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Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Well Organized, Based on the Latest California Board Test Plan and NCEES Exam Specifications, Detailed Tables of Contents, Computer Generated Index (12 pages), Simplified Concepts, 104 Practice Problems with Detailed Solutions.

The that has: · A comprehensive summary of equations, tables, and charts you need for the exam. All what you need at one location and at your fingertips. · Separate AM and PM topics. Focus and study only the sections you need.

only book

Transportaion

Engineering Module

for

Civil PE License

Separate Breadth (AM) & Depth (PM) Topics Per NCEES

A Concise & Comprehensive Summary of Construction Engineering Equations (Code & Non-Code), Tables, Charts, and Figures is Provided for a Quick Access in the Exam

**Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, PE
**

First Edition

www.passpe.com

Transportation for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

ISBN ????????? © 2011 Professional Engineering Services (PES)

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, without a written permission from the author. The author can be reached by email: info@passpe.com

Current printing of this edition 1

Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Control Number:

www.passpe.com

Transportation Module for Civil PE License ©

Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

Preface

O

ur next generation of Civil PE books were carefully developed by Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E., a nationally recognized expert in PE Exam Preparation courses and founder of Professional Engineering Services, Inc., (PES). This generation is quickly becoming the Best in Class solution for engineering professionals working to pass upcoming California Board and NCEES exams. Each and every book in this comprehensive collection has been prepared with your readiness in mind and will serve as a powerful guide throughout your PE Exam Preparation studies in Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying concentrations. Dr. Mansour has taught and spoken to thousands of engineers and has been teaching PE, Seismic, Surveying, and EIT/FE classes for the past 22 years enabling his products, classes, and seminars to continuously evolve and adapt to the changing demands of this challenging field. His real-world experience and intercommunication with so many engineers throughout America has greatly improved his ability to craft concise and knowledgeable resources that work for professionals striving to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam and other California special exams. One of the primary advantages of PES preparation books is their compact and succinct format. The experiences and feedback of engineering students and professionals that have worked with these materials affirms our effective use of good, factual diagrams and illustrations to more fully explain concepts throughout each text. In fact, Dr. Mansour makes great use of this style of teaching through figures, comparative tables, charts, and illustrations to concisely convey important information to engineers preparing for the exam. The primary focus of each book in our collection is targeted on subjects that are directly relevant to the PE exam. This method provides substantial time savings to students that simply don t have the wherewithal to digest leading competitive volumes, which typically exceed 1,000 pages. Another strong asset of these next generation books is the separation of Breadth (a.m.) and Depth (p.m.) topics. Each Civil PE, Seismic, and Surveying book is organized in accordance with the most current exam specifications and has matured since their inception through the inputs, complaints, wishes, and other feedback given from course participants and colleagues for over 22 years. Recent changes in the format of the Civil PE exam have made it necessary to address the change from essay to multiple choice problems, separation of a.m. and p.m. sections, and the introduction of the construction module. The books improved organization is completed with a very detailed Table of Contents, which addresses both the a.m. and p.m. subjects and more, making them a favored resource for preparation as well as exam time. The best part in all this growth and continuous improvement is the ability to apply this knowledge and experience to our supplemental products developed to give you the best head start for passing your Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. Every book, DVD, seminar, and accompanying Problems & Solutions workbooks are designed with all relevant codes, topics, board test plans, and NCEES exam specifications. And, these study materials and seminars, also manage to cover these fields of study in the same order as listed in the latest exam specifications for easy reference at-a-glance. Not only are our next generation books written to be current and well-organized to save you time during exam preparation and test taking; they are also affordable and authored by a highly qualified and nationally recognized Civil Engineering Professor. Dr. Shahin A. Mansour, Ph.D., P.E has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam. His easy, step-bystep approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. We hope that you ll find the many resources at Professional Engineering Services, Inc. to be exceptional textbooks, DVDs, and seminars and as valuable a resource as we believe them to be.

2.passpe. may or may not issue written errata. Every effort and care has been taken to ensure that all data.Never leave an answer blank 7. 4 NCEES Exam Specifications . information. information. OR UNFAMILAR PROBLEM About the Author Dr. concepts. Shahin A. those will be posted on the PES web site at http:// www. The following is a suggested strategy preparation for the exam: 1. In the event that corrections or clarifications are needed. Mansour. Dr. Mansour has helped thousands of students to pass their Professional Engineering Licensing Board Exam.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. for the last 20 years. Professional Engineering Services (PES) and the author are in no way responsible for the failure of registrants in the exam. DIFFICULT.Remember the D3 rule: DO NOT EXPECT THE EXAM TO BE EASY DO NOT PANIC DO NOT WASTE TOO MUCH TIME ON A SIGNLE EASY. PES and the author welcome comments or corrections which can be emailed to info@passpe. 5. or liable for errors or omission in the solutions. Surveying and EIT courses for the last 22 years. Also. Also.Solve the easy questions first (ones that need no or minimum calculations) and record your answers on the answer sheet.Mansour.com. Fresno.Questions that seem difficult or not familiar to you and may need considerable time in searching in your references should be left to the end 6. concepts. solutions. 3. solutions. and suggestions are as accurate as possible. PE Disclaimer This publication is to help the candidates for the Transportation Module for PE Civil License. His easy. or in the way they are interpreted by the registrants or others.com How to Use This Book This book was written to help you prepare for the PE-Civil.Work on questions that require lengthy calculations and record your answers on the answer sheet. PES and the author at their discretion. Seismic. The author cannot assume or accept the responsibility or liability for errors in the data. has been teaching PE. 4. NM. CA. USA. This publication expresses the opinion of the author.passpe.www. Also. Errata Notification PES and the author have made a substantial effort to ensure that the information in this publication is accurate. Las Cruces.Read the questions and ALL answers carefully and look for KEY WORDS in the question and the 4 possible answers.Have all references organized before you start. Mansour taught Civil Engineering Courses for 7 years at New Mexico State University (NMSU). Shahin A. PE. he has been teaching Civil and Construction Engineering Courses (graduate & undergraduate) at CSU. familiarize yourself with the comprehensive summary provided in this book. step-by-step approach to solving problems has gained him popularity and a great reputation among students and professionals of all ages. and suggestions and the use of this material in preparation for the exam or using it during the exam. Dr.

6. Speed studies ..passpe... Traffic capacity studies . 3..) Topics 1. 4... ....www..g. 16..com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr.. Intersection analysis . 11. 7.M. 2. Driver behavior and/or performance .. transportation route A or transportation route B) . 17. Traffic signals . 8. 13. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow Hydrology 1.. 2. Culvert design 2. .M. Capacity analysis (future conditions) . .. 10. . Shahin A... . 12. .. Intersections and/or interchanges . Horizontal curves Vertical curves Sight distance Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration . 5. Traffic volume studies .. 3. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. Depth (P.. Sight distance evaluation . Roadside clearance analysis Conflict analysis Work zone safety Accident analysis Hydraulics 1. 6.) Topics 1.. 5. Traffic impact studies . 14. 4. 15. Traffic control devices Pedestrian facilities . 18. .Mansour. . PE TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface Study Tips and Suggested Exam Strategy NCEES New Format for the PE (Civil) Exam List of References per NCEES Summary of the Equations Breadth (A. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs General Table of Contents 5 19. 9.

Breadth (A. soil classification soil compaction) 22. Engineering economics 1..g. 23.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. excavation / embankment) 24. Construction operations and methods (e. Soil mechanics analysis (e.) Topics 6 Topics Depth (P. erosion control measures. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e. identification of types of soils. Value engineering and costing .M.www.passpe. suitable or unsuitable. Shahin A. boring logs) . flexible and rigid pavement design) . index properties. PE 20..M. Pavement structures (e.g.Mansour. Soil behavior.g. 21.) Topics 24 Topics Total Number of Topics = 30 6 NCEES Exam Specifications .g.

HCM 1 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000). Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. The Asphalt Handbook (MS-4).passpe.AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. KY 2. 7th edition. Roadside Design Guide. Transportation Research Board National Research Council. DC. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (GDPS-4-M)1993. 2000 edition. Shahin A.Mansour. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. 2004 edition (5th edition). American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 2007.PCA 8. Asphalt Institute. 14th edition. 2007. 6th edition. Skokie. Including all changes adopted through November 14.AASHTO 4-AI 5. NCEES Exam Specifications 7 . 3rd edition with 2006 Chapter 6 Update.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr. Washington. IL. DC. Portland Cement Association. PE The National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination TRANSPORTATION Design Standards Effective Beginning with the April 2011 Examinations ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE 1.S. DC. DC. 1. Washington.AASHTO 3. 2009.. Washington. Washington. 2 6. Institute of Transportation Engineers. and 1998 supplement. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. DC. Traffic Engineering Handbook. Lexington . Washington. Washington. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 2009. 2002.MUTCD 7. U.ITE Notes Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. DC.www.

Temporary Structures 1. The five areas covered in the civil examination are construction. Scheduling 1. Examinees work all questions in the morning session and all questions in the afternoon module they have chosen. Depth results are combined with breadth results for final score. transportation. The exam uses both the International System of Units (SI) and the US Customary System (USCS). soil. geotechnical. The breadth exam contains questions from all five areas of civil engineering. Construction sequencing 2. CONSTRUCTION 20% A. Some problems may require knowledge of engineering economics. The knowledge areas specified as examples of kinds of knowledge are not exclusive or exhaustive categories. and application. Quantity take-off methods 2. Excavation and embankment (cut and fill) 2. Time-cost trade-off D. The depth exams focus more closely on a single area of practice in civil engineering. Material testing (e. PE NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering CIVIL BREADTH and TRANSPORTATION DEPTH Exam Specifications Effective Beginning with the April 2008 Examinations The civil exam is a breadth and depth examination. Material Quality Control and Production 1. This means that examinees work the breadth (AM) exam and one of the five depth (PM) exams. analysis. and 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour PM session. Construction loads 8 NCEES Exam Specifications .g. Estimating Quantities and Costs 1. Earthwork Construction and Layout 1. The specifications for the AM exam and the Transportation PM exam are included here. structural.Mansour.www. including design. Cost estimating C.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. It contains 40 multiple-choice questions in the 4-hour AM session. CIVIL BREADTH Exam Specifications Approximate Percentage of Examination I. concrete. The exam is an 8-hour open-book exam. Site layout and control B..passpe. asphalt) E. Shahin A. Resource scheduling 3. and water resources and environmental. The exam is developed with questions that will require a variety of approaches and methodologies. The design standards applicable to the Transportation PM exam are shown on the last page. Borrow pit volumes 3.

Soil classification 2. Pressure distribution 2. Engineering Properties of Soils and Materials 1. reinforcing) E. Subsurface Exploration and Sampling 1. Shear diagrams 2. Shahin A. reinforced) 2. Flexure 4. Determinate analysis C. Loadings 1. Pavement design criteria C. PE II. Construction loads B. Compaction 5. soil profile) B. Cantilever walls 3. Earth Structures 1. Mechanics of Materials 1. Footings 20% 20% NCEES Exam Specifications 9 . Slabs 3. light gage. STRUCTURAL A. Compression 7. Stability analysis 4. Live loads 3. Materials 1. Dead loads 2. Effective and total stresses D. Deflection D. Slope stability 2. Combined stresses 8. Moment diagrams 3. Analysis 1.g. Earth Retaining Structures 1. Settlement F. Structural steel (structural.Mansour. Beams 2.passpe.www. Braced and anchored excavations III. Concrete (plain. Permeability 2. Shear 5. Shallow Foundations 1. Member Design 1. Boring log interpretation (e. Gravity walls 2. Consolidation 4. Tension 6. Bearing capacity 2.. Soil Mechanics Analysis 1. Slabs-on-grade E. Lateral earth pressure 3. GEOTECHNICAL A.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr.

pipeline design. duration. Culvert design 3. Geometric Design 1..g. Bernoulli) 2. Hydrology 1. Storm characterization (e. Horizontal curves 2. Pressure conduit (e.g.g.. lift stations. Closed pipe flow equations including Hazen-Williams. sewer networks. Hydraulics Closed Conduit 1.. single pipe. Acceleration and deceleration V. Flood plains/floodways 7. infiltration.g. Hydrographs application 4. WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL 20% 20% A. Rainfall intensity. Open-channel flow (e. Storm frequency 3.www..g. Water Treatment 1. Shahin A. Detention/retention ponds D. Erosion 8.. PE IV. velocity control) 5. inflow) E.g. hydraulic jump. stormwater inlets. Energy and/or continuity equation (e. Friction and/or minor losses 5. Manning s equation) 2.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. storm sewer pipes) 6. rainfall measurement and distribution) 2. Superelevation 5. Distribution systems Total 100% 10 NCEES Exam Specifications . Hydraulics Open Channel 1. force mains) 3. TRANSPORTATION A. Stormwater collection (e. Flow measurement open channel C.g. loop networks) 6.g. Hydraulic loading 2. Runoff analysis including Rational and SCS methods 7.Mansour. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances 6.. Energy dissipation (e.. Darcy-Weisbach Equation 4. Pipe network analysis (e. Wastewater Treatment 1. Collection systems (e. Spillway capacity 4. Time of concentration 6. and frequency (IDF) curves 5. Pump application and analysis B. gutter flow.. Sight distance 4. branch networks. street flow. Vertical curves 3.

Mansour. Traffic Safety A. Shahin A. PE National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying Principles and Practice of Engineering Civil . Sight distance D. Driver behavior and/or performance II. Section V of the Transportation module has been broadened to permit testing in these important transportation knowledges. Superelevation E.g. Work zone safety D. Acceleration and deceleration G. soils. Geometric Design A. Sight distance evaluation G. Traffic impact studies C. Vertical curves C. Roadside clearance analysis B.5% 30% 7. Approximate Percentage of Examination I. Optimization and/or cost analysis (e. Intersections and/or interchanges III.passpe. Vertical and/or horizontal clearances F..TRANSPORTATION Depth Exam Specifications A competent transportation engineer should have a basic knowledge in drainage. Traffic control devices H. Conflict analysis C. Speed studies D. Transportation Planning 22. Pedestrian facilities I. and pavement design.5% A. Accident analysis 15% NCEES Exam Specifications 11 .www. Traffic capacity studies B. Culvert design and pavement design are knowledges that have not been tested previously under the current Civil exam specifications. Capacity analysis (future conditions) IV. Beginning with the April 2010 exam. Traffic Analysis A. Horizontal curves B. Traffic volume studies F. transportation route A or transportation route B) B. Traffic signals C. Intersection analysis E.com Transportation Module for Civil PE License © Dr.

index properties.g.g.passpe. Culvert design 2.www. Hydraulics 1. Value engineering and costing F.g. Open channel subcritical and supercritical flow B. suitable or unsuitable soil. Engineering properties of soils and materials (e. Engineering economics 1. excavation/embankment) G. Hydrology 1. Pavement structures (e.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. soil compaction) E. erosion control measures.g. Other Topics A. PE V. flexible and rigid pavement design) 12 NCEES Exam Specifications . Soil mechanics analysis (e. soil classification.Mansour. Construction operations and methods (e. Hydrograph development and synthetic hydrographs 25% C. identification of types of soils. Boring logs) D.. Shahin A. soil behavior.

and Figures Per NCEES List of Topics and Exam Specifications Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 13 . Non-Code Equations.www.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. Shahin A. Tables.passpe. Flow Charts. PE A CONCISE & COMPREHENSIVE SUMMARY Of TRANSPORTATION MODULE EQUATIONS & TOPICS Codes Equations.

M. Traffic Analysis 22.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.) . PE I.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A.5% (9 questions) 14 Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.passpe.

Shahin A.Geometric Design 30% (12 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 15 .Mansour. PE II.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.www.passpe.

www. PE III.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5% (3 questions) 16 Part I.) .Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M. Shahin A. Transportation Planning 7.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe.

Shahin A.www.passpe. PE IV. Traffic Safety 15% (6 questions) Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 17 .Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

www. Other Topics 25% (10 questions) 18 Part I.passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE V. Shahin A.Mansour.

www. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 19 .Mansour.passpe. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr.

Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. PE 20 Part I.M.passpe.Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) .com Transportation for Civil PE License © This page is left intentionally blank for additional summary of equations Dr.www.

www.Mansour.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Shahin A. PE Summary of Transportation Engineering Equations and Topics 21 .passpe.

www.) Exam Specifications TRANSPORTATION 22 Part I.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) . PE PART 1 Civil BREADTH (A.M.passpe. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

.. 5. 6. 3.. Horizontal curves Vertical curves ... Superelevation Vertical and/or horizontal clearances Acceleration and deceleration 24 . Part I. Shahin A.84 .) Topics Chapter A: Geometric Design 1.M..92 99 .46 ..com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Mansour.. 2.. 4.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.. PE Transportation Breadth (A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 23 ..www.M.) .passpe. Sight distance .57 .

passpe. large radius curves are relatively flat. Spiral Curves The spiral is a curve which has a varying radius.M. The following table explains the differences between types of horizontal curves.) .).Chapter A: Geometric Design .Mansour. The radius of the circle determines the sharpness or flatness of the curve. Horizontal curves may be simple. For safety reasons. The larger the radius. This type of curve is the most often used.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. streets.etc. Compound and reverse curves are treated as a combination of two or more simple curves.1. or spiral. whereas small radius curves are relatively sharp.www. Shahin A. but curving in the same direction. This curve normally consists of two simple curves joined together. PE Chapter A: Geometric Design A. the flatter the curve. but curving in opposite directions. Its purpose is to provide a transition from the tangent to a simple curve or between simple curves in a compound curve 24 Part I. this curve is seldom used in highway construction as it would tend to send an automobile off the road. It is used on railroads and some modern highways. . whereas the spiral curve is based on a varying radius. Circular Curves Compound Frequently the terrain will necessitate the use of a compound curve. a) Simple Circular (b) Compound (c) Reverse (d) Spiral Figure A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves The sharpness of the curve is determined by the choice of the radius (R). railroads. Reverse A reverse curve consists of two simple curves joined together. Route surveying is the type of surveying to establish horizontal and vertical alignment for transportation facilities (highways.1 HORIZONTAL CURVES A. reverse.1 Introduction: Horizontal curves are required for connecting tangents in route surveying. Table A-1 Types of Horizontal Curves Simple The simple curve is an arc of a circle.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. compound.

3 Degree of Curve for Horizontal Circular Curves: The degree of curve (for horizontal circular curves only) (D) defines the "sharpness" or "flatness" of the curve.2 Horizontal Circular Curves: Circular curves are common in highways and streets design.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The horizontal alignment of a transportation facility consists of series of straight lines (tangents) and circular curves as shown below.) . sight distance.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Shahin A.M. Figure A-2 Horizontal (top) and Vertical (bottom) Alignments A.1. environmental. The route of a highway or a street is chosen to satisfy all design requirements (speed.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design 25 .1. Mansour. as follows: Part I. ) with minimal social. There are two definitions for degree of curve. PE A.www. and financial impact. superelevation.

28 4. And a 1° curve in the metric system is the same curve as a 0. PE Table A-2 Chord and Arc Definitions for Horizontal Circular Curves Chord Definition (D c ) The chord definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of a chord of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m chord). This definition is used primarily for highways and streets.5 3.www. the "sharper" the curve and the shorter the radius. Table A-3 Degree-of-Curve Conversions Foot Definition (D foot ) Metric Definition (D metric ) 1. Notice that the larger the degree of curve.passpe.28 The following table shows the comparable values in both systems. Shahin A. Arc Definition (D a) The arc definition states that the degree of curve is the angle formed by two radii drawn from the center of the circle to the ends of an arc of 100 units long (100 ft or 100 m arc). a 1° curve in the foot system is the same curve as a 3.Chapter A: Geometric Design .3048° curve in the foot system.) .578o Da = = 2pR R (A-2) Since one meter equals 3.5 2.28084 ft.20 9. The following equation gives the relationship between the two systems.56 8.0 2.Mansour. The chord definition is used primarily for civilian railroad construction and is used by the military for both roads and railroads. Dmetric = D foot ´ 3. degrees of curve in the two systems (SI and English) differ by the same proportion.92 6.0 26 (A-3) 3.M. D Sin æ c ç 2 è ö = 50 ft ÷ ø R ( A-1) (360o )(100 ft ) 5729.84 Part I. Therefore.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 1.28084° curve in the metric system.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 27 . PE Figure A-3 Circular Horizontal Curve Terminology · Point of Intersection (PI): the point at which the two tangents to the curve intersect · Delta Angle ( ) : the angle between the tangents is also equal to the angle at the center of · · · · · · · · · the curve Back Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.passpe.M. it is the straight line that connects the PI to the PT (EC) Point of Curvature (PC) = Beginning of Curve (BC): the beginning point of the curve Point of Tangency (PT) = End of Curve (EC): the end point of the curve Tangent Distance (T): the distance from the PC (BC) to PI or from the PI to PT (EC) External Distance (E): the distance from the PI to the middle point of the curve Middle Ordinate (M): the distance from the middle point of the curve to the middle of the chord (long chord) joining the PC (BC) and PT (EC) Long Chord (C or LC): the distance along the line joining the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Length of Curve (L): the difference in stationing along the curve (arc length) between the PC (BC) and the PT (EC) Part I.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.) .www. Mansour. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. it is the straight line that connects the PC (BC) to the PI Forward Tangent: for a survey progressing to the right.

M.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û (A-4) (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) (A-9) Notes: R R i. PE A.cos Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .65 R (meter ) = o DC Same Same M = R (1 .Mansour.versed sine (vers) vers ( /2) = 1 Cos ( /2) 3.cos é ù 1 Do Do Do Do E=Rê .Cos D 2 = R+ E R+E 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design .) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www. the stationing (chainage) must reflect the fact that the centerline no longer goes through the PI .4 Geometry of Horizontal Circular Curves (Arc Definition): Do T = R tan 2 Do LC = C = 2 R sin = 2 T cos(Do 2) 2 o æ Do ö æ D ö La = 2p R ç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è ø è aø 5729.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Table A-4 Arc and Chord Definitions Equations Arc Definition T = R tan D 2 o Chord Definition (A-4) Do = 2 T cos( Do 2) 2 ö ÷ ÷ ø Same Same LC = C = 2 R sin (A-5) (A-6) (A-7) (A-8) æ Do æ Do ö La = 2p Rç ç 360 o ÷ = R D ( radians) = (100 ft )ç D o ÷ ç è ø è a R ( feet ) = 5729. Shahin A.1ú = R (sec -1) = T tan = R tan tan (A-9) o 2 4 2 4 ë cos(D 2) û 28 Part I.A common mistake is to determine the station of the EC by adding the T distance to the PI . Although the EC is physically a distance of T from the PI .passpe.e D = 2 Cos -1 ( ) (from the geometry shown in the previous page) 1.58 o Da Do C Do Do ) = tan = E cos 2 2 4 2 æ Do ö Lc = (100 m)ç o ÷ çD ÷ è cø 5729.external secant (exsec) exsec ( /2) = Sec ( /2) 1 4.58 R ( feet ) = o Da M = R (1 .1.

18 4 + 80.57 Sample Problem A-1: Horizontal Circular Curve Calculations Find: BC and EC stations are most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: T = R tan 4 + 80.31 ft 360 PI at T BC = +L EC = 6 + 26.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. 7 + 70.49 ft C = 2 R Sin D = 2 T Cos (D 2) = 2 ×1000 × Sin 8.39 Ü 2 + 90.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.29 ft Ü 2 Answer: (C) Part I. R = 1000 ft.3167o = 146.) .39 .57 1 + 46.70 Ü Answer: (B) L = 2 + 90.30 ft 289. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-1 to A-4 A horizontal circular curve for a new conventional highway has the following data: D = 16 o 38¢ . Sample Problem A-2: Long Chord for Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The length of the long chord is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 150. 4 + 80.passpe.39 .70 .M.31 Sta.39 7 + 72.Chapter A: Geometric Design 29 .www. Note: Answer (A) is (PI Sta.70 7 + 70.49 ft 189. which is wrong (common mistake). and PI Station at 6 + 26.3167 o = 289. Mansour.18 ft 2 Do æDö L = 2p R = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ 360 o èDø L = 2p ´1000 ´ 16.39 D = 1000 tan 8. + T).29 ft 572.75 .75 4 + 80. 4 + 80.31 7 + 70.6333 = 290. 7 + 72. Shahin A.

43 ft 10.54 ft 315.63 ft Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .63 ft Ü Cos (D 2) Cos (16.23 ft 10.52 ft Ü Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-5: Length a Horizontal Circular Curve Given: A horizontal circular curve has a radius of 500 ft.1) = 1000 ( .23 ft 10.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.63 ft 10.1) =10.61 ft 265.Cos D M = R(1 .M.63 2) Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-4: Middle Ordinate for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The middle ordinate for the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Refer to Figure A-3 for the definition of M 10.www.passpe.45 ft 400.43 ft 10. and mid-ordinate of 16.Mansour.5 ft.Cos ) = 1000 (1 2 D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos Ü which relationship ? 2 2 4 2 Cos 8. PE Sample Problem A-3: External Distance for a Horizontal Circular Curve Find: The external distance (E) for the given curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: E = R( 1 1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design . Shahin A. Find: The length of the horizontal circular curve is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 257.00 ft Solution: (Continued on next page) 30 Part I.) .52 ft 10.52 ft 10.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.3167 o) = 10.

www.967 = 1R 500 2 = 29.Cos ) 2 16.52 o L = 2p R = 2 ´ p ´ 500´ = 257.5 = 500 ( 1 Cos D -1 o = Cos (0.M.5 D =1 = 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 31 .61 ft 360o 360o Answer: (A) Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .967) =14. BC to EC ) : L = 2p R Do 29. Mansour. Shahin A.76 2 D ) 2 Cos M 16.e.passpe. PE Middle Ordinate ( A to B ) = M = R (1 .52º Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø Curve Length (i.Cos D C D D ) = Tan = E Cos 2 2 4 2 Ü select the appropriate relationship D M = R (1 .

. Central Angles and Chord Calculations æ arc length öæ D ö deflection angle = ç ÷ç ÷ L è øè 2 ø Chord Length ( BC to A) = 2R Sin a arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180 0 a= 2p R 2 a arc length ( BC to A) = D L 32 Part I.1. the angle between the tangent BC-PI and the chord PCA is ½ the central angle BC-O-A. i.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.e.) .Mansour. i.Chapter A: Geometric Design (A-10) (A-11) (A-12) (A-13) .. and Chord Calculations for Horizontal Circular Curves: The deflection angle is defined as the angle between the tangent and a chord. The following two rules apply for the deflection angles for circular curves: Rule 1: The deflection angle between a tangent and a chord is half the central angle subtended by the arc. i. & 2 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. i.M. & 2 . Central Angle.e.5 Deflection Angles. Shahin A.e. the angle A-BC-B is ½ the central angle A-O-B.e..passpe. Rule 2: The angle between two chords is ½ the central angle subtended by the arc between the two chords.. PE A. Abbreviations: BC PC TC EC PT CT = = = = = = Beginning of curve Point of curvature Tangent to curve End of curve Point of tangency Curve to tangent Figure A-4 Deflection.

25º 32.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. A drainage inlet (DI) is required to be staked out at station 15 4 + 60. = 385 ft a= a= arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 385 ft ´ 180° = = 4.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 33 . Sample Problem A-6: Deflection Angle Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The deflection angle between the back tangent and the chord to the drainage inlet station is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The deflection angle is given by the following equation: 4.29º.M.50º Arc length = (DI Station arc length ( BC to A) ´ 180° 2p R BC Station) = (154 + 60) (150 + 75) = 3.41º 12.) . Mansour.85 Sta. The beginning of the curve is at station 150 + 75 and the central angle is 30º.www. Shahin A.20º 16.passpe. PE The following information is to be used for problems A-6 to A-8 A horizontal circular curve for a new urban highway has a radius of 2500 ft and a degree of curve (arc definition) of 2.41° 2p R 2 ´ p ´ 2500 ft Answer: (A) Part I.

60) Sta.47 ft Chord Length ( BC to DI .) . i.Mansour.M.´ arc length A to B 2g = D ´ = 30° ´ L 1310 ft 100 ft Sta. = 3.passpe.www.29o ÷ = 1310. The central angle that should be turned to the right from the first DI is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: The following relationship could be established (by proportion): 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design . PE Sample Problem A-7: Chord Calculations for Circular Curve Find: The length of the chord connecting the BC and the drainage inlet is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 175.30 ft 254.41° = 384.154.00 ft ÷ è ø (156.52 ft 325.50º 2g arc length A to B = D L And the curve length is given by : L = 2p R Do æDö = R D ( radians ) = (100 ft )ç ÷ o 360 èDø æ 30 o ö = (100 ft ) ç ç 2.25 .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.90º 3. Shahin A.78° Answer: (C) 34 Part I.90º 2.78º 5.e.15 ft 384. BC to A) = 2R Sin a = 2 ´ 2500 ft ´ Sin 4.47 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-8: Deflection Angle & Central Angle Relationship Find: The design calls for another DI at station 156 + 25.

X 2 Y = R . and for checking purposes. one of four offset-type methods can be used for laying out circular curves.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .X 2 Y = 800 .6 Tangent Offset Calculations: For short curves. Solution: Find: Calculate the distance Y from tangent to curve. (3) middle ordinates-MO. PE A.1.300 2 = 58.R2 . and (4) ordinates from the long chord. The four tangent offset method equations are given as follows: Y = R . if the curve has a radius R = 800 feet and the distance X = 300 ft. when a total station instrument is not available.800 2 .M. (2) chord offset-CO.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.38 ft Part I. Y =R- R2 .R Cos q = R (1 . These methods are: (1) tangent offset-TO.www. Shahin A.cos q ) X q = arcsin R X = R sin q (A-14) (A-15) (A-16) (A-17) Figure A-5 Tangent Offset Sample Problem A-9: Tangent Offset Method Given: In the diagram (Figure A-5).passpe. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 35 .

passpe. Find: This perpendicular bisector passes through which of the following: (A) (B) (C) (D) Radius point The Point of Intersection of the two tangents The centre of the curve All of the above It is clear from the figure to the right that all of the above is the correct answer.Chapter A: Geometric Design .M. The angle measured from the PI to the center is always 90o Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-11: Geometry of Horizontal Curves Given: A perpendicular bisector of the long chord (LC) was drawn for a circular horizontal curve. PE Sample Problem A-10: Geometrics of Circular Curves Given: When set up the instrument at the BC of a simple curve.Mansour. Answer: (D) 36 Part I.) . Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www. Find: the angles to turn off the PI to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) The central angle plus the deflection angle Half the central angle The deflection angle Exactly right angle Solution: Radius point is another name for the center of a circle.

e. set up anywhere on point on curve POC). Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Deflection angle measured from PC to that point plus 90o Deflection angle measured from PC to that point minus 90o Solution: From the Figure shown. The point connecting the two curves together is called point of compound curve or curvature (PCC). Mansour.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design 37 . Normally.passpe. Answer: (C) A. the correct answer is C. GH is a common tangent.www. as shown. PE Sample Problem A-12: Moving up on a curve Given: When moving up on a horizontal curve to the right (i.M.7 Compound Circular Curves: Often two curves of different radii are joined together. and in terrain where simple curves cannot be fitted to the ground without excessive construction cost. the subscript 1 refers to the curve of smaller radius. Find: The clockwise angle to turn off to hit the radius point is: (A) (B) (C) (D) Half the central angle. Compound curves should be used only for low-speed traffic routes. Deflection angle measured from PC (BC) to that point. Figure A-6 Compound Circular Curve The following equations are used to solve the unknown parameters for a compound curve: Part I.1.

93 ft T2 = VB = VH + t2 = 490.46) = 20 + 38.82 ft æ GH ö 549 .17 = 549.49 + 247.46 ft 360 PC Station = PI Sta. D1 = 62 22¢20¢¢ & PI station = 16 + 30.9931 è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 = 312.93) = 10 + 15.Chapter A: Geometric Design .+ L2 = (15 + 59.12) (6 + 14.D1 t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 (A-18) (A-19) (A-20) (A-21) (A-22) (A-23) (A-24) GH = t1 + t 2 æ GH ö VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø æ GH ö VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ ÷ è ø T1 = VA = VG + t1 T2 = VB = VH + t2 Sample Problem A-13: Compound Curve Given: A compound curve with the following data: R1 = 500 ft. T1 = (16 + 30.5993) = 479.0886 ) = 544. PE D1 = D .12 Find: PC.30) = 15 + 59.D 2 t1 = R1 tan D1 2 OR & D 2 = D .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.17 = 737. Shahin A.3389 o t1 = R1 tan t 2 = R2 tan D2 2 D1 2 Þ 500 tan (31.28 + 302.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.30 ft 360 Do2 L2 = 2p R2 = R2 D 2 (radians ) = 800(0.) .66 ft Do1 L1 = 2p R1 = R1 D1 ( radians ) = 500 (1.17 ft o o GH = t1 + t 2 = 302.65 = 614.95 38 Part I.passpe.31 ft ÷ è ø 549.8859) ( VH = (sin D1 ) ç ç sin D ÷ 0.65 ft Þ 800 tan (17.82 VG = (sin D 2 ) ç ç sin D ÷ = (0.1695 ) = 247.65 + 247.M.49) +(4 + 79.49 PT Station = PCC Sta.19) +(5 + 44.Mansour.www.9931 ) = 312. PT & PCC stations Solution: D 2 = D .19 PCC Station = PC Sta.+ L1 = (10 + 15.49 ft ÷ = (0.82 æ GH ö ) = 490.D1 = 96 o 4 2¢40¢¢ 62 o 22¢20¢¢ = 34. D = 96 42¢40¢¢ .1861 ) = 302. R2 o o = 800 ft.5641) ( 0.

and the techniques noted for compound curves will also provide the solution to reverse curve problems. If reverse circular curves have to be used. 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design 39 . Shahin A. PE A. Mansour. As with compound curves.) .passpe.www. the superelevation rate of change per station should be within the acceptable standards. since the change in curvature is instantaneous.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. reverse curves have six independent parameters (R1. T1. 1. The instantaneous change in direction occurring at the point of reversed curvature (PRC) would cause discomfort and safety problems. R2 . Additionally. Figure A-7 Reverse Curves: Parallel Tangents (top) and Non-Parallel Tangent (bottom) Part I. Reverse curves may have parallel or non-parallel tangents as shown below.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. the solution technique depends on which parameters are unknown.8 Reverse Circular Curves: Reverse curves are seldom used in highway or railway alignment. T2).M.1. there is no room to provide superelevation transition from cross-slope right to cross-slope left.

Figure A-8 Spiral Curve It can be seen that at the beginning of the spiral (T. : point of change from circle to spiral S.Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design .S. : point of change from tangent to spiral S. Ts : total tangent distance = distance from PI to T.S. : point of change from spiral to circle C.S.T. at the point where the circular curve begins (S. or S.S.C.T. and vice versa. to any point on the spiral s Ls : total length of spiral from T. to S.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. and that the radius of the spiral curve decreases at a uniform rate until.S.9 Spiral Curves: Spiral curves (also known as transition curves) are used in highway and railroad horizontal alignment to overcome the abrupt change in direction that occurs when the alignment changes from tangent to circular curve.C.www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.1. PE A. X : distance along tangent from T.) . Figure A-8 illustrates how the spiral curve with a length of Ls is inserted between tangent and circular curve alignment.C. : point of change from spiral to tangent : spiral arc length from T. there is an initial radius rather than an infinite value. the radius of the spiral equals the radius of the circular curve.C. Lc : length of circular curve LT : long tangent (Spiral) ST : short tangent (Spiral) : total central angle of the circular curve c : central angle of circular arc of Lc extending from the SC to the CS Y : right Angle Distance from Tangent to S.passpe.M.S. to point at right angle to S.= tangent to spiral) the radius of the spiral is the radius of the tangent line (infinitely large).C.S. In case of a spiral curve that connects two circular curves having different radii. Shahin A. = spiral to curve). : central angle of spiral arc L s : the spiral angle = central angle of spiral arc Ls Part I. Spiral Curves Notation: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 40 T.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) . PE Figure A-9 Spiral Curve Part I.M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe. Shahin A. Mansour.www.Chapter A: Geometric Design 41 .

S.58)(100) = Dp ls ´ K The radius at the S.15 V 3 = RC (AASHTO Eq. to D (Da) at the S.C.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design .58)(100) = D Ls ´ K The ratio of the two radii is: R= (A-28) r Ls = R ls The length of the spiral is: (A-29) (200)(D s ) D The deflection angle is: Ls = (A-30) l s2 D s as = 2 ´ 3 Ls (A-31) The following equation.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.58 (5729.passpe. the rate of change of curvature of a spiral in degrees per station (K) is: K= 100D Ls (A-25) The degree Dp and the radius r of the spiral curve at any point P along the curve are given as follows: Dp = r= ls K 100 (A-26) (A-27) 5729. ft C = maximum rate of change in lateral acceleration. is: 5729. mph R = radius of circular curve. developed in 1909 by W. PE Selected formulas for spiral curves: Because the degree of curvature for a spiral increases from 0 at the T.M. page 185) (A-32) V = design speed. 3-27. Shortt.. H.C.) .www.58 (5729.Mansour. is the basic expression used by some highway agencies for computing minimum length of a spiral transition curve: (Ls )min where 3. 1 to 3 ft/s3 is recommended by AASHTO for highways and 1 ft/s3 is generally accepted for railroad operation 42 Part I.

m.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0214V 3 RC L= 3. m/s3 where: L = minimum length of spiral.) . The minimum spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) 100 ft (B) 110 ft (C) 140 ft (D) 150 ft Solution: 3. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. m. ft/s3 Sample Problem A-14: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration. R = curve radius. R = curve radius.38 ft (3-27) RC 1200 ´ 3 where: L = minimum length of spiral. Mansour. PE (Page 185. 5th edition) Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Table A-5 Minimum Length of Spiral Transition Curves Metric US Customary L= 0. V = design speed. V = design speed. mph. R = curve radius.15 V 3 RC (3-27) where: L = minimum length of spiral. ft.Chapter A: Geometric Design 43 .15V 3 3. ft. mph. 2004 edition.www.passpe. ft.4321o 200 200 ( ) Answer: (B) Part I.M. km/h. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration. Solution: tan q = Find: The deflection angle from TS to point P is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 00 01 02 04 28 25 50 05 38 55 00 02 5 Þ q = tan -1 5 = 1. V = design speed. ft/s3 Answer: (B) Sample Problem A-15: Deflection Angle of a Spiral Curve Given: The coordinates of point P on a highway spiral relative to TS are 200 & 5 for x & y respectively.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.15 ´ 50 3 L= = =109. ft. Shahin A. C = rate of increase of lateral acceleration.

AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. (Exhibit 3-37. Answer: (C) 44 Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 5th edition) Table A-6 Desirable Length of Spiral Curve Transition Metric US Customary Design speed (km/h) Spiral Length (m) Design speed (mph) Spiral Length (ft) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 11 17 22 28 33 39 44 50 56 61 67 72 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 44 59 74 88 103 117 132 147 161 176 191 205 220 235 Sample Problem A-16: Spiral Curve Given: Using 3 ft/s3 for the rate of increase of lateral acceleration. page 189. The desirable spiral curve length transition for a new highway facility has a radius of 1200 ft and design speed of 50 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 100 ft 110 ft 147 ft 161 ft Solution: Using Exhibit 3-37.Mansour. page 189.passpe. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.0 s of travel time at the design speed of the roadway.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The travel time has been found to be representative of the natural spiral path for most drivers. Shahin A. PE Desirable Length for spiral curves: Based on recent operational studies. 5th edition.www. AASHTO Exhibit 3-37 (page 189) lists the desirable lengths of spiral transition curves.M. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 2004 edition.) . These lengths correspond to 2. the desirable length is 147 ft.

com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. page 186.) .passpe. The sharp corners at the juncture of curve and straight line in the top view are quite obvious from the driver s seat. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 5th edition) Part I. Shahin A.M.www. (Exhibit 3-35. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design 45 . PE Figure A-10 Curve with and without spiral transition.

www.M.5% or 2%).Mansour. The parabola has these two desirable characteristics of: (1) a constant rate of change of grade ( r = alignment transition. For example.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Some highway and municipal agencies introduce vertical curves at every change in grade-line slope.1 Why Vertical Curves are Used? Roads made up of a series of straight lines (or tangents) are not practical.2 VERTICAL CURVES A. adjacent segments of differing grade are connected by a curve. the higher the speed the road is designed for. A road that is designed for 70 mph can have a vertical curve whose tangents have a grade of only 3 to 5 percent.2. The geometric curve used in vertical alignment design is the parabola curve. 46 Part I. and (2) ease of computation of vertical offsets. To prevent abrupt changes in the vertical direction of moving vehicles.2 Vertical Curves Terminology: Figure A-11 Vertical Curve Terminology Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual change between two adjacent grade lines. which permits easily computed curve elevations.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Chapter A: Geometric Design . As a general rule. This curve in the vertical plane is called a vertical curve.g1 ).g. a road designed for a maximum speed of 30 miles per hour (mph) may have a vertical curve with the tangents to the curve arc having a grade as high as 6 to 8 percent. 1.. g 2 . Shahin A. the smaller the percent of grade that is allowed. which contributes to smooth L A. PE A.2.) . whereas other agencies introduce vertical curves into the alignment only when the net change in slope direction exceeds a specific value (e.passpe.

Ø The rate of grade change per station g . and PVI is the point of intersection of the two adjacent grade lines. g2 is the slope of the exiting grade line.2. Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula. L Crest Vertical Curves (g2 < g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.passpe. BVC is the beginning of the vertical curve.) .www.3 Types of Vertical Curves: Vertical curves may be classified based on the location of the vertex with respect to the BVC and EVC as symmetrical and asymmetrical. Asymmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is not located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC. Table A-8 Types of Vertical Curves Sag Vertical Curves (g2 > g1) Ø They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical.g1 r= 2 is a negative quantity.g1 r= 2 is a positive quantity. Ø They are also called equal-tangent parabolic vertical curves. Ø The rate of grade change per station g . Mansour. Ø They connect downgrade ( ) tangent to an upgrade (+) tangent (type III). Ø The equation used to solve the unknowns is a parabolic formula. The length of vertical curve ( L ) is the projection of the curve onto a horizontal surface and as such corresponds to plan distance.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Table A-7 Types of Vertical Curves Symmetrical Vertical Curves Ø The vertex is located at the half distance between the BVC & EVC.M. PE In Figure A-11. Ø They are used mostly in every project where no minimum vertical clearance or cover is needed. Ø They used when a specific elevation at a certain station (point) is required and the grades of the grade lines are fixed. EVC is the end of the vertical curve. Another classification is crest and sag vertical curves. Shahin A. vertical curve terminology is introduced: g1 is the slope (percent) of the entering grade line.Chapter A: Geometric Design . L 47 Part I. A. Ø They are also called unequal-tangent parabolic vertical curves.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Ø They connect an upgrade (+) tangent to a downgrade ( ) tangent (type I). Ø The equations used to solve the unknowns are based on parabolic formula (two vertical curves).

M.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. 2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-13 Types of Vertical Curves . 5th edition) 48 Part I.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) . Shahin A.Mansour.www. PE Figure A-12 Sag and Crest Vertical Curves (Exhibit 3-69 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 49 .www. K = (Rate of Vertical Curvature) distance required to achieve a 1% change in grade. and adequate for drainage (0. The difference in elevation between the BVC and a point on the g 1 grade line at a distance x units (feet or meters) is g 1 x (g 1 is expressed as a decimal).2. The tangent offset between the grade line and the curve is given by ax2.50% and 0.M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. 3.g1 L where: x = the distance from BVC to a point on the curve r = rate of grade change per station 1 L K = = L/ A = Note: The rate of vertical curvature will be used in subsequent r g 2 . The elevation of the curve at distance x from the BVC is given by: y = ax 2 + bx + c (general equation for a parabola) y x = y BVC rx 2 + g1x + 2 (A-32) (A-33) (A-34) r= g 2 .4 Geometric Properties of the Parabola: 1. Figure A-11 (repeated) Geometric of a Parabola 2. Mansour. that is. where x is the horizontal distance from the BVC (PVC). comfortable in operation (gravitational force versus vertical centripetal force) pleasing in appearance (long versus short vertical curves).30% are minimum grades in snow country and other locations respectively) A.passpe.) .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A. tangent offsets are proportional to the squares of the horizontal distances.g1 sections related to sag and crest vertical curves. Part I. PE AASHTO lists FOUR requirements for vertical curves as follows: 1234safe (ample sight distances).

YP¢ ) D= ( g1 .The distance between the curve and the grade line (tangent) d is given as (A-37) d = offset = rx 2 x 2 ( g 2 . that is.g1 L 8 = A L ( sta. The slope S. of the tangent to the curve at any point on the curve is given by the following formula: S = g1 - x ( g1 .Chapter A: Geometric Design . The distance D in feet from Vertex to P is given as: 100(YH .M.g1 ) = (L curve length in feet) 2 200 L (A-38) 50 Part I. 5. This is only true for symmetrical vertical curves. in percentage.www. A B = B PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: either: do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (elevation of BVC + elevation of EVC) Or: do= g 2 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour. that is. BVC to PVI = ½ L = PVI to EVC.) A L ( feet ) = 8 800 (A-35) 6.g 2 ) 8. PE 4. The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord.g 2 ) L (A-36) Figure A-12 (repeated) Crest and Sag Vertical Curves Terminology 7. Shahin A. The grade lines (g 1 and g 2 ) intersect midway between the BVC and the EVC.) .passpe.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

The minimum cover over a utility pipe would require the determination of low points along the profile of the road. the location of low and high points are required for the vertical clearance calculations between a bridge and a roadway.5 High and Low Points on Vertical Curves: The locations of curve high and low points are important for drainage considerations.passpe. Figure A-14 Sag Vertical Curve in Relation to Minimum Clearance and Cover dy From equation (A-33).2. PE A. Also.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www. Shahin A. equation the slope ( ) to zero and solving for X: dx g1 + rX = 0 . it is a unique point (high or low) on vertical curves. Mansour.M. on curbed streets catch basins or drainage inlets (DI) must be installed precisely at the drainage low point. for example.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.e.) .g1 .g 2 Where X is the distance from BVC to the low or high points. (A-39) (A-40) It should be noted that the distance X (upper case X) in equation (A-40) is different from distance x (lower case x) in all other equations i. Part I.Chapter A: Geometric Design 51 .g1 L g1 L X = = = r g 2 .g1 g1 .

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Dr. Shahin A.Mansour, PE

**The following information is to be used for problems A-17 to A-21
**

A sag vertical curve has a length (L) of 300 ft. The entering and exiting grades are g1 = 3.2% and g2 = +1.8% respectively. The PVI is located at station 30 + 30 and has an elevation of 485.92 ft.

Sample Problem A-17: Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The station of the low point is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 30 + 72.00 30 + 30.00 29 + 00.00 28 + 72.00

X =

- g1 - g1 L g1 L - ( -3.2)(3) = = = = 1.92 Sta. = 192.00 ft r g 2 - g1 g1 - g 2 ( +1.8) - ( -3.2)

This means that the low point is located at a distance of 192.00 ft from BVC i.e., at Station = [(30 + 30.00) (1+ 50.00)] + (1 + 92.00) = 30 + 72.00 Notes: 1) All distances used to locate a low or a high point or used to calculate an elevation of any point on a vertical curve are measured from BVC. 2) The point on the curve at the PVI station is not necessarily to be the low or high points. Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-18: Elevation of the Low Point on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of the low point is most nearly: (A) 480.65 ft (B) 487.65 ft (C) 493.55 ft (D) 498.24 ft

(continued on next page)

52 Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

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Solution:

y x = y BVC

rx 2 + g1x + 2

1.8 - ( -3.2) 1.92 2 = [485.92 + (1.5)(3.2) ] + (-3.2)(1.92) + ( )( ) = 487.65 ft @ Sta 30 + 72.00 3.00 2 Answer: (B)

Sample Problem A-19: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: Which of the following is NOT true for symmetrical vertical curves: (A) The elevation of the mid-chord point is the average of the elevations of the BVC and EVC (B) The vertical curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord (C) The low point on a sag vertical curve is always at the PVI station (D) All of the above Solution: (A) is true (B) is true (C) is NOT true. This statement is true only if g1 = g2 and the vertical curve is symmetrical i.e., PVI at L/2

Answer: (C) Sample Problem A-20: Elevation of the Mid-Chord on a Vertical Curve Find: The elevation of point A ( mid-chord point) is most nearly: (A) 490.72 ft (B) 488.62 ft (C) 489.00 ft (D) 489.67 ft

(continued on next page)

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 53

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Solution: mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft Answer: (D) Sample Problem A-21: Middle Ordinate Distance for a Vertical Curve Find: The middle ordinate distance for the given vertical curve is most nearly: (A) 1.275 ft (B) 1.375 ft (C) 1.675 ft (D) 1.875 ft Solution: The curve lies midway between the PVI and the midpoint of the chord; that is, A to B = B to PVI = do which can be calculated as follows: a) mid-chord elevation (point A) = ½ (Elevation of BVC + Elevation of EVC) = ½ {(485.92 + 1.5 ×3.2) + (485.92 +1.5 × 1.8)}= 489.67 ft do = ½ (difference in elevation of PVI and mid-chord elevation) = ½ (489.67 485.92) = 1.875 ft

b) do (middle ordinate distance) =

g1 - g 2 L 8

=

- 3.2 - ( +1.8) ´ 3 8

= 1.875 ft

(L = curve length in stations & g1 - g 2 = absolute value in percent) Answer: (B) Note: the middle ordinate (m = do) may be written as:

g1 - g 2 L 800

( L in feet)

54

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

00) = 751.24 + 2(0.Chapter A: Geometric Design 55 .(-2. first & are 83 + 00. BCV.24 + 4(2.17 stations Solution: The following steps will be followed: Step 1: YBVC YA YEVC YB (Grade)AB YCVC Step 2: = = = = 743.24 ft 743.0. See Figure A.24 + 2(2. are encountered in practice where certain limitations are exist as fixed tangent grades.00) = 747.747. Shahin A.M. where the EVC of the first is the BVC of the second.24 ft.16) = 747.60 .56 ft r1 = 0.00) 1.) .24 ft 743. PE A. Mansour. This point is called CVC.www. V and EVC stations Find: Elevations.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Figure A-15 Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve Given: g1 = 2 %.04 .6 %. 87 + 00 and 93 + 00 respectively.2.24 + 6 (1. An unequal tangent vertical curve is simply a pair of equal tangent curves.60) = 752.16 = + 0. vertical clearance or minimum cover.16 % =ç 5 è ø = 747.24% / sta 4 6 (continued on next page) Part I.54% / sta & r2 = = + 0. g2 = +1. The vertex for unequal tangent curve is not in the middle between the BVC and EVC..04 ft æ 748. also called unequal tangent vertical curves.passpe.24 ö ÷ = + 0.7 Asymmetrical (Unsymmetrical) Vertical Curves: Asymmetrical vertical curves.60) = 748. point of compound vertical curvature.16 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.24 + 3(1.84 ft 743. The same basic equation for the symmetrical curves will be used for the unsymmetrical curves. Elevation at second difference at full V = 743.

43 4. Shahin A.24 749.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.08 2.) 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 g1 x 0.32 747.) Station 83 + 00 (BVC) 84 + 00 85 + 00 86 + 00 87 + 00 (CVC) 88 + 00 89 + 00 90 + 00 91 + 00 92 + 00 93 + 00 (EVC) x (sta.00 6.16 0.24 0.65 0.24 1.32 0.12 0.11 0.48 0.00 4.Mansour. PE Sample Problem A-22: Unsymmetrical Vertical Curve (cont.32 yx 751.00 0.54 0.19 0.76 1.32 0.08 1.00 1.64 0.00 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .36 752.54 0.84 1st Difference 1.48 2nd Difference 0.36 749.51 748.12 751.28 0.24 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.73 1.84 748.24 56 Part I.92 3.00 8.www.67 747.12 750.) .passpe.48 1.27 1.80 0.24 0.52 0.24 0.56 747.96 rx2/2 0.00 2.M.00 4.54 0.

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) 2.passpe. off-ramp noses. or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal curve or intersection i.Passing Sight Distance (PSD) 3. is how far a driver can see before the line of sight is blocked by a hill crest.www. Table A-9 Four Types of Sight Distances (For Any Given Speed (say 50 mph) PSD > DSD > SSD 1835 ft > 465 ft A-1030 ft E > 425 ft) 1.) .. · Used on multilane · Used where an highways and on opposing lane 2-lane roads when can provide passing sight distance passing is not economically opportunities obtainable. Insufficient sight distance can have implications for the safety or operations of a roadway or intersection.Chapter A: Geometric Design 57 . sight distance is the continuous length of highway ahead visible to the driver.M. . Mansour.Intersection (Corner) Sight Distance Sight Distance (CSD) (DSD) · Used at major · Used at intersections decision points e.3 SIGHT DISTANCES Sight distance. (two-lane roads) Where Stopping Sight Distance (ALL ROADS) Passing Sight Distance (TWO-LANE ROADS) Figure A-16 Stopping and Passing Sight Distances Part I.Decision 4. Shahin A. in the context of road design.e.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. branch connections. PE A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.g.

Human factors research defined the required perception-reaction times as follows: design 2. PIEV Process: i) Perception the time to see or discern an object or event. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3.Chapter A: Geometric Design . PE A.) . For design. the incline of the road. Shahin A.Mansour. Actual stopping distances are also affected by road conditions. 85% of drivers could react in that time or less. the mass of the car. that is.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. iii) Emotion the time to decide how to react. and comes to a stop.1 Stopping Sight Distance: Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled while the vehicle driver perceives a situation requiring a stop. More recent research has shown these times to be conservative for design. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights).5 feet) above the pavement. ii) Intellection the time to understand the implications of the object s presence or event. and numerous other factors.passpe. and iv) Volition the time to initiate the action.5' and Object Height= 2. Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during the brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Figure A-17 Stopping Sight Distance (Driver s Eye Height =3.0') The perception-reaction time for a driver is often broken down into the four components that are assumed to make up the perception reaction time. the time to engage the brakes.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.3. Typically the design sight distance allows a below-average driver to stop in time to avoid a collision. applies the brake.M.0 sec These perception reaction times were based on observed behavior for the 85th percentile driver. realizes that stopping is necessary.www. a conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle traveling at design speed to stop before reaching a stationary object in its path. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book). 58 Part I.5 sec operations/control 1. These are referred to as the PIEV time or process. for example.

4 92.4 m/s2 [11.5 470.4 495 566.7 55. Mansour.5 s.5 35 20 46.7 138.4 130 45 155.Chapter A: Geometric Design 59 .4 240.9 155 196.6 730 815.8 Stopping sight Brake Design reaction distance speed distance Calculated Design (mph) (ft) (m) (m) 18. 2004 edition.3 910 Note: Brake reaction distance predicated on a time of 2.8 425 492.0 80 US Customary Braking distance on level (ft) 21. Part I.M.4 90.9 115 151.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.9 50 25 63.9 27.9 114. PE A.8 165.278 Vt + 0. V = design speed.2 73. 2004 edition.4 117.4 645 727.2 257.5 110.) .3 285 70 275.2 250 300.4 Braking distance on level (m) 4.0 128. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 10.8 360 423.2 193.6 38.0 570 644.8 160 50 184.2 ft/s2] used to determine calculated sight distance. 5th edition) Table A-10 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on Flat Grades Metric US Customary Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) V2 d = 0. page 112.6 153.4 m/s2) V2 d = 1.2 91. Table A-11 Stopping Sight Distance on Flat Grades (Exhibit 3-1. 5th edition) Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Brake reaction distance (m) 13.039 a where: t = brake reaction time.2 ft/s2) The above equations are used to generate the following table for wet-pavement conditions.7 80 111.3.5 820 908.5 s.www. deceleration rate of 3.6 69.3 18.1. a = deceleration rate.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. V = design speed.8 41.1 185 55 215.5 s. ft/s2 (11.8 34.6 194.7 48. m/s2 (3.6 238.9 250 65 284.7 41. 2.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.3 65 30 83. Shahin A.0 290.9 614.3 56.5 405.passpe.0 105 40 129.47 Vt + 1.5 183.4 60.9 20.5 83. km/h.0 86.9 147. mph.2 73.4 28.6 75 294.6 62.3 539.5 220 60 248.075 (3-2) a where: t = brake reaction time.1 Stopping Sight Distance On A Flat Grade: The following equations will be used to calculate the stopping distance on a flat grade facilities: (Page 113.5 55. 2.0 165.1 20 15 31.3 220.6 85 35 104.3 345.6 305 359. a = deceleration rate.2 202.7 200 246.5 76.3 Stopping sight distance Calculated Design (ft) (ft) 76.

2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100.) .1. the equation for braking distance should be modified as follows: (Page 114. 2.5 s.278Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 2. 5th edition) Table A-12 Braking Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary V d= ææ a ö ö 2.M.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø d = 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. PE Sample Problem A-23: Stopping Sight Distance on a Flat Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a flat grade.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. V = design speed.47 (60)(2. G = percent of grade divided by 100. V = design speed.) where: t = brake reaction time. a = deceleration rate.54 ç ç ç 9. V = design speed. 2004 edition. km/h.50 + 345. ft/s2 (11. mph. a = deceleration rate.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 2.075 = 220. a = deceleration rate.www.075 AASHTO (3-2) a 60 2 d = 1.5) + 1.04 ft versus 566.54 ç ç ç 9.2 ft/s2) Part I.4 m/s2) V2 d= (3-3) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.2 ft/s2) Stopping Sight Distance d = distance traversed during brake reaction time + distance to brake the vehicle to a stop Table A-13 Stopping Sight Distance Equations on a Grade Metric US Customary d = 0. ft/s2 (11.47 Vt + 1. Shahin A.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.2 A.81 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 Where: G = percent of grade divided by 100.Mansour.3. m/s2 (3. V = design speed.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø (3-3 mod.54 = 566.4 m/s2) 60 where: t = brake reaction time. Solution V2 d = 1.passpe. m/s2 (3. a = deceleration rate.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. mph.0 ft given in AASHTO 11.2 Stopping Sight Distance On a Grade: When a highway is on a grade. km/h. G = percent of grade divided by 100.5 s.

M. PE As can be seen from the above equations that.5) + versus 638 ft (above table) Part I. Shahin A.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32.47 (60)(2.) .100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.) d = 1. Mansour.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 60 2 = 637. Solution: d = 1.2 ÷ . 2004 edition. (Exhibit 3-2. page 115. the stopping distances needed on upgrades are shorter than the one on level roadways.passpe. 5th edition) Table A-14 Stopping Sight Distance on Grades Metric Design speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 20 32 50 66 87 110 136 164 194 227 263 302 6% 20 35 50 70 92 116 144 174 207 243 281 323 9% 20 35 53 74 97 124 154 187 223 262 304 350 3% 19 31 45 61 80 100 123 148 174 203 234 267 6% 18 30 44 59 77 97 118 141 167 194 223 254 9% 18 29 43 58 75 93 114 136 160 186 214 243 Design speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) Downgrades Upgrades 3% 80 116 158 205 257 315 378 446 520 598 682 771 866 965 6% 82 120 165 215 271 333 400 474 553 638 728 825 927 1035 9% 85 126 173 227 287 354 427 507 593 686 785 891 1003 1211 3% 75 109 147 200 237 289 344 405 469 538 612 690 772 859 6% 74 107 143 184 229 278 331 388 450 515 584 658 76 81 9% 73 104 140 179 222 269 320 375 433 495 561 631 704 782 Sample Problem A-24: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: Verify the stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 6%.2 ö 6 ö 30 ç ç ç 32.Chapter A: Geometric Design 61 .www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.42 ft æ æ 11. and those on down grades are longer.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.

2 ÷ ø èè ø AASHTO (3-3 mod.Mansour.47Vt + V2 ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ÷ ± G÷ ç 32.2 ÷ 100 ÷ ø èè ø versus 618 ft (linear interpolation between 3% and 6% from the above table).2 ö 4.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.5 mph and an upgrade of 9% is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: 495 ft 528 ft 561 ft 631 ft V2 d = 1.5 ö 30 ç ç ÷ ç 32.08 ft Answer: (B) æ æ 11.5) + = 527.77 ft Answer: (C) æ æ 11.5% is most nearly: (A) 638 ft (B) 628 ft (C) 617 ft (D) 598 ft Solution: d = 1.2 ö 9 ö 30 ç ç ç 32. 62 Part I.5) + = 616.) 60 2 d = 1.) .5 d = 1.47Vt + AASHTO (3-3 mod.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design . Sample Problem A-26: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 62.) ææ a ö ö 30 ç ç ç 32. PE Sample Problem A-25: Stopping Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The stopping sight distance for a speed of 60 mph and a down grade of 4. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.47 (60)(2.2 ÷ ± G ÷ ÷ ø èè ø 2 62.www.47 (62.passpe.2 ÷ + 100 ÷ ÷ ø èè ø versus 528 ft (linear interpolation between 60 mph and 65 mph from the above table) Note: Design speed normally reported in a 5 mph increments.5)(2.

1.passpe. However. need longer stopping distances for a given speed than passenger vehicles. Trucks as a whole.) .3. Part I. PE A. there is one factor that tends to balance the additional barking lengths for trucks with those for passenger cars. The truck driver is able to see substantially farther beyond vertical sight obstructions because of the higher position of the seat in the vehicle. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www.3 Variations for Trucks: The recommended stopping sight distances given in the previous table and the equations are based on passenger car operation and don not explicitly consider design for truck operation. especially the larger and heavier units.Chapter A: Geometric Design 63 .

www.) .Mansour.2 Passing Sight Distance: Passing sight distance is the minimum sight distance required for the driver of one vehicle to pass another vehicle safely and comfortably. after the overtaking maneuver is started. Figure A-18 Elements of Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-4 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. d2 = Distance traveled while the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. Passing must be accomplished assuming an oncoming vehicle comes into view and maintains the design speed.passpe. 2004 edition. the minimum passing sight distance for two lane highways is determined as the sum of the following four distances: d1 = Distance traversed during perception and reaction time during the initial acceleration to the point of encroachment on the left lane.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.3. without reduction. d3 = Distance between the passing vehicle at the end of its maneuver and the opposing vehicle. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 64 . or of d2 above. PE A. d4 = Distance traversed by the opposing vehicle for two-thirds of the time the passing vehicle occupies the left lane. Per AASHTO Standards. 5th edition) Part I.M.

3 314 90 209 726 US Customary Speed range (mph) 30-40 40-50 56-60 60-70 Average passing speed (mph) 34. 2004 edition. page 120. observe values adjusted slightly.3 145 30 97 317 2.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.5 113 11. PE Table A-15 Elements of Safe Passing Sight Distance for Design of two-Lane Highways (Exhibit 3-5.5 99. Mansour.d2. acceleration rates in mph/sec.0 66 10. page 124.7 251 75 168 583 2. Note: In the metric portion of the table. Shahin A.43 4. = d1+ d2 + d3 + d4 a Metric Speed range (km/h) 50-65 66-80 81-95 96-110 Average passing speed (km/h) 56. and distances are in feet (Exhibit 3-7. speed values are in km/h.M.www. In the U.8 52.passpe.7 827 250 552 1918 1. 5th edition) Component of passing maneuver Initial maneuver a =average accelerationa t1=time (sec)a d1=distance traveled Occupation of left lane: t2 = time (sec)a d2 = distance traveled Clearance length: d3 = distance traveleda Opposing vehicle: d4 = distance traveled Total dist.Chapter A: Geometric Design 65 .5 366 11.9 43. 2004 edition.) . and distances are in meters. and d4 for two-lane highways Part I.3 89 10.3 289 10.0 195 55 130 446 2. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 62.50 4. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.2 70.3 477 100 318 1040 1.25 3.0 643 180 429 1468 1. acceleration rates in km/h/s.3 1030 300 687 2383 For consistent speed relation.S.47 4.30 4.41 4. d3.40 3. speed values are in mph.37 4.61 145 9.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.0 84.6 45 9.8 2. 5th edition) Table A-16 Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways Metric Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (km/h) (m) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (km/h) Exhibit for vehicle vehicle 3-6 design 29 44 200 200 30 36 51 266 270 40 44 59 341 345 50 51 66 407 410 60 59 74 482 485 70 65 80 538 540 80 73 88 613 615 90 79 94 670 670 100 85 100 727 730 110 90 105 774 775 120 94 109 812 815 130 US Customary Assumed speeds Passing sight distance (mph) (ft) Design speed From Rounded Passed Passing (mph) Exhibit 3for vehicle vehicle 6a design 18 28 706 710 20 22 32 897 900 25 26 36 1088 1090 30 30 40 1279 1280 35 34 44 1470 1470 40 37 47 1625 1625 45 41 51 1832 1835 50 44 54 1984 1985 55 47 57 2133 2135 60 50 60 2281 2285 65 54 64 2479 2480 70 56 66 2578 2580 75 58 68 2677 2680 80 a Exhibit 3-6 is the graph showing the total passing sight distance and its components (d1 . customary portion of the table.0 1.0 216 10.

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Per ASSHTO, the minimum passing sight distances presented in Exhibit 3-7 (page124) are generally conservative for modern vehicles. Notice that the difference in speed between the passed and passing vehicles which is 10 mph.

**Figure A-19 Total Passing Sight Distance and Its Components for Two-Lane Highways
**

(Exhibit 3-6 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design 66

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Sample Problem A-27: Passing Sight Distance on a Grade Given: The passing sight distance for a design speed of 55 mph assumed the passed vehicle is at 44 mph is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-7 (Table A-19), the passing sight distance is 1985 ft. Answer: (B) 1835 ft 1985 ft 2135 ft 2285 ft

**A.3.3 Length of Crest Vertical Curves and Sight Distances:
**

Minimum lengths of crest vertical curves based on sight distance criteria generally are satisfactory from the standpoint of safety, comfort, and appearance.

(Page 267- AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

Table A-17 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Sight Distances Metric

US Customary Where S is less than L, (S < L)

Crest Vertical Curve Length & Sight Distances (SSD & PSD)

Where S is less than L, (S < L)

L=

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

L=

2

100 2h1 + 2h2

(

AS 2

)

2

(3-41)

Where S is greater than L, (S > L)

**Where S is greater than L, (S > L)
**

2

L = 2S -

200 ( h1 + h2 ) A

200 ( h1 + h2 ) 2 L = 2S A

(3-42)

where: L = length of vertical curve, m; S = sight distance, m; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, m; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, m

where: L = length of vertical curve, ft; S = sight distance, ft; A = algebraic difference in grades, percent h1 = height of eye above roadway surface, ft; h2 = height of object above roadway surface, ft

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

67

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**Figure A-20 Parameters Considered in Determining the Length of a Crest Vertical Curve to Provide Sight Distances
**

(Exhibit 3-70 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book, 2004 edition, 5th edition)

68

Part I- Civil Breadth (Transportation A.M.) - Chapter A: Geometric Design

Civil Breadth (Transportation A. ft. (3-45) L = 2S - 864 A L = 2S - 2800 A (3-46) where: L = length of vertical curve. Shahin A. percent Part I. US Customary Where S is less than L. AS 2 L= 2158 Where S is greater than L (S > L). 2004 edition. S = sight distance.5 ft is used for passing sight distance. AS 2 L= 658 Where S is greater than L. Mansour.M. US Customary Where S is less than L (S < L). the equations become: Table A-19 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Passing Sight Distance for Height of 3. percent When the height of eyes of the two drivers is 3. A = algebraic difference in grades. the equations become: Table A-18 Crest Vertical Curve Length and Stopping Sight Distance for Heights of 3. 2004 edition.) . S = sight distance. A = algebraic difference in grades. AS 2 L= 864 Where S is greater than L. percent where: L = length of vertical curve. m.0 ft respectively.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. S = sight distance. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Passing Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. A = algebraic difference in grades.www.0 ft (object) (Page 268. percent where: L = length of vertical curve.5 ft and 2. 5th edition) Crest Vertical Curve Length & Stopping Sight Distances Metric Where S is less than L. m. are used for stopping sight distance.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. ft. ft. m.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.5 ft (eye) and 2. S = sight distance. AS 2 L= 2800 Where S is greater than L.5 ft (eye) for Both Drivers (Page 270. A = algebraic difference in grades. (3-43) L = 2S - 658 A L = 2S - 2158 A (3-44) where: L = length of vertical curve. ft. m. PE When the height of eye and the height of object are 3.Chapter A: Geometric Design 69 .passpe.

K* design 180 289 424 585 772 943 1203 1407 1628 1865 2197 2377 2565 a Rate of vertical curvature.4 Design 1 2 4 7 11 17 26 39 52 74 95 124 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature.0 6. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).6 95. K. Shahin A.0 16.9 3.6 192.0 73.8 246.) . K = L/A = 1/r Part I.www.6 383.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. Ka Calculated 0.9 52.9 311.1 83.5 29.8 6. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance (PSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Passing sight distance (m) 200 270 345 410 485 540 615 670 730 775 815 Rate of vertical curvature.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 123.1 60.Chapter A: Geometric Design 70 .7 Design 3 7 12 19 29 44 61 84 114 151 193 247 312 384 a Rate of vertical curvature.4 11. 2004 edition. K = L/A= 1/r Table A-21 Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-73 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Ka Calculated 3. K* design 46 84 138 195 272 338 438 520 617 695 769 Design Speed (mph) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Passing sight distance (ft) 710 900 1090 1280 1470 1625 1835 1985 2135 2285 2480 2580 2680 Rate of vertical curvature. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A). PE Table A-20 Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance on Crest Curves (Exhibit 3-72 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.1 11.5 150. K.M.8 25.6 1.0 43. 5th edition) Metric Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on Crest Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature.Mansour.1 18.7 113.7 38.

www. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe. PE Figure A-21 Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-71.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.M. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-71: Part I. 2004 edition. page 271.Chapter A: Geometric Design 71 . Shahin A.) .

where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. ft. PE 1.passpe. the vertical curve is a crest Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-43) A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. percent = g2 g1 = ( 2) (+4) = 6% OK (3-43) A S 2 6 ´ 650 2 L= = =1174 ft > SSD = 650 ft 2158 2158 where: L = length of vertical curve.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length. page 112.) . Table A-11) 72 Part I.6V).6V. A = algebraic difference in grades. the following result will be obtained: L = 2S - 2158 2158 = 2 ´ 650 = 940. Shahin A.33 ft > 650 ft = S A 6 Not Good (3-44) Answer: (B) Question: Can we use Figure A-21 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-71) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. (A) 940 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades. where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V). 2. Sample Problem A-28: Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) on a Grade Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are + 4% ascending grade.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V.M. S = sight distance. percent Note: If S > L is assumed and equation (3-44) is used.Chapter A: Geometric Design . and 2% descending grade. and 3.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour.

drainage control. AS 2 L= 200 0. Mansour.6 + S (tan 1o )] L= 2S A or. 2004 edition. 200[ 2.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves US Customary When S is less than L( S < L).M.4 Length of Sag Vertical Curves and Sight Distances: There are four different criteria for establishing lengths of sag vertical curves as follows: 1234headlight sight distance.www. AS2 L= 400 + 3.6 + S tan 1o [ ( )] or.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. and A. Shahin A.5 S When S is greater than L( S > L). using S as the distance between the vehicle and point where the 1-degree (1 ) upward angle of the light beam intersects the surface of the roadway. S = light beam distance. Table A-22 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves for 1-Degree Upward Angle (Page 273. PE A.5 S ö L= 2S . [ ( )] (3-47) AS 2 L= 120 + 3. ft. A = algebraic difference in grades. S = light beam distance. m.0 + S (tan1o )] L= 2 S A or. passenger comfort.ç ÷ A è ø (3-50) where: L = length of sag vertical curve. m. and general appearance Figure A-22 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) for Sag Vertical Curves The following equation show the relationships between S.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. percent 73 Part I. (3-49) æ 120 + 3.ç ÷ A è ø where: L = length of sag vertical curve. L. A = algebraic difference in grades.Chapter A: Geometric Design . AS 2 L= 200 2.3. 5th edition) Metric When S is less than L ( S < L).) .5 S ö L= 2 S . ft. (3-48) 200 [ 0.passpe. percent æ 400 + 3.0 + S tan 1o or.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.

4 62.4 49. Percent. 5th edition) Table A-24 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves Metric Design Controls for Sag Curves Design Speed (km/h) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Stopping sight distance (m) 20 35 50 65 85 105 130 160 185 220 250 285 Rate of vertical curvature. V = design speed. V = design speed.6 44.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.3 22.6 29.7 156. ft.3 m/s2] (Exhibit 3-75. Shahin A. 2004 edition.9 135.4 16.2 17. A = algebraic difference in grades.Mansour. A = algebraic difference in grades.5 180. K. K = L/A = 1/r Part I.) .6 231.1 95. Ka Calculated 9.M. (Page 274. PE The effect on passenger comfort of the change in vertical curve direction is greater on sag than on crest vertical curves because gravitational and centripetal forces are in opposite directions.4 78.0 Design 10 17 26 37 49 64 79 96 115 136 157 181 206 231 a Rate of vertical curvature.www. km/h where: L = length of sag vertical curve.4 37.5 25. mph * The length of sag vertical curves are based on centripetal acceleration does not exceed 1 ft/s2 [0. page 277. rather than in the same direction.0 63.1 5. Percent.5 36.Chapter A: Geometric Design 74 . The following table gives the sag vertical curve length taken into consideration the comfort of the driver of sag curves. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. 2004 edition.3 205.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Ka Calculated 2.1 8.5 (3-51) where: L = length of sag vertical curve.8 72.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. is the length of curve per percent algebraic difference in interesting grades (A).7 114.6 54.passpe.5 12. 5th edition) Table A-23 Length of Sag Vertical Curves Considering Comfort* Metric US Customary Length of Sag Vertical Curves for Comfort L= AV 2 395 L= AV 2 46.7 Design 3 6 9 13 18 23 30 38 45 55 63 73 Design Speed (mph) 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 US Customary Stopping sight distance (ft) 80 115 155 200 250 305 360 425 495 570 645 730 820 910 Rate of vertical curvature. m.

AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. PE Figure A-23 Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves-Open Road Conditions (Exhibit 3-74.www. page 275. Shahin A. 5th edition) The following key points should be considered in relation to AASHTO Exhibit 3-74: Part I.passpe. Mansour.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. 2004 edition.Chapter A: Geometric Design 75 .M.

Check the curve length for comfort: L = 46.5 Answer: (A) Question: Can we use Fig. percent L= OK (3-48) Notes: 1.42 ft (3-51) 2.5 46. percent = G1 G2 = 4 (+2) = 6% AS2 6 ´ 6502 = = 947. Shahin A.5 ´ 650 where: L = length of vertical curve. A-22 (AASHTO Exhibit 3-74.ç ÷ = 2 ´ 650 . where V is in kilometers per hour (Lmin = 0. Table A-11) 76 Part I. AV 2 6 ´ 652 = = 545.Chapter A: Geometric Design .2 ft < 854. Sample Problem A-29: Vertical Curve Length and SSD Given: What is the length of the vertical curve to provide stopping sight distance (SSD) of 650 feet? The grades of the curve are 4% ascending grade. ft.42 ft A 6 è ø è ø (3-50) But 854. S = sight distance. (A) 950 ft (B) 1180 ft (C) 1710 ft (D) 1910 ft Solution: From the given grades.Mansour.M.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. the following result will be obtained: æ 400 + 3. the vertical curve is sag Ø Assume that S < L and using equation (3-48) A = algebraic difference in grades.The minimum vertical curve length L (feet) = 3V. PE 1.www. 2. where V is in miles per hour (Lmin = 3V).6V. and 3.The vertical lines represent the minimum vertical curve length. and + 2% descending grade.66 ft > 650 ft 400 + 3.5 S 400 + 3. page 275) to solve the problem? YES Hint: For SSD = 650 ft V 65 mph (Exhibit 3-1. ft.The minimum vertical curve length L (meters) = 0.ç ÷ = 854.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.If S > L is assumed and equation (3-50) is used.6V).5 ´ 650 ö L= 2S .) .42 ft > SSD = 650 ft ® N .G. A = algebraic difference in grades.5 S ö æ 400 + 3.

278 Vt Where: t = pre-maneuver time. the driver's eye is assumed to be 42 inches (3. 2004 edition. and the object height is 24 inches (2 feet-about the height of vehicle taillights). V = design speed.Avoidance Maneuver D: Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12. mph 77 Part I. The decision sight distance is "distance required for a driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult-to-perceive information source or hazard in a roadway environment that may be visually cluttered. In the United States (AASHTO Green Book). and initiate and complete the required maneuver safely and efficiently. Shahin A. recognize the hazard or its threat potential. km/h.M. 2004 edition.www. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed. PE A. s (see types of maneuvers above) V = design speed. V = design speed. s (see types of maneuvers above).2 s 4.Avoidance Maneuver C: Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10. a = deceleration rate.5 Decision Sight Distance: Decision sight distance is used when drivers must make decisions more complex than stop or don't stop. km/h d = 1. s (see types of maneuvers above).Avoidance Maneuver B: Stop on urban road t = 9. There are five maneuvers as follows: 1. D.2 ft/s2) Table A 26.5 feet) above the pavement.1 s 3.) .47 Vt + 1.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. a = deceleration rate. It is longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the distance traveled while making a more complex decision. mph. Mansour.Chapter A: Geometric Design . select an appropriate speed and path.039 a Where: t = pre-maneuver time.0 s 2.9 s 5.2 and 11.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers C.47 Vt (3-5) Where: t = pre-maneuver time.Avoidance Maneuver A: Stop on rural road t = 3.Avoidance Maneuver E: Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.278 Vt + 0.5 s Table A 25.passpe.Decision Sight Distance Equations for Avoidance Maneuvers A and B (Page 117. and E (Page 117.0 and 14. D & E US Customary d = 0. m/s2 (3.4 m/s2) d = 1.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. ft/s2 (11.1 and 12. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers C.075 V2 a (3-4) Where: t = pre-maneuver time. 5th edition) Metric DSD for Maneuvers A&B US Customary V2 d = 0.3.

9 s Speed/path/direction change on urban road t varies between 14.47 Vt + 1.passpe.Mansour.1 s Speed/path/direction change on rural road t varies between 10.1 and 12.2 Using Table: 910 ft (from the above table) Answer: (D) 78 Part I.47 (50)(9. PE (Exhibit 3-3.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design .2 and 11.0 s Stop on urban road t = 9.075 a For maneuver B: t is 9.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.1 s (3-4) 50 2 d = 1.5 s Sample Problem A-31: Decision Sight Distance Given: The decision sight distance for a speed of 50 mph and a maneuver B is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO equation (3-4): 435 ft 690 ft 800 ft 910 ft V2 d = 1. page 116.81 ft 11.) . Shahin A.0 and 14.1) + 1.075 = 908. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Table A-27 Decision Sight Distance Decision Sight Distance (DSD) Design speed (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Metric US Customary Decision sight distance (m) Design Decision sight distance (ft) speed Avoidance maneuver Avoidance maneuver (mph) A A B C D E B C D E 70 155 145 170 195 220 490 450 535 620 30 95 195 170 205 235 275 590 525 625 720 35 115 235 200 235 275 330 690 600 715 825 40 140 280 230 270 315 395 800 675 800 930 45 170 325 270 315 360 465 910 750 890 1030 50 200 370 315 355 400 535 1030 865 980 1135 55 235 420 330 380 430 610 1150 990 1125 1280 60 265 470 360 415 470 695 1275 1050 1220 1365 65 305 525 390 450 510 780 1410 1105 1275 1445 70 875 1545 1180 1365 1545 75 970 1685 1260 1455 1650 80 Avoidance Maneuver A: Avoidance Maneuver B: Avoidance Maneuver C: Avoidance Maneuver D: Avoidance Maneuver E: Stop on rural road t = 3.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.2 s Speed/path/direction change on suburban road t varies between 12.

Civil Breadth (Transportation A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. right turn.www. Shahin A.M. Mansour.4 m length of vehicle. which is assumed to be 65 ft W = distance between outer rails (for a single track.) a = driver deceleration.passpe. which is assumed to be 8 ft L = length of vehicle.4 m/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. 2004 edition. which is assumed to be 20 m distance between outer rails (for a single track. this value is 1. which is assumed to be 2.Chapter A: Geometric Design .5 m) B Vv2 d H = AVvt + + D + de a dT = (9-3) VT B Vv2 [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a dT = Vv = VT = t = a = D = de = L = W = where: A = constant = 1.4 Intersection Sight Distance: Intersection sight distance is the decision needed to safely proceed through an intersection. or proceeding straight).) .5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance.5 m distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle.3.075 dH = sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (ft) dT = sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (ft) Vv = speed of the vehicle (mph) VT = speed of the train (mph) t = perception/reaction time.) D = distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail. The distance needed depends on the type of traffic control at the intersection. which is assumed to be 3. 5th edition) Table A-28 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safely Cross or Stop Railroad Crossing Metric US Customary B Vv2 d H = AVv t + + D + de a B Vv2 V d T = T [ ( A) Vv t + + 2D + L + W ] Vv a where: A = B = dH = constant = 0.2 ft/s2 (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. which is assumed to be 2.47 B = constant = 1.5 s (This is the same value used in Chapter 3 to determine the stopping sight distance. page 734-735. which is assumed to be 2. which is assumed to be 11. (Exhibit 9-103.) distance from the stop line or front of the vehicle to the nearest rail. which is assumed to be 15 ft de = distance from the driver to the front of the vehicle.039 sight-distance leg along the highway highway allows a vehicle proceeding to speed VV to cross tracks even though a train is observed at a distance dT from the crossing or to stop the vehicle without encroachment of the crossing area (m) sight-distance leg along the railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (m) speed of the vehicle (km/h) speed of the train (km/h) perception/reaction time. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.) driver deceleration. which is assumed to be 4. PE A.278 constant = 0. and the maneuver (left turn. this value is 5 ft) 79 Part I.

M. PE (Exhibit 9-103.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 5th edition) Figure A-24 Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safety or Stop at Railroad Crossing 80 Part I. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. page 735.passpe.Mansour. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.) . AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.www.

278 dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (m) VT = speed of train (km/h) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. Shahin A.M.0 s W = distance between outer rails for a single track.d a dT = AVT ê G + + Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 0.www. this value is 1.45) W = distance between outer rails for a single track. PE Table A-29 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105 AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. which is assumed to be 2. which is assumed to be 4.47 ft/s2 L = length of vehicle. which is assumed to be 8. which is assumed to be 1. which is assumed to be 2. 5th edition) Metric US Customary éV ù L +2 D + W .passpe.8 ft/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear. which is assumed to be 15 ft J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift. 2004 edition.3 ft 2a1 (2)(1.8) 2 = = 26.1m 2a1 (2)(0.5 m J = sum of perception and time to activate clutch or automatic shift. this value is 5 ft 2 VG da = 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (8.47) Part I.45 m/s2 L = length of vehicle.47 (9-4) dT = sight distance leg along railroad tracks to permit the maneuvers described as for dH (formula) (ft) VT = speed of train (mph) VG = maximum speed of vehicle in first gear. which is assumed to be 20 m D = distance from stop to nearest rail. which is assumed to be 2.0 s éV ù L +2 D + W .7) 2 = = 8.d a dT =AVT ê G + +Jú VG ë a1 û A = constant = 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 81 .com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.7 m/s a1 = acceleration of vehicle in first gear.) .5m V2 da = G 2a1 or distance vehicle travels while accelerating to maximum speed in first gear 2 VG (2. Mansour. which is assumed to be 0. which is assumed to be 65ft D = distance from stop to nearest rail.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Chapter A: Geometric Design . page 738. 2004 edition.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. Shahin A. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. PE Figure A-25 Case B: Departure of Vehicle from Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track (Exhibit 9-105.passpe.) .M. 5th edition) 82 Part I.

075 ( 45) 2 d H = AVv t + + D + d e = (1. The stop line is located 15 ft from the near side rail.Chapter A: Geometric Design 83 .) .M. The required sight triangle distance (ft) along the highway for a vehicle to stop at the stop line for an approaching train is most nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) Solution: Using AASHTO Equation 9-3 (page 734): 360 380 440 560 B Vv2 1.47) (45)(2.2 Alternate Solution (short cut): Using AASHTO Exhibit 3-1(page 112): Stopping sight distance (SSD) for 45 mph = 360 ft (design SSD) The total distance = SSD + D + de = 360 + 15 + 5 = 380 ft (9-3) Answer: (B) Part I.www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.passpe. Shahin A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. and the driver is located 5 ft back from the front bumper of the vehicle.5) + + 15 + 5 = 380 ft a 11. Assume AASHTOrecommended design values for perception reaction time. PE Sample Problem A-32: Triangle Sight Distance Given: A vehicle is approaching a railroad track at a speed of 45 mph.

5th edition) Table A-30 Formula for Vehicle Operation on a Curve Metric US Customary 0. which is used to design a curve for a comfortable operation at a particular speed: 0. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity.M. because for any given curve radius a certain superelevation rate is exactly correct for only one driving speed. ft/s. R = radius of curve measured to a vehicle s center of gravity. which must be offset by side friction. mph.01 e + f v 2 0.067 V 2 V 2 = = = 1 . f = side friction (demand) factor.01 e + f v 2 0. v = vehicle speed.079 V 2 V2 = = = 1 . PE A.www. g = gravitational constant. percent.0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 9. relative to the curve center. It is impractical to balance centrifugal force by superelevation alone. m/s. g = gravitational constant. 32. percent.) . these forces are in equilibrium as represented by the following equation.01 ef gR R 127 R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation.4 SUPERELEVATION A.Mansour. 2004 edition. the centrifugal force is resisted by the vehicle weight component parallel to the superelevated surface and side friction between the tires and pavement. mph. v = vehicle speed. when a vehicle travels on a curve it is forced outward by centrifugal force. f = side friction (demand) factor.Chapter A: Geometric Design .AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. On a superelevated highway. The purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve.0. Shahin A.067 V 2 V 2 Centrifugal Force = e + f = = R 15 R (A-41) e = Superelevation slope in feet per foot emax = Maximum superelevation rate for a given condition f = Side friction factor R = Curve radius in feet V = Velocity in miles per hour The parameters that affect the superelevation formula are shown in the following table which are derived from the law of mechanics: (Page 131.81 m/s2 V = design speed. m 84 0.01 ef gR R 15R Where: e = rate of roadway superelevation. ft (3-8) Part I.2 ft/s2 V = design speed.passpe.4-1 Introduction: According to the laws of mechanics.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. If the vehicle is not skidding. At all other speeds there will be a side thrust either outward or inward.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 85 .01 emax + f max ) (3-10) Part I.35 at 60 mph." The design side friction factors are.) . states.www. studies show that the maximum side friction factors developed between new tires and wet concrete pavements range from about 0. Mansour. PE Side friction factors tabulated on by AASHTO for design purposes.passpe.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.01emax + f max ) Rmin V2 = 15 (0.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Shahin A. page 134.5 at 20 mph to approximately 0.M. 5th edition) (Page 146.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. AASHTO. "In general. therefore. 2004 edition. Figure A-26 Geometry for Ball-Bank Indicator (Top: Manual & Electronic Ball Bank) (Exhibit 3-9. about one-third the values that occur when side skidding is imminent. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 5th edition) Table A -31 Minimum Radius Using emax and fmax Metric US Customary 2 Rmin V = 127 (0. 2004 edition.

16 0.M.5 4 8 22 47 86 135 203 280 375 492 4 8 21 43 79 123 184 252 336 437 560 756 951 4.19 0.1 46.Mansour.44 0.20 0.0 6.9 2041.24 0.0 4.7 437.27 0.12 0.3 1500.0 6.17 0.12 0.08 0.0 335.0 6.0 6.passpe.38 0.0 4.Chapter A: Geometric Design .14 0.14 86 Part I.24 0.13 0.0 6.0 4.9 833.18 0.19 0.41 0.0 4.5 925.17 0.11 0.8 340.1 3.36 0.3 250.9 1186.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 4.3 484.0 6.0 4.42 0.9 950.20 0.0 6.14 4.20 0.2 183.9 41.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.0 375.40 0.3 1656.6 Rounded Radius (ft) 16 42 86 154 250 371 533 711 926 1190 1500 15 39 81 144 231 340 485 643 833 1060 1330 1660 2040 2500 3050 e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 4.29 0.3 1061.6 135.17 0.12 0.46 0.23 0.28 0.13 0.4 560.1 280. 2004 edition.39 0.0 6.18 0.0 4.7 86.29 0. PE (Exhibit 3-15.0 6.2 492.18 0.17 0.23 0.0 4.www.11 0.21 0.23 0.8 143.26 0.14 0.14 0.27 0.0 6.23 0.0 6. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.09 0.27 0.7 20.28 0.0 6.33 0.44 0.0 6.0 6.0 4.38 0.0 6.10 0.22 0.20 0.20 0.31 0.32 0.0 6.0 4.18 0.14 0.0 371.17 0.0 4.0 6.35 0.15 0.0 4.21 0.2 39.0 6.35 0.0 4.0 4.7 2500.16 0.1 22.) .13 0.12 0.15 0.8 43.4 1333.0 6.0 6.0 4.2 533.15 0.19 0.16 0.5 80.23 0.0 6.32 0.19 0.08 0.34 0. Shahin A.7 123.19 0.0 6.0 6.0 6.18 0.0 3047.0 15.3 710.40 0.18 0.0 203.7 85.15 0.0 e (%) 0.13 0.4 78.32 0.0 4. page 147.17 0.8 642.7 252.16 0.9 7. 5th edition) Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f METRIC Maximum f Maximum Maximum US Customary Maximum Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 f Total (e/100+f) Calculated Radius (ft) 15.0 0.7 230.0 6.15 0.0 154.09 0.25 0.0 6.0 4.15 0.19 0.16 0.27 0.22 0.4 755.0 8.0 4.0 4.23 0.21 0.0 6.38 0.0 6.

27 0.0 12.4 587.08 0.8 739.0 8.50 0.28 0.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.4 119.09 0.0 10.0 10.1 414.36 0.0 8.0 12.18 0.0 12.08 0.32 0.0 10.0 12.9 105.24 0. PE Table A-32 Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f (Continued) METRIC Maximum Maximum f Maximum US Customary Calculated Radius (m) Rounded Radius (m) Total (e/100+f) Design Speed (km/h) Design Speed (mph) Calculate d Radius (ft) Maximum f Total (e/100+f) Rounded Radius (ft) e (%) 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 8.4 3 7 18 36 64 98 143 194 255 328 414 540 665 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 8.7 142.44 0.0 12.0 8.15 0.17 0.12 0.1 328.4 876.17 0.10 0.0 8.0 10.M.40 0.0 12.14 0.2 381.9 113.3 210.0 187.31 0.7 501.0 757.0 8.48 0.25 0.35 0.0 8.0 8.0 8.5 37.35 0.0 8.20 0.20 0.3 200.0 8.3 4 7 19 38 68 105 154 210 277 358 454 597 739 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 12.23 0.6 72.19 0.46 0.0 12.7 4 7 20 41 73 113 168 229 304 394 501 667 832 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 10.39 0.23 0.18 0.20 3.0 12.2 539.0 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.11 0.7 17.9 2666.14 0.15 0.42 0.7 410.22 0.13 0.11 0.22 0.16 3.14 0.11 0.30 0.24 0.0 500.0 291.27 0.0 277.7 2370.08 0.passpe.0 e (%) 0.7 7.23 0.0 0.15 0.12 0.0 10.0 10.8 229.08 0. Mansour.7 13.21 0.1 126.11 0.5 272.0 12.20 0.7 40.16 0.5 76.0 1224.www.17 0.0 641.0 12.0 10.28 0.33 0.0 10.31 0.40 0.3 1633.18 0.19 0.0 8.2 134.16 0.0 10.0 12.09 0.26 0.16 0.5 1814.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.38 0.3 19.12 0.22 0.4 6.45 0.18 0.18 3.27 0.3 540.31 0.0 10.28 0.0 8.0 10.47 0.27 0.0 12.0 10.50 0.0 8.0 12.0 10.0 12.23 0.20 0. Shahin A.0 8.0 12.09 0.0 10.14 0.0 0.24 0.7 393.08 0.14 0.0 12.8 1785.32 0.21 0.23 0.20 0.25 0.19 0.0 12.0 10.4 214.0 806.09 0.21 0.23 0.8 2205.0 10.3 14 38 76 134 214 314 444 587 758 960 1200 1480 1810 2210 2670 14 36 72 126 200 292 410 540 694 877 1090 1340 1630 1970 2370 13 34 68 119 188 272 381 500 641 807 1000 1220 1480 1790 2130 87 Part I.09 0.21 0.0 10.4 167.24 0.8 255.0 8.22 0.21 0.0 10.0 8.3 1973.0 12.43 0.0 10.0 10.35 0.3 314.26 0.09 0.5 667.17 0.0 8.23 0.0 12.0 12.15 0.7 596.38 0.3 34.0 10.0 10.2 67.13 0.29 0.19 0.0 12.32 0.0 1482.26 0.13 0.0 10.5 97.14 0.08 0.13 0.0 8.9 193.23 0.23 0.3 357.23 0.15 0.0 8.11 0.26 0.7 1000.0 12.27 0.23 0.0 8.6 960.30 0.0 8.8 1090.25 0.13 0.35 0.1 303.7 72.10 0.25 0.35 0.38 0.48 0.0 18.6 38.22 0.9 453.19 0.1 68.38 0.12 0.7 36.0 154.35 0.4 13.0 63.37 0.12 0.0 12.3 1200.9 35.0 831.33 0.52 0.20 14.1 444.13 0.9 1341.0 12.27 0.19 0.14 0.7 2133.5 7.6 1484.0 12.20 0.25 0.24 0.40 0.11 0.18 0.23 0.0 8.28 0.40 0.21 0.0 0.0 10.0 12.9 665.28 0.0 8.12 0.32 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .0 8.28 0.40 0.0 12.17 0.27 0.0 8.10 0.29 0.0 694.) .16 0.19 0.

12 The rate of superelevation required for this curve is almost nearly: (A) (B) (C) (D) 6% 8% 10% 33% Solution: Ø Using AASHTO Equation 3-10 (Note: emax in the following equation is a percentage): Rmin V2 = 15 (0.091 ft Coefficient of side friction = 0.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe.9ft) and V of 60 mph. Shahin A. page 147. 2004 edition.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.Mansour.www. 5th edition) Look for a radius of 1090 ft (1090.12) Solve the above equation for emax gives 10% (3-10) Ø Using Minimum Radius Using Limiting Values of e and f Table (Exhibit 3-15.M.01emax + 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. V = 60 mph Radius (minimum safe) =1. PE Sample Problem A-33: Superelevation Rate Given: A horizontal curve on a two-lane rural highway has the following characteristics: Design speed.) .01emax + f max ) 60 2 1091 = 15(0. the corresponding superelevation rate is 10% for a maximum friction of 0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .12 Answer: (C) 88 Part I.

the profile grade line follows the lower rail.M.Chapter A: Geometric Design 89 .) . In curves. The term itself comes from railroad practice. the purpose of superelevation or banking of curves is to counteract the centripetal acceleration produced as a vehicle rounds a curve. and.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. because widths vary. so that: F1 £ m N1 £ f N1 F2 £ m N 2 £ f N 2 where m or f is the coefficient of friction between tires and roadway. In the case of highways.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Figure A-27 Force Diagram for Superelevation Part I. Consider the force diagram in Figure A-27.4-2 Superelevation Runoff and Superelevation Diagram: As mentioned before. and the upper rail is said to be "superelevated. where the top of the rail is the profile grade.www. For highway vehicles F1 and F2 are friction forces. Mansour." Since most railways are built to a standard gage. there will be a radial acceleration toward the center of the curve (toward the left in the diagram) of v2/ R. If the vehicle is traveling around a curve with a radius R at a constant speed v. superelevation is expressed as a slope. PE A. somewhat more complicated modifications of the cross section are required. which will be opposed by a force of: Force = mass × acceleration = m×a = W/g) v2/ R (A-42) Other forces acting on the vehicle are its weight W and the forces exerted against the wheels by the roadway surface. and N2 and the lateral forces F1 and F2. the superelevations are given as the difference in elevation between the upper and lower rail. Shahin A.passpe. These forces are represented by two components: the normal forces N1.

(ii) Conventional Highways-The axis of rotation should be considered on an individual project basis and the most appropriate case for the conditions should 2.Mansour. Shahin A. 90 Part I. To avoid sawtooth on bridges with decked medians. drainage pockets caused by superelevation may be avoided by changing the axis of rotation from the centerline to the inside edge of traveled way.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Superelevation Transition 1. should be shifted to the centerline. comfort and pleasing appearance. A superelevation transition should be designed to satisfy the requirements of safety. except where the resulting initial median slope would be steeper than 10: 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design . In flat country.) . However. Where the initial median width is greater than 65 feet and the ultimate median width is 65 feet or less. the plane of superelevation may be rotated about the inside edge of traveled way to improve perception of the curve. the axis of rotation should be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way. in special cases such as desert roads where curves are preceded by long relatively level tangents.Superelevation Transition: The superelevation transition generally consists of the crown runoff and the superelevation runoff as shown on Figure A-28.passpe. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline.Axis of Rotation (a) Undivided Highways: For undivided highways the axis of rotation for superelevation is usually the centerline of the roadbed.Axis of Rotation 2. the axis of rotation. (c) Divided Highways. In the latter case. PE In order to construct the superelevation diagram.M. The length of superelevation transition should be based upon the combination of superelevation rate and width of rotated plane. the axis of rotation should normally be at the ultimate median edges of traveled way. (b) Ramps and Freeway-to-freeway Connections: The axis of rotation may be about either edge of traveled way or centerline if multilane. Appearance and drainage considerations should always be taken into account in selection of the axis of rotation.www. (i) Freeways-Where the initial median width is 65 feet or less. the axis of rotation should be at the centerline.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. if not already on centerline. the following parameters must be determined: 1. Where the ultimate median width is greater than 65 feet.

This results in two-thirds of the full superelevation rate at the beginning or ending of a curve. Mansour. Shahin A.) . This may be altered as required to adjust for flat spots or unsightly sags and humps. Two-thirds of the superelevation runoff should be on the tangent and one-third within the curve.passpe.M. PE Runoff.Chapter A: Geometric Design 91 . or when conforming to existing roadway. Figure A-28 Superelevation Diagram and Roadway Cross Sections Figure A-29 Superelevation Transition (Elements) for a Curve to the right Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.www.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.

5. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. Shahin A.M.) . 5th edition) 92 Part I. page 278. Figure A-30 Vertical Curve Length Under or Over Obstruction 2 2y ö æ b´ y æ y ö b+ +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç DG ø DG è DG ø è (A-43) where: L b y G = = = = length of vertical curve (stations) distance from vertex to point (stations) tangent offset to curve (ft) the absolute value of g 2 .www.Mansour. The equation shown below will give the curve length in stations to meet certain cover or vertical clearance.1 Vertical Curves Under or Over An Obstruction: Sometimes it necessarily to construct a vertical curve under a structure or over a utility pipe. PE A.passpe.5 VERTICAL AND/OR HORIZONTAL CLEARANCES A.2 Sight Distance at Undercrossing: Sight distance on the highway through a grade separation should be at least as long as the minimum stopping sight distance and preferably longer. 2004 edition.5. (Exhibit 3-76.Chapter A: Geometric Design Figure A-31 Sight Distance at Undercrossing .com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.g 1 A.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.

i. ft.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C = h1 = h2 = length of vertical curve. ft Table A-34 Case 2.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: L = length of vertical curve. h2 = height of object. A = algebraic difference in grades. m.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. algebraic difference in grades. A = algebraic difference in grades. ft. m.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è where: L = S = A= C= h1 = h2 = (3-53) length of vertical curve. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S<L US Customary AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C .www. height of object.M. percent C = vertical clearance. Mansour. percent vertical clearance. h1 = height of eye. m.) . h2 = height of object. height of object.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.ç 1 2 ÷ ÷ ç ÷ è 2 øø è L = 2S A Where: (3-52) L = length of vertical curve. i. ft. percent C = vertical clearance. m. m. sight distance. 5th edition) Metric Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve S>L US Customary æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . h1 = height of eye.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279. m. PE The following two tables show two cases for calculating the sag vertical curve length: Case 1: Sight distance > curve length .AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. m. 2004 edition. percent vertical clearance. ft. algebraic difference in grades. S = sight distance. ft. Shahin A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 93 . m. height of eye. ft. sight distance.e.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe.e.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 278. ft Part I. m AS 2 L= æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . ft. S = sight distance. 2004 edition. S > L Case 2: Sight distance < curve length . m æ æ h + h öö 800 ç C . ft. height of eye. S < L Table A-33 Case 1.

A = algebraic difference in grades.5) A (3-54) = length of vertical curve. m = length of vertical curve. S = sight distance.4 m] for a truck driver and an object 2. AS 2 L= 800 (C . ft. 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve. S = sight distance. m. ft.Sight Distance Less than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S < L) (Page 279.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. m. = algebraic difference in grades.) . Shahin A. ft Table A-36 Case 2. 2004 edition.6 m] for the taillights of a vehicle.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. m. A = algebraic difference in grades.www.1.0 ft [2.AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe.5) Where: (3-55) L = length of vertical curve. m.Sight Distance Greater than the Sag Vertical Curve Length (S > L) (Page 279. 2004 edition. percent = vertical clearance. percent C = vertical clearance.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.Mansour. ft. ft. PE Using an eye height of 8. = sight distance. S<L Metric US Customary AS 2 L= 800 (C . 5th edition) Vertical Clearance for Sag Vertical Curve.5) Where: L = length of vertical curve. S>L Metric US Customary L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C .5) A L = 2S Where: L S A C 800(C . percent = vertical clearance. m. percent C = vertical clearance.1. = sight distance.M. the following equations for the sag vertical curve length can be derived: Table A-35 Case 1. = algebraic difference in grades. ft. 94 Part I.0 ft [0.Chapter A: Geometric Design .

Answer is A Part I.5 6.5 ft and if a 1800 ft (18 Sta.5 3 16. crosses the grade line at right angles at station (A) 17.8) æ 9.8) ö æ +ç ÷ L = 2 ç1.0 = 6.5 ø = 17. Shahin A.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.8 ö 2(9.5. Therefore.00 114.40 ft.00 8 + 90.) . = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3. A pipeline Express the answer in full station.00.80 ft 2 1.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. The entering grade is 3.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. the minimum clearance required will be reduced. rounded to full station) curve is selected.6) = 9.4 + 3.www.50 ft below the bottom of the pipe.5 ø è è 6 .89 and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is (C) 18.M. % and the exiting grade is + 3.00 16.6 + ÷ +4 6.Chapter A: Geometric Design 95 .5) (80.00 × 1.5 ft.0 ft (B) 17. Mansour. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3.passpe.50 ft (D) 18.00 %.89 Solution: 2( y ) ö b( y ) æ y ö æ +ç L = 2ç A + ÷ +4 ÷ DG ø DG è DG ø è 2 (A-32) b G y = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a clearance of 16. = curve elevation tangent elevation = (114. Here the minimum vertical clearance is 16.6 Sta.6(9.5 + 3.89 Sta. PE Sample Problem A-35: vertical curve length UNDER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at Find: The sag vertical curve that passes an elevation of 80. the curve length should be 1700 ft (17 Sta.

50 %.Mansour.4 + 3.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.passpe.5 % = tangent offset to curve (ft) = Difference in elevation between the proposed curve and the tangent at the pipe location. Find: Determine the vertical curve length rounded to the nearest full station that will provide the 60.94 (C) 9.00 % and the exiting grade is + 3.00 (D) 9.00 ×1. Shahin A.00 ft 2(3) ö æ 1. = Curve elevation Tangent elevation = (83.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.0 ft and the elevation measured at the top of the pipe is 83.) . (A) 8. The outside diameter of the pipe is 3.94 Sta.6 + 6.5 ø è 2 Here the minimum cover is 60 inches (5 ft) and if a 800 ft (8 Sta. L = 2 ç1. PE Sample Problem A-36: vertical curve length OVER a pipe Given: Two grade lines intersect at station 10 + 50 at an elevation of 80.00.Chapter A: Geometric Design . the curve length should be 900 ft (9 Sta.5 + 3. A pipeline crosses the grade line at right angles at station 8 + 90.0 inches clearance (cover) over the pipe.) to ensure that the pipe will have at least a cover of 60 inches (5 ft).84 Solution: 2( y ) ö æ b( y ) æ y ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ L = 2ç A+ DG ø DG è DG ø è b G y 2 (A-32) = distance from vertex to point (stations) = (10 + 50) (8 + 90) = 1. The entering grade is 3. = the absolute value of g 2 g 1 = 3.www.6) = 3.5 è 6 .M.6 Sta.5 ø 6 .6(3) æ 3 ö +ç ÷ +4 ÷ = 8. Therefore.20 ft.0 = 6.2 + 60 inches × ft/12 inches) (80.) curve is selected.40 ft.00 (B) 8. the minimum cover required will be reduced. Answer: (C) NOTE: This is opposite to the previous sample problem where a smaller curve was selected compared to the calculated value to ensure minimum vertical clearance 96 Part I.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 97 .AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. page 227.) . Shahin A. 2004 edition. 2004 edition. m R = Radius of curve.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û (3-38) where: S = Stopping sight distance. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 .5. 5th edition) Table A-26 Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) Metric Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) US Customary éæ 28.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.www.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. m éæ 28. 5th edition) (Page 227. m HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Mansour. ft Part I.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 . ft R = Radius of curve. ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset. PE A.2 Horizontal Sight Distance: Figure A-32 Diagram Illustrating Components for Determining Horizontal Sight Distance (Exhibit 3-54.

65 S öù 28. 3-54.61 ft R øû 844 øû ëè ëè The distance from the edge of pavement = HSO ½ (lane width) = 26.Mansour.www. éæ 28.Cos ÷ú = 844 êç1 . page 112) éæ éæ 28. Shahin A.Cos ÷ R øú ëè û where: S = Stopping sight distance. PE Sample Problem A-37: Horizontal Sight Distance Given: A two lane conventional highway is Find: The house should be placed at from designed for 50 mph with a 850 ft centerline radius the edge of pavement at distance (in feet) and 12 ft lanes.61 ft Answer: (A) 98 Part I. ft Note: R is measured to the centerline of the inside lane.passpe.Chapter A: Geometric Design .65 ´ 425 öù HSO = R êç1 . The property owner adjacent to the of: highway wants to build a house on his land.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.) .M.65 S ö ù HSO = R êç1 . ft HSO = Horizontal sightline offset.Cos ÷ú = 26. ft R = Radius of curve.61 ft 6 ft = 20. (A ) 21 (B) 26 (C) 27 (D) 32 Solution: The house should be placed away from the sight distance as required per AASHTO Exh. R = 850 ft 12ft/2 = 844 ft (3-38) S = 425 ft ( AASHTO Exhibit 3-1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.

AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.passpe. PE A.Chapter A: Geometric Design 99 .Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.1 Definitions and Terms Related to Acceleration and Deceleration: (Exhibit 10-59.6. 2004 edition.M.) .6 ACCELERATION AND DECELERATION A.www. 5th edition) Figure A-33 Typical Gore Area Characteristics Part I. Mansour. page 833.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr.

M. (Exhibit 10-69.) . L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH. 4. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. L a SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. THE VALUE OF La OR L g.Chapter A: Geometric Design . 3. WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Shahin A.www. page 833.passpe. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71. 2. PE 1.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 2004 edition. 5th edition) Figure A-34 Typical Single Lane Entrance Ramps 100 Part I.Mansour. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.6 m [2 ft]. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE.

WHICHEVER PRODUCES THE GREATER DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM WHERE THE NOSE EQUAL 0.M. POINT (A) CONTROLS SPEED ON THE RAMP.passpe.6 m [2 ft].www.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. IS SUGGESTED FOR USE IN THE DESIGN OF THE RAMP ENTRANCE. 2004 edition. Mansour. L g IS REQUIRED GAP ACCEPTANCE LENGTH. PE 1. La IS THE REQUIRED ACCELERATION LENGTH AS SHOWN IN EXHIBIT 10-70 OR AS ADJUSTED BY EXHIBIT 10-71.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. THE VALUE OF La OR L g. 2. 4. (Exhibit 10-76. 5th edition) Figure A-35 Typical Two-Lane Entrance Ramps Part I. Shahin A. La SHOULD NOT START BACK ON THE CURVATURE OF THE RAMP UNLESS THE RADIUS EQUALS 300 m [1000 ft] OR MORE. 3.) . page 858. L g SHOULD BE A MINIMUM OF 90 TO 150 m [300 to 500 ft] DEPENDING ON THE NOSE WIDTH.Chapter A: Geometric Design 101 .

2004 edition.passpe. PE Metric Acceleration length. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.300 ft V = design speed of highway (km/h) Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on entrance curve (km/h) Figure A-36 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-70. page 847. Shahin A. V a¢ (mph) speed.www. V reached. V a¢ (km/h) speed.Chapter A: Geometric Design 102 . Va 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 (mph) (mph) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 50 53 55 180 280 360 560 720 960 1200 1410 1620 1790 140 220 300 490 660 900 1140 1350 1560 1730 160 270 440 610 810 1100 1310 1520 1630 50 44 210 120 380 280 160 550 450 350 130 780 670 550 320 150 1020 910 800 550 420 1220 1120 1000 770 600 1420 1350 1230 1000 820 1580 1510 1420 1160 1040 180 370 580 780 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 1.Mansour. L(m) for entrance curve design speed (km/h) Stop Highway 20 30 40 50 60 70 condition Design Speed and initial speed.) . L(ft) for entrance curve design speed (mph) Stop Highway 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 condition Design Speed and initial speed.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr. 5th edition) Part I.Civil Breadth (Transportation A. Va 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 (km/h) (km/h) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 37 45 53 60 67 74 81 88 60 95 150 200 260 345 430 545 50 80 130 180 245 325 410 530 30 65 110 165 225 305 390 515 45 90 145 205 285 370 490 80 70 65 115 175 255 340 460 65 125 205 290 410 35 110 200 325 40 125 245 Note: Uniform 50:1 to 70:1 tapers are recommended where lengths of acceleration lanes exceed 400 m. US Customary Acceleration length. V reached.M.

Chapter A: Geometric Design 103 . V a¢ (mph) speed. V reached. Mansour.com Transportation for Civil Engineering (PE) License © Dr. Va (mph) (mph) 0 14 18 22 26 30 36 40 44 30 28 35 32 40 36 45 40 50 44 55 48 60 52 65 55 70 58 75 61 V = design speed of highway (mph) VN = design speed of exit curve (mph) 235 280 320 385 435 480 530 570 615 660 200 170 140 250 210 185 150 295 265 235 185 155 350 325 295 250 220 405 385 355 315 285 225 175 455 440 410 380 350 285 235 500 480 460 430 405 350 300 540 520 500 470 440 390 340 590 570 550 520 490 440 390 635 620 600 575 535 490 440 Va = average running speed on highway (mph) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (mph) 240 280 340 390 Figure A-37 Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals with Flat Grades of Two Percent or Less (G 2%) (Exhibit 10-73. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book. VN (mph) Stop condition 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve. V reached. Va (km/h) (km/h) 0 20 28 35 42 51 63 70 50 47 60 55 70 63 80 70 90 77 100 85 110 91 120 98 V = design speed of highway (km/h) VN = design speed of exit curve (km/h) 75 70 60 45 95 90 80 65 55 110 105 95 85 70 55 130 125 115 100 90 80 55 145 140 135 120 110 100 75 60 170 165 155 145 135 120 100 85 180 180 170 160 150 140 120 105 200 195 185 175 170 155 140 120 Va = average running speed on highway (km/h) V a¢ = average running speed on exit curve (km/h) US Customary Deceleration length. PE Metric Deceleration length. L(ft) for design speed of exit curve.) . page 851. Shahin A. 5th edition) Part I. 2004 edition. L(m) for design speed of exit curve VN (km/h) Stop condition 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Highway design Speed For average running speed on exit curve V a¢ (km/h) speed.M.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.passpe.www.

8 1.3 1.625 0.5 0.5 1.2 2.9 2.5 1.5 1.5 1.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 40 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 a US Customary Design Speed of highway (mph) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (mph) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.6 1.5 0.35 1.Mansour.675 0.6 1.5 2.7 1. 2004 edition.8 2.0 1.6 0.0 3.75 3.5 1.6 0.6 1.3 1.05 2.525 0.05 1.3 1.7 1.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.6 1.7 1.5 50 60 70 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.35 Acceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length of level for design speed of turning curve (mph)a 20 30 40 3 to 4 % upgrade 1.4 1.0 2. page 848. PE Metric Design speed of highway (km/h) All Speeds All Speeds Design speed of highway (km/h) Deceleration lanes Ratio of length on grade to length on level for design speed of turning curve (km/h)a 3 to 4 % upgrade 0.3 1.4 1.0 Ratio from this table multiplied by the length in Exhibit 10-70 or Exhibit 10-73 gives length of speed change lane on grades Figure A-38 Speed Change Lane Adjustment Factors as a Function of Grade (G > 2%) (Exhibit 10-71.5 1.6 0.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.6 1.5 1.6 2.2 2.6 1.5 2.6 1.4 1.5 1. Shahin A.6 50 All speeds 3 to 4% downgrade 0.7 1.7 1.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.7 5 to 6% upgrade 1.6 0.8 2.4 1.9 2.6 5 to 6% downgrade 0.575 0.55 0.7 5 to 6 % upgrade 1.45 1.2 2.5 1.6 1.4 2.7 1.5 1.6 1.9 5 to 6 % upgrade 0.2 5 to 6 % downgrade 1.45 1.5 1.5 3.7 0. AASHTO Geometric Design-Green Book.5 1.7 1.5 1.5 0.6 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.1 1.8 2.com Transportation for Civil PE License © Dr.0 2.55 0.2 2.5 1.6 0.6 1.55 1.M.2 80 All speeds 3 to 4 % downgrade 0.4 2.5 1.9 1.7 1.35 1.7 0.65 0.passpe.5 1.6 0.8 1.5 1.7 2.Civil Breadth (Transportation A.65 0.7 1.5 1.5 3.5 1.4 1.5 1.2 2.) .4 1.85 2.6 0.55 0. 5th edition) Part I.5 1.0 3.8 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1.6 5 to 6 % downgrade 0.8 2.3 1.45 1.7 1.65 0.5 1.6 1.8 1.www.6 0.8 3 to 4 % downgrade 1.3 1.4 1.Chapter A: Geometric Design 104 .5 0.

2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 0. PE Sample Problem A-38: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a tangent Find: The minimum acceleration section of freeway mainline as a parallel-type length L (ft) needed for the entrance. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed =30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Answer: (A) Sample Problem A-39: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance. The entrance ramp design speed is 30 entrance is most nearly: mph. The grade (A) 1.www.350 of the ramp is +1.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 0. Mansour.) Practice Problems Solutions 105 . D) 810 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. The entrance A) 1.M.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.0%.580 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. The grade of C) 910 the ramp is 4.passpe.420 (D) 1.350 ramp design speed is 30 mph.0% and the grade of the freeway (B) 1.390 at the merging point is 2%. and the B) 1. (C) 1. Shahin A. and the highway speed is 70 mph.60 = 810 ft Answer: (D) Civil Transportation Depth (P.120 highway speed is 70 mph.

970 Solution: ASSHTO (Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. The entrance A) 1. The C) 2.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.0%.160 grade of the ramp is +4.580 freeway mainline speed is 70 mph. 2004) Exhibit 10-70 Enter the table with: V (highway design speed) = 70 mph Entrance ramp design speed = 30 mph Answer: Acceleration Length L (ft) = 1350 Adjustment factor per AASHTO Exhibit 10-71 = 1. Shahin A.passpe.M.60 Adjusted acceleration length = 1350 ft × 1.60 = 2160 ft Answer: (C) 106 Civil Transportation Depth (P. and the B) 1.) Practice Problems Solutions .350 ramp design speed is 30 mph. D) 2. PE Sample Problem A-40: Acceleration and Deceleration Length Given: A single lane entrance ramp joins a Find: The minimum acceleration length L (ft) tangent section of freeway mainline as needed for the entrance is most nearly: a parallel-type entrance.www. Mansour.

) Practice Problems Solutions 107 . Mansour.M.passpe. Shahin A. PE Civil Transportation Depth (P.com Transportation for Civil Engineering License© Dr.www.

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