves: Circular curves are common in highways and streets design.1. The route of a highway or a street is chosen to satisfy all design requirements (speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. environmental. superelevation.

) . The following equation gives the relationship between the two systems.Mansour. Dmetric = D foot ´ 3. And a 1° curve in the metric system is the same curve as a 0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Table A-3 Degree-of-Curve Conversions Foot Definition (D foot ) Metric Definition (D metric ) 1. Shahin A.0 1. Arc Definition (D a) The arc definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of an arc of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m arc).578o Da = = 2pR R (A-2) Since one meter equals 3. PE Table A-2 Chord and Arc Definitions for Horizontal Circular Curves Chord Definition (D c ) The chord definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of a chord of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m chord). the "sharper" the curve and the shorter the radius.56 8.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. degrees of curve in the two systems (SI and English) differ by the same proportion.28 4.M.passpe.28 The following table shows the comparable values in both systems.3048° curve in the foot system. a 1° curve in the foot system is the same curve as a 3.www. D Sin æ c ç 2 è ö = 50 ft ÷ ø R ( A-1) (360o )(100 ft ) 5729.20 9.5 3.0 26 (A-3) 3.0 2.28084 ft. This definition is used primarily for highways and streets. Therefore. The chord definition is used primarily for civilian railroad construction and is used by the military for both roads and railroads.5 2. Notice that the larger the degree of curve.Chapter A: Geometric Design .92 6.28084° curve in the metric system.84 Part I.

it is the straight line that connects the PI to the PT (EC) Point of Curvature (PC) = Beginning of Curve (BC): the beginning point of the curve Point of Tangency (PT) = End of Curve (EC): the end point of the curve Tangent Distance (T): the distance from the PC (BC) to PI or from the PI to PT (EC) External Distance (E): the distance from the PI to the middle point of the curve Middle Ordinate (M): the distance from the middle point of the curve to the middle of the chord (long chord) joining the PC (BC) and PT (EC) Long Chord (C or LC): the distance along the line joining the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Length of Curve (L): the difference in stationing along the curve (arc length) between the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Part I. it is the straight line that connects the PC (BC) to the PI Forward Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.Chapter A: Geometric Design 27 . PE Figure A-3 Circular Horizontal Curve Terminology · Point of Intersection (PI): the point at which the two tangents to the curve intersect · Delta Angle ( ) : the angle between the tangents is also equal to the angle at the center of · · · · · · · · · the curve Back Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.passpe.M. Shahin A. Mansour.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.

1.58 R ( feet ) = o Da M = R (1 .A common mistake is to determine the station of the EC by adding the T distance to the PI .Mansour.versed sine (vers) vers ( /2) = 1 Cos ( /2) 3.) .1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan (A-9) o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û 28 Part I. Although the EC is physically a distance of T from the PI .external secant (exsec) exsec ( /2) = Sec ( /2) 1 4.e D = 2 Cos -1 ( ) (from the geometry shown in the previous page) 1.M.4 Geometry of Horizontal Circular Curves (Arc Definition): Do T = R tan 2 Do LC = C = 2 R sin = 2 T cos(Do 2) 2 o æ Do ö æ D ö La = 2p R ç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø è aø 5729.cos é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .www.65 R (meter ) = o DC Same Same M = R (1 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. the stationing (chainage) must reflect the fact that the centerline no longer goes through the PI .Cos D 2 = R+ E R+E 2. Table A-4 Arc and Chord Definitions Equations Arc Definition T = R tan D 2 o Chord Definition (A-4) Do = 2 T cos( Do 2) 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø Same Same LC = C = 2 R sin (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) æ Do æ Do ö La = 2p Rç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ç è ø è a R ( feet ) = 5729.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û (A-4) (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) (A-9) Notes: R R i.58 o Da Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 æ Do ö Lc = (100 m)ç o ÷ çD ÷ è cø 5729.cos Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê . PE A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

Sample Problem A-2: Long Chord for Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The length of the long chord is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 150.) .39 7 + 72.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.57 Sample Problem A-1: Horizontal Circular Curve Calculations Find: BC and EC stations are most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: T = R tan 4 + 80.18 4 + 80.75 4 + 80.31 Sta.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. R = 1000 ft.39 .70 .29 ft Ü 2 Answer: (C) Part I.3167o = 146.75 .30 ft 289. 4 + 80.39 D = 1000 tan 8.passpe. which is wrong (common mistake).49 ft C = 2 R Sin D = 2 T Cos (D 2) = 2 ×1000 × Sin 8.49 ft 189.29 ft 572.18 ft 2 Do æDö L = 2p R = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ 360 o èDø L = 2p ´1000 ´ 16. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-1 to A-4 A horizontal circular curve for a new conventional highway has the following data: D = 16 o 38¢ .31 ft 360 PI at T BC = +L EC = 6 + 26.39 .M.Chapter A: Geometric Design 29 . 7 + 70. 7 + 72. Note: Answer (A) is (PI Sta.3167 o = 289. Mansour.www.70 Ü Answer: (B) L = 2 + 90.57 1 + 46. and PI Station at 6 + 26.39 Ü 2 + 90. 4 + 80. + T).70 7 + 70.31 7 + 70.6333 = 290. Shahin A.

43 ft 10.00 ft Solution: (Continued on next page) 30 Part I. Shahin A.54 ft 315.63 ft Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .1) = 1000 ( .23 ft 10.63 ft Ü Cos (D 2) Cos (16.Cos ) = 1000 (1 2 D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos Ü which relationship ? 2 2 4 2 Cos 8. PE Sample Problem A-3: External Distance for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The external distance (E) for the given curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: E = R( 1 1 . Find: The length of the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 257.3167 o) = 10.23 ft 10.61 ft 265.5 ft.43 ft 10.63 2) Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-4: Middle Ordinate for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The middle ordinate for the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Refer to Figure A-3 for the definition of M 10.52 ft 10.) .passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.45 ft 400.Mansour.Cos D M = R(1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design .www.52 ft 10.1) =10.63 ft 10.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. and mid-ordinate of 16.M.52 ft Ü Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-5: Length a Horizontal Circular Curve Given: A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 500 ft.

M. PE Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design 31 . Shahin A.76 2 D ) 2 Cos M 16.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. BC to EC ) : L = 2p R Do 29.e.967) =14. Mansour.967 = 1R 500 2 = 29.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe.Cos D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos 2 2 4 2 Ü select the appropriate relationship D M = R (1 .61 ft 360o 360o Answer: (A) Part I.52 o L = 2p R = 2 ´ p ´ 500´ = 257.www.Cos ) 2 16.5 D =1 = 0.) .5 = 500 ( 1 Cos D -1 o = Cos (0.52º Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø Curve Length (i.

.e. PE A.passpe.M..Chapter A: Geometric Design (A-10) (A-11) (A-12) (A-13) .e.) . Rule 2: The angle between two chords is ½ the central angle subtended by the arc between the two chords. i. i. i. and Chord Calculations for Horizontal Circular Curves: The deflection angle is defined as the angle between the tangent and a chord.e. i.www. & 2 .. Central Angles and Chord Calculations æ arc length öæ D ö deflection angle = ç ÷ç ÷ L è øè 2 ø Chord Length ( BC to A) = 2R Sin a arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180 0 a= 2p R 2 a arc length ( BC to A) = D L 32 Part I. Shahin A. the angle A-BC-B is ½ the central angle A-O-B.Mansour. the angle between the tangent BC-PI and the chord PCA is ½ the central angle BC-O-A. Central Angle.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5 Deflection Angles.. The following two rules apply for the deflection angles for circular curves: Rule 1: The deflection angle between a tangent and a chord is half the central angle subtended by the arc.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.1. Abbreviations: BC PC TC EC PT CT = = = = = = Beginning of curve Point of curvature Tangent to curve End of curve Point of tangency Curve to tangent Figure A-4 Deflection. & 2 .e.

) . A drainage inlet (DI) is required to be staked out at station 15 4 + 60.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www.41º 12.20º 16. Mansour.41° 2p R 2 ´ p ´ 2500 ft Answer: (A) Part I.29º.50º Arc length = (DI Station arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 2p R BC Station) = (154 + 60) (150 + 75) = 3.25º 32.M. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-6 to A-8 A horizontal circular curve for a new urban highway has a radius of 2500 ft and a degree of curve (arc definition) of 2.85 Sta. The beginning of the curve is at station 150 + 75 and the central angle is 30º.Chapter A: Geometric Design 33 . Shahin A. = 385 ft a= a= arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 385 ft ´ 180° = = 4.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. Sample Problem A-6: Deflection Angle Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The deflection angle between the back tangent and the chord to the drainage inlet station is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The deflection angle is given by the following equation: 4.

= 3.Mansour.41° = 384. i.52 ft 325.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.´ arc length A to B 2g = D ´ = 30° ´ L 1310 ft 100 ft Sta.00 ft ÷ è ø (156.90º 2.47 ft Chord Length ( BC to DI .) .30 ft 254. BC to A) = 2R Sin a = 2 ´ 2500 ft ´ Sin 4.50º 2g arc length A to B = D L And the curve length is given by : L = 2p R Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø æ 30 o ö = (100 ft ) ç ç 2.passpe.29o ÷ = 1310. PE Sample Problem A-7: Chord Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The length of the chord connecting the BC and the drainage inlet is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 175.47 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-8: Deflection Angle & Central Angle Relationship Find: The design calls for another DI at station 156 + 25. Shahin A.154.25 .78° Answer: (C) 34 Part I.78º 5.90º 3.15 ft 384.60) Sta.Chapter A: Geometric Design . The central angle that should be turned to the right from the first DI is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The following relationship could be established (by proportion): 1.e.

These methods are: (1) tangent offset-TO.R2 .38 ft Part I.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. (2) chord offset-CO. and (4) ordinates from the long chord. Mansour.cos q ) X q = arcsin R X = R sin q (A-14) (A-15) (A-16) (A-17) Figure A-5 Tangent Offset Sample Problem A-9: Tangent Offset Method Given: In the diagram (Figure A-5).www.1.X 2 Y = R .6 Tangent Offset Calculations: For short curves.passpe. Y =R- R2 . PE A. Shahin A.X 2 Y = 800 .) .800 2 . one of four offset-type methods can be used for laying out circular curves. The four tangent offset method equations are given as follows: Y = R . and for checking purposes.300 2 = 58.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 35 . (3) middle ordinates-MO.R Cos q = R (1 . if the curve has a radius R = 800 feet and the distance X = 300 ft. Solution: Find: Calculate the distance Y from tangent to curve. when a total station instrument is not available.

) .www.passpe. Answer: (D) 36 Part I.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A. PE Sample Problem A-10: Geometrics of Circular Curves Given: When set up the instrument at the BC of a simple curve. Find: This perpendicular bisector passes through which of the following: (A) (B) (C) (D) Radius point The Point of Intersection of the two tangents The centre of the curve All of the above It is clear from the figure to the right that all of the above is the correct answer.Mansour.M. The angle measured from the PI to the center is always 90o Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-11: Geometry of Horizontal Curves Given: A perpendicular bisector of the long chord (LC) was drawn for a circular horizontal curve. Find: the angles to turn off the PI to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) The central angle plus the deflection angle Half the central angle The deflection angle Exactly right angle Solution: Radius point is another name for the center of a circle.

Find: The clockwise angle to turn off to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) Half the central angle. Compound curves should be used only for low-speed traffic routes. The point connecting the two curves together is called point of compound curve or curvature (PCC). PE Sample Problem A-12: Moving up on a curve Given: When moving up on a horizontal curve to the right (i. set up anywhere on point on curve POC). and in terrain where simple curves cannot be fitted to the ground without excessive construction cost. the correct answer is C. Deflection angle measured from PC (BC) to that point. GH is a common tangent. Shahin A. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 37 .M. Figure A-6 Compound Circular Curve The following equations are used to solve the unknown parameters for a compound curve: Part I.1. the subscript 1 refers to the curve of smaller radius.passpe.7 Compound Circular Curves: Often two curves of different radii are joined together. Deflection angle measured from PC to that point plus 90o Deflection angle measured from PC to that point minus 90o Solution: From the Figure shown.) . as shown. Normally.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.e. Answer: (C) A.

5641) ( 0. R2 o o = 800 ft.46) = 20 + 38.30 ft 360 Do2 L2 = 2p R2 = R2 D 2 (radians ) = 800(0.93 ft T2 = VB = VH + t2 = 490.17 ft o o GH = t1 + t 2 = 302.49) +(4 + 79.5993) = 479.9931 è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 = 312.0886 ) = 544.28 + 302.46 ft 360 PC Station = PI Sta.19 PCC Station = PC Sta.1861 ) = 302.Chapter A: Geometric Design .12 Find: PC.+ L2 = (15 + 59.19) +(5 + 44.82 æ GH ö ) = 490.9931 ) = 312. D = 96 42¢40¢¢ . T1 = (16 + 30.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.82 ft æ GH ö 549 .D 2 t1 = R1 tan D1 2 OR & D 2 = D .65 + 247.30) = 15 + 59.1695 ) = 247.Mansour.17 = 737.12) (6 + 14. Shahin A.49 PT Station = PCC Sta.passpe.49 + 247.65 ft Þ 800 tan (17.95 38 Part I.3389 o t1 = R1 tan t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 D1 2 Þ 500 tan (31.93) = 10 + 15.+ L1 = (10 + 15.www.31 ft ÷ è ø 549. PT & PCC stations Solution: D 2 = D .8859) ( VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ 0. D1 = 62 22¢20¢¢ & PI station = 16 + 30.49 ft ÷ = (0.) .D1 t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 (A-18) (A-19) (A-20) (A-21) (A-22) (A-23) (A-24) GH = t1 + t 2 æ GH ö VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø æ GH ö VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 T2 = VB = VH + t2 Sample Problem A-13: Compound Curve Given: A compound curve with the following data: R1 = 500 ft.82 VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ = (0.65 = 614.66 ft Do1 L1 = 2p R1 = R1 D1 ( radians ) = 500 (1. PE D1 = D .M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.D1 = 96 o 4 2¢40¢¢ 62 o 22¢20¢¢ = 34.17 = 549.

R2 . The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point of reversed curvature (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems. there is no room to provide superelevation transition from cross-slope right to cross-slope left. Figure A-7 Reverse Curves: Parallel Tangents (top) and Non-Parallel Tangent (bottom) Part I. the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown.M.1. and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems. Mansour. If reverse circular curves have to be used. Shahin A. the superelevation rate of change per station should be within the acceptable standards. T2).8 Reverse Circular Curves: Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment. 2. 1. As with compound curves. T1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 39 . PE A. since the change in curvature is instantaneous.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. reverse curves have six independent parameters (R1.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Reverse curves may have parallel or non-parallel tangents as shown below.www. Additionally.

S.M. : point of change from tangent to spiral S. to S. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. at the point where the circular curve begins (S. PE A. Lc : length of circular curve LT : long tangent (Spiral) ST : short tangent (Spiral) : total central angle of the circular curve c : central angle of circular arc of Lc extending from the SC to the CS Y : right Angle Distance from Tangent to S. X : distance along tangent from T. there is an initial radius rather than an infinite value. : point of change from spiral to circle C. In case of a spiral curve that connects two circular curves having different radii.S.1.Mansour.T.C.C. to point at right angle to S. and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until. Spiral Curves Notation: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40 T.C. or S.T.C.S.S. Figure A-8 Spiral Curve It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T. : point of change from circle to spiral S.9 Spiral Curves: Spiral curves (also known as transition curves) are used in highway and railroad horizontal alignment to overcome the abrupt change in direction that occurs when the alignment changes from tangent to circular curve. the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve. = spiral to curve).Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Ts : total tangent distance = distance from PI to T.passpe.C.Chapter A: Geometric Design .S.www.= tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large). to any point on the spiral s Ls : total length of spiral from T.) .S. Figure A-8 illustrates how the spiral curve with a length of Ls is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment.S. : point of change from spiral to tangent : spiral arc length from T. : central angle of spiral arc L s : the spiral angle = central angle of spiral arc Ls Part I. and vice versa.

M. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) . PE Figure A-9 Spiral Curve Part I.www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 41 .

Chapter A: Geometric Design .C. 3-27. ft C = maximum rate of change in lateral acceleration.15 V 3 = RC (AASHTO Eq. Shortt.www. is the basic expression used by some highway agencies for computing minimum length of a spiral transition curve: (Ls )min where 3. Shahin A.. mph R = radius of circular curve. is: 5729.58)(100) = Dp ls ´ K The radius at the S.) . H. to D (Da) at the S. the rate of change of curvature of a spiral in degrees per station (K) is: K= 100D Ls (A-25) The degree Dp and the radius r of the spiral curve at any point P along the curve are given as follows: Dp = r= ls K 100 (A-26) (A-27) 5729.passpe.58)(100) = D Ls ´ K The ratio of the two radii is: R= (A-28) r Ls = R ls The length of the spiral is: (A-29) (200)(D s ) D The deflection angle is: Ls = (A-30) l s2 D s as = 2 ´ 3 Ls (A-31) The following equation. page 185) (A-32) V = design speed.58 (5729.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.58 (5729. developed in 1909 by W.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour. 1 to 3 ft/s3 is recommended by AASHTO for highways and 1 ft/s3 is generally accepted for railroad operation 42 Part I.S. PE Selected formulas for spiral curves: Because the degree of curvature for a spiral increases from 0 at the T.M.C.

m. V = design speed. PE (Page 185.15V 3 3. ft.www.passpe. Shahin A.4321o 200 200 ( ) Answer: (B) Part I. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. The minimum spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) 100 ft (B) 110 ft (C) 140 ft (D) 150 ft Solution: 3. km/h.Chapter A: Geometric Design 43 . V = design speed. R = curve radius. Solution: tan q = Find: The deflection angle from TS to point P is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 00 01 02 04 28 25 50 05 38 55 00 02 5 Þ q = tan -1 5 = 1. R = curve radius. ft/s3 Answer: (B) Sample Problem A-15: Deflection Angle of a Spiral Curve Given: The coordinates of point P on a highway spiral relative to TS are 200 & 5 for x & y respectively. 5th edition) Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Table A-5 Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Metric US Customary L= 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. mph.38 ft (3-27) RC 1200 ´ 3 where: L = minimum length of spiral.M. ft. ft. mph.0214V 3 RC L= 3. Mansour.15 V 3 RC (3-27) where: L = minimum length of spiral. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration.15 ´ 50 3 L= = =109. ft. V = design speed. ft/s3 Sample Problem A-14: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration.) . R = curve radius. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. m. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. m/s3 where: L = minimum length of spiral.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. These lengths correspond to 2. Shahin A. PE Desirable Length for spiral curves: Based on recent operational studies. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Answer: (C) 44 Part I.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design . the desirable length is 147 ft. page 189. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www. page 189.passpe. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Table A-6 Desirable Length of Spiral Curve Transition Metric US Customary Design speed (km/h) Spiral Length (m) Design speed (mph) Spiral Length (ft) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 11 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67 72 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 44 59 74 88 103 117 132 147 161 176 191 205 220 235 Sample Problem A-16: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration. 5th edition. (Exhibit 3-37. The travel time has been found to be representative of the natural spiral path for most drivers.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.0 s of travel time at the design speed of the roadway. 2004 edition.Mansour.) . AASHTO Exhibit 3-37 (page 189) lists the desirable lengths of spiral transition curves. The desirable spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 100 ft 110 ft 147 ft 161 ft Solution: Using Exhibit 3-37.

PE Figure A-10 Curve with and without spiral transition.passpe.M.www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. (Exhibit 3-35.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. page 186. 2004 edition.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design 45 . The sharp corners at the juncture of curve and straight line in the top view are quite obvious from the driver s seat. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Shahin A. Mansour. 5th edition) Part I.

1.2 VERTICAL CURVES A. A road that is designed for 70 mph can have a vertical curve whose tangents have a grade of only 3 to 5 percent.g1 ).2. PE A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. For example. whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into the alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (e.www. and (2) ease of computation of vertical offsets. To prevent abrupt changes in the vertical direction of moving vehicles. Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in grade-line slope. the higher the speed the road is designed for.2 Vertical Curves Terminology: Figure A-11 Vertical Curve Terminology Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines.g.. which contributes to smooth L A. 46 Part I. Shahin A. As a general rule.5% or 2%). adjacent segments of differing grade are connected by a curve. This curve in the vertical plane is called a vertical curve. a road designed for a maximum speed of 30 miles per hour (mph) may have a vertical curve with the tangents to the curve arc having a grade as high as 6 to 8 percent.1 Why Vertical Curves are Used? Roads made up of a series of straight lines (or tangents) are not practical. The geometric curve used in vertical alignment design is the parabola curve. which permits easily computed curve elevations. the smaller the percent of grade that is allowed.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) . g 2 .passpe.2. The parabola has these two desirable characteristics of: (1) a constant rate of change of grade ( r = alignment transition.Mansour.

Ø They used when a specific elevation at a certain station (point) is required and the grades of the grade lines are fixed. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula (two vertical curves). Table A-8 Types of Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves (g2 > g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . Shahin A. Ø They are also called equal-tangent parabolic vertical curves.www. and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent grade lines. A. Ø They connect an upgrade (+) tangent to a downgrade ( ) tangent (type I).2. BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve. L 47 Part I. Table A-7 Types of Vertical Curves Symmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula. Mansour.3 Types of Vertical Curves: Vertical curves may be classified based on the location of the vertex with respect to the BVC and EVC as symmetrical and asymmetrical. Another classification is crest and sag vertical curves. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. Ø They connect downgrade ( ) tangent to an upgrade (+) tangent (type III).) . vertical curve terminology is introduced: g1 is the slope (percent) of the entering grade line.M.g1 r= 2 is a positive quantity. EVC is the end of the vertical curve. Ø They are used mostly in every project where no minimum vertical clearance or cover is needed.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Ø They are also called unequal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. PE In Figure A-11.g1 r= 2 is a negative quantity. g2 is the slope of the exiting grade line. The length of vertical curve ( L ) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and as such corresponds to plan distance.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. L Crest Vertical Curves (g2 < g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Asymmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is not located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula.passpe.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-13 Types of Vertical Curves . 2004 edition.M. 5th edition) 48 Part I.passpe.) . Shahin A. PE Figure A-12 Sag and Crest Vertical Curves (Exhibit 3-69 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www.Mansour.

2. 3.g1 sections related to sag and crest vertical curves.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. tangent offsets are proportional to the squares of the horizontal distances.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M. that is. The elevation of the curve at distance x from the BVC is given by: y = ax 2 + bx + c (general equation for a parabola) y x = y BVC rx 2 + g1x + 2 (A-32) (A-33) (A-34) r= g 2 .30% are minimum grades in snow country and other locations respectively) A. K = (Rate of Vertical Curvature) distance required to achieve a 1% change in grade. Figure A-11 (repeated) Geometric of a Parabola 2. Shahin A. The tangent offset between the grade line and the curve is given by ax2. comfortable in operation (gravitational force versus vertical centripetal force) pleasing in appearance (long versus short vertical curves). Part I.4 Geometric Properties of the Parabola: 1.g1 L where: x = the distance from BVC to a point on the curve r = rate of grade change per station 1 L K = = L/ A = Note: The rate of vertical curvature will be used in subsequent r g 2 .www. PE AASHTO lists FOUR requirements for vertical curves as follows: 1234safe (ample sight distances). The difference in elevation between the BVC and a point on the g 1 grade line at a distance x units (feet or meters) is g 1 x (g 1 is expressed as a decimal). Mansour.passpe. where x is the horizontal distance from the BVC (PVC).Chapter A: Geometric Design 49 .) .50% and 0. and adequate for drainage (0.

passpe. of the tangent to the curve at any point on the curve is given by the following formula: S = g1 - x ( g1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design . in percentage. that is. that is. The grade lines (g 1 and g 2 ) intersect midway between the BVC and the EVC.Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) A L ( feet ) = 8 800 (A-35) 6. The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord.M. This is only true for symmetrical vertical curves.YP¢ ) D= ( g1 . PE 4.g 2 ) L (A-36) Figure A-12 (repeated) Crest and Sag Vertical Curves Terminology 7.) . BVC to PVI = ½ L = PVI to EVC.g1 L 8 = A L ( sta.g 2 ) 8. Shahin A.The distance between the curve and the grade line (tangent) d is given as (A-37) d = offset = rx 2 x 2 ( g 2 .www.g1 ) = (L curve length in feet) 2 200 L (A-38) 50 Part I. The distance D in feet from Vertex to P is given as: 100(YH . 5. A B = B PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: either: do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (elevation of BVC + elevation of EVC) Or: do= g 2 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. The slope S.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 51 . on curbed streets catch basins or drainage inlets (DI) must be installed precisely at the drainage low point. The minimum cover over a utility pipe would require the determination of low points along the profile of the road. Part I.M. for example.passpe.g1 g1 .g1 . Figure A-14 Sag Vertical Curve in Relation to Minimum Clearance and Cover dy From equation (A-33). Also.) .g1 L g1 L X = = = r g 2 . it is a unique point (high or low) on vertical curves. PE A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.g 2 Where X is the distance from BVC to the low or high points. Mansour.2.e. equation the slope ( ) to zero and solving for X: dx g1 + rX = 0 . the location of low and high points are required for the vertical clearance calculations between a bridge and a roadway. Shahin A. (A-39) (A-40) It should be noted that the distance X (upper case X) in equation (A-40) is different from distance x (lower case x) in all other equations i.www.5 High and Low Points on Vertical Curves: The locations of curve high and low points are important for drainage considerations.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

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**The following information is to be used for problems A-17 to A-21
**

A sag vertical curve has a length (L) of 300 ft. The entering and exiting grades are g1 = 3.2% and g2 = +1.8% respectively. The PVI is located at station 30 + 30 and has an elevation of 485.92 ft.

Sample Problem A-17: Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The station of the low point is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 30 + 72.00 30 + 30.00 29 + 00.00 28 + 72.00

X =

- g1 - g1 L g1 L - ( -3.2)(3) = = = = 1.92 Sta. = 192.00 ft r g 2 - g1 g1 - g 2 ( +1.8) - ( -3.2)

This means that the low point is located at a distance of 192.00 ft from BVC i.e., at Station = [(30 + 30.00) (1+ 50.00)] + (1 + 92.00) = 30 + 72.00 Notes: 1) All distances used to locate a low or a high point or used to calculate an elevation of any point on a vertical curve are measured from BVC. 2) The point on the curve at the PVI station is not necessarily to be the low or high points. Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-18: Elevation of the Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of the low point is most nearly: (A) 480.65 ft (B) 487.65 ft (C) 493.55 ft (D) 498.24 ft

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52 Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

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Solution:

y x = y BVC

rx 2 + g1x + 2

1.8 - ( -3.2) 1.92 2 = [485.92 + (1.5)(3.2) ] + (-3.2)(1.92) + ( )( ) = 487.65 ft @ Sta 30 + 72.00 3.00 2 Answer: (B)

Sample Problem A-19: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: Which of the following is NOT true for symmetrical vertical curves: (A) The elevation of the mid-chord point is the average of the elevations of the BVC and EVC (B) The vertical curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord (C) The low point on a sag vertical curve is always at the PVI station (D) All of the above Solution: (A) is true (B) is true (C) is NOT true. This statement is true only if g1 = g2 and the vertical curve is symmetrical i.e., PVI at L/2

Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-20: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of point A ( mid-chord point) is most nearly: (A) 490.72 ft (B) 488.62 ft (C) 489.00 ft (D) 489.67 ft

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Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 53

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Solution: mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-21: Middle Ordinate Distance for a Vertical Curve Find: The middle ordinate distance for the given vertical curve is most nearly: (A) 1.275 ft (B) 1.375 ft (C) 1.675 ft (D) 1.875 ft Solution: The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord; that is, A to B = B to PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: a) mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (489.67 485.92) = 1.875 ft

b) do (middle ordinate distance) =

g1 - g 2 L 8

=

- 3.2 - ( +1.8) ´ 3 8

= 1.875 ft

(L = curve length in stations & g1 - g 2 = absolute value in percent) Answer: (B) Note: the middle ordinate (m = do) may be written as:

g1 - g 2 L 800

( L in feet)

54

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

Mansour.24 ft 743.00) = 751.60 .24 + 2(0. See Figure A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 55 .6 %. The vertex for unequal tangent curve is not in the middle between the BVC and EVC. BCV.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.00) = 747.www. V and EVC stations Find: Elevations.) .24 ft 743.passpe.84 ft 743. An unequal tangent vertical curve is simply a pair of equal tangent curves. first & are 83 + 00.24 ö ÷ = + 0. are encountered in practice where certain limitations are exist as fixed tangent grades. where the EVC of the first is the BVC of the second.16 % =ç 5 è ø = 747. Shahin A. Figure A-15 Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Given: g1 = 2 %.24 + 4(2. 87 + 00 and 93 + 00 respectively.54% / sta & r2 = = + 0.00) 1. also called unequal tangent vertical curves.24% / sta 4 6 (continued on next page) Part I.16 .2. PE A. Elevation at second difference at full V = 743.747. g2 = +1.17 stations Solution: The following steps will be followed: Step 1: YBVC YA YEVC YB (Grade)AB YCVC Step 2: = = = = 743.M. This point is called CVC.04 ft æ 748.04 .16) = 747.24 + 6 (1.56 ft r1 = 0.24 ft.16 = + 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.60) = 752.60) = 748.24 + 3(1..(-2.24 + 2(2. vertical clearance or minimum cover. The same basic equation for the symmetrical curves will be used for the unsymmetrical curves.7 Asymmetrical (Unsymmetrical) Vertical Curves: Asymmetrical vertical curves.0. point of compound vertical curvature.

52 0. Shahin A.54 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .43 4.32 0.84 748.00 0.) Station 83 + 00 (BVC) 84 + 00 85 + 00 86 + 00 87 + 00 (CVC) 88 + 00 89 + 00 90 + 00 91 + 00 92 + 00 93 + 00 (EVC) x (sta.00 8.32 747.36 749.51 748.32 0.00 1.passpe.24 0.36 752.48 0.54 0.32 yx 751.00 2.08 1.12 751.24 749.84 1st Difference 1.65 0.54 0.56 747.48 1.00 4.76 1.19 0.80 0.00 0.M.27 1.) .24 0.92 3.Mansour.24 56 Part I.24 0.48 2nd Difference 0.00 6.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.16 0.24 0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.00 4.11 0.www.96 rx2/2 0.64 0. PE Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve (cont.12 0.28 0.12 750.73 1.67 747.24 1.) 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 g1 x 0.08 2.

e. Table A-9 Four Types of Sight Distances (For Any Given Speed (say 50 mph) PSD > DSD > SSD 1835 ft > 465 ft A-1030 ft E > 425 ft) 1.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design 57 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.. .Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) 2. branch connections. off-ramp noses. · Used on multilane · Used where an highways and on opposing lane 2-lane roads when can provide passing sight distance passing is not economically opportunities obtainable. Insufficient sight distance can have implications for the safety or operations of a roadway or intersection.M. is how far a driver can see before the line of sight is blocked by a hill crest. or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal curve or intersection i.www.Passing Sight Distance (PSD) 3.g.) . (two-lane roads) Where Stopping Sight Distance (ALL ROADS) Passing Sight Distance (TWO-LANE ROADS) Figure A-16 Stopping and Passing Sight Distances Part I. Mansour. Shahin A. PE A.Decision 4. sight distance is the continuous length of highway ahead visible to the driver. in the context of road design.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.3 SIGHT DISTANCES Sight distance.Intersection (Corner) Sight Distance Sight Distance (CSD) (DSD) · Used at major · Used at intersections decision points e.

Actual stopping distances are also affected by road conditions.5' and Object Height= 2. for example. PIEV Process: i) Perception the time to see or discern an object or event. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book).1 Stopping Sight Distance: Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled while the vehicle driver perceives a situation requiring a stop.Mansour. a conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle traveling at design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path. For design.Chapter A: Geometric Design . and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights).5 feet) above the pavement.passpe. iii) Emotion the time to decide how to react. the time to engage the brakes.5 sec operations/control 1.) . Human factors research defined the required perception-reaction times as follows: design 2. and iv) Volition the time to initiate the action. 58 Part I. the mass of the car. Shahin A.0 sec These perception reaction times were based on observed behavior for the 85th percentile driver. ii) Intellection the time to understand the implications of the object s presence or event. applies the brake. realizes that stopping is necessary.M. 85% of drivers could react in that time or less. More recent research has shown these times to be conservative for design.3.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. the incline of the road. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3. Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during the brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Figure A-17 Stopping Sight Distance (Driver s Eye Height =3. Typically the design sight distance allows a below-average driver to stop in time to avoid a collision. PE A. that is.0') The perception-reaction time for a driver is often broken down into the four components that are assumed to make up the perception reaction time. and numerous other factors. These are referred to as the PIEV time or process. and comes to a stop.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

3 Stopping sight distance Calculated Design (ft) (ft) 76.7 138.4 92.1 Stopping Sight Distance On A Flat Grade: The following equations will be used to calculate the stopping distance on a flat grade facilities: (Page 113. deceleration rate of 3.9 20.9 155 196.0 290. ft/s2 (11.6 194.9 250 65 284. m/s2 (3. 2004 edition.5 s. Shahin A. Table A-11 Stopping Sight Distance on Flat Grades (Exhibit 3-1.1 20 15 31.3 345.0 165.4 495 566.7 41.9 114.5 220 60 248.3 18.8 160 50 184. V = design speed.passpe.) .4 60.039 a where: t = brake reaction time.2 73.6 75 294. 5th edition) Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Brake reaction distance (m) 13. km/h.0 80 US Customary Braking distance on level (ft) 21.Chapter A: Geometric Design 59 .2 202.9 50 25 63.47 Vt + 1.0 570 644.8 34.3.2 250 300. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.4 240.3 285 70 275. 2004 edition.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.8 425 492.4 28. V = design speed.6 38.www.6 153.2 257. Part I.1.3 220.6 62. a = deceleration rate.0 105 40 129. PE A.7 80 111.9 614.5 470. page 112.5 183.9 115 151.5 110.5 s.2 91.4 117.3 65 30 83.M.0 86. mph.8 360 423. 2. 2.6 69.5 405.6 10. a = deceleration rate.278 Vt + 0.8 Stopping sight Brake Design reaction distance speed distance Calculated Design (mph) (ft) (m) (m) 18.5 35 20 46.5 76.2 73.5 83.0 128.2 193.7 48.3 56.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.9 147.5 55.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.2 ft/s2] used to determine calculated sight distance. Mansour.6 238.4 Braking distance on level (m) 4.6 85 35 104.6 305 359.075 (3-2) a where: t = brake reaction time.9 27.1 185 55 215.6 730 815.7 55.4 130 45 155.4 m/s2 [11.7 200 246.5 820 908.3 910 Note: Brake reaction distance predicated on a time of 2.8 41.3 539.2 ft/s2) The above equations are used to generate the following table for wet-pavement conditions.4 645 727.4 m/s2) V2 d = 1. 5th edition) Table A-10 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on Flat Grades Metric US Customary Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) V2 d = 0.4 90.8 165.5 s.

AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. km/h. Solution V2 d = 1.1.278Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 2.075 = 220.passpe.04 ft versus 566.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø (3-3 mod.2 A.M. ft/s2 (11. 2.54 ç ç ç 9. ft/s2 (11.50 + 345. 2.) where: t = brake reaction time.0 ft given in AASHTO 11. a = deceleration rate.47 Vt + 1.54 = 566. the equation for braking distance should be modified as follows: (Page 114. V = design speed. a = deceleration rate. a = deceleration rate. PE Sample Problem A-23: Stopping Sight Distance on a Flat Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a flat grade.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100.www. a = deceleration rate.Mansour.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100. m/s2 (3.4 m/s2) 60 where: t = brake reaction time. mph.2 ft/s2) Part I.47 (60)(2. Shahin A.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. V = design speed.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø d = 1. G = percent of grade divided by 100. V = design speed. mph.5 s. V = design speed.5) + 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 2004 edition.2 ft/s2) Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Table A-13 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary d = 0. m/s2 (3.Chapter A: Geometric Design . km/h.) . G = percent of grade divided by 100.5 s.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.4 m/s2) V2 d= (3-3) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. 5th edition) Table A-12 Braking Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary V d= ææ a ö ö 2.075 AASHTO (3-2) a 60 2 d = 1.3.2 Stopping Sight Distance On a Grade: When a highway is on a grade.54 ç ç ç 9.

2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 60 2 = 637.www. 2004 edition. Mansour.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. the stopping distances needed on upgrades are shorter than the one on level roadways. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. (Exhibit 3-2. PE As can be seen from the above equations that. and those on down grades are longer.42 ft æ æ 11. Solution: d = 1.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod. Shahin A.) d = 1. page 115.47 (60)(2. 5th edition) Table A-14 Stopping Sight Distance on Grades Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 20 32 50 66 87 110 136 164 194 227 263 302 6% 20 35 50 70 92 116 144 174 207 243 281 323 9% 20 35 53 74 97 124 154 187 223 262 304 350 3% 19 31 45 61 80 100 123 148 174 203 234 267 6% 18 30 44 59 77 97 118 141 167 194 223 254 9% 18 29 43 58 75 93 114 136 160 186 214 243 Design speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 80 116 158 205 257 315 378 446 520 598 682 771 866 965 6% 82 120 165 215 271 333 400 474 553 638 728 825 927 1035 9% 85 126 173 227 287 354 427 507 593 686 785 891 1003 1211 3% 75 109 147 200 237 289 344 405 469 538 612 690 772 859 6% 74 107 143 184 229 278 331 388 450 515 584 658 76 81 9% 73 104 140 179 222 269 320 375 433 495 561 631 704 782 Sample Problem A-24: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 6%.) .2 ö 6 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.2 ÷ .M.5) + versus 638 ft (above table) Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 61 .passpe.

) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 62.Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.2 ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.2 ÷ 100 ÷ ø èè ø versus 618 ft (linear interpolation between 3% and 6% from the above table). Sample Problem A-26: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 62. 62 Part I.77 ft Answer: (C) æ æ 11.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.47Vt + AASHTO (3-3 mod.M.47 (60)(2.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ÷ ± G÷ ç 32.5 d = 1.5) + = 616.2 ö 9 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.5)(2.5 ö 30 ç ç ÷ ç 32.47 (62.2 ö 4.5) + = 527.5% is most nearly: (A) 638 ft (B) 628 ft (C) 617 ft (D) 598 ft Solution: d = 1.www.passpe. PE Sample Problem A-25: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 4.) 60 2 d = 1. Shahin A.5 mph and an upgrade of 9% is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 495 ft 528 ft 561 ft 631 ft V2 d = 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design .2 ÷ + 100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø versus 528 ft (linear interpolation between 60 mph and 65 mph from the above table) Note: Design speed normally reported in a 5 mph increments.) .08 ft Answer: (B) æ æ 11.

3. Shahin A. Part I.M.) . need longer stopping distances for a given speed than passenger vehicles.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. there is one factor that tends to balance the additional barking lengths for trucks with those for passenger cars.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design 63 . Trucks as a whole.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. PE A. Mansour. especially the larger and heavier units. However. The truck driver is able to see substantially farther beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher position of the seat in the vehicle.www.1.3 Variations for Trucks: The recommended stopping sight distances given in the previous table and the equations are based on passenger car operation and don not explicitly consider design for truck operation.

d3 = Distance between the passing vehicle at the end of its maneuver and the opposing vehicle. PE A. d2 = Distance traveled while the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. or of d2 above. 5th edition) Part I.M. Shahin A. Passing must be accomplished assuming an oncoming vehicle comes into view and maintains the design speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 64 .3. Figure A-18 Elements of Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-4 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.2 Passing Sight Distance: Passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required for the driver of one vehicle to pass another vehicle safely and comfortably. without reduction.www. Per AASHTO Standards. d4 = Distance traversed by the opposing vehicle for two-thirds of the time the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. 2004 edition. the minimum passing sight distance for two lane highways is determined as the sum of the following four distances: d1 = Distance traversed during perception and reaction time during the initial acceleration to the point of encroachment on the left lane. after the overtaking maneuver is started.) .Mansour.

and distances are in feet (Exhibit 3-7.47 4. acceleration rates in km/h/s.50 4.S.41 4.0 1. speed values are in km/h.0 84.0 643 180 429 1468 1. acceleration rates in mph/sec. and d4 for two-lane highways Part I. 5th edition) Component of passing maneuver Initial maneuver a =average accelerationa t1=time (sec)a d1=distance traveled Occupation of left lane: t2 = time (sec)a d2 = distance traveled Clearance length: d3 = distance traveleda Opposing vehicle: d4 = distance traveled Total dist. 2004 edition.3 89 10.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.6 45 9.3 1030 300 687 2383 For consistent speed relation.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. observe values adjusted slightly.Chapter A: Geometric Design 65 . 5th edition) Table A-16 Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways Metric Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (km/h) (m) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (km/h) Exhibit for vehicle vehicle 3-6 design 29 44 200 200 30 36 51 266 270 40 44 59 341 345 50 51 66 407 410 60 59 74 482 485 70 65 80 538 540 80 73 88 613 615 90 79 94 670 670 100 85 100 727 730 110 90 105 774 775 120 94 109 812 815 130 US Customary Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (mph) (ft) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (mph) Exhibit 3for vehicle vehicle 6a design 18 28 706 710 20 22 32 897 900 25 26 36 1088 1090 30 30 40 1279 1280 35 34 44 1470 1470 40 37 47 1625 1625 45 41 51 1832 1835 50 44 54 1984 1985 55 47 57 2133 2135 60 50 60 2281 2285 65 54 64 2479 2480 70 56 66 2578 2580 75 58 68 2677 2680 80 a Exhibit 3-6 is the graph showing the total passing sight distance and its components (d1 . Shahin A. 2004 edition.61 145 9.37 4. = d1+ d2 + d3 + d4 a Metric Speed range (km/h) 50-65 66-80 81-95 96-110 Average passing speed (km/h) 56.40 3.d2.3 145 30 97 317 2. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.30 4.7 251 75 168 583 2. Note: In the metric portion of the table. In the U.) .5 99. page 124. Mansour.www.8 2. speed values are in mph.M.0 216 10. page 120. and distances are in meters.6 62. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. customary portion of the table.5 113 11.0 66 10.9 43.8 52.0 195 55 130 446 2.3 289 10.5 366 11. PE Table A-15 Elements of Safe Passing Sight Distance for Design of two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-5.2 70.25 3.3 477 100 318 1040 1. d3.43 4.7 827 250 552 1918 1.3 314 90 209 726 US Customary Speed range (mph) 30-40 40-50 56-60 60-70 Average passing speed (mph) 34.

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Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Per ASSHTO, the minimum passing sight distances presented in Exhibit 3-7 (page124) are generally conservative for modern vehicles. Notice that the difference in speed between the passed and passing vehicles which is 10 mph.

**Figure A-19 Total Passing Sight Distance and Its Components for Two-Lane Highways
**

(Exhibit 3-6 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 66

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Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE

Sample Problem A-27: Passing Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The passing sight distance for a design speed of 55 mph assumed the passed vehicle is at 44 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-7 (Table A-19), the passing sight distance is 1985 ft. Answer: (B) 1835 ft 1985 ft 2135 ft 2285 ft

**A.3.3 Length of Crest Vertical Curves and Sight Distances:
**

Minimum lengths of crest vertical curves based on sight distance criteria generally are satisfactory from the standpoint of safety, comfort, and appearance.

(Page 267- AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Table A-17 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Sight Distances Metric

US Customary Where S is less than L, (S < L)

Crest Vertical Curve Length & Sight Distances (SSD & PSD)

Where S is less than L, (S < L)

L=

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

L=

2

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

2

(3-41)

Where S is greater than L, (S > L)

**Where S is greater than L, (S > L)
**

2

L = 2S -

200 ( h1 + h2 ) A

200 ( h1 + h2 ) 2 L = 2S A

(3-42)

where: L = length of vertical curve, m; S = sight distance, m; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, m; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, m

where: L = length of vertical curve, ft; S = sight distance, ft; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, ft; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, ft

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

67

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Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

**Figure A-20 Parameters Considered in Determining the Length of a Crest Vertical Curve to Provide Sight Distances
**

(Exhibit 3-70 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

68

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

5 ft is used for passing sight distance.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. A = algebraic difference in grades. S = sight distance.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 ft respectively. m. the equations become: Table A-18 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Stopping Sight Distance for Heights of 3. m.M. US Customary Where S is less than L (S < L).www. ft. ft.5 ft and 2. 2004 edition. (3-45) L = 2S - 864 A L = 2S - 2800 A (3-46) where: L = length of vertical curve.5 ft (eye) and 2. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Stopping Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. AS 2 L= 2158 Where S is greater than L (S > L). percent where: L = length of vertical curve. AS 2 L= 864 Where S is greater than L. ft. US Customary Where S is less than L. percent When the height of eyes of the two drivers is 3.passpe. m. are used for stopping sight distance. m.0 ft (object) (Page 268. S = sight distance. percent where: L = length of vertical curve. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. A = algebraic difference in grades. AS 2 L= 2800 Where S is greater than L. S = sight distance. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Passing Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. Mansour. percent Part I. PE When the height of eye and the height of object are 3. S = sight distance. (3-43) L = 2S - 658 A L = 2S - 2158 A (3-44) where: L = length of vertical curve. AS 2 L= 658 Where S is greater than L.) . A = algebraic difference in grades. the equations become: Table A-19 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Passing Sight Distance for Height of 3.Chapter A: Geometric Design 69 .5 ft (eye) for Both Drivers (Page 270.

5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. K. 2004 edition. K = L/A= 1/r Table A-21 Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-73 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 150. K.) .9 3.6 383.1 18.Mansour. Ka Calculated 0. 2004 edition. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).passpe.7 38.0 6. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.4 11.8 246.6 1. Shahin A.8 25.1 60.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 73.0 123. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A). K* design 46 84 138 195 272 338 438 520 617 695 769 Design Speed (mph) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Passing sight distance (ft) 710 900 1090 1280 1470 1625 1835 1985 2135 2285 2480 2580 2680 Rate of vertical curvature. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance (PSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Passing sight distance (m) 200 270 345 410 485 540 615 670 730 775 815 Rate of vertical curvature. K* design 180 289 424 585 772 943 1203 1407 1628 1865 2197 2377 2565 a Rate of vertical curvature.8 6.1 11.7 113. PE Table A-20 Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-72 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Chapter A: Geometric Design 70 .6 95.6 192.7 Design 3 7 12 19 29 44 61 84 114 151 193 247 312 384 a Rate of vertical curvature.4 Design 1 2 4 7 11 17 26 39 52 74 95 124 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.0 16.5 29.1 83.www.9 52.M.0 43.9 311. Ka Calculated 3.

Shahin A. page 271. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 71 . Mansour.www.passpe.M.) . 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-71: Part I. PE Figure A-21 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-71.

2.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0. ft. percent Note: If S > L is assumed and equation (3-44) is used. Shahin A.Mansour.6V). and 3.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.6V. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. S = sight distance. the vertical curve is a crest Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-43) A = algebraic difference in grades. where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V). Table A-11) 72 Part I.33 ft > 650 ft = S A 6 Not Good (3-44) Answer: (B) Question: Can we use Figure A-21 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-71) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. (A) 940 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. A = algebraic difference in grades. Sample Problem A-28: Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on a Grade Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are + 4% ascending grade.M.www. ft.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. and 2% descending grade. page 112.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE 1. percent = g2 g1 = ( 2) (+4) = 6% OK (3-43) A S 2 6 ´ 650 2 L= = =1174 ft > SSD = 650 ft 2158 2158 where: L = length of vertical curve. the following result will be obtained: L = 2S - 2158 2158 = 2 ´ 650 = 940.) .

AS2 L= 400 + 3. ft. percent æ 400 + 3. m.6 + S tan 1o [ ( )] or.ç ÷ A è ø (3-50) where: L = length of sag vertical curve. 5th edition) Metric When S is less than L ( S < L). Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves US Customary When S is less than L( S < L).M. Shahin A. percent 73 Part I. 2004 edition. and A.6 + S (tan 1o )] L= 2S A or.0 + S tan 1o or. A = algebraic difference in grades.3.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. (3-49) æ 120 + 3. Table A-22 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves for 1-Degree Upward Angle (Page 273. S = light beam distance.www. [ ( )] (3-47) AS 2 L= 120 + 3.5 S ö L= 2 S . L.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AS 2 L= 200 2. and general appearance Figure A-22 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for Sag Vertical Curves The following equation show the relationships between S. S = light beam distance. AS 2 L= 200 0. A = algebraic difference in grades.) .4 Length of Sag Vertical Curves and Sight Distances: There are four different criteria for establishing lengths of sag vertical curves as follows: 1234headlight sight distance. m. PE A. ft. Mansour.ç ÷ A è ø where: L = length of sag vertical curve.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design .AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L).5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). passenger comfort. using S as the distance between the vehicle and point where the 1-degree (1 ) upward angle of the light beam intersects the surface of the roadway.5 S ö L= 2S . (3-48) 200 [ 0. 200[ 2. drainage control.0 + S (tan1o )] L= 2 S A or.

km/h where: L = length of sag vertical curve. 2004 edition.0 Design 10 17 26 37 49 64 79 96 115 136 157 181 206 231 a Rate of vertical curvature.www.7 114.6 44.6 231.4 16.1 5.8 72.3 m/s2] (Exhibit 3-75. page 277.5 36. mph * The length of sag vertical curves are based on centripetal acceleration does not exceed 1 ft/s2 [0. Shahin A.4 49.5 180.Mansour.4 62.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V = design speed.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.0 63. (Page 274. Percent.6 29.1 95. rather than in the same direction.) . ft.9 135.passpe.1 8.2 17.6 54.3 205.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 25. 5th edition) Table A-24 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves Metric Design Controls for Sag Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A). K = L/A = 1/r Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 74 .4 37. Ka Calculated 2. 2004 edition. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. A = algebraic difference in grades.5 12.M.4 78. Ka Calculated 9.3 22. V = design speed. K. 5th edition) Table A-23 Length of Sag Vertical Curves Considering Comfort* Metric US Customary Length of Sag Vertical Curves for Comfort L= AV 2 395 L= AV 2 46. PE The effect on passenger comfort of the change in vertical curve direction is greater on sag than on crest vertical curves because gravitational and centripetal forces are in opposite directions. The following table gives the sag vertical curve length taken into consideration the comfort of the driver of sag curves.5 (3-51) where: L = length of sag vertical curve.7 156. m. A = algebraic difference in grades. Percent.7 Design 3 6 9 13 18 23 30 38 45 55 63 73 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.

Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 75 .www. 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-74: Part I.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.passpe. Mansour.M. page 275. PE Figure A-23 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-74. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.

the vertical curve is sag Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-48) A = algebraic difference in grades. and 3.passpe. page 275) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0.42 ft (3-51) 2. A = algebraic difference in grades.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design . and + 2% descending grade. PE 1.42 ft > SSD = 650 ft ® N .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0. 2.ç ÷ = 854.G.Mansour.5 S 400 + 3. AV 2 6 ´ 652 = = 545.) .Check the curve length for comfort: L = 46. percent L= OK (3-48) Notes: 1. Sample Problem A-29: Vertical Curve Length and SSD Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are 4% ascending grade.5 Answer: (A) Question: Can we use Fig.5 46. the following result will be obtained: æ 400 + 3. percent = G1 G2 = 4 (+2) = 6% AS2 6 ´ 6502 = = 947.5 ´ 650 ö L= 2S .66 ft > 650 ft 400 + 3. where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V). Shahin A.www.2 ft < 854.42 ft A 6 è ø è ø (3-50) But 854. (A) 950 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. A-22 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-74. S = sight distance.M.5 S ö æ 400 + 3.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. ft. ft.6V.ç ÷ = 2 ´ 650 . Table A-11) 76 Part I.6V).If S > L is assumed and equation (3-50) is used.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length.5 ´ 650 where: L = length of vertical curve.

Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers C.9 s 5.Avoidance Maneuver E: Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.5 Decision Sight Distance: Decision sight distance is used when drivers must make decisions more complex than stop or don't stop. It is longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the distance traveled while making a more complex decision. V = design speed.278 Vt Where: t = pre-maneuver time.Avoidance Maneuver A: Stop on rural road t = 3.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. and initiate and complete the required maneuver safely and efficiently.1 s 3. D.3.M. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers C.47 Vt (3-5) Where: t = pre-maneuver time. km/h. ft/s2 (11. The decision sight distance is "distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed. Mansour.1 and 12. s (see types of maneuvers above). a = deceleration rate.039 a Where: t = pre-maneuver time.Avoidance Maneuver C: Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10.2 s 4. 2004 edition.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers A and B (Page 117. mph 77 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design .2 and 11. Shahin A. recognize the hazard or its threat potential. m/s2 (3. km/h d = 1.5 s Table A 25.0 and 14. and E (Page 117.47 Vt + 1.0 s 2. There are five maneuvers as follows: 1. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers A&B US Customary V2 d = 0.) . select an appropriate speed and path.Avoidance Maneuver D: Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12. 2004 edition. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights). PE A. s (see types of maneuvers above). In the United States (AASHTO Green Book). V = design speed.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.5 feet) above the pavement.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. mph.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.4 m/s2) d = 1. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed.passpe.2 ft/s2) Table A 26.075 V2 a (3-4) Where: t = pre-maneuver time.Avoidance Maneuver B: Stop on urban road t = 9.278 Vt + 0. a = deceleration rate.www. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3. D & E US Customary d = 0.

0 and 14.2 s Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.1 s (3-4) 50 2 d = 1.passpe.9 s Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.47 Vt + 1.M. Shahin A.0 s Stop on urban road t = 9.) .2 Using Table: 910 ft (from the above table) Answer: (D) 78 Part I.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.075 a For maneuver B: t is 9.075 = 908.47 (50)(9.1 s Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10.1) + 1. 2004 edition. page 116. PE (Exhibit 3-3.81 ft 11.1 and 12. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) Table A-27 Decision Sight Distance Decision Sight Distance (DSD) Design speed (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Metric US Customary Decision sight distance (m) Design Decision sight distance (ft) speed Avoidance maneuver Avoidance maneuver (mph) A A B C D E B C D E 70 155 145 170 195 220 490 450 535 620 30 95 195 170 205 235 275 590 525 625 720 35 115 235 200 235 275 330 690 600 715 825 40 140 280 230 270 315 395 800 675 800 930 45 170 325 270 315 360 465 910 750 890 1030 50 200 370 315 355 400 535 1030 865 980 1135 55 235 420 330 380 430 610 1150 990 1125 1280 60 265 470 360 415 470 695 1275 1050 1220 1365 65 305 525 390 450 510 780 1410 1105 1275 1445 70 875 1545 1180 1365 1545 75 970 1685 1260 1455 1650 80 Avoidance Maneuver A: Avoidance Maneuver B: Avoidance Maneuver C: Avoidance Maneuver D: Avoidance Maneuver E: Stop on rural road t = 3.5 s Sample Problem A-31: Decision Sight Distance Given: The decision sight distance for a speed of 50 mph and a maneuver B is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO equation (3-4): 435 ft 690 ft 800 ft 910 ft V2 d = 1.Mansour.2 and 11.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

) driver deceleration. this value is 5 ft) 79 Part I. or proceeding straight).) distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. this value is 1.passpe.) D = distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail.www.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.2 ft/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. 2004 edition. PE A.278 constant = 0. 5th edition) Table A-28 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safely Cross or Stop Railroad Crossing Metric US Customary B Vv2 d H = AVv t + + D + de a B Vv2 V d T = T [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a where: A = B = dH = constant = 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Mansour.4 m length of vehicle. which is assumed to be 15 ft de = distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle. which is assumed to be 2. (Exhibit 9-103. which is assumed to be 65 ft W = distance between outer rails (for a single track.4 Intersection Sight Distance: Intersection sight distance is the decision needed to safely proceed through an intersection. which is assumed to be 2.47 B = constant = 1.075 dH = sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (ft) dT = sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (ft) Vv = speed of the vehicle (mph) VT = speed of the train (mph) t = perception/reaction time. which is assumed to be 20 m distance between outer rails (for a single track. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. which is assumed to be 8 ft L = length of vehicle. and the maneuver (left turn. Shahin A.4 m/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.) a = driver deceleration. which is assumed to be 11. page 734-735.039 sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (m) sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (m) speed of the vehicle (km/h) speed of the train (km/h) perception/reaction time.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.3. which is assumed to be 3.5 m) B Vv2 d H = AVvt + + D + de a dT = (9-3) VT B Vv2 [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a dT = Vv = VT = t = a = D = de = L = W = where: A = constant = 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design . right turn.) .5 m distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle. which is assumed to be 2.M. The distance needed depends on the type of traffic control at the intersection. which is assumed to be 4.

passpe.www.) . 5th edition) Figure A-24 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safety or Stop at Railroad Crossing 80 Part I. page 735. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.Mansour. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design . PE (Exhibit 9-103.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

5th edition) Metric US Customary éV ù L +2 D + W . which is assumed to be 4.45 m/s2 L = length of vehicle.47 ft/s2 L = length of vehicle.5 m J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift.47 (9-4) dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (ft) VT = speed of train (mph) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear.8) 2 = = 26.d a dT =AVT ê G + +Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 1.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. which is assumed to be 15 ft J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift.0 s W = distance between outer rails for a single track.d a dT = AVT ê G + + Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 0. which is assumed to be 2.278 dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (m) VT = speed of train (km/h) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear.www. Shahin A. which is assumed to be 8.3 ft 2a1 (2)(1. which is assumed to be 2. which is assumed to be 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design 81 .passpe. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 s éV ù L +2 D + W .5m V2 da = G 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (2. PE Table A-29 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.1m 2a1 (2)(0. which is assumed to be 1. which is assumed to be 2.45) W = distance between outer rails for a single track.) .7) 2 = = 8. this value is 5 ft 2 VG da = 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (8.7 m/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear. which is assumed to be 20 m D = distance from stop to nearest rail. which is assumed to be 65ft D = distance from stop to nearest rail.8 ft/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear. Mansour.M. this value is 1.47) Part I.

2004 edition.Mansour.www. PE Figure A-25 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105.M.passpe. page 738.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) 82 Part I.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. and the driver is located 5 ft back from the front bumper of the vehicle. Mansour.075 ( 45) 2 d H = AVv t + + D + d e = (1.www.M. The required sight triangle distance (ft) along the highway for a vehicle to stop at the stop line for an approaching train is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Equation 9-3 (page 734): 360 380 440 560 B Vv2 1.47) (45)(2.Chapter A: Geometric Design 83 .passpe. The stop line is located 15 ft from the near side rail.) . PE Sample Problem A-32: Triangle Sight Distance Given: A vehicle is approaching a railroad track at a speed of 45 mph. Assume AASHTOrecommended design values for perception reaction time. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.2 Alternate Solution (short cut): Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-1(page 112): Stopping sight distance (SSD) for 45 mph = 360 ft (design SSD) The total distance = SSD + D + de = 360 + 15 + 5 = 380 ft (9-3) Answer: (B) Part I.5) + + 15 + 5 = 380 ft a 11.

ft/s. when a vehicle travels on a curve it is forced outward by centrifugal force.passpe.067 V 2 V 2 = = = 1 .4 SUPERELEVATION A. g = gravitational constant. percent.0. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity. v = vehicle speed.079 V 2 V2 = = = 1 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. v = vehicle speed.067 V 2 V 2 Centrifugal Force = e + f = = R 15 R (A-41) e = Superelevation slope in feet per foot emax = Maximum superelevation rate for a given condition f = Side friction factor R = Curve radius in feet V = Velocity in miles per hour The parameters that affect the superelevation formula are shown in the following table which are derived from the law of mechanics: (Page 131.01 ef gR R 15R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation. 5th edition) Table A-30 Formula for Vehicle Operation on a Curve Metric US Customary 0. It is impractical to balance centrifugal force by superelevation alone. which is used to design a curve for a comfortable operation at a particular speed: 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design . the centrifugal force is resisted by the vehicle weight component parallel to the superelevated surface and side friction between the tires and pavement. The purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.2 ft/s2 V = design speed.81 m/s2 V = design speed. On a superelevated highway. 2004 edition.www. ft (3-8) Part I. f = side friction (demand) factor. percent. m 84 0. At all other speeds there will be a side thrust either outward or inward. mph. f = side friction (demand) factor.01 ef gR R 127 R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation.01 e + f v 2 0. which must be offset by side friction. If the vehicle is not skidding.Mansour. PE A.4-1 Introduction: According to the laws of mechanics. these forces are in equilibrium as represented by the following equation. g = gravitational constant.01 e + f v 2 0.0.M. relative to the curve center. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity. because for any given curve radius a certain superelevation rate is exactly correct for only one driving speed. 32. Shahin A. m/s.) . mph. 9.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

page 134. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. therefore. 5th edition) Table A -31 Minimum Radius Using emax and fmax Metric US Customary 2 Rmin V = 127 (0.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Figure A-26 Geometry for Ball-Bank Indicator (Top: Manual & Electronic Ball Bank) (Exhibit 3-9. studies show that the maximum side friction factors developed between new tires and wet concrete pavements range from about 0. states.35 at 60 mph. "In general.01 emax + f max ) (3-10) Part I. 5th edition) (Page 146. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. PE Side friction factors tabulated on by AASHTO for design purposes.M. 2004 edition.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.passpe.5 at 20 mph to approximately 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design 85 . Mansour." The design side friction factors are. AASHTO.01emax + f max ) Rmin V2 = 15 (0. Shahin A.www. about one-third the values that occur when side skidding is imminent.

15 0.18 0.24 0.16 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .23 0.0 4.3 484.26 0.1 3.0 4.9 2041.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.7 86.23 0.7 85.32 0.0 6.0 6.0 4.44 0.23 0.20 0.2 39.13 0.17 0.40 0.17 0.27 0.08 0.1 22.23 0.29 0.19 0.38 0.29 0.0 4.0 375.0 6.15 0.19 0.18 0.0 6.8 642.15 0.0 4.4 755.4 78.9 833.0 4.0 4.5 925.M.0 e (%) 0.17 0.0 4.16 0.36 0.7 2500.9 1186.12 0.0 4.7 20.28 0.8 43.27 0.0 6.6 Rounded Radius (ft) 16 42 86 154 250 371 533 711 926 1190 1500 15 39 81 144 231 340 485 643 833 1060 1330 1660 2040 2500 3050 e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 4.0 6.) .0 4.15 0.8 340.7 437.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 4.38 0.41 0.19 0.0 4.20 0.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.14 86 Part I.14 0.32 0.8 143.6 135.1 46.0 4.12 0.16 0.0 6.09 0.2 533. PE (Exhibit 3-15.5 80.40 0.0 6.4 1333.18 0.22 0.21 0.7 123.14 0.0 6.14 4.27 0.www.3 710.13 0.0 4.27 0.23 0.35 0.28 0.7 230.20 0.42 0.22 0.1 280.0 6.18 0.19 0.0 6.33 0.0 4.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.17 0.4 560.08 0.passpe.11 0.14 0. Shahin A.38 0. page 147.10 0.0 0.34 0.3 1656.19 0.32 0.16 0.0 6.9 950.0 335.15 0.25 0.0 6.3 250.17 0. 5th edition) Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f METRIC Maximum f Maximum Maximum US Customary Maximum Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 f Total (e/100+f) Calculated Radius (ft) 15.0 6.0 3047.5 4 8 22 47 86 135 203 280 375 492 4 8 21 43 79 123 184 252 336 437 560 756 951 4.21 0.2 492.46 0.16 0.0 4.0 4.0 203.21 0.0 6.0 154.0 6.7 252.0 6.3 1500.35 0.23 0.2 183.0 4.20 0. 2004 edition.14 0.12 0.24 0.18 0.39 0.0 15.9 41.13 0.19 0.0 8.12 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 6.0 6.9 7.0 371.31 0.0 6.09 0.3 1061.0 6.13 0.Mansour.11 0.15 0.0 6.20 0.18 0.17 0.44 0.

13 0.0 8.0 12.12 0.21 0.40 0.14 0.22 0.0 641.08 0.22 0.0 10.43 0.0 18.20 0.09 0.0 12.3 314.15 0.0 0.1 328.0 10.0 10.18 0.25 0.www.23 0.5 76.0 12.29 0.0 8.6 1484.17 0.11 0.22 0.28 0.0 12.7 142.40 0.22 0.3 19.30 0.3 200.0 10.24 0.7 1000.35 0.0 8.0 10.39 0.21 0.6 38.23 0.20 3.27 0.3 34.38 0.23 0.1 414.28 0.7 2133.0 0.14 0.15 0.4 13.0 8.7 36.24 0.11 0.5 1814.0 63. Mansour.26 0.0 10.16 0.3 210.10 0.28 0.) .0 12.6 960.0 1482.36 0.2 539.0 12.passpe.0 12.5 272.0 10.0 10.11 0.20 14.32 0.9 113. Shahin A.0 8.0 10.0 10.19 0.11 0.20 0.37 0.44 0.5 97.23 0.0 277.4 6.3 14 38 76 134 214 314 444 587 758 960 1200 1480 1810 2210 2670 14 36 72 126 200 292 410 540 694 877 1090 1340 1630 1970 2370 13 34 68 119 188 272 381 500 641 807 1000 1220 1480 1790 2130 87 Part I.0 187.50 0.0 10.28 0.5 37.0 10.24 0.7 2370.24 0.48 0.0 10.0 1224.0 694.08 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.7 72.18 0.7 40.0 10.0 8.0 10.08 0.13 0.8 1090.0 8.15 0.19 0.08 0.7 501.M.25 0.50 0.12 0.20 0.0 291.0 12.23 0.0 12.0 500.9 193.0 8.0 12.0 8.33 0.42 0.0 8.3 1633.0 10.1 68.Chapter A: Geometric Design .4 167.13 0.4 587.10 0.35 0.45 0.30 0.21 0.0 12.11 0.0 10.0 12.0 8.12 0.08 0.1 303.1 126.10 0.0 12.0 12.23 0.0 12.19 0.25 0.18 0.13 0.46 0.17 0.2 67.27 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.0 12.0 12.13 0.0 12.7 7.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.38 0.0 8.7 4 7 20 41 73 113 168 229 304 394 501 667 832 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 10.52 0.35 0.18 3.27 0.28 0.0 12.33 0.0 12.0 8.0 757.7 410.0 8.0 12.0 8.22 0.09 0.0 10.14 0.0 8.47 0.14 0.31 0.12 0.32 0.0 8.35 0.4 119.0 10.11 0.3 4 7 19 38 68 105 154 210 277 358 454 597 739 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 12.14 0.35 0.0 10.3 1200.12 0.20 0.0 10.0 12.3 357.0 10.8 2205.12 0.5 7.0 10.40 0.38 0.0 12.4 214.40 0.23 0.3 540.4 3 7 18 36 64 98 143 194 255 328 414 540 665 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 8.0 806.0 831.0 10.9 35.0 154.0 8.9 2666.19 0.18 0.8 255.7 17.31 0.21 0.0 8.23 0.3 1973.23 0.7 596.48 0.17 0.0 8.23 0.19 0.14 0.40 0.09 0.0 8.20 0.23 0.21 0.0 10.0 10.23 0.0 12.0 8.8 739.9 105.16 0.31 0.38 0.15 0.32 0.5 667.0 8.9 453.28 0.0 8.27 0.24 0.17 0.0 e (%) 0.2 381.18 0.08 0.0 0.13 0.15 0.17 0. PE Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f (Continued) METRIC Maximum Maximum f Maximum US Customary Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) Calculate d Radius (ft) Maximum f Total (e/100+f) Rounded Radius (ft) e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 8.0 12.9 1341.29 0.4 876.7 393.09 0.8 1785.26 0.8 229.19 0.27 0.0 8.26 0.27 0.6 72.19 0.21 0.0 12.1 444.09 0.0 8.14 0.16 3.16 0.7 13.2 134.0 10.32 0.20 0.9 665.27 0.09 0.16 0.35 0.0 12.

com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.M. the corresponding superelevation rate is 10% for a maximum friction of 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.9ft) and V of 60 mph. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.12 Answer: (C) 88 Part I.12 The rate of superelevation required for this curve is almost nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 6% 8% 10% 33% Solution: Ø Using AASHTO Equation 3-10 (Note: emax in the following equation is a percentage): Rmin V2 = 15 (0.01emax + 0. V = 60 mph Radius (minimum safe) =1. page 147.Mansour.091 ft Coefficient of side friction = 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .12) Solve the above equation for emax gives 10% (3-10) Ø Using Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f Table (Exhibit 3-15. 5th edition) Look for a radius of 1090 ft (1090.) . PE Sample Problem A-33: Superelevation Rate Given: A horizontal curve on a two-lane rural highway has the following characteristics: Design speed.www. Shahin A.passpe. 2004 edition.01emax + f max ) 60 2 1091 = 15(0.

somewhat more complicated modifications of the cross section are required. Shahin A. Figure A-27 Force Diagram for Superelevation Part I. which will be opposed by a force of: Force = mass × acceleration = m×a = W/g) v2/ R (A-42) Other forces acting on the vehicle are its weight W and the forces exerted against the wheels by the roadway surface. superelevation is expressed as a slope. In the case of highways. the purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve. the superelevations are given as the difference in elevation between the upper and lower rail.passpe. Mansour.4-2 Superelevation Runoff and Superelevation Diagram: As mentioned before. where the top of the rail is the profile grade. The term itself comes from railroad practice.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. and.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 89 . and the upper rail is said to be "superelevated. PE A." Since most railways are built to a standard gage. Consider the force diagram in Figure A-27. there will be a radial acceleration toward the center of the curve (toward the left in the diagram) of v2/ R.M. because widths vary. so that: F1 £ m N1 £ f N1 F2 £ m N 2 £ f N 2 where m or f is the coefficient of friction between tires and roadway. In curves. If the vehicle is traveling around a curve with a radius R at a constant speed v. For highway vehicles F1 and F2 are friction forces. and N2 and the lateral forces F1 and F2. the profile grade line follows the lower rail. These forces are represented by two components: the normal forces N1.) .

Axis of Rotation 2. the following parameters must be determined: 1. A superelevation transition should be designed to satisfy the requirements of safety. The length of superelevation transition should be based upon the combination of superelevation rate and width of rotated plane. In the latter case. in special cases such as desert roads where curves are preceded by long relatively level tangents. Appearance and drainage considerations should always be taken into account in selection of the axis of rotation.) . (b) Ramps and Freeway-to-freeway Connections: The axis of rotation may be about either edge of traveled way or centerline if multilane. PE In order to construct the superelevation diagram.Superelevation Transition 1. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline.passpe. the axis of rotation should be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way.M. comfort and pleasing appearance.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. drainage pockets caused by superelevation may be avoided by changing the axis of rotation from the centerline to the inside edge of traveled way.Axis of Rotation (a) Undivided Highways: For undivided highways the axis of rotation for superelevation is usually the centerline of the roadbed. except where the resulting initial median slope would be steeper than 10: 1.Superelevation Transition: The superelevation transition generally consists of the crown runoff and the superelevation runoff as shown on Figure A-28.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A. the axis of rotation. Where the initial median width is greater than 65 feet and the ultimate median width is 65 feet or less. if not already on centerline. should be shifted to the centerline. the plane of superelevation may be rotated about the inside edge of traveled way to improve perception of the curve. Where the ultimate median width is greater than 65 feet. 90 Part I. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline. the axis of rotation should normally be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way. In flat country. (i) Freeways-Where the initial median width is 65 feet or less. (c) Divided Highways. To avoid sawtooth on bridges with decked medians. However. (ii) Conventional Highways-The axis of rotation should be considered on an individual project basis and the most appropriate case for the conditions should 2.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

Two-thirds of the superelevation runoff should be on the tangent and one-third within the curve. or when conforming to existing roadway. This results in two-thirds of the full superelevation rate at the beginning or ending of a curve.M. Figure A-28 Superelevation Diagram and Roadway Cross Sections Figure A-29 Superelevation Transition (Elements) for a Curve to the right Part I.www. PE Runoff.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 91 . This may be altered as required to adjust for flat spots or unsightly sags and humps. Mansour. Shahin A.passpe.

page 278.2 Sight Distance at Undercrossing: Sight distance on the highway through a grade separation should be at least as long as the minimum stopping sight distance and preferably longer. The equation shown below will give the curve length in stations to meet certain cover or vertical clearance. Shahin A.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-31 Sight Distance at Undercrossing .5 VERTICAL AND/OR HORIZONTAL CLEARANCES A.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.1 Vertical Curves Under or Over An Obstruction: Sometimes it necessarily to construct a vertical curve under a structure or over a utility pipe. (Exhibit 3-76.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) 92 Part I. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.M. 2004 edition. Figure A-30 Vertical Curve Length Under or Over Obstruction 2 2y ö æ b´ y æ y ö b+ +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç DG ø DG è DG ø è (A-43) where: L b y G = = = = length of vertical curve (stations) distance from vertex to point (stations) tangent offset to curve (ft) the absolute value of g 2 .5.5.www.g 1 A. PE A.

S = sight distance. m. ft. ft Table A-34 Case 2. 2004 edition. ft.e. A = algebraic difference in grades. percent C = vertical clearance.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. ft.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: L = length of vertical curve.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C= h1 = h2 = (3-53) length of vertical curve. percent vertical clearance. m. ft. m AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . Mansour. 2004 edition.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C = h1 = h2 = length of vertical curve. h1 = height of eye. m.) . ft. h1 = height of eye. sight distance.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 278. i.M. Shahin A. h2 = height of object.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. h2 = height of object. ft.passpe. height of object. algebraic difference in grades.Chapter A: Geometric Design 93 . ft.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. i. sight distance. A = algebraic difference in grades. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S>L US Customary æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . S = sight distance. m. m æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C .e. m. S < L Table A-33 Case 1. m.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: (3-52) L = length of vertical curve. height of eye. percent C = vertical clearance. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S<L US Customary AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . m. ft. height of eye. S > L Case 2: Sight distance < curve length . algebraic difference in grades. ft Part I. height of object. percent vertical clearance.www. PE The following two tables show two cases for calculating the sag vertical curve length: Case 1: Sight distance > curve length . m.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

percent = vertical clearance. S = sight distance. = algebraic difference in grades. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. ft.Mansour.6 m] for the taillights of a vehicle. ft. ft. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. m = length of vertical curve. S>L Metric US Customary L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C .5) Where: L = length of vertical curve.0 ft [0.5) Where: (3-55) L = length of vertical curve. A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. 2004 edition. m. 94 Part I.www. percent C = vertical clearance. percent C = vertical clearance. m. m.1. = sight distance. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. S = sight distance.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. AS 2 L= 800 (C .passpe.0 ft [2. m.Chapter A: Geometric Design . percent = vertical clearance.5) A L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C .5) A (3-54) = length of vertical curve. ft.) . ft Table A-36 Case 2. = sight distance.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. A = algebraic difference in grades. = algebraic difference in grades.1. PE Using an eye height of 8.M.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 279.4 m] for a truck driver and an object 2. S<L Metric US Customary AS 2 L= 800 (C . 2004 edition. the following equations for the sag vertical curve length can be derived: Table A-35 Case 1.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. m.

rounded to full station) curve is selected.5 ø è è 6 . crosses the grade line at right angles at station (A) 17.50 ft below the bottom of the pipe.5 ft and if a 1800 ft (18 Sta.8) ö æ +ç ÷ L = 2 ç1. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3. Answer is A Part I.40 ft.5 ft.00 × 1. the curve length should be 1700 ft (17 Sta. The entering grade is 3.8 ö 2(9. Here the minimum vertical clearance is 16. Shahin A.0 = 6. Therefore.8) æ 9. Mansour.M.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a clearance of 16.5 ø = 17. PE Sample Problem A-35: vertical curve length UNDER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at Find: The sag vertical curve that passes an elevation of 80. = curve elevation tangent elevation = (114.www.80 ft 2 1.50 ft (D) 18.6(9.00 8 + 90. the minimum clearance required will be reduced.89 Sta.00 16.6 Sta.89 and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is (C) 18.passpe.5.00.6) = 9.5) (80.00 %.89 Solution: 2( y ) ö b( y ) æ y ö æ +ç L = 2ç A + ÷ +4 ÷ DG ø DG è DG ø è 2 (A-32) b G y = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1. A pipeline Express the answer in full station.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.0 ft (B) 17.5 + 3.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.6 + ÷ +4 6.4 + 3.) . The outside diameter of the pipe is 3.5 6.Chapter A: Geometric Design 95 . % and the exiting grade is + 3.00 114.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location.5 3 16.

A pipeline crosses the grade line at right angles at station 8 + 90.00 ×1.40 ft.5 ø è 2 Here the minimum cover is 60 inches (5 ft) and if a 800 ft (8 Sta.6 + 6.2 + 60 inches × ft/12 inches) (80.) .Chapter A: Geometric Design . the minimum cover required will be reduced.4 + 3.00 (B) 8.) curve is selected.passpe.00. Find: Determine the vertical curve length rounded to the nearest full station that will provide the 60.0 = 6.6(3) æ 3 ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ = 8.00 % and the exiting grade is + 3. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3.5 + 3.5 è 6 . Therefore.5 ø 6 . The entering grade is 3. the curve length should be 900 ft (9 Sta. L = 2 ç1. (A) 8.0 inches clearance (cover) over the pipe. Answer: (C) NOTE: This is opposite to the previous sample problem where a smaller curve was selected compared to the calculated value to ensure minimum vertical clearance 96 Part I.50 %.6 Sta.84 Solution: 2( y ) ö æ b( y ) æ y ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç A+ DG ø DG è DG ø è b G y 2 (A-32) = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.94 (C) 9.0 ft and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is 83. Shahin A.Mansour.20 ft. = Curve elevation Tangent elevation = (83.94 Sta.00 ft 2(3) ö æ 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.00 (D) 9.6) = 3.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a cover of 60 inches (5 ft).5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M. PE Sample Problem A-36: vertical curve length OVER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at an elevation of 80.

65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .www. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5.Chapter A: Geometric Design 97 .65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 . 5th edition) (Page 227. Mansour. m éæ 28. 5th edition) Table A-26 Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) Metric Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) US Customary éæ 28.) . 2004 edition.passpe. m R = Radius of curve. m HSO = Horizontal sightline offset. ft R = Radius of curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. Shahin A. PE A.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û (3-38) where: S = Stopping sight distance.2 Horizontal Sight Distance: Figure A-32 Diagram Illustrating Components for Determining Horizontal Sight Distance (Exhibit 3-54. ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset. page 227.M. ft Part I. 2004 edition.

Chapter A: Geometric Design .M.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. ft Note: R is measured to the centerline of the inside lane.Cos ÷ú = 844 êç1 .Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance.65 ´ 425 öù HSO = R êç1 .61 ft R øû 844 øû ëè ëè The distance from the edge of pavement = HSO ½ (lane width) = 26.Cos ÷ú = 26. éæ 28.www. ft R = Radius of curve.61 ft Answer: (A) 98 Part I. (A ) 21 (B) 26 (C) 27 (D) 32 Solution: The house should be placed away from the sight distance as required per AASHTO Exh. The property owner adjacent to the of: highway wants to build a house on his land.65 S öù 28. PE Sample Problem A-37: Horizontal Sight Distance Given: A two lane conventional highway is Find: The house should be placed at from designed for 50 mph with a 850 ft centerline radius the edge of pavement at distance (in feet) and 12 ft lanes.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. R = 850 ft 12ft/2 = 844 ft (3-38) S = 425 ft ( AASHTO Exhibit 3-1. Shahin A. 3-54.Mansour.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 . ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.passpe. page 112) éæ éæ 28.61 ft 6 ft = 20.

M. 5th edition) Figure A-33 Typical Gore Area Characteristics Part I.1 Definitions and Terms Related to Acceleration and Deceleration: (Exhibit 10-59. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.) . 2004 edition.passpe. Mansour. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 99 .6. PE A.6 ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. page 833.

L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH.Mansour. PE 1.passpe. 2004 edition. L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.6 m [2 ft]. 3.Chapter A: Geometric Design . page 833.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71. L a SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE.www. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE.M. 4. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP. THE VALUE OF La OR L g. (Exhibit 10-69. 5th edition) Figure A-34 Typical Single Lane Entrance Ramps 100 Part I.

passpe. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71. PE 1. 3. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP. 2. (Exhibit 10-76. La SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. 5th edition) Figure A-35 Typical Two-Lane Entrance Ramps Part I. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE. Mansour. Shahin A.6 m [2 ft].www.M. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH. page 858.Chapter A: Geometric Design 101 .) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition. THE VALUE OF La OR L g. 4. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V reached. V a¢ (km/h) speed. Va 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 (mph) (mph) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 50 53 55 180 280 360 560 720 960 1200 1410 1620 1790 140 220 300 490 660 900 1140 1350 1560 1730 160 270 440 610 810 1100 1310 1520 1630 50 44 210 120 380 280 160 550 450 350 130 780 670 550 320 150 1020 910 800 550 420 1220 1120 1000 770 600 1420 1350 1230 1000 820 1580 1510 1420 1160 1040 180 370 580 780 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE Metric Acceleration length. V a¢ (mph) speed. Va 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 (km/h) (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 37 45 53 60 67 74 81 88 60 95 150 200 260 345 430 545 50 80 130 180 245 325 410 530 30 65 110 165 225 305 390 515 45 90 145 205 285 370 490 80 70 65 115 175 255 340 460 65 125 205 290 410 35 110 200 325 40 125 245 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 400 m. V reached.Chapter A: Geometric Design 102 .M.Mansour. Shahin A. L(m) for entrance curve design speed (km/h) Stop Highway 20 30 40 50 60 70 condition Design Speed and initial speed. 5th edition) Part I.passpe.www. L(ft) for entrance curve design speed (mph) Stop Highway 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 condition Design Speed and initial speed.) . 2004 edition. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.300 ft V = design speed of highway (km/h) Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on entrance curve (km/h) Figure A-36 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-70. page 847. US Customary Acceleration length.

Va (mph) (mph) 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 44 30 28 35 32 40 36 45 40 50 44 55 48 60 52 65 55 70 58 75 61 V = design speed of highway (mph) VN = design speed of exit curve (mph) 235 280 320 385 435 480 530 570 615 660 200 170 140 250 210 185 150 295 265 235 185 155 350 325 295 250 220 405 385 355 315 285 225 175 455 440 410 380 350 285 235 500 480 460 430 405 350 300 540 520 500 470 440 390 340 590 570 550 520 490 440 390 635 620 600 575 535 490 440 Va = average running speed on highway (mph) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (mph) 240 280 340 390 Figure A-37 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-73. page 851. 5th edition) Part I. V reached. V reached. L(m) for design speed of exit curve VN (km/h) Stop condition 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve V a¢ (km/h) speed. L(ft) for design speed of exit curve.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Va (km/h) (km/h) 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 70 50 47 60 55 70 63 80 70 90 77 100 85 110 91 120 98 V = design speed of highway (km/h) VN = design speed of exit curve (km/h) 75 70 60 45 95 90 80 65 55 110 105 95 85 70 55 130 125 115 100 90 80 55 145 140 135 120 110 100 75 60 170 165 155 145 135 120 100 85 180 180 170 160 150 140 120 105 200 195 185 175 170 155 140 120 Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (km/h) US Customary Deceleration length. VN (mph) Stop condition 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve.passpe.www. Mansour.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design 103 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V a¢ (mph) speed. PE Metric Deceleration length. Shahin A. 2004 edition.

2 2.) .05 2.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 20 30 40 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.675 0.8 2.6 1.8 1.05 1.5 2.5 1.45 1.5 1.2 2.3 1.55 0.6 1.6 0.575 0.5 1.7 2.6 0.Mansour.6 1.0 2.1 1.4 2.5 1.7 5 to 6 % upgrade 1.525 0.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.0 2.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.4 2.5 0. Shahin A.5 0.8 2.4 1.0 3.5 1.M.6 2.6 1.5 1.9 2.5 1.9 2.7 5 to 6% upgrade 1.6 1.5 1.8 2.5 1.5 1. 2004 edition.passpe.7 1.65 0.8 1.2 2.35 1. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.3 1.5 0.55 1.75 3.8 1.4 1.5 1.85 2.2 80 All speeds 3 to 4 % downgrade 0.7 1.3 1.5 2.6 1.6 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.7 1.6 0.7 1.3 1.7 1.45 1.45 1.7 0.6 1.6 5 to 6 % downgrade 0.7 0.5 1.4 1.5 1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.7 1.6 0.5 3.0 3.7 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.0 Ratio from this table multiplied by the length in Exhibit 10-70 or Exhibit 10-73 gives length of speed change lane on grades Figure A-38 Speed Change Lane Adjustment Factors as a Function of Grade (G > 2%) (Exhibit 10-71.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.9 1.3 1.4 1. 5th edition) Part I.4 1.4 1.3 1.8 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1.65 0.6 0.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.9 1. PE Metric Design speed of highway (km/h) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (km/h) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.6 5 to 6% downgrade 0.5 1.6 1.www.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 1.55 0.625 0. page 848.6 0.4 1.35 1.5 3.6 1.0 1.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 40 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 a US Customary Design Speed of highway (mph) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (mph) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.3 1.5 1.6 0.7 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.6 1.5 1.6 0.8 2.5 0.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 50 60 70 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.5 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 104 .65 0.6 50 All speeds 3 to 4% downgrade 0.7 1.4 1.2 2.55 0.2 2.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.60 = 810 ft Answer: (D) Civil Transportation Depth (P. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 0. The entrance A) 1.passpe.0%.M. and the B) 1.580 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph. (C) 1. The grade (A) 1. The grade of C) 910 the ramp is 4. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-39: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance.) Practice Problems Solutions 105 .420 (D) 1.390 at the merging point is 2%. and the highway speed is 70 mph.350 of the ramp is +1.0% and the grade of the freeway (B) 1. Shahin A.120 highway speed is 70 mph. Mansour.www. The entrance ramp design speed is 30 entrance is most nearly: mph. PE Sample Problem A-38: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a tangent Find: The minimum acceleration section of freeway mainline as a parallel-type length L (ft) needed for the entrance.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 0. D) 810 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets.

60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 1.580 freeway mainline speed is 70 mph. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed = 30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 1. Shahin A.60 = 2160 ft Answer: (C) 106 Civil Transportation Depth (P.) Practice Problems Solutions . PE Sample Problem A-40: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance. Mansour. The C) 2. The entrance A) 1.970 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. and the B) 1.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph.0%. D) 2.www.passpe.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.160 grade of the ramp is +4.M.

www. PE Civil Transportation Depth (P. Shahin A.M. Mansour.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.) Practice Problems Solutions 107 .passpe.

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