You are on page 1of 136

Polytechnical Engineering College Subotica

Easy Grammar I

Exercises with Key

Authors gnes Szab MA Szedmina Lvia

1. Use of Tenses I. The Use ______________________________________3. II. Exercises ______________________________________8. III. Solutions ______________________________________18. 2. Sequence of Tenses I. The Use ______________________________________25. II. Exercises ______________________________________26. III. Solutions ______________________________________30. 3. Asking Questions I. The Use ______________________________________35. II. Exercises ______________________________________36. III. Solutions ______________________________________42. 4. Reflexive Pronouns I. The Use ______________________________________47. II. Exercises ______________________________________48. III. Solutions ______________________________________52. 5. Plural of Nouns I. The Use ______________________________________55. II. Exercises ______________________________________56. III. Solutions ______________________________________61. 6. Conditional Clauses I. The Use ______________________________________65. II. Exercises ______________________________________66. III. Solutions ______________________________________70. 7. Causative 'have' I. The Use ______________________________________74. II. Exercises ______________________________________75. III. Solutions ______________________________________79. 8. Passive Voice I. The Use ______________________________________83. II. Exercises ______________________________________84. III. Solution ______________________________________90. 9. Question Tags I. The Use ______________________________________95. II. Exercises ______________________________________96. III. Solution _____________________________________102. 10. Test Yourself! _____________________________________107. Some Solutions _____________________________________116. 11. Appendix _____________________________________119.

Contents

1. The Use of Tenses


I.1. The Present Tenses
PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
1. I work 2. you work 3. he/she/it works 1. Do I work? 2. Do you work? 3. Does he/she/it work? 1. I do not work 2. you do not work 3. he/she/it does not work 1. we work 2. you work 3. they work 1. Do we work? 2. Do you work? 3. Do they work? 1. we do not work 2. you do not work 3. they do not work

Use:

1) when we talk about scientifically proven facts, permanent situations or general truth (The sun rises in the east. Oil floats on water.) 2) when the action is repeated (He works in a bank.) 3) when we refer to a habit or somebodys characteristic (He smokes a cigarette after lunch. He likes chess.) 4) with stative verbs (believe, imagine, belong, like, contain, seem) 5) we also use it for future events if the action will happen according to some timetable or schedule. (The train leaves at five. The museum opens at nine.)

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


1. I am working 2. you are working 3. he/she/it is working 1. Am I working? 2. Are you working? 3. Is he/she/it working? 1. I am not working 2. you are not working 3. he/she/it is not working 1. we are working 2. you are working 3. they are working 1. Are we working? 2. Are you working? 3. Are they working? 1. we are not working 2. you are not working 3. they are not working

Use:

1) We use this tense to refer to actions going on right now (He is watching TV.) 2) or to refer to actions happening about now but not necessarily at the moment of speaking (He is writing a novel.) 3) With temporary situations (He is living here until he finds a better flat.) 4) for future actions which are arranged in the near future, usually to express a personal plan. (I am meeting Peter tonight.)

I.2. The Present Perfect Tenses


PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE
1. I have known 2. you have known 3. he/she/it has known 1. Have I known? 2. Have you known? 3. Has he/she/it known? 1. I have not known 2. you have not known 3. he/she/it has not known 1. we have known 2. you have known 3. they have known 1. Have we known? 2. Have you known? 3. Have they known? 1. we have not known 2. you have not known 3. they have not known

Use:

1) when we dont know when the action took place in the past or the time is not specified (He has lost his bag.) 2) when the action happened in the past but has some consequence or result in the present. (He has lost some weight.) 3) with recently completed actions (He has just arrived.) or with actions occurring in a still uncompleted period (He has eaten two bags of chips today.)

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


1. I have been going 2. you have been going 3. he/she/it has been going 1. Have I been going? 2. Have you been going? 3. Has he/she/it been going? 1. I have not been going 2. you have not been going 3. he/she/it has not been going 1. we have been going 2. you have been going 3. they have been going 1. Have we been going? 2. Have you been going? 3. Have they been going? 1. we have not been going 2. you have not been going 3. they have not been going

Use:

1) for an action which began in the past and is still continuing ( or has only just been finished (I have been waiting for you nearly an hour.) 2) for referring to a recent activity to explain our mood or appearance ( Why are you so dirty? I have been working in the garage.) In this case the action is perhaps finished perhaps not. 3) to refer to an action which has occurred more than once from the past till now indicating that it will probably occur in the future, too (He has been having problems with his knee.)

I.3. The Past Tenses

PAST SIMPLE
1. I knew 2. you knew 3. he/she/it knew 1. Did I know? 2. Did you know? 3. Did he/she/it know? 1. I did not know 2. you did not know 3. he/she/it did not know 1. we knew 2. you knew 3. they knew 1. Did we know? 2. Did you know? 3. Did they know? 1. we did not know 2. you did not know 3. they did not know

Use:

1) When we talk about past activities which were completed in the past and have no connection with the present. ( The Second World War lasted for four years.) 2) when we know exactly when the action in the past happened ( He graduated last year. Shakespeare wrote many plays.)

PAST CONTINUOUS
1. I was working 2. you were working 3. he/she/it was working 1. Was I working? 2. Were you working? 3. Was he/she/it working? 1. I was not working 2. you were not working 3. he/she/it was not working 1. we were working 2. you were working 3. they were working 1. Were we working? 2. Were you working? 3. Were they working? 1. we were not working 2. you were not working 3. they were not working

Use:

1) when the action happened in the past for a longer period of time (He was reading last night.) 2) the Past Cont. shows that the action was going on for a period of time in the past but it does not show whether it was completed or not. (Compare: He read a book last night. He was reading a book last night.)

I.4. The Past Perfect Tenses


PAST PERFECT SIMPLE
1. I had written 2. you had written 3. he/she/it had written 1. had I written? 2. had you written? 3. had he/she/it written? 1. I had not written 1. we had written 2. you had written 3. they had written 1. had we written? 2. had you written? 3. had they written? 1. we had not written
5

2. you had not written 3. he/she/it had not written

Use:

2. you had not written 3. they had not written

denotes a past action finished before another past action began. (He had lost his watch before we reached the village.)

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


1. I had been going 2. you had been going 3. he/she/it had been going 1. had I been going? 2. had you been going? 3. had he/she/it been going? 1. I had not been going 2. you had not been going 3. he/she/it had not been going 1. we had been going 2. you had been going 3. they had been going 1. had we been going? 2. had you been going? 3. had they been going? 1. we had not been going 2. you had not been going 3. they had not been going

Use:

denotes a past action which began before another past action (just like the Past Perfect tense) but it continued for a certain time. (Note: The Past Perfect tense finished and was completed before the other action began but the action in the Past Perfect Continuous began before the time of speaking in the past and continued up to that time, or stopped just before it. Example: It was now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn.

I.5. The Future Tenses


FUTURE SIMPLE
1. I shall go 2. you will go 3. he/she/it will go 1. shall I go? 2. will you go? 3. will he/she/it go? 1. I will not go 2. you will not go 3. he/she/it will not go 1. we shall go 2. you will go 3. they will go 1. shall we go? 2. will you go? 3. will they go? 1. we shall not go 2. you will not go 3. they will not go

Use:

1)For unpremeditated (unplanned) future actions or to express intention at the moment of decision (Id better order a taxi. Dont bother. Ill drive you home.) 2) future actions/events we cannot influence (He will be 20 next month.) 3) will can refer to the remote future (He will get better - this implies confidence in the course of treatment, but promises eventual rather than immediate recovery.)

'GOING TO' FUTURE


1. I am going to work 2. you are going to work 3. he/she/it is going to work 1. am I going to work? 2. are you going to work? 3. is he/she/it is going to work? 1. I am not going to work 2. you are not going to work 3. he/she/it is not going to work 1. we are going to work 2. you are going to work 3. he/she/it is going to work 1. are we going to work? 2. are you going to work? 3. are they going to work? 1. we are not going to work 2. you are not going to work 3. they are not going to work

Use:

1) It usually refers to things in the near future (He is going to lend me his bike.) 2) for premeditated intention or intention and plan that has already been planned or decided before the moment of speaking (I have bought some bricks and Im going to build a garage. We are saving up because were going to buy a house) 3) to predict a future event for which there is some evidence now. (Look at the clouds! It is going to rain.)

II. Exercises
1. Transform these sentences into the tense indicated
1. George is coming home from work. (Past Simple) 2. I bought a new book every week. (Present Simple negative) 3. He collects stamps since 1972. (Present Perfect Continuous) 4. My friend sings when I came into the room. (Past Continuous) 5. I was always listening to the radio. (Present Simple) 6. When did they move to London? (Present Perfect) 7. I don't know that the conference is in Edinburgh. (Past Simple) 8. Peter called the day before yesterday. (Past Perfect negative) 9. She doesn't come with us. (Present Continuous) 10. They work all night long. (Past Perfect Continuous)

2. Rewrite the given sentences according to the instructions 1. They were playing football all afternoon long. (he, Present Continuous, negative) 2. I never use the Linux system. (you, Present Perfect, interrogative) 3. We dealt with the business partners of our firm. (she, Present Simple, negative) 4. You enjoyed the lecture about new marketing strategies. (they, Past Perfect, negative) 5. I didn't go to the job interview this morning. (she, 'Going to' Future, affirmative) 6. She hadn't felt well after the business lunch with the new manager. (I, Past Continuous) 7. She can't understand the instructions to the new photocopier. (you, Past Simple, interrogative) 3. Choose the correct word or phrase:
1. He has stood / has been standing at the bus stop for a long time. He is getting angry. 2. Yesterday I phoned / have phoned / have been phoning my colleague twice. 3. I am working / have been working in a bank at the moment. But I have started / have been starting to look for a new job. 4. I will be going / am going to a conference next weekend. Maybe we are going to have / will have an opportunity to discuss the new products with some clients. 5. She is speaking / speaks three languages and currently she works / is working as an interpreter in the European Parliament. 6. After the Berlin Wall fell / had fallen the German people from the East had wanted / wanted to travel to the West.

4. Each of the following sentences has some errors. Rewrite the sentences so that they are correct. 1. I have arrived here in September two years ago. __________________________________ 2. I am living in Edinburgh all of my life. __________________________________ 3. Kim has read The Guardian since she arrived ________________________________
8

4. Havent you been finishing that book yet? ___________________________________ 5. Stephen Hawkins had many new theories about time and space. _____________________________________________________ 6. I wrote my article while Peter worked on the computer. ______________________________________________ 7. My train is leaving at 10:23 from Waterloo Station. ____________________________________________ 8. Please, turn down the volume of your radio. I try to study for my exam.
____________________________________________________________

5. Complete the following sentences with the correct tense, use Present Simple or Present Continuous 1. Two boys _______________(wait) in front of a telephone box. Inside the box a lady________________ (dial) a number. _____________ you __________ (know) the lady?- ___________ (ask) Tim. Yes, I __________________________ (reply) John. Shes a friend of my mothers. She _______________ (speak) three languages. I ___________ (wonder) who she ________________ (talk) to now-________________ (say) Tim. 2. It is 7 oclock in the evening. The Thomas have just got home from work. Mr. Thomas _______________ (open) his letters, Mrs. Thomas __________ (look) through the papers. The kids ___________(play) computer games upstairs. I never _____________ (get) any mail, all I ever ____________ (receive) is bills! - _______________ (say) Mrs. Thomas. ___________ you _____________ (have) anything interesting? 3. ___________ you ____________ (go) to school Jane? Yes, I _______(attend) secondary school. In our country children __________ (start) school at the age of six and ___________ (stay) for about five years in a primary school. Then they ___________ (move) to a secondary school. At the age of 18 they ________(take) an exam. If they __________ (not do) well in this exam, they cant go to a university. 4. How much _______________ (cost) this coat? It ________________ (cost) $ 40 and it ________________ (suit) you beautifully. 5. How you_________________ (feel) today? I _______________ (feel) all right, but usually I _____________(feel) dreadful when the wind ___________ (blow). 6. Fill in the blanks with Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple
1. Shakespeare________________ (write) beautiful sonnets, _____________ you ______________ (read) any of them? Yes, I _________________ (read) a few when I ____________ (be) in school. Then I ____________ (want) to buy a collection of his sonnets. The truth is that I _____________ never__________ (have) enough money to spend on such an expensive book. 2. I __________________ (see) my parents since I _________________ (come) to study to London. I ____________________(write) letters in the beginning and __________________(phone) a few times but I ____________________ (not see) my home town since 1993. 3. The movie just ________________ (begin) on TV. I dont care. I ___________ (see) it in the cinema yesterday. _______________ you ____________ (like) it?

Yes, it _________________(be) OK. 4. I hear that your representative __________________ (make) a very good speech last night. How long _______________ he ____________ (be) your representative? We only___________________ (have) him since January. His predecessor _________________________ (leave) suddenly because of ill-health. 5. I just _________________ (hear) that Tom is in America. Oh, you ____________ (not know)? He ________________ (fly) out at the beginning of the month. You __________________ (hear) from him? How does he like the life there? Yes, I __________________ (get) an email from him last week but he _______________________ (not write) anything about his work and ____________ (not say) whether he _________________ (like) the life there or not. Maybe it is too soon to say. He only ___________________ (be) there three weeks.

7. Complete the sentences with Past Simple or Past Perfect 1.When I ____________(go) to London last June for a job interview with an advertising company, I ___________(not be) in that city since I _____________ (graduate) three years before. I ______________ (arrive) a few days before the interview so ____________ (visit) many places where I ___________(spend) a lot time as a student. My favorite pub still __________(look) the same: students ___________(be) drinking cheap beer and the windows probably __________ (not be) opened since Margaret Thatcher _________________ (become) Prime Minister. 2. The job interview _____________ (be) a disaster: I ____________(arrive) too late because on that day the workers of the London Underground __________ (organize) a strike. All tube lines ______________ (lie) still. I ____________ (try) to find a taxi but all the taxis ___________ (be) already full. In the end it ____________ (take) me more than an hour to make the 15-minute journey from my hotel to the company. 3. The manager I ______________ (talk) to ______________ (be) rather unfriendly. While he __________ (tell) me what my tasks at the company would be I _________________ (remember) that I _______________(hear) his unpleasant voice before. I ______________ (speak) to him on the telephone once, he was a business partner of my current boss. 4. After the interview I ________________(go) to the nearest pub for a drink. I ______________ (realize) that my present job _____________ (not be) so bad after all, and that I _____________ (make) a mistake to start looking for another job. All I really ________________ (need) was a raise. 8. Fill in the gaps with the verbs in Future Simple or 'Going to' Future Tense 1. He bought some flowers; he _______________ (attend) a wedding this Saturday. 2. He ________________ (be) twenty years old next week. 3. You look pale. You ____________ (be) sick. 4. I forgot about Toms anniversary. I ______________ (call) him now and apologize. 5. You didnt buy any cigarettes, did you? No, but I ___________ (run) to the shop and buy you some. 6. She cooked a lot of things. She _____________ (have) ten people for dinner. 7. It _________________ (be) twelve oclock in ten minutes. 8. Where __________ you _________________ (spend) your holidays? 9. The fire has gone out. Yes, I _____________ (go) and get some wood.
10

10. I rented a typewriter. I _________________ (learn) to type. 11. Did you get the tickets? No, I ____________________ (send) my son to get them. 12. I see that you have a computer _____________ you _________ (do) some work on it? 13. I dont understand French. I _______________ (call) my son and he ____________ (translate) it for you. 14. She ordered a lot of paint because she ________________ (paint) her flat. 15. I _________________ (not lend) you my car because it is against the law. 16. Why is she putting a new film in the camera? Because she ______________ (take) pictures. 17. You look tired. I _______________ (make) you some tea.

9. Use the tenses Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous to complete the sentences below I cant solve this problem; I _______________ (think) about it all morning. They _______________ (play) the violin since seven 0clock this morning. We dont have to buy a new vacuum cleaner. I _______________ (use) this one for the past 12 years. They _________________ (sleep) for 10 hours before the bell woke them up. The children ___________________ (run) all morning, thats why they are hungry. Her eyes were red. She ____________________ (cry). The lines are busy. I _________________ (call) this number all morning and I cant get through. The two players __________________ (play) for a good half an hour before it started to rain. They quit drinking a year ago. They ________________ (drink) for 10 years. He got a prize last year. He ___________________ (play) in many films. 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense
1. Alice isnt here. She ___________________ (go) out. 2. Ann __________________ (sit) in the armchair watching TV. She was tired because she ____________ (work) all day. 3. At last the bus came. We _________________ (wait) for 30 minutes! 4. Can you drive? Not yet. I ____________________ (learn). My uncle _________________ (teach) me. 5. Dont forget to post my letter! I ____________________ (post) already it. 6. Einstein ________________ (be) a scientist who ____________________ (develop) the theory of relativity. 7. He has just bought a computer. He ____________________ (learn) some programs. 8. How did you learn to drive? My father _____________________ (teach) me. 9. How fast you ________________________ (drive) when the accident happened? 10. How long you _____________________ (learn) English? Since high school. 11. How many plays Shakespeare ________________________ (write)? 12. Hows your English? Not bad. It ____________________ (improve) slowly. 13. Hurry up! Everybody _________________________ (wait) for you.
11

14. I havent seen Alan for ages. When I last ___________________ (see) him, he ______________________ (try) to find a job. 15. I hear you won some money. What you ___________________ (do) with it?

11. Choose the right answer from the Present Simple or the Present Continuous forms in brackets. 1. Who ___________ you __________ (wait) for? My sister. She _____ (be) usually
late. a) are waiting/is b) do wait/is being c) are waiting/is being d) do wait/is 2._______ he ___________ (smoke) a lot? Yes quite a lot. Look, he _________ (light) a cigarette again. a) does smoke/lights b) is smoking/light c) do smoke/is lighting d) does smoke/is lighting 3. We _________ (think) that he _____________ (not know) how to repair this tap. a) think/is not knowing b) thinks/does not know c) think/does not know d) are thinking/does not knows 4. What ___________ she ___________ (do)? Nothing. I guess she_____ (sleep). a) is doing/sleeps b) is doing/is sleeping c) are doing/does sleeping d) does do/is sleeping 5. How many languages ___________ your daughter _________ (speak)? She _____________ (know) three languages. a) does speak/knows b) does speaks/knows c) is speaking/is knowing d) is speaking/know

12

6. We _________ (work) in the mornings but this week we ________ (work) overtime, so we have to stay in the office all day. a) work/are working b) are working/work c) works/are working d) are working/work 7. Wait! ________you______ (go) upstairs? No, I _________ (go) to the basement. a) are going/go b) are going/am going c) do go/am going d) do go/ go 8. In most countries children ___________ (start) school at the age of six. In America compulsory education _______________ (last) for 12 years. a) start/lasts b) start/last c) start/is last d) is start/lasts 9. Who __________ this car _________ (belong) to ? My father, but I__________ (drive) it this month. a) does belong/am driveing b) does belongs/am driving c) is belong/am drive d) does belong/am driving 10. Why _______ you _________ (wear) this heavy coat? Its not cold. I know but I _________ (take) a train up to the mountains after work. a) are wearing/am takeing b) are wearing/am taking c) do wear/am taking d) are wearing/take 11. How often ________ your son___________ (go) abroad? He __________ (have to) go to business trips at least once a month. a) does go/has to b) does goes/haves to c) is going/has to d) do go/has to
13

12. __________ she ____________ (take) computer lessons on Fridays? Yes, and she ____________ (attend) a language course, too. a) does takes/attends b) is taking/attending c) does take/attends d) is taking/is attending 13. ________ you __________ (know)the boiling point of copper? No, I only know that iron ___________ (melt) at 1530 degrees Centigrade. a) do know/melts b) do know/melt c) does know/melts d) are know/is melting 14. He __________ (have)some foreign visitors. He _________ (show) them the sights. a) is having/is showing b) has/is showing c) has/shows d) has/show 15. Today scientists __________ (work) on the so-called 'fourth state of matter' which ________ (occur) when gas is heated to a very high temperature. a) works/occurs b) are working/occurs c) work/is occurring d) are working/are occurring

12. Add the verbs in the forms of Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect Simple When I ______________ (open) the door I _______________ (see) a man on his knees. He clearly ____________ (listen) to our conversation and I ____________ (wonder) how much he _______________ (hear). When I ____________ (ask) him what he ____________ (do), he _______________ (tell) me that he ____________ (drop) a 50 p piece outside the door and _________________ (look for) it. I ____________ (not see) any sign of the money, but I _______________ (find) a small notebook and pencil which he probably ________________ (drop) when the door (open) suddenly. So he ________________ (take) notes of our conversation! The notes _______________ (be) in a foreign language, so I _____________(turn) to the
14

stranger and ______________ (ask) him to translate. But he ________________ (pull) my hat over my eyes and __________________ (run) off down the corridor. By the time I ____________________ (recover) from the shock he ________________ (disappear) round the corner. Curiously enough, when I _________________ (move) my foot I _________________ (find) that I ___________________ (stand) on a 50 p piece. Perhaps he ______________________ (tell) me the truth after all! When the old lady _________________ (return) to her flat she _____________ (see) that burglars________________ (break) in during her absence, because the front door _____________ (be) open and everything in the flat _____________ (be) upside down. The burglars themselves _______________ (not be) no longer there, but they probably only just ________________ (leave) because a cigarette ______________ (burn) on an ornamental table. She ________________ (wonder) if the thieves _______________ (find) her jewelry and rather (hope) that they hadn't. The jewelry _______________ (be given) by her late husband, who _______________ (die) some years before.

13. Now it's your turn to decide on the tense of the verbs when you fill the gaps 1. I knew she was busy, so I (not disturb) her. 2. I.(walk) along the street when I..(hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody.(run) to catch the bus. 3. I.(walk) along the road when I ..(see) Jim. I .(stop) and we.(have) a chat. 4. I(see) you in town yesterday. You.(sit) on a bench. 5. I..(see) Tom yesterday but I(not see) him today. 6. Isnt it hot here? I(open) the door? 7. It was warm, so I .(take off) my coat. 8. Its cold here. I.(close) the windows. 9. Its the first time he.(drive) a car. 10. John is going to a party tonight. You ask: What you...(wear)? 11. John is on holiday. He..(go) to Italy. 12. Kevin gave up smoking two years ago. He(smoke) for 20 years. 13. Lets go out. It...(not rain) 14. Look at the sky! It.(be) nice weather today. 15. Mozart..(write) more than 60 pieces of music. He..(be) only 35 when he.(die). 16. My hands are dirty. I..(repair) the car. 17. Ron .(not work) very hard this term. 18. She .(look for) a place to live. She(stay) with her sister until she finds a place. 19. She is good at languages. She ..(speak) four languages very well.

15

14. Find and correct the mistakes in these sentences


1. We had a problem with our car soon. 2. The performance start at 9. 3. Does he and his brother attend this course? 4. When I arrived home I had noticed that somebody left a message for me. 5. I shall watching my favorite series at 10 oclock tonight. 6. His bike broke so we must take a taxi now. 7. He cant write because he broke his arm. 8. Whenever he is meeting me he turn his head away. 9. She is speaking two languages. 10. They will picked all the apples by next week. 11. She had learnt the poem by heart after she got a bad mark. 12. Who know the solution to this problem? 13. They studied all day yesterday. 14. On Sundays he usually visit his relatives. 15. As it was get dark, we decided to go home.

15. Complete these sentences using the appropriate tenses 1. She was out of breadth. She..(run). 2. That bag looks heavy. I..(help) you carry it. 3. The Chinese(invent) printing. 4. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody..(go) to bed. 5. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He ..(not fly) before. 6. The River Nile.(flow) into the Mediterranean. 7. They .(play) tennis for half an hour when it started to rain. 8. They meet in the same caf every morning. They ....(go) there for years. 9. Tim is still watching TV. He.(watch) films all day. 10. Tom(burn) his hand while he..(cook) dinner. 11. Was she at the party yesterday? Yes, she. (wear) a really nice dress. 12. We arrived at work and found that somebody.(break) into the office during the night. 13. We couldnt afford to keep our car, so we. (sell) it. 14. We havent got any milk. I . (run) to the shop and buy some. 15. We usually(grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we..(not grow) any. 16. We were late because our car(break) down on the way. 17. What your mother..(do)? Shes an architect but she (not work) at the moment. 18. When I was young I (want) to be a bus driver. 19. When she(arrive) to the party, John..(go) already home.

16

20. Where have you been? I (look) for you in the last half an hour. 21. Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. I (have) just lunch. 22. You . (read) any of Shakespeares plays? 23. You always .. (live) here? Yes, I .. (live) here all my life. 24. You ... (listen) to the radio? No, you can turn it off. 25. You .. (have) any holidays this year? 26. You ... (listen) to the radio? Yes, occasionally. 27. Your eyes are red. What you .. (do)? /Raymond Murphy: English Grammar in Use/

17

III. Solutions

III. 1.
1. George is coming home from work. (Past Simple) George came home from work. 2. I bought a new book every week. (Present Simple negative) I don't buy a new book every week. 3. He collects stamps since 1972. (Present Perfect Continuous) He's been collecting since 1972. 4. My friend sings when I came into the room. (Past Continuous) My friend was singing when I came into the room. 5. I was always listening to the radio. (Present Simple) I always listen to the radio. 6. When did they move to London? (Present Perfect) When have they moved to London? 7. I don't know that the conference is in Edinburgh. (Past Simple) I didn't know that the conference was in Edinburgh. 8. Peter called the day before yesterday. (Past Perfect negative) Peter hadn't called the day before yesterday. 9. She doesn't come with us. (Present Continuous) She isn't coming with us. 10. They work all night long. (Past Perfect Continuous) They had been working all night long.

III. 2.
1. They were playing football all afternoon long. (he, Present Continuous, negative) He isn't playing football all afternoon long. 2. I never use the Linux system. (you, Present Perfect, interrogative) Have you ever used the Linux system? 3. We dealt with the business partners of our firm. (she, Present Simple, negative) She doesn't deal with the business partners of her firm. 4. You enjoyed the lecture about new marketing strategies. (they, Past Perfect, negative) They hadn't enjoyed the lecture about new marketing strategies. 5. I didn't go to the job interview this morning. (she, 'Going to' Future, affirmative) 6. She hadn't felt well after the business lunch with the new manager. (I, Past Continuous) I wasn't feeling well after the business lunch with the new manager. 7. She can't understand the instructions to the new photocopier. (you, Past Simple, interrogative) Could you understand the instructions to the new photocopier?
18

III. 3.
He has been standing. (This emphasizes the length of time spent waiting.) Yesterday I phoned. (The use of yesterday means that we have a finished event (2 events in this case) in the past.) I am working. (We use the present continuous as at the moment limits the time to the present. 4. I am going to a conference next weekend. Maybe we will have an opportunity to discuss the new products with some clients. 5. She speaks three languages and currently she is working as an interpreter in the European Parliament. 6. After the Berlin Wall had fallen the German people from the East wanted to travel to the West.

III. 4.
1. I arrived here in September 2. I have lived in Edinburgh ( not I have been living as it is not a temporary event) 3. Kim has been reading 4. Havent you finished reading that book yet? 5. Stephen Hawkins has had many new theories about time and space. 6. I was writing my article while Peter was working on the computer. 7. My train leaves at 10:23 from Waterloo Station. 8. Please, turn down the volume of your radio. I am trying to study for my exam.

III. 5.
1. Two boys are waiting in front of a telephone box. Inside the box a lady is dialing a number. Do you know the lady?- asks Tim. Yes, I do- replies John. Shes a friend of my mothers. She speaks three languages. I wonder who she is talking to now- says Tim. 2. It is 7 oclock in the evening. The Thomas have just got home from work. Mr. Thomas is opening his letters, Mrs. Thomas is looking through the papers. The kids are playing computer games upstairs. I never get any mail, all I ever receive is bills! - says Mrs. Thomas. Do you have anything interesting? 3. 'Do you go to school Jane? Yes, I attend secondary school. In our country children start school at the age of six and stay for about five years in a primary school. Then they move to a secondary school. At the age of 18 they take an exam. If they don't do well in this exam, they cant go to a university. 4. 'How much does this coat cost? It costs $ 40 and it suits you beautifully. 5. 'How you do feel today? I am feeling all right, but usually I feel dreadful when the wind blows.

III. 6.
1. Shakespeare wrote beautiful sonnets, have you read any of them? Yes, I read a few when I was in school. Then I wanted to buy a collection of his sonnets. The truth is that I have never had enough money to spend on such an expensive book. 2. I haven't seen my parents since I came to study to London. I wrote letters in the beginning and phoned a few times but I have not seen my home town since 1993. 3. The movie has just begun on TV. I dont care. I saw it in the cinema yesterday. Did you like it? Yes, it was OK.

19

4. I hear that your representative made a very good speech last night. How long has he been your representative? We have only had him since January. His predecessor left suddenly because of ill-health. 5. I 've just heard that Tom is in America. Oh, you didn't know? He flew out at the beginning of the month. Have you heard from him? How does he like the life there? Yes, I got an email from him last week but he didn't write anything about his work and didn't say whether he liked the life there or not. Maybe it is too soon to say. He has only been there three weeks.

III. 7. 1. When I went to London last June for a job interview with an advertising company, I hadn't been in that city since I had graduated three years before. I arrived a few days before the interview so visited many places where I had spent a lot time as a student. My favorite pub still looked the same: students were drinking cheap beer and the windows probably hadn't been opened since Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister. 2. The job interview was a disaster: I arrived too late because on that day the workers of the London Underground had organize a strike. All tube lines lay still. I tried to find a taxi but all the taxis had been already full. In the end it took me more than an hour to make the 15-minute journey from my hotel to the company. 3. The manager I talked to was rather unfriendly. While he told me what my tasks at the company would be I remembered that I had heard his unpleasant voice before. I had spoken to him on the telephone once, he was a business partner of my current boss. 4. After the interview I went to the nearest pub for a drink. I realized that my present job wasn't so bad after all, and that I had made a mistake to start looking for another job. All I really needed was a raise. III. 8.
1. He bought some flowers; he is going to attend a wedding this Saturday. 2. He will be twenty years old next week. 3. You look pale. You are going to be sick. 4. I forgot about Toms anniversary. I will call him now and apologize. 5. You didnt buy any cigarettes, did you? No, but I'll run to the shop and buy you some. 6. She cooked a lot of things. She is going to have ten people for dinner. 7. It will be twelve oclock in ten minutes. 8. Where are you going to spend your holidays? 9. The fire has gone out. Yes, I will go and get some wood. 10. I rented a typewriter. I'm going to learn to type. 11. Did you get the tickets? No, I will send my son to get them. 12. I see that you have a computer. Are you going to do some work on it? 13. I dont understand French. I'll call my son and he will translate it for you. 14. She ordered a lot of paint because she is going to paint her flat. 15. I won't lend you my car because it is against the law. 16. Why is she putting a new film in the camera? Because she is going to take pictures. 17. You look tired. I'll make you some tea.

20

III. 9. I cant solve this problem; I have been thinking about it all morning. They have been playing the violin since seven 0clock this morning. We dont have to buy a new vacuum cleaner. I have been using this one for the past 12 years. They had been sleeping for 10 hours before the bell woke them up. The children have been running all morning, thats why they are hungry. Her eyes were red. She has been crying. The lines are busy. I've been calling this number all morning and I cant get through. The two players had been playing for a good half an hour before it started to rain. They quit drinking a year ago. They had been drinking for 10 years. He got a prize last year. He has been playing in many films.

III. 10.
1. Alice isnt here. She has gone out. 2. Ann was sitting in the armchair watching TV. She was tired because she had been working all day. 3. At last the bus came. We had been waiting for 30 minutes! 4. Can you drive? Not yet. I am learning. My uncle is teaching me. 5. Dont forget to post my letter! I've posted it already. 6. Einstein was a scientist who developed the theory of relativity. 7. He has just bought a computer. He is learning some programs. 8. How did you learn to drive? My father taught me. 9. How fast were you driving when the accident happened? 10. How long you have you been learning English? Since high school. 11. How many plays did Shakespeare write? 12. Hows your English? Not bad. It is improving slowly. 13. Hurry up! Everybody's waiting for you. 14. I havent seen Alan for ages. When I last saw him, he was trying to find a job. 15. I hear you won some money. What are you going to do with it?

III. 11. 1. Who.you..(wait) for? My sister. She ........(be) usually late. a) are waiting/is 2. ......he .(smoke) a lot? Yes quite a lot. Look, he ............(light) a cigarette again. d) does smoke/is lighting 3. We ..........(think) that he ............(not know) how to repair this tap. c) think/does not know 4. What..she..(do)? Nothing. I guess she..........(sleep). b) is doing/is sleeping 5. How many languages..your daughter.........(speak)? She...........(know) three languages. a) does speak/knows 6. We .(work) in the mornings but this week we ...........(work)overtime, so we have to stay in the office all day. a) work/are working 7. Wait! ..you......(go) upstairs? No, I...........(go) to the basement.

21

2) are going/am going 8. In most countries children..(start) school at the age of six. In America compulsory education ..........(last) for 12 years. a) start/lasts 9. Whothis car.(belong) to ? My father, but I.............(drive) it this month. d) does belong/am driving 10. Why .you..(wear) this heavy coat? Its not cold. I know but I............(take) a train up to the mountains after work. b) are wearing/am taking 11. How often.your son.(go) abroad? He..........(have to) go to business trips at least once a month. a) does go/has to 12. ..she..(take) computer lessons on Fridays? Yes, and she...........(attend) a language course, too. c) does take/attends 13. .....you.......(know)the boiling point of copper? No, I only know that iron .......... (melt) at 1530 degrees Centigrade. a) do know/melts 14. He .........(have)some foreign visitors. He(show) them the sights. b) has/is showing 15. Today scientists............(work) on the so-called 'fourth state of matter' which..........(occur) when gas is heated to a very high temperature. b) are working/occurs

III. 12.
1. When I opened the door I saw a man on his knees. He clearly was listening to our conversation and I was wondering how much he had heard. When I asked him what he was doing, he told me that he had dropped a 50 p piece outside the door and was looking for it. I didn't see any sign of the money, but I found a small notebook and pencil which he probably had dropped when the door opened suddenly. So he had taken notes of our conversation! The notes were in a foreign language, so I turned to the stranger and asked him to translate. But he pulled my hat over my eyes and ran off down the corridor. By the time I had recovered from the shock he had disappeared round the corner. Curiously enough, when I moved my foot I found that I was standing on a 50 p piece. Perhaps he was telling me the truth after all! 2.When the old lady returned to her flat she saw that burglars had broken in during her absence, because the front door was open and everything in the flat was upside down. The burglars themselves were no longer there, but they probably had only just left because a cigarette was burning on an ornamental table. She was wondering if the thieves had found her jewelry and rather hoped that they hadn't. The jewelry was given by her late husband, who had died some years before

III. 13. 1. I knew she was busy, so I didn't disturb her. 2. I was walking along the street when I heard footsteps behind me. Somebody was running to catch the bus. 3. I was walking along the road when I saw Jim. I stopped and we had a chat.

22

4. I saw you in town yesterday. You were sitting on a bench. 5. I saw Tom yesterday but I have not seen him today. 6. Isnt it hot here? Shall I open the door? 7. It was warm, so I took off my coat. 8. Its cold here. I'm going to close the windows. 9. Its the first time he has driven a car. 10. John is going to a party tonight. You ask: What are you going to wear? 11. John is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. 12. Kevin gave up smoking two years ago. He had been smoking for 20 years. 13. Lets go out. It's not raining. 14. Look at the sky! It is going to be nice weather today. 15. Mozart wrote more than 60 pieces of music. He was only 35 when he died. 16. My hands are dirty. I've been repairing the car. 17. Ron hasn't been working very hard this term. 18. She's looking for a place to live. She is staying with her sister until she finds a place. 19. She is good at languages. She speaks four languages very well.

III. 14. 1. We are going to have a problem with our car soon. 2. The performance starts at 9. 3. Do he and his brother attend this course? 4. When I arrived home I noticed that somebody had left a message for me. 5. I shall be watching my favorite series at 10 oclock tonight. 6. His bike was broken so we had to take a taxi. 7. He cant write because he had broke his arm. 8. Whenever he meets me he turns his head away. 9. She speaks two languages. 10. They will have picked all the apples by next week. 11. She learnt the poem by heart after she had got a bad mark. 12. Who knows the solution to this problem? 13. They was studying all day yesterday. 14. On Sundays he usually visits his relatives. 15. As it was getting dark, we decided to go home. III. 15. 1. She was out of breadth. She had been running. 2. That bag looks heavy. I'll help you carry it. 3. The Chinese invented printing. 4. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody had gone to bed. 5. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. He hadn't flown before. 6. The River Nile flows into the Mediterranean. 7. They had been playing tennis for half an hour when it started to rain. 8. They meet in the same caf every morning. They have been going there for years. 9. Tim is still watching TV. He has been watching films all day. 10. Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking dinner. 11. Was she at the party yesterday? Yes, she wore a really nice dress.
23

12. We arrived at work and found that somebody had broken into the office during the night. 13. We couldnt afford to keep our car, so we sold it. 14. We havent got any milk. I'll run to the shop and buy some. 15. We usually grow vegetables in our garden but this year we haven't grown any. 16. We were late because our car had broken down on the way. 17. What does your mother do? Shes an architect but she isn't working at the moment. 18. When I was young I wanted to be a bus driver. 19. When she arrived to the party, John had already gone home. 20. Where have you been? I've been looking for you in the last half an hour. 21. Would you like something to eat? No, thanks. I've just had lunch. 22. Have you read any of Shakespeares plays? 23. Have you always lived here? Yes, I've lived here all my life. 24. Are you listening to the radio? No, you can turn it off. 25. Have you had any holidays this year? 26. Do you listen to the radio? Yes, occasionally. 27. Your eyes are red. What have you done? /Raymond Murphy: English Grammar in Use/

24

2. Sequence of Tenses
I. The Use
In English the tense of the verb in the sub-clause commonly depends on that of the verb in the main clause. This adjustment of the tense of the sub-clause to the tense of the main clause is called the sequence of tenses. The rules of the sequence of tenses are the following: When the verb in the main clause is in the present, present continuous, present perfect or future tense, the verb in the sub-clause will not change. (He says that he works in a bank. She asks me where he found a job.) When the verb in the main clause is in the past, the following shifting of tenses takes place: The Present Simple will become the Past Simple The Present Continuous will become the Past Continuous The Present Perfect Simple/Continous will become the Past Perfect Simple/Continuous The Future Simple will become the Future in the past (should/would + infinitive of the verb) Note the translation rules in Serbian and Hungarian: Past tense Past Simple or Past Continuous He told me that he was ill. past tense in Serbian and present tense in Serbian and Hungarian Hungarian Rekao mi je (Azt mondta da (hogy) je bolestan (beteg) nekem) Past tense She asked me past tense in Serbian and Hungarian Pitala me je (Megkerdezte tolem) Past tense They told us past tense in Serbian and Hungarian Rekli su nam (Azt mondtak nekunk) if Past Perfect Simple or Continuous I had finished my work past tense in Serbian and Hungarian sam zavrsila svoj posao (befejeztem-e) Future in the past they would go to London. future in Serbian and Hungarian da (hogy) ce ici u London ( el fognak menni Londonba)

da li (hogy)

that

25

II. Exercises
1. Rewrite the following sentences according to the Sequences of Tenses 1. Microsoft announced that they (will) launch their new program the following week. 2. The boss asked his employee if he (found) the financial files from last year. 3. The employee answered that (is) sorry, and that he (has) never lost a file before. 4. I was sure that Tom ( is) going to invite us to come to the meeting. 5. The new secretary asked her colleage how the photocopier (works) 6. I went home because I (am not) feeling very well. 7. All first year students wanted to know how many exams they (will) have. 8. The computer system crashed after someone (tried) to enter it illegally. 9. The scientists hoped that the experiment they (were) working on during the past few months (will) be successful. 10. The accountants found that the profits (are) higher than forecast. 2. Use the verbs in the middle column in appropriate tenses. Observe the rules of the sequence of tenses when necessary
We told you we He promised he He says he He said his students I was thinking what a pleasure it They have decided that they He noticed that she George asked me how many cigarettes I He wants to know how many classes he He had told me he /leave/ /bring/ /not understand/ /be/ /be/ /leave/ /have/ /smoke/ /have/ /be/ town the day before yesterday. us all the necessary books. this matter (now) here soon. to see my old friend again. school the next semester. trouble with her car. the day before. this semester. free that night.

3. Read and translate the following text paying special attention to the rules of the sequence of tenses: One day in February, Jack and Ann went for a drive. She asked if he had hired the car, but he said he had borrowed it from Dave. The car seemed rather difficult to steer. Jack was holding the steering wheel very tight. He asked Ann if she was frightened, and she said she wasnt. She pretended she wasnt scared. She remarked that the weather was still cold, and said she thought there was snow in the air. They spent the day looking at buildings in Oxford. Darkness had fallen before they left. On the way home the car went more and more slowly, and at last it stopped. Ann asked what the matter was, and Jack said he didnt know. She asked him if he had filled the tank with petrol. He said he had. She asked what he was going to do, and suggested he could get out and have a look at the engine. He said he would, and added

26

that he hoped he could get it going. If not, they would have to walk to the railway station, five miles away.

4. Translate these sentences pay special attention to the use of tenses in the subordinate clause 1. Videli smo da je plakala. (Lttuk, hogy srt.) 2. Znamo da on uvek kasni. (Tudjuk, hogy mindig ksik.) 3. Rekao je da nee doi jer je imao teak dan i jako je umoran. (Azt mondta, hogy nem fog eljnni, mert nehz napja volt s fradt.) 4. Hoe da zna kada ima ispit iz matematike. (Meg akarja tudni mikor van vizsgja matematikbl.) 5. Nismo znali da je pao na ispitu. (Nem tudtuk, hogy megbukott a vizsgn.) 6. Znala sam da nisu kui jer svetla nisu gorela u dnevnoj sobi. (Tudtam, hogy nincsenek otthon, mert nem gett a villany a nappaliban.) 7. Nismo znali da je ova re dvosmislena. (Nem tudtuk, hogy ez a sz ktrtelm.) 8. Rekao mi je da nije dobro spavao jer buka sa ulice bila previe velika. (Azt mondta, hogy nem aludt jl, mert tl nagy volt az utcai zaj.) 9. Pitao me je kako mi se svidja ta knjiga. (Megkrdezte tlem, hogy tetszik az a knyv.) 5. Correct these sentences if necessary He knew that Debbie is having problems with her old car. The doctor told me that he examines the patient. I wonder what would happened next. He asked me what I had doing. I noticed that they are doing something wrong. He told me he had been very frightened the other day. He wondered what on earth had make the car stop. We have asked the delegation if they had ever seen such a demonstration. I didnt know you already received the letter. He says he doesnt like New York. 6. Complete these sentences
1. He told us he (slobodan je/szabad) that day. 2. He informed us we..(ne radimo/nem dolgozunk) hard. 3. Tim phoned and told me he (zakasnie/ksni fog) because his car ...............................(pokvario se/elromlott). 4. He asked me how long I .....................................(ostala sam/maradtam) at the party the week before. 5. Dave wanted to know where the boys ...........................(su/vannak). 6. She asked me where they ......................................(su bili/voltak). 7. We inquired where he ......................................(e biti/lesz) the following day.

7. Translate the given sentences into English

27

1. Nisam mislio da e odluka biti tako teka. (Nem tudtam, hogy a dnts ilyen nehz lesz.) 2. Rekao je da e otii na letovanje jer je iscrpljen. (Azt mondta, hogy el fog menni nyaralni mert kimerlt.) 3. Priao nam je da je bio u safari parku. (Azt meslte neknk, hogy volt egy szafari parkban.) 4. Carinik nas je pitao da li imamo neto za carinjenje (declare). (A vmos megkrdezte tlnk hogy van-e valami vmolni valnk (declare). 5. Pitao me je da li radim negde. (Megkrdezte tlem, hogy dolgozom-e valahol.) 6. Rekao nam je da je diplomirao pre dva meseca, ali da jo nije dobio posao. (Azt mondta neknk, hogy kt hnapja diplomlt, de mg nem kapott munkt.) 7. Kae da trai posao ve dve godine. (Azt mondja, hogy mr kt ve munkt keres.) 8. Kau da je ovaj hotel veoma skup. (Azt mondjk, hogy ez a hotel neagyon drga.) 9. Pria mi da naunici ve decenijama pokuavaju da nau lek protiv raka. (Azt mondja nekem, hogz a tudsok mr vtizedek ta prbljk megtallni a rk elleni gygyszert.) 10. Nije verovao da svaki dan ustajem u 4 sata. (Nem hitte el nekem, hogy minden nap 4-kor kelek.) 11. Pitali su ga (passive) zato nije doao. (Megkrdeztk tle (passive), hogy mirt nem jtt el.) 12. Rekli su mi da je David osuen je na pet godina zatvora (passive). (Azt mondtk nekem, hogy David-ot t v brtnre tltk passive). 13. Kau mi da nisu dobili dalja uputstva. (Azt mondjk, hogy nem kaptak tovbbi utastst.) 14. itala sam da je Konkord je najbri i najelegantniji putniki avion na svetu. (Olvastam hogy a Konkord a vilg leggyorsabb s legelegnsabb szemlyszllt replgpe.) 15. Ljudi veruju da do 2010 godine lekari e pronai lek protiv raka. (Az emberek azt hiszik, hogy 2O2O-ig az orvosok meg fogjk tallni a rk elleni gygyszert.) 16. Rekli su mi da gosp. Brown radi ovde od 1978 godine. (Azt mondtk nekem, hogy Brown r 1978 ta itt dolgozik.)

8. Complete the following sentences using the rules of the Sequences of Tenses if necessary 1. He told me he.. (visit) us the following week. 2. They ask me when Tom .. (arrive) last night. 3. They asked me if everything (be agreed) for that day. 4. Gilbert said that the earth(contain- present time) a great mass of magnetic material. 5. No one found out who(discover- past time) magnetism. 6. Scientists in the 17th century believed that they..(find - future time) the answer to many fascinating questions. 7. He told me he ..(be - present time) in a hurry. 8. She asked where we.(work - future time) the next semester. 9. I am telling you I (not do - past time) it. 10. I told him that I..(not be) there at that time. 11. She asks me where I(put) her letters. 12. She asked me if I .(work) in that school the year before. 12. I thought he(call) us the following night.
28

13. He told me that he..(be) too busy at the moment. 14. He says that his brother.(graduate) two months ago.

9. Translate these sentences into Serbian or Hungarian


1. He told us he would be busy and he would not come. 2. They said they had not heard any noise. 3. She knew she wasnt going to arrive on time. 4. I told him I was free all day and he could come any time. 5. They saw she was crying. 6. They say she was crying. 7. He told us he was going to spend a year in the States.

10. Test Yourself!


She wants to find out who He read that there The players believed they They wanted to find out why they He asked us how often we The students told the teacher they /live/ /be/ /get/ /not pass/ /travel/ /not want/ here. a fire in Yellowstone National Park. well before the next football season. their exam the day before. abroad. to take that exam in June.

29

III.Solutions
III. 1.
1. Microsoft announced that they would launch their new program the following week. 2. The boss asked his employee if he had found the financial files from last year. 3. The employee answered that was sorry, and that he had never lost a file before. 4. I was sure that Tom was going to invite us to come to the meeting. 5. The new secretary asked her colleague how the photocopier worked. 6. I went home because I was not feeling very well. 7. All first year students wanted to know how many exams they would have. 8. The computer system crashed after someone had tried to enter it illegally. 9. The scientists hoped that the experiment they had been working on during the past few months would be successful. 10. The accountants found that the profits were higher than forecast.

III.2.
We told you we He promised he He says he He said his students I was thinking what a pleasure it They have decided that they He noticed that she George asked me how many cigarettes I He wants to know how many classes he He had told me he Had left Would bring Does not understand Will be/ are going to be Would be Will leave Was having Had smoked Is having Was town the day before yesterday. us all the necessary books. this matter (now) here soon. to see my old friend again. school the next semester. trouble with her car. the day before. this semester. free that night.

III. 3.
One day in February, Jack and Ann went for a drive. She asked if he had hired (da li je iznajmio brelte-e) the car, but he said he had borrowed (pozajmio je klcsnvette) it from Dave. The car seemed rather difficult to steer. Jack was holding the steering wheel very tight. He asked Ann if she was frightened (da li se plai fl-e), and she said she wasnt (ne boji se nem fl). She pretended she wasnt scared (da se ne boji hogy nem fl). She remarked that the weather was (je - ) still cold, and said she thought (misli gondolja) there was (je - ) snow in the air. They spent the day looking at buildings in Oxford. Darkness had fallen before they left. On the way home the car went more and more slowly, and at last it stopped. Ann asked what the matter was (je - ), and Jack said he didnt know (ne zna nem tudja). She asked him if he had filled (je napunio megtlttte-e) the tank with petrol. He said he had (je - ). She asked what he was going to do (ta e raditi mit fog csinlni), and suggested he could get out (mogao da izadje kimehet) and have a look at the engine. He said he would (e ki fog menni), and added that he hoped

30

(nada se remli) he could get (moi tudni fogja) it going. If not, they would have (morae muszj lesz) to walk to the railway station, five miles away.

III. 4. 1. Videli smo da je plakala. (Lttuk, hogy srt.) We saw that she had been crying. 2. Znamo da on uvek kasni. (Tudjuk, hogy mindig ksik.) We know that he is always late. 3. Rekao je da nee doi jer je imao teak dan i jako je umoran. (Azt mondta, hogy nem fog eljnni, mert nehz napja volt s fradt.) He said that he wouldnt come because he had had a hard day and he was very tired. 4. Hoe da zna kada ima ispit iz matematike. (Meg akarja tudni mikor van vizsgja matematikbl.) He wants to know when he has his maths exam. 5. Nismo znali da je pao na ispitu. (Nem tudtuk, hogy megbukott a vizsgn.) We didnt know that he had failed his exam. 6. Znala sam da nisu kui jer svetla nisu gorela u dnevnoj sobi. (Tudtam, hogy nincsenek otthon, mert nem gett a villany a nappaliban.) I knew there werent at home because the lights had not been on in the living room. 7. Nismo znali da je ova re dvosmislena. (Nem tudtuk, hogy ez a sz ktrtelm.) We didnt know that word was ambiguous. 8. Rekao mi je da nije dobro spavao jer buka sa ulice bila previe velika. (Azt mondta, hogy nem aludt jl, mert tl nagy volt az utcai zaj.) He told me he hadnt slept well because the noise from the street had been too loud. 9. Pitao me je kako mi se svidja ta knjiga. (Megkrdezte tlem, hogy tetszik az a knyv.) He asked me how I liked that book. III. 5.
He knew that Debbie is having (was having) problems with her old car. The doctor told me that he examines (had examined/was examining/would examine) the patient. I wonder what would (will) happened next. He asked me what I had doing (had been doing). I noticed that they are doing (were doing) something wrong. He told me he had been very frightened the other day. He wondered what on earth had make (had made) the car stop. We have asked the delegation if they had ever seen (have ever seen) such a demonstration. I didnt know you already received (had already received) the letter. He says he doesnt like New York.

III. 6.
1. He told us he had a day off (slobodan je/szabad) that day. 2. He informed us we weren't working (ne radimo/nem dolgozunk) hard.

31

3. Tim phoned and told me he would be late (zakasnie/ksni fog) because his car had broken down (pokvario se/elromlott). 4. He asked me how long I had stayed (ostala sam/maradtam) at the party the week before. 5. Dave wanted to know where the boys were (su/vannak). 6. She asked me where they had been (su bili/voltak). 7. We inquired where he would be (e biti/lesz) the following day.

III. 7.
1. I didn't think the decision would be so difficult. Nisam mislio da e odluka biti tako teka. (Nem tudtam, hogy a dnts ilyen nehz lesz.) 2. He said he would go on holiday because he was exhausted. Rekao je da e otii na letovanje jer je iscrpljen. (Azt mondta, hogy el fog menni nyaralni mert kimerlt.) 3. He told us that he had been in a safari park. Priao nam je da je bio u safari parku. (Azt meslte neknk, hogy volt egy szafari parkban.) 4. The customs officer asked us if we had anything to declare. Carinik nas je pitao da li imamo neto za carinjenje (declare). (A vmos megkrdezte tlnk hogy van-e valami vmolni valnk (declare). 5. He asked me if I worked anywhere. Pitao me je da li radim negde. (Megkrdezte tlem, hogy dolgozom-e valahol.) 6. He told us that he had graduated two months before but he hadn't got a job yet. Rekao nam je da je diplomirao pre dva meseca, ali da jo nije dobio posao. (Azt mondta neknk, hogy kt hnapja diplomlt, de mg nem kapott munkt.) 7. She says that she has been looking for a job for two years. Kae da trai posao ve dve godine. (Azt mondja, hogy mr kt ve munkt keres.) 8. They say this hotel is very expensive. Kau da je ovaj hotel veoma skup. (Azt mondjk, hogy ez a hotel neagyon drga.) 9. He tells me that scientists have been trying to find a cure for cancer for decades. Pria mi da naunici ve decenijama pokuavaju da nau lek protiv raka. (Azt mondja nekem, hogy a tudsok mr vtizedek ta prbljk megtallni a rk elleni gygyszert.) 10. He didn't believe that I got up every day at six a.m. Nije verovao da svaki dan ustajem u 4 sata. (Nem hitte el nekem, hogy minden nap 4-kor kelek.) 11. He was asked why he hadn't come. Pitali su ga (passive) zato nije doao. (Megkrdeztk tle (passive), hogy mirt nem jtt el.) 12. They told me that David was sentenced to five years in prison. Rekli su mi da je David osuen je na pet godina zatvora (passive). (Azt mondtk nekem, hogy Davidot t v brtnre tltk passive). 13. They say that they didn't receive any further instructions. Kau mi da nisu dobili dalja uputstva. (Azt mondjk, hogy nem kaptak tovbbi utastst.) 14. I read that the Concord was the fastest and most elegant passanger airplane in the world. itala sam da je Konkord je najbri i najelegantniji putniki avion na svetu. (Olvastam, hogy a Konkord a vilg leggyorsabb s legelegnsabb szemlyszllt replgpe.) 15. People believe that by the year 2010 doctors will have found a cure for cancer. Ljudi veruju da do 2010 godine lekari e pronai lek protiv raka. (Az emberek azt hiszik, hogy 2O2O-ig az orvosok meg fogjk tallni a rk elleni gygyszert.)

32

16. They told me that Mr Brown had been working there since 1978. Rekli su mi da gosp. Brown radi ovde od 1978 godine. (Azt mondtk nekem, hogy Brown r 1978 ta itt dolgozik.)

III. 8.
1. He told me he would visit us the following week. 2. They ask me when Tom had arrived last night. 3. They asked me if everything was agreed for that day. 4. Gilbert said that the earth contained a great mass of magnetic material. 5. No one found out who had discovered magnetism. 6. Scientists in the 17th century believed that they would find the answer to many fascinating questions. 7. He told me he was in a hurry. 8. She asked where we would work the next semester. 9. I am telling you I hadn't done it. 10. I told him that I wasn't there at that time. 11. She asks me where I put her letters. 12. She asked me if I had worked in that school the year before. 13. I thought he would call us the following night. 14. He told me that he was too busy at the moment. 15. He says that his brother graduated two months ago.

III. 9.
1. He told us he would be busy and he would not come. Rekao nam je da ce biti zauzet i da nece doci. / Azt mondta nekunk, hogy elfoglalt lesz es, hogy nem fog eljonni. 2. They said they had not heard any noise. Rekli su da nisu culi buku. / Azt mondtak, hogy nem hallotak semmilyen zajt. 3. She knew she wasnt going to arrive on time. Znala je da nece stici na vreme. / Tudta, hogy nem fog idoben odaerni. 4. I told him I was free all day and he could come any time. Rekao sam mu da sam ceo dan slobodan i da moze da dode bilo kad. / Mondtam neki, hogy egesz nap szabad vagyok, es johet barmikor. 5. They saw she was crying. Videli su da place. / Lattak, hogy sir. 6. They say she was crying. Kazu da je plakala. / Azt mondjak, hogy sirt. 7. He told us he was going to spend a year in the States. Rekao nam je da ce provesti godinu dana u Sjedinjenim Drzavama. / Azt mondta nakunk, hogy egy evet az Egyesult Allamokban fog tolteni.

III. 10.
She wants to find out who He read that there The players believed they lives was would get here. a fire in Yellowstone National Park. well before the next football season.

33

They wanted to find out why they He asked us how often we The students told the teacher they

hadn't passed travelled didn't want

their exam the day before. abroad. to take that exam in June.

34

3. Asking Questions
I. The Use
'WH'- QUESTIONS # Wh-questions are formed with who, whose, which, what, why, when, where and how and with some expressions which sometimes together with these words form a question word. (how long) # Making questions for the subject: Who (or: what if the subject is inanimate) + verb in the third person singular (affirmative or negative)+ .? Example: We help them to clean up the house. Who helps them to clean up the house? They have broken the vase. Who has broken the vase? The children drove the car home. Who drove the car home? # Making questions for the predicate: What + auxiliary verb+ subject+ the main verb replaced by the suitable form of do Examples: We help them to clean up the house. What do we do? They have broken the vase. What have they done? The children drove the car home. What did the children do? # Making questions for other parts of speech: Wh-word + auxiliary + subject + main verb + Examples: Who do we help to clean up the house? What have they broken? What did the children drive home?

35

II. Exercises
1. Choose the correct question word to fill the blanks.
1. "________ do you go to school?" "I go to school in California." a. which b. when c. where 2. "________ does Jack work ?" " He works every evening." a. why b. when c. where 3. "_________ cars does your family have ?" "We have two cars." a. how many b. how much c. what colour 4. "_______ does your boss want ?" "He wants the documents ready by tomorrow." a. when b. what c. who 5. "_________ do you eat lunch with ?" "I usually eat lunch with my colleagues." a. who b. what c. how long 6. ________ file is missing? The project file is missing, all other documents are here. a. what b. which c. where 7. ____ did you call after the meeting? I called my business partner. a. when b. how c. whom 8. "____ your brother swim in winter ?" "No. He doesn't swim in winter. a. is b. does c. did 9. "________ is that sandwich?" " It costs 3 dollars." a. how much b. how many c. how high

36

10. " ___ you thirsty?" "Yes, I am. I'd like some tea, please." a. is b. are c. do

2. Rewrite the sentence with the correct question word


1. Who does this car belong to? Do you know _____ this car belongs to? 2. Which color suits me best? Do you know _____ color suits me best? 3. What time does the film start? Do you know ____ time _____________? 4. How much money does Fred want? Do you know ______________________? 5. How many people are coming to the party? Do you know ______________________________________? 6. Why is Jack waiting in the hall? Do you know ______________________________________________? 7. How does Sandra spell her surname? Do you know ________________________________________? 8. When is he going to London? Do you know ______________________________________________?

3. Put the given words in the correct order to make a question 1. which / car / kind of / 300 k.p.h / goes ? ________________________________________________ 2. Tom / time / does / what / up / get? ________________________________________________ 3. did / you / why / to / New York / travel? ________________________________________________ 4. she / called / has / this/ morning / since? ________________________________________________ 5. busy / you / are / tonight? ________________________________________________ 4. Match the questions and their answers 1. Are you satisfied with your staff? 2. This is the fifth time in a decade they have moved house. 3. We spent a lovely weekend in Paris, though it was a long drive from London. 4. When do I want my holiday? 5. The fax machine will not be fixed before next Monday.
a. I'm so tired I could use a week's holiday right now! b. Yes, all members work really hard. c. Aren't they tired of moving so often? d. Oh no, can't the servicemen come sooner? e. Did you cross the English Channel by ferry?

37

5. Write sentences to the underlined words, then rewrite the questions using the noun forms of the following verbs: permit, own, enter, mean, arrive, earn 1. Mr. Brown arrives at Heathrow airport Tuesday evening at 21:15. When ____________ Mr. Brown ______________ at Heathrow airport? When is the time of ______________ of Mr. Brown's airplane?
2. William Howard owns the largest bank in this country. Who ____________ the largest bank in this country? Who is the _______________ of the largest bank in this country? 3. Tom earns 2400 Euros in a month. How much _________________________ in a month? How high __________ Tom's ______________ ? 4. You can enter the building from Fleet Street. Where ___________________________________ ? Where is _____________________________________ ? 5. My boss permitted me to write the leading article because I was a good journalist. Why ______________________________________________________ ? Why ____________________ give me _______________________________ ? 6. 'No Smoking' means that you mustn't smoke in the museum. What _____________________________________________ ? What _______________________________________________ ?

6. Who wants to be a millionaire? Just complete the missing questions or answers! 1. _________ Newton ______________ electricity? No, he didn't. Newton discovered gravity. 2. ________________________________________ ? Yes! That's the right answer! Shakespeare wrote exactly 37 plays. 3. _______________ Number 1 hits _________ the Beatles have? I'm not sure, I think they ____________ more than 25 _____________ . 4. ___________ Kilkenny the capital of Ireland? No, ____________. The capital is Dublin. But good beer ________ produced in Kilkenny. 5. ________ the Vikings ____________ the North American continent? Yes, they _______ . Historians believe the Vikings reached America long before Columbus. 6. Did Pablo Picasso ____________ 'Mona Lisa' The answer is: __________. 'Mona Lisa' ________ painted by Leonardo da Vinci. 7. ____________ and ______________ did Woodstock happen? Woodstock _________________ in 1969 in the USA, state of New York. 8. Who ________ the legendary _________ of the band 'The Doors'? The __________ of their singer was Jim Morrison.

38

7. Make questions to the underlined parts of the sentence


1. The magnetic properties of iron made the development of electrical power possible. _______________________________________________________________ ? ________________________________________________________________ ? 2. They heated the metal with an electric soldering iron. _________________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________________ ? 3. We have left at about 7. ________________________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________________________ ? 4. The mailman always comes around nine. _________________________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________________________ ? 5. The people were listening to the presidents speech carefully. _________________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________________ ? 6. Disney dreamed of creating a safe and clean amusement park for adults and children. __________________________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________________________ ?

8. Here's an advertisement for a car, use the details to finish the questions FORD ESCORT, 1993, BLUE, ONE OWNER, VERY GOOD CONDITION, 30,000 MILES, ONE MINOR ACCIDENT, PRICE: 1300 $ What How What How many What sort How much 9. Write an appropriate question for these answers 1. ___________________________________________________________ ?

39

I was six years old when I started school. 2. ____________________________________________________________? I went to two schools. 3._____________________________________________________________? Yes, I did. I went to Oxford University. 4._____________________________________________________________? Modern languages - French and German. 5._____________________________________________________________? I was there for four years.

10. Ask questions with (who, whose, which, what, why, when, where and how) to the underlined parts of the sentence His parents have taken him to the seaside by car. ___________________________________________________ ? A lot of people were standing in front of the bank. ___________________________________________________________ ? The Manhattan Bank fired its two employees because they had stolen some money. __________________________________________________________ ? Fifty students failed the test. ______________________________________________ ? That machine is working well. ______________________________________________ ? He put some sugar in his coffee because he couldn't drink it bitter. ______________________________________________________________ ? We are going to call him next week. ______________________________________________________ ? Many children wore uniforms in Oxford in the last century. ____________________________________________________________ ? We were tired when we arrived. ___________________________________________ ? Her friend came to borrow the books. _____________________________________________________ ? 11. Now it's your turn to add the underlined words in the sentence that answer the question (both the sentence and the question are given) The choir was ______________ beautifully last night. What were they doing beautifully last night? 106 passengers died in a plane crash _________________ . When did the passengers die in a plane crash ? The ________________ corrects her every time she makes a mistake. Who corrects her every time she makes a mistake? She designed a computer program for ___________________. What did she design a computer program for? The exhibited pictures are very _______________ . What are the exhibited pictures like? Four girls left _______________________ early.

40

What did four girls leave early? The new ___________________will begin work next week. Who will begin work next week? If your luggage is heavier, you will have to _________________________. What will you have to do if your luggage is heavier? High school students attended the meeting ___________________________. Where did high school students attend the meeting?

12. Read this text carefully then find the questions to the given answers Frank was born in Buenos Aires in 1977. He finished high school in Buenos Aires before moving to Denver. He misses Buenos Aires, but he enjoys studying and living in Denver. In fact, he has lived in Denver for over four years. Currently, he is studying at the University of Colorado where he is going to receive his Bachelor of Science degree next June. After he receives his degree, he is going to return to Buenos Aires to marry Alice and begin a career in research. Alice studies Art history at the University in Buenos Aires and is also going to receive a degree in Art History next May. They met in Peru in 1995 while they were hiking together in the Andes. They have been engaged for three years.
1. _______________________________________________ ? He was born in 1977. 2. _______________________________________________ ? Currently he is studying at the University of Colorado. 3. _______________________________________________ ? He is going to return to Buenos Aires after he receives his degree. 4. _______________________________________________ ? Her name is Alice. 5. _______________________________________________ ? In Peru. 6. _______________________________________________ ? For three years.

41

III. Solutions

III. 1.
1. "________ do you go to school?" "I go to school in California." c. where 2. "________ does Jack work ?" " He works every evening." b. when 3. "_________ cars does your family have ?" "We have two cars." a. how many 4. "_______ does your boss want ?" "He wants the documents ready by tomorrow." b. what 5. "_________ do you eat lunch with ?" "I usually eat lunch with my colleagues." a. who 6. ________ file is missing? The project file is missing, all other documents are here. b. which 7. ____ did you call after the meeting? I called my business partner. c. whom 8. "____ your brother swim in winter ?" "No. He doesn't swim in winter. b. does 9. "________ is that sandwich?" " It costs 3 dollars." a. how much 10. " ___ you thirsty?" "Yes, I am. I'd like some tea please." b. are

III. 2. 1. Who does this car belong to? Do you know who this car belongs to? 2. Which color suits me best? Do you know which color suits me best? 3. What time does the film start? Do you know what time the film starts? 4. How much money does Fred want? Do you know how much money Fred wants? 5. How many people are coming to the party? Do you know how many people are coming to the party? 6. Why is Jack waiting in the hall? Do you know why Jack is waiting in the hall?

42

7. How does Sandra spell her surname? Do you know how Sandra spells her surname? 8. When is he going to London? Do you know he is going to London?

III. 3.
1. which / car / kind of / 300 k.p.h / goes ? Which kind of car goes 300 k.p.h.? 2. Tom / time / does / what / up / get? What time does Tom get up? 3. did / you / why / to / New York / travel? Why did you travel to New York? 4. she / called / has / this/ morning / since? Has she called since this morning? 5. busy / you / are / tonight? Are you busy tonight?

III. 4.
1. Are you satisfied with your staff? b. Yes, all members work really hard. 2. This is the fifth time in a decade they have moved house. c. Aren't they tired of moving so often? 3. We spent a lovely weekend in Paris, though it was a long drive from London. e. Did you cross the English Channel by ferry? 4. When do I want my holiday? a. I'm so tired I could use a week's holiday right now! 5. The fax machine will not be fixed before next Monday. d. Oh no, can't the servicemen come sooner?

III. 5. 1. Mr. Brown arrives at Heathrow airport Tuesday evening at 21:15. When does Mr. Brown arrive at Heathrow airport? When is the time of arrival of Mr. Brown's airplane?
2. William Howard owns the largest bank in this country. Who owns the largest bank in this country? Who is the owner of the largest bank in this country? 3. Tom earns 2400 Euros in a month. How much does Tom earn in a month? How high are Tom's earnings? 4. You can enter the building from Fleet Street. Where can you enter the building? Where is the entrance of the building? 5. My boss permitted me to write the leading article because I was a good journalist.

43

Why did my boss permit me to write the leading article? Why did my boss give me permission to write the leading article? 6. 'No Smoking' means that you mustn't smoke in the museum. What does 'No Smoking' mean? What is the meaning of 'No Smoking'?

III. 6.
1. Did Newton discover electricity? No, he didn't. Newton discovered gravity. 2. Did Shakespeare write 37 plays? Yes! That's the right answer! Shakespeare wrote exactly 37 plays. 3. How many Number 1 hits did the Beatles have? I'm not sure, I think they had more than 25 Number 1 hits. 4. Is Kilkenny the capital of Ireland? No, it's not. The capital is Dublin. But good beer is produced in Kilkenny. 5. Did the Vikings reach the North American continent? Yes, they did. Historians believe the Vikings reached America long before Columbus. 6. Did Pablo Picasso paint 'Mona Lisa' The answer is: he didn't. 'Mona Lisa' was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. 7. When and where did Woodstock happen? Woodstock happened in 1969 in the USA, state of New York. 8. Who was the legendary singer of the band 'The Doors'? The name of their singer was Jim Morrison.

III. 7.
1. The magnetic properties of iron made the development of electrical power possible. What made the development of the electrical power possible? What did the magnetic properties of iron make possible? 2. They heated the metal with an electric soldering iron. Who heated the metal with an electric soldering iron? What did they heat with an electric soldering iron? How did they heat the metal? 3. We have left at about 7. Who has left at about 7? When have they left? 4. The mailman always comes around nine. Who always comes around nine? When does the mailman always come? 5. The people were listening to the presidents speech carefully. Who was listening to the president's speech carefully? What were the people doing ? 6. Disney dreamed of creating a safe and clean amusement park for adults and children. Who dreamed of creating a safe and clean amusement park for adults and children? What did Disney dream of creating for adults and children?

III. 8.
44

What colour is the car? How old is it? What condition is it in? How many miles has it done? What sort of car is it? How much does it cost?

III. 9. 1. How old were you when you started school? I was six years old when I started school. 2. How many schools did you go to? I went to two schools. 3. Did you go to university? Yes, I did. I went to Oxford University. 4. What did you study there? Modern languages - French and German. 5. How long were you at Oxford? I was there for four years. III. 10.
1. His parents have taken him to the seaside by car. Who did his parents take to the seaside? 2. A lot of people were standing in front of the bank. Where were a lot of people standing? 3. The Manhattan Bank fired its two employees because they had stolen some money. Why did the Manhattan Bank fire its two employees? 4. Fifty students failed the test. How many students failed the test? 5. That machine is working well. How is that machine working? 6. He put some sugar in his coffee because he couldn't drink it bitter. What did he put in his coffee? 7. We are going to call him next week. What are we going to do next week? 8. Many children wore uniforms in Oxford in the last century. When did many children wear uniforms in Oxford? 9. We were tired when we arrived. Who was tired when we arrived? 10. Her friend came to borrow the books. Whose friend came to borrow the books?

III. 11.
The choir was singing / performing beautifully last night. What were they doing beautifully last night? 106 passengers died in a plane crash yesterday / two month ago / last year, etc. When did the passengers die in a plane crash? The teacher / mother / father corrects her every time she makes a mistake. Who corrects her every time she makes a mistake? She designed a computer program for learning English.

45

What did she design a computer program for? The exhibited pictures are very interesting / beautiful / ugly / strange, etc . What are the exhibited pictures like? Four girls left school / the party / the concert, etc. early. What did four girls leave early? The new employees / teacher / boss / secretary, etc. will begin work next week. Who will begin work next week? If your luggage is heavier, you will have to pay more money at the airport. What will you have to do if your luggage is heavier? High school students attended the meeting in the amphitheater. Where did high school students attend the meeting?

III. 12. 1. When was Frank born? He was born in 1977. 2. What he is doing currently? / Where is he currently studying? Currently he is studying at the University of Colorado. 3. When is he going to return to Buenos Aires? He is going to return to Buenos Aires after he receives his degree. 4. What's the name of his girlfriend / fiancee? Her name is Alice. 5. Where did they meet? In Peru. 6. How long have they been engaged? For three years.

46

4. Reflexive Pronouns
I. The Use
The forms of the reflexive and emphatic pronouns have the same forms. The singular ends in -self, the plural ends in -selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. # We use reflexive pronouns to indicate that the subject and the object are the same person or thing: I have cut myself. # We use emphatic pronouns to emphasise the subject or the object: I will see to it myself. I myself will see to it. Emphatic pronouns are always stressed. # The emphatic pronoun is usually placed after the subject, object or the verb. (Ann herself opened the door. Ann opened the door herself. Tom went himself.) # These are some examples of the reflexive use: enjoy yourself = have a good time I hope you enjoy yourself on holiday. help yourself = take some Can I have a biscuit, please? - Go on, help yourself. behave yourself = be good I'm going out now, children, so behave yourselves.

47

II. Exercises
1. Find the wrong answer, then fill the gaps with the other two reflexive pronouns 1. He didn't do all that work ___________, his colleague helped him. I saw that _____________. a. herself b. myself c. himself
2. My sister ____________ and some friends helped me move to my flat. But after they had left I did much of the unpacking ______________. a. myself b. themselves c. herself 3. I hope you enjoyed _______________ at the dinner. Our boss's wife had organised the whole evening by ______________. a. herself b. yourselves c. myself 4. The problem was that the engineers _____________ didn't like the plan for the houses. The idea ______________ to build new holiday homes around the lake is great. a. itself b. themself c. themselves 5. I know you had to finish the article by _______________. But it had to be done by Monday night because the editor always reads all the articles ________________ before she sends to be printed early Tuesday morning. a. himself b. herself c. yourself

2. Add the correct reflexive pronouns 1 He built a boat all by ________________. 2 I hurt ________________ quite badly falling down the stairs. 3 The children did everything ________________ without any help. 4 Maria and Alison, you really should look after ________________ better. 5 Don't worry about the shopping! I'll do it ________________. 6 I burnt ________________ on the oven yesterday. 7 She blames ________________ for what happened. 8 Bob taught ________________ to type last summer. 9 I talk to ________________ all the time. It doesn't mean I'm crazy. 10 We all enjoyed ________________ very much on the picnic.
48

11 I was so stupid I could have kicked ________________. 12 The protesters locked ________________ into the church and refused to come out.

3. Complete the sentences by adding the reflexive pronoun and the verb 1. Who cut your hair? No one. I _______ it _________. (cut) 2. Who told you that Mary was getting married? She _____ me the news ____________. (tell) 3. Does he have a secretary to type his letters? No, he ______ all his letters and emails ____________. (write) 4. Would you like me to post that letter for you? No, I'll _______ it ___________. I'm going to the post office anyway. (do) 5. Can you get me a cup of coffee? Why don't you ________ it ___________? I'm not your secretary! (get) 4. Find the correct answer to end the sentences
1. Be careful. The pan is very hot. Don't _____________________. a. cut yourself b. burn herself c. burn yourself d. hurt himself 2. They couldn't get back into the house. They had __________________ out. a. themselves locked b. lock themselves c. locked themself d. locked themselves 3. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't ______________________. a. blame himself b. blame herself c. burn herself d. hurt herself 4. He was lucky he didn't _________________. That was quite a bad accident. a. hurt himself b. burn herself c. hit himself d. break yourself 5. I'm trying to ____________________ English but I'm not making much progress. a. understand myself b. teach myself c. reach myself d. succeed myself 6. He lives on his own and spends a lot of time ________________. a. talking to myself
49

b. walking to himself c. talking to himself d. writing to myself 7. Don't worry Mum. We can ___________________. a. watch over themselves b. take care of ourselves c. take part in ourselves d. watch out for yourselves

5. Complete the sentences with a verb and a reflexive pronoun. Choose from: feel, relax, enjoy, concentrate, wash, dry, behave, be, resolve, check 1. The concert was brilliant. I think even the band ________________ great . 2. He got out of the shower and __________________before opening the door. 3. I tried to study but just couldn't _______________. 4. You're always in such a hurry. Why don't you ________________ more? 5. It was a great holiday. We really ____________________ on Hawaii. 6. I slept in this morning and didn't have time to _____________ or have breakfast. 7. I wouldn't invite Peter to the party. Sometimes he just can't _________________. 8. I couldn't believe it but in the cinema we ____________________. (by ...) 9. I just hope the problem will _____________________. 10. I told you the truth, it's all in the files. If you don't believe me, _____________. 6. Add the appropriate reflexive pronouns.
1. The mayor ____________ attended the wedding ceremony, as he had promised. 2. They looked at ___________in the mirror and saw how dirty their faces were. 3. Make _______________ comfortable. I'll bring some drinks in a moment. 4. I made a fool of _____________by saying that stupid thing at the dinner party. 5. He hurt _____________when he was playing soccer. 6. I have to remind ____________to call Joe because it's his birthday today. 7. I shave _____________ every morning before I go to work. 8. I'm not going to do it for her. She can write the report ____________. 9. When we go to the restaurant everyone can pay for their meal ______________. 10.You can decide ______________, either we stay an hour longer today, or start work an hour earlier tomorrow.

7. Translate these sentences into English using reflexive / emphatic pronouns 1. Sam je popravio peglu. ( maga javitotta meg a vasalt.) 2. Video je sebe u ogledalu. (Ltta magt a tkrben.) .... 3. Sam sam napravio ovaj program. (Magam csinltam meg ezt a programot.) 4. Posekao se. (Megvgta magt.)
50

5. Cuvajte se. (Vigyzzatok magatokra.) 6. Posluzi se. (Vegyl!) 7. Posluzite se! (Vegyetek!) 8. Oni su sami trazili da razgovaraju sa direktorom. (k maguk krtk, hogy beszljenek az igazgatval.)

8. Decide which pronoun is used reflexively and which emphatically 1. I kept asking myself the same question.
a. reflexively I kept asking myself, not you or somebody else b. emphatically the person who was asking was me, not somebody 2. His son took us to the airport himself. a. reflexively he took himself to the airport b. emphatically his son, not his daughter took us to the airport 3. You had better do it yourselves. a. reflexively do it to yourselves, not to other people b. emphatically you should do it, don't let other people do it 4. They themselves reported the case to the police. a. reflexively they reported the case to themselves b. emphatically those who comitted the crime and who reported it to the police were the same people 5. Keep yourself in shape. a. reflexively keep your own body in shape b. emphatically it's important that you keep you body in shape, not your personal trainer

51

III. Solutions
III. 1.
1. He didn't do all that work c, himself, his colleague helped him. I saw that b. myself. Wrong answer: a. herself 2. My sister c. herself and some friends helped me move to my flat. But after they had left I did much of the unpacking a. myself. Wrong answer: b. themselves 3. I hope you enjoyed b. yourselves at the dinner. Our boss had organized the whole evening by a. herself. Wrong answer: c. myself 4. The problem was that the engineers c. themselves didn't like the plan for the houses. The idea a. itself to build new holiday homes around the lake is great. Wrong answer: b. themself 5. I know you had to finish the article by c. yourself. But it had to be done by Monday night because the editor always reads all the articles b. herself before she sends to be printed early Tuesday morning. Wrong answer: a. himself

III. 2.
1 He built a boat all by himself. 2 I hurt myself quite badly falling down the stairs. 3 The children did everything themselves without any help. 4 Maria and Alison, you really should look after yourselves better. 5 Don't worry about the shopping! I'll do it myself. 6 I burnt myself on the oven yesterday. 7 She blames herself for what happened. 8 Bob taught himself to type last summer. 9 I talk to myself all the time. It doesn't mean I'm crazy. 10 We all enjoyed ourselves very much on the picnic. 11 I was so stupid I could have kicked myself. 12 The protesters locked themselves into the church and refused to come out.

III. 3. 1. Who cut your hair? No one. I cut it myself. 2. Who told you that Mary was getting married? She told me the news herself. 3. Does he have a secretary to type his letters? No, he writes all his letters and emails himself. 4. Would you like me to post that letter for you? No, I'll do it myself. I'm going to the post office anyway. 5. Can you get me a cup of coffee? Why don't you get it yourself? I'm not your secretary!

52

III. 4. 1. Be careful. The pan is very hot. Don't _____________________. c. burn yourself
2. They couldn't get back into the house. They had __________________ out. d. locked themselves 3. It isn't her fault. She really shouldn't ______________________. b. blame herself 4. He was lucky he didn't _________________. That was quite a bad accident. a. hurt himself 5. I'm trying to ____________________ English but I'm not making much progress. b. teach myself 6. He lives on his own and spends a lot of time ________________. c. talking to himself 7. Don't worry Mum. We can ___________________. b. take care of ourselves

III. 5.
1. The concert was brilliant. I think even the band themselves felt great . 2. He got out of the shower and dried himself before opening the door. 3. I tried to study but just couldn't concentrate myself. 4. You're always in such a hurry. Why don't you relax yourself more? 5. It was a great holiday. We really enjoyed ourselves on Hawaii. 6. I slept in this morning and didn't have time to wash myself or have breakfast. 7. I wouldn't invite Peter to the party. Sometimes he just can't behave himself. 8. I couldn't believe it but in the cinema we were by ourselves. (by) 9. I just hope the problem will resolve itself. 10. I told you the truth, it's all in the files. If you don't believe me, check yourself.

III. 6.
1. The mayor himself attended the wedding ceremony, as he had promised. 2. They looked at themselves in the mirror and saw how dirty their faces were. 3. Make yourself confortable. I'll bring some drinks in a moment. 4. I made a fool of myself by saying that stupid thing at the dinner party. 5. He hurt himself when he was playing soccer. 6. I have to remind myself to call Joe because it's his birthday today. 7. I shave myself every morning before I go to work. 8. I'm not going to do it for her. She can write the report herself . 9. When we go to the restaurant everyone can pay for their meal themselves . 10.You can decide yourselves, either we stay an hour longer today, or start work an hour earlier tomorrow.

53

III. 7.
1. Sam je popravio peglu. ( maga javitotta meg a vasalt.) She fixed the iron herself. 2. Video je sebe u ogledalu. (Ltta magt a tkrben.) He saw himself in the mirror. 3. Sam sam napravio ovaj program. (Magam csinltam meg ezt a programot.) I've fixed this program myself. 4. Posekao se. (Megvgta magt.) He cut himself. 5. Cuvajte se. (Vigyzzatok magatokra.) Take care of yourselves! 6. Posluzi se. (Vegyl!) Help yourself! 7. Posluzite se! (Vegyetek!) Please, help yourselves! 8. Oni su sami trazili da razgovaraju sa direktorom. (k maguk krtk, hogy beszljenek az igazgatval.) They themselves asked to speak to the manager.

III. 8. 1. I kept asking myself the same question. a. reflexively I kept asking myself, not you or somebody else
2. His son took us to the airport himself. b. emphatically his son, not his daughter took us to the airport 3. You had better do it yourselves. b. emphatically you should do it, don't let other people do it 4. They themselves reported the case to the police. b. emphatically those who comitted the crime and who reported it to the police were the same people 5. Keep yourself in shape. a. reflexively keep your own body in shape

54

5. Plural of Nouns
I. The Use
# The plural of nouns in English is usually made by adding -s to the singular. -s can be pronounced as /s/, /z/ or /iz/. # Nouns ending in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss and -x form their plural by adding -es (tomatotomatoes; church - churches; brush - brushes; kiss- kisses; box- boxes). # Words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in -o add only -s not -es: dynamo- dynamos; kilo-kilos; photo-photos, piano-pianos. # Nouns ending in -y and preceded by a consonant form their plural by dropping the -y and adding -ies (baby-babies; country-countries; lady-ladies) # Nouns ending in -y and preceded by a vowel form their plural by adding -s only (boy-boys, day-days; guy-guys). # Twelve nouns ending in -f or -fe drop the -f or -fe and add -ves. These are: calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf. (loaf-loaves; wife-wives, etc.) # There are a number of nouns with irregular plural: foot-feet; goose-geese, manmen; woman-women; mouse-mice, tooth-teeth; child-children. # Some nouns of Greek or Latin forms make their plurals according to the rules of Greek and Latin: crisis- crises; phenomenon-phenomena; radius-radii; formulaformulae # Certain nouns are always plural like 1) clothes, police, people 2) garments consisting of two parts: pants, pyjamas, trousers 3) tools and instruments consisting of two parts: glasses, pliers, scissors, spectacles. # A number of nouns ending in -ics are considered singular if they denote names of sciences: mathematics, physics, statistics (Mathematics is an exact science.) # Some nouns, from the nature of the things they express, have no plural : 1) proper nouns (John, Ann, London) 2) abstract nouns (love, luxury, information, knowledge, advice) 3) material nouns (tea, milk, water). With information and advice we can form the plural by adding pieces of (pieces of information) # Material nouns can be used in the plural if they denote varieties or kinds (Hard and soft woods; sweet and sour milks; fresh and salt waters)

55

II. Exercises
1. Add the appropriate plural form of the noun 1. All _____________ (university) organize ____________ (party) for the first-year _____________ (student). The ____________ (lady) can enter for free. 2. Please, behave _____________ (yourself) during the ________________ (lecture). 3. Our new _______________ (shelf) are going to be more than five ____________ (foot) long. 4. A band of ____________ (thief) have broken into many ___________ (house) in our neighbourhood. 5. Several types of ____________ (fish) living in the ____________ (ocean) are on the edge of extinction. 6. The _______________ (wife) of the _________________ (boss) were busy taking ____________ (photo). 7. In the _____________ (years between 1921 and 1929) a series of economic ____________ (crisis) hit all ____________ (area) of the American economy. 8. One of the most famous American ____________ (writer), Steinbeck, wrote a book about ____________ (mouse) and _____________ (man). 9. There are many unexplained ________________ (phenomenon) in the world, such as the ________________ (reason) why Microsoft _________________ (system) crash so often. 10. In many folk _____________ (story) there are ____________ (animal), e.g. _____________ (wolf) and ________________ (goose), although _______________ (sheep) and ______________ (ox) are rather rare. 2. Rewrite the following sentences so that the nouns are in the singular form 1. The radii of the circles are two feet long. 2. The Irish people drink glasses of Guinnes in the pubs every night. 3. The children often find mathematics difficult. 4. The criteria for colloquiums in English in the first year of college are not particularly high 5. The leaves from the trees fell on my clothes. 6. We bought our glasses in the Benetton stores where the shop assistants are women. 7. The busses hit some huge wooden boxes lying on the roads. 8. In African countries there are no fax machines in the homes of businessmen. 3. Complete the sentences with the correct forms
1. There are several green__________with white __________ (bus, roof). 2. We have enough ____________, but we dont have enough _________ and ________ (glass, knife, plate). 3. We hope to visit five ________ in four _____________ (country, day). 4. I'd like milk with all six ___________ and some___________, please. (coffee, spoon)

56

5. All foreign __________ use different ___________ to travel to Zimbabwe (tourist, airline). 6. In the bakery there are a few small _____________ of bread on the _________ (loaf, shelf).

4. Put these sentences into the singular


1. Foreign correspondents live in foreign countries. 2. He gave me some pieces of advice. 3. They chose the representatives from companies. 4. The skies are blue and there aren't any clouds.

5. Use the appropriate noun forms to complete these sentences. 1. This device keeps track of all the accounting..(datum). 2. These(information) are very helpful. 3. Those(watch) were bought in Sweden. 4. The ....................... (sheep) were grazing peacefully on the meadow. 5. No, I don't want to eat .................... (salmon), I hate all forms of .................... (fish). 6. How many ................... (time) do I have to tell you to return all the .................... (book) from the library on ................... (time). 7. All .......................... (analysis) returned the same result: our company is in a deep financial ....................... (crisis). 6. Find the singular form of these foreign nouns
SINGULAR PLURAL phenomena radii formulae crises ellipses

7. Choose between the singular or plural forms of the verbs given 1. The police __________ working on an important case for the past two months. a. was b. have been c. has been d. is
2. Linguists _____________ that physics _____________ impossible to comprehend. a. thinks, is b. think, are c. thought, are d. think, is 3. The news ____________ on at 7:30 every evening.

57

a. are b. is c. was d. will be 4. I can't believe my brand new jeans ___________ torn. I only bought _________ yesterday! a. are, it b. are, them c. is, the pair d. was, them 5. No, I'm not coming to play football with you because there ________ athletics on TV. a. is b. are c. should have been d. was 6. Darts _________ a British pub game. a. will always be b. never was c. is originally d. are only 7. The data I gave you ____________ important. Please, remember that the information ___________ strictly confidential. a. are, were b. is, was c. are, is d. was, were 8. In the shop there ____________ several kinds of green tea. Which type ____________ the best? a. is, is b. are, are c. is, are d. are, is 9. I've lost my scissors! Do you know where _________________? a. is it b. they are c. are they d. it is 10. John's advice _________ always welcome. Until now all pieces of advice he gave __________________ useful. a. is, have been b. are, are c. is, has been

58

d. was, are

8. Find the correct sentence. 1. a. How many deers can you see in the woods? b. The media was very interested in the American elections c. The earnings of teachers are lower than in the UK. d. My lives's boring.
2. a. Not many types of fungi grow on meadows. b. Oh no, it's raining! My clothes is going to get wet. c. I can't find the contents in this book. Aren't they always at the back? d. The Indian people still lives on the plains of America. a. Measles are a serious child disease. b. The outskirts of cities are often inhabited by rich people. c. All my belongings has been lost in the fire. d. Firearms was easy to buy in the Wild West. a. Politics are a complex issue. b. The economics of a country is often influenced by political decisions. c. The cattle doesn't give enough milk. d. The remains of the king was returned to his homeland. a. Three weeks of holiday weren't long enough. b. One of our colleagues have left our company. c. A great number of people are out of work. d. 80 dollars are too much for a pair of jeans.

3.

4.

5.

9. Match the following sentences, and take a close look at the singular and plural nouns, and their meanings 1. The group recommends selling the shares. 2. The committee meets every Thursday. 3. To pass the exam exactly 60 percent is required. 4. Ten inches is the standard length of shoelaces. 5. Sixteen dollars and four cents was the price of Joe's birthday present.
a. Inches are shorter than feet. b. The group members argue among themselves. c. Sixteen pound notes and four penny coins are in the jar. d. The committee members express differing views. e. Nearly 80 percent of the deals we made last year were profitable.

10. Find the adjective or verb form that matches the underlined noun in the given sentences 1. The length of an average swimming pool is 75 metres. a. wide

59

b. long c. be d. thick 2. The committee rejected my suggestion because the expenses for my plan would have been too high. a. wide b. advise c. high d. suggest 3. Those who cannot swim must always watch the depth of the pool. a. deep b. watch c. live d. wide 4. I know that a CD isn't much of a birthday present, but it's the thought that counts. a. mean b. thick c. think d. advise 5. The architects were arguing about the height of the building. a. high b. long c. live d. thick 6. He visited all five continents in his life. a. visit b. thick c. lean d. live 7. The road workers increased the thickness of the concrete at some spots on the road. a. thick b. wide c. deep d. smooth 8. As you grow older, your wisdom increases. Or was it 'your width'? a. wise, long b. wise, wide c. wise, width d. wide, thick

60

III. Solutions
III. 1. 1. All universities organize parties for the first-year students. The ladies can enter for free. 2. Please, behave yourselves during the lectures. 3. Our new shelves are going to be more than five feet long. 4. A band of thieves have broken into many houses in our neighbourhood. 5. Several types of fish living in the oceans are on the edge of extinction. 6. The wives of the bosses were busy taking photos. 7. In the 1920s (twenties) a series of economic crises hit all areas of the American economy. 8. One of the most famous American writers, Steinbeck, wrote a book about mice and men. 9. There are many unexplained phenomena in the world, such as the reasons why Microsoft systems crash so often. 10. In many folk stories there are animals, e.g. wolves and geese, although sheep and oxen are rather rare. III. 2.
1. The radius of the circle is one foot long. The radii of the circles are two feet long. 2. An Irish person drinks a glass of Guinnes in the pub every night. The Irish people drink glasses of Guinnes in the pubs every night. 3. The child often finds mathematics difficult. The children often find mathematics difficult. 4. The criterion for the colloquium in English in the first year of college is not particularly high. The criteria for colloquiums in English in the first year of college are not particularly high 5. A leaf from the tree fell on my clothes. The leaves from the trees fell on my clothes. 6. I bought my glasses in the Benetton store where the shop assistant is a woman. We bought our glasses in the Benetton stores where the shop assistants are women. 7. A/The bus hit some huge wooden box lying on the road. The busses hit some huge wooden boxes lying on the roads. 8. In an African country there is no fax machine in the home of a businessman. In African countries there are no fax machines in the homes of businessmen.

III. 3.
1. There are several green busses with white roofs. 2. We have enough glasses, but we dont have enough knives and plates. 3. We hope to visit five countries in four days. 4. I'd like milk with all six coffees and some spoons, please. 5. All foreign tourists use different airlines to travel to Zimbabwe. 6. In the bakery there are a few small loaves of bread on the shelves.

III. 4. 1. A foreign correspondent lives in a foreign country. Foreign correspondents live in foreign countries.
61

2. He gave me a piece of advice. He gave me some pieces of advice. 3. He/She chose the representative from the company. They chose the representatives from companies. 4. The sky is blue and there isn't a cloud. The skies are blue and there aren't any clouds.

III. 5.
1. This device keeps track of all the accounting data. 2. These information are very helpful. 3. Those watches were bought in Sweden. 4. The sheep were grazing peacefully on the meadow. 5. No, I don't want to eat salmon, I hate all forms of fish. 6. How many times do I have to tell you to return all the books from the library on time. 7. All analyses returned the same result: our company is in a deep financial crisis.

III.6.
SINGULAR phenomenon radius formula crisis Ellipsis PLURAL phenomena radii formulae crises ellipses

III. 7.
1. The police __________ working on an important case for the past two months. b. have been 2. Linguists _____________ that physics _____________ impossible to comprehend. d. think, is 3. The news ____________ on at 7:30 every evening. b. is 4. I can't believe my brand new jeans ___________ torn. I only bought _________ yesterday! b. are, them 5. No, I'm not coming to play football with you because there ________ athletics on TV. a. is 6. Darts _________ a British pub game. c. is originally 7. The data I gave you ____________ important. Please, remember that the information ___________ strictly confidential. c. are, is

62

8. In the shop there ____________ several kinds of green tea. Which type ____________ the best? d. are, is 9. I've lost my scissors! Do you know where _________________? b. they are 10. John's advice _________ always welcome. Until now all pieces of advice he gave __________________ useful. a. is, have been

III. 8. 1. a. How many deers can you see in the woods? b. The media was very interested in the American elections c. The earnings of teachers are lower than in the UK. d. My lives's boring.
2. a. Not many types of fungi grow on meadows. b. Oh no, it's raining! My clothes is going to get wet. c. I can't find the contents in this book. Aren't they always at the back? d. The Indian people still lives on the plains of America. a. Measles are a serious child disease. b. The outskirts of cities are often inhabited by rich people. c. All my belongings has been lost in the fire. d. Firearms was easy to buy in the Wild West. a. Politics are a complex issue. b. The economics of a country is often influenced by political decisions. c. The cattle doesn't give enough milk. d. The remains of the king was returned to his homeland. a. Three weeks of holiday weren't long enough. b. One of our colleages have left our company. c. A great number of people are out of work. d. 80 dollars are too much for a pair of jeans.

3.

4.

5.

III. 9.
1. The group recommends selling the shares. b. The group members argue among themselves. 2. The committee meets every Thursday. d. The committee members express differing views. 3. To pass the exam exactly 60 percent is required. e. Nearly 80 percent of the deals we made last year were profitable. 4. Ten inches is the standard length of shoelaces. a. Inches are shorter than feet.

63

5. Sixteen dollars and four cents was the price of Joe's birthday present. c. Sixteen pound notes and four penny coins are in the jar.

III. 10.
1. The length of an average swimming pool is 75 metres. b. long 2. The committee rejected my suggestion because the expenses for my plan would have been too high. d. suggest 3. Those who cannot swim must always watch the depth of the pool. a. deep 4. I know that a CD isn't much of a birthday present, but it's the thought that counts. c. think 5. The architects were arguing about the height of the building. a. high 6. He visited all five continents in his life. d. live 7. The road workers increased the thickness of the concrete at some spots on the road. a. thick 8. As you grow older, your wisdom increases. Or was it 'your width'? b. wise, wide

64

6. Conditional Clauses
I. The Use
# The Zero Conditional - expresses conditions that are always true, with automatic or habitual results. If means when or whenever. Present Simple if Present Simple Ice melts if you heat it. # The First Conditional or Real Present is used to express a possible condition and a probable result. The future tense is not used in the condition. If can be replaced by unless or in case. a) Future if a) Present Simple b) Imperative if b) Present Simple c) Future if c) Present Perfect a) He will come if he has time. (Or: If he has time, he will come.) b) Please, call me if John arrives. (Or: If John arrives, please, call me.) c) He will give the book to you he has finished reading it. (If he has finished reading the book, he will give it to you.) # The Second Conditional or Unreal Present is used to express a hypothetical condition and its probable result. The condition is hypothetical because the speaker knows that what he or she is saying is improbable or impossible or contrary to known facts. (I would lend Peter the money if he needed it.) # The condition can be possible in theory, but improbable in practice. (If I were the President Id abolish taxation.) # It can express advice. (If I were you, Id have a rest.) In this case was sometimes changes into were (If I were you, if he were cleverer) # would can be replaced by another modal verb (could, might) # Note that the Past Simple tense of the Second Conditional is translated with the present tense in Serbian and the 'if' usually with the word 'da' (Da imam vremena, otisao bih.). In Hungarian we use the Present Conditional (lennk, volnk, lenntek, jnnnek) in both clauses. would/could/might if Past Simple I would help you solve this problem if I knew how to. # The Third Conditional or Unreal Past expresses imaginary situations about the past. The verb in the condition clause can be Past Perfect Simple or Past Perfect Continuous. would/could/might + have+ if Past Perfect past participle She would have passed the exam if she had studied more. or: If she had studied more, she would have passed the exam. The Past Perfect of the Third Conditional is translated with the past tense in Serbian and the 'if' with 'da' in the majority of cases (Da je vise ucila polozila bi ispit) in Serbian. In Hungarian, both clauses are translated with the past conditional tense (Ha tobbet tanult volna, lettette volna a vizsgat.) NOTE:: SECOND AND THIRD CONDITIONAL SENTENCES DO NOT CHANGE IN INDIRECT SPEECH.

65

II. Exercises
1. Make conditional sentences by joining the appropriate segments from the table and supplying the correct verb form given in brackets
If you suffer from malnutrition If you are wealthy If your bank account is frozen If there is high unemployment If there is high inflation If a state company is privatized If you are unpopular If something is a tragedy you ____________ (not can) take money out of the bank. many people ____________ (not like) you. prices _____________ (be) high and money ______________ (lose) its value. you ____________ (not have) enough to eat and you ______________ (become) ill. you _________ (feel) ashamed. it ______________ (be) very, very sad. it ________________ (be) sold by the government to private companies. you _____________(have) a lot of money.

2. Make Conditional sentences (use the Zero Conditional form) from the given words If / you / cut / yourself / very deeply / it / bleed.
If / we / mix / blue and yellow / we / get / green. If / you / be / young and in love / everything / seem / easy. If / your tap / drip / it / need / a new washer. Snow / melt / if / you / heat /it. If / we / overheat / oil / it / burn.

3. Finish these sentences using the First Conditional. Example: I'll write you if you ... => I'll write you if you write to me.
If you say yes, I_____________________, too. If you don't dance with her, I ____________________, either. If you _______________ (not ask) her, I won't ask her, either. If you ___________________ (stay) there, I_________________ , too. If you bring her a rose, I ___________________________ one, too.

4. Fill in the correct form of the verb (use the Second Conditional) I ________________ (not go) there even if you paid me.

66

If you brought her a present, she ____________________ (be) more kind to you. We _________________ (not bother) you if we _________________ (not have to). He could do anything if he only ___________________ (try). If you _____________ (be) the headmaster, how would you choose a new teacher?

5. Make Third Type Conditional sentences


What / you / answer / if / he had asked you? If I / hear / you / I would have answered. We could have helped you, if we / know/ what the problem was. He / not punish / us / if we had told him the truth. If you / not try / it once more, you wouldn't have succeeded.

6. Make Conditional sentences by joining the clauses given in the table If you don't do your work if we had known you needed one. We would have lent you a computer he will not become king. If he divorces her he got a job. They'd go for that trip if I'll complain to your boss. He'd leave school immediately if they really wanted to. 7. Choose the correct answer (a, b, c, or d)
He would have called if he ... had time b) have had time c) had had time d) had has time She will not give you your money back if... her bank account is frozen b) her bank account was frozen c) her bank account were frozen d) bank account had been frozen If we had won the Cup, we ... could had made a big celebration b) might have a big celebration c) would had a big celebration d) would have had a big celebration You could have bought these tools cheaper if you... have found them on sale b) had found them on sale c) would have bought them on sale d) had brought them on a sale If you take exercises regularly, you ... are feeling less fit b) will be feel very fit c) would felt fit d) will feel fit I wouldn't argue with him if I ... were he b) was she c) were you d) was they If you knew how to type, you ...

67

could worked in an office b) might be work here c) can work here d) could work in an office She could have complained if she ... had wanted to b) has had wanted to c) would have wanted to d) would want to

8. Read the following Conditional sentences and correct them if necessary


If you want to sleep here, I put up a camp bed in David's room for you We could have stopped for a cup of coffee if you had been tired. We go home if you will not behave well. The professor would have came tomorrow if he had felt healthy. I would have written the exercises if there were any in the book. I'll take a coat if it is still cold outside. If you had a bike with you, we could go on a bike tour together.

9. Make your own Conditional sentences from the given segments


If / he / have / computer / he / do / much work for school with it. II type The ferry / leave / at 6 / if / the sea / not be / rough I type I / come / if / you / need / help. III type We / not go / skiing / if / it / rain / tomorrow. I type If / it / be / warmer / we / go out / for our PE lesson. II type We / go / camping / if / you / get / a day off. II type If / there / be / a problem / with the engine / it / be / very expensive. I type If / someone / touch / this / it /explode. Zero Cond.

10. Translate these sentences using the rules of the conditional


Da nije tako stidljiva, bolje bi se oseala u drutvu. (Ha nem lenne olyan szgyenls, jobban rezn magt trsasgban.)

68

Bie zdraviji, ako radi vebe svaki dan. (Egszsgesebb leszel, ha tornzol minden nap.) Da sam imao sitno, mogao bi kupiti kartu u trafici. (Ha lett volna aprm, vehettem volna jegyet a trafikban.) Bolje bi govorio engleski, da neko pria sa njim svaki dan. (Jobban beszlne angolul, ha valaki minden nap beszelne vele.) Vie u zaraditi, ako radim u nonoj smeni. (Tbbet fogok keresni, ha jjeli mszakban dolgozom.) Da mu se ime nalazi u telefonskom imeniku, nazvali bi ga veeras. ( Ha benne lenne a neve a telefonknyvben, felhivnnk estre.) Ne bi mi pomogao, ni onda kada bih ga zamolila. (Nem segitene nekem, mg akkor sem ha megkrnm.) Da smo imali usisiva, mogli bismo pospremiti stan za sat vremena. (Ha lett volna porszivnk, feltakarithattuk volna a lakst egy ra alatt.) Nazovi me ako dou gosti. ( Hivj fel ha megjnnek a vendgek.) Ostavila bih posao da me ef ne plaa tako dobro. (Otthagynm a munkm, ha a fnkm nem fizetne olyan jl.) Da Englezi priaju sporije, lake bih ih razumeo. (Ha az angolok lassabban beszlnnek, knnyebben megrtenm ket.) Proitao bih oba toma, da sam imao vremena. (Elolvastam volna mind a kt ktetet, ha lett volna idm.) Ne bismo se izgubili da smo poneli kartu. (Nem tvednk volna el, ha vittnk volna magunkkal trkpet.) Da ljudi ne voze tako brzo, bilo bi manje saobraajnih nesrea na putevima. (Ha az emberek nem vezetnnek olyan gyorsan, kevesebb baleset lenne az utakon.)

69

III. Solutions
III. 1.
If you suffer from malnutrition, you don't have enough to eat and you become ill. If you are wealthy, you have a lot of money. If your bank account is frozen, you can't take money out of the bank. If there is high unemployment, you feel ashamed. If there is high inflation, prices are high and money loses its value. If a state company is privatized, it is sold by the government to private companies. If you are unpopular, many people don't like you. If something is a tragedy, it is very, very sad.

III. 2. If / you / cut / yourself / very deeply / it / bleed. If you cut youself very deeply, it bleeds. If / we / mix / blue and yellow / we / get / green. If we mix blue and yellow, we get green. If / you / be / young and in love / everything / seem / easy. If you are young and in love, everything seems easy. If / your tap / drip / it / need / a new washer. If your tap is dripping, it needs a new washer. Snow / melt / if / you / heat /it. Snow melts if you heat it. If / we / overheat / oil / it / burn. If we overheat oil, it burns. III. 3.
If you say yes, I will say yes, too. If you don't dance with her, I will not dance with her,either. If you don't ask her, I won't ask her, either. If you stay there, I will stay there, too. If you bring her a rose, I will bring her one, too.

III. 4.
I wouldn't go there even if you paid me. If you brought her a present, she would be more kind to you. We wouldn't bother you if we didn't have to. He could do anything if he only tried. If you were the headmaster, how would you choose a new teacher?

III. 5. What / you / answer / if / he had asked you? What would you have answered if he had asked you? If I / hear / you / I would have answered. If I had heard you, I would have answered. We could have helped you, if we / know/ what the problem was. We could have helped you, if we had known what the problem was.

70

He / not punish / us / if we had told him the truth. He wouldn't have punished us if we had told him the truth. If you / not try / it once more, you wouldn't have succeeded. If you hadn't tried it once more, you wouldn't have succeeded.

III. 6. If you don't do your work, I'll complain to your boss. We would have lent you a computer if we had known you needed one. If he divorces her, he will not become king. They'd go for that trip if they really wanted to. He'd leave school immediately if he got a job. III. 7.
He would have called if he ... c) had had time She will not give you your money back if... a) her bank account is frozen If we had won the Cup, we ... d) would have had a big celebration You could have bought these tools cheaper if you... b) had found them on sale If you take exercises regularly, you ... d) will feel fit I wouldn't argue with him if I ... c) were you If you knew how to type, you ... d) could work in an office She could have complained if she ... a) had wanted to

III. 8. If you want to sleep here, I put up a camp If you want to sleep here, I shall/will put bed in David's room for you up a camp bed in David's room for you. We could have stopped for a cup of coffee if you had been tired. correct We shall/will go home if you do not We go home if you will not behave well. behave well. The professor would have came tomorrow The professor would have come if he had felt healthy. tomorrow if he had felt healthy. I would have written the exercises if there I would have written the exercises if were any in the book. there had been any in the book. I'll take a coat if it is still cold outside. correct

71

If you had a bike with you, we could go on a bike tour together. correct

III. 9.
If / he / have / computer / he / do / much work for school with it. II type The ferry / leave / at 6 / if / the sea / not be / rough I type I / come / if / you / need / help. III type If he had a computer, he could/would do much work for school with it. The ferry will leave at 6 if the sea is not rough. I would/could have come if you had needed help. We shall/will not go skiing if it rains tomorrow. If it were warmer, we would/could go out for our PE lesson. We would go camping if you got a day off. If there is a problem with the engine, it will be very expensive.

We / not go / skiing / if / it / rain / tomorrow. I type If / it / be / warmer / we / go out / for our PE lesson. II type We / go / camping / if / you / get / a day off. II type If / there / be / a problem / with the engine / it / be / very expensive. I type If / someone / touch / this / it /explode. Zero Cond. If someone touches this, it explodes.

III. 10.
Da nije tako stidljiva, bolje bi se oseala u drutvu. (Ha nem lenne olyan szgyenls, jobban rezn magt trsasgban.) If she werent so shy, she would feel better in company. Bie zdraviji, ako radi vebe svaki dan. (Egszsgesebb leszel, ha tornzol minden nap.) You will be healthier if you do exercises every day. Da sam imao sitno, mogao bih kupiti kartu u trafici. (Ha lett volna aprm, vehettem volna jegyet a trafikban.) If I had some change, I could have bought a movie ticket. Bolje bi govorio engleski, da neko pria sa njim svaki dan. (Jobban beszlne angolul, ha valaki minden nap beszelne vele.) He would speak English better, if somebody talked with him every day. Vie u zaraditi, ako radim u nonoj smeni. (Tbbet fogok keresni, ha jjeli mszakban dolgozom.) I will earn more if I work in the night shift. Da mu se ime nalazi u telefonskom imeniku, nazvali bismo ga veeras. ( Ha benne lenne a neve a telefonknyvben, felhivnnk estre.) If his name were in the phone book, we would call him in the evening. Ne bi pomogao, ni onda kada bih ga zamolila. (Nem segitene mg akkor sem ha megkrnm.) He wouldnt help, even if I asked him. Da smo imali usisiva, mogli bismo pospremiti stan za sat vremena. (Ha lett volna porszivnk, feltakarithattuk volna a lakst egy ra alatt.) If we had had a vacuum cleaner, we could have cleaned the flat in an hours time. Nazovi me ako dou gosti. ( Hivj fel ha megjnnek a vendgek.) Call me if the guests arrive. Ostavila bih posao da me ef ne plaa tako dobro. (Otthagynm a munkm, ha a fnkm nem fizetne olyan jl.) I would leave my job if my boss didnt pay me well.

72

Da Englezi priaju sporije, lake bih ih razumeo. (Ha az angolok lassabban beszlnnek, knnyebben megrtenm ket.) If the English spoke more slowly, I would understand them better. Proitao bih oba toma, da sam imao vremena. (Elolvastam volna mind a kt ktetet, ha lett volna idm.) I would have read both volumes if I had had time. Ne bismo se izgubili da smo poneli kartu. (Nem tvednk volna el, ha vittnk volna magunkkal trkpet.) We wouldnt have got lost if we had taken a map with us. Da ljudi ne voze tako brzo, bilo bi manje saobraajnih nesrea na putevima. (Ha az emberek nem vezetnnek olyan gyorsan, kevesebb baleset lenne az utakon.) If people didnt drive so fast, there would be less accidents on the roads.

73

7. The Causative 'have'


I. The Use
This construction can be used to express sentences of the type I employed someone to do something for me. that is, instead of saying: I employed someone to clean my car we can say: I had my car cleaned. Note that this order of words, i.e. have + object + past participle (III or -ed) must be used as otherwise the meaning will be changed: He had cut his hair means that he cut it himself some time before the time of speaking (past perfect). SUBJECTTHE VERB 'HAVE' IN THE APPROPRIATE TENSE OBJECT PAST PARTICIPLE OF THE VERB Have can be used in various tenses - the rules of the use of tenses applies. For example: I am having my car painted (pres. continuous) I had my shoes made. (past simple ) I will have my tyres changed. (future) I have had my fence repaired. (pres. perfect) When have is used in the interrogative or negative the suitable auxiliary is used. For example: Are you having your car painted? / I am not having my car painted. Did you have your shoes made? / I didnt have my shoes made. Will you have your tyres changed? / I will not have my tyres changed. Have you had your fence repaired? / I havent had my fence repaired.

74

II. Exercises
1. Transform these sentences into the Causative have construction He has made his dinner. She is cooking lunch. They planted a tree in their garden. Was he cleaning his garage when you arrived? We will fill in the forms in ink. Did you dye your hair? Do you always bake these rolls? 2. Write sentences beginning with: She/He.. 1. best skirt / clean (Past Simple) 2. two trees / plant (Future Simple) 3. car / service (Future- Going to) 4. eyes / test (Past Simple interrogative) 5. film / develop (Past Perfect interrogative) 6. some furniture / deliver (Past Cont.) 7. tooth / extract (Present Cont.) 8. two teeth / fill (Past Simple, interrogative) 9. hair / do (Going to Future, neg.) 10. his new house / build (Past Simple interrogative) 11. text / translate (Past Simple, interrogative) 12. couch / upholster (Present Perfect interrogative) 13. form / fill out (Future- Going to) 14. books / bind (Present Cont.) 15. dogs / train (Present Simple) 16. bathroom / tile (Future Simple) 17. living room / carpet (Past Simple) 18. new dress / sew (Pres. Cont. interrogative) 19. roof / mend (Future Going to) 20. skirt / shorten (Past Simple) 3. Construct sentences using the Causative have based on the given segments Before we moved in, we... 1. popraviti krov (megcsinltatni a tett)
2. uvesti centralno grejanje (bevezetni a kzponti ftst) 3. staviti ploice u kupatilo (kicsempzni a frdszobt) 4. promeniti bravu na ulaznim vratima (kicserlni a zrat a bejrati ajtn) 5. popraviti ogradu (megcsinltatni a kertst)

75

6. napraviti nov kuhinjski nametaj (j konyhabtort csinltatni) 7. staviti nove itisone u dnevnu i spavau sobu (j padlsznyeget tenni a nappaliba s a hlszobba) 8. oiati travu u dvoritu (levgni a fvet az udvarban) 9. posaditi cvee ispred kue (virgokat ltetni a hz el) 10. ugraditi alarm (riasztt beszerelni)

4. Finish these sentences using the Causative 'have'


She hasnt made these curtains, she We arent painting our apartment, we They werent cleaning their carpets, He didnt fix his bike; I hadnt sharpened these knives; We aren't going to tile the bathroom; ... The Browns won't wash their car; ...

5. Whats wrong in these Causative have constructions?


I having cakes made now. Why you have your hair cut so short yesterday? When will he these trees cut? How often they have carpets cleaned? I havent wash my car since last December. Will she have the doors paint next summer? Have you have the stuff taken to the cellar?

6. Mr. Harris is the owner of a large multinational company. He is interested in buying a new company (D&F) overseas, so he tells his marketing managers: Mr. Thomas, _________ D&Fs bank account __________ (check) ! Mr. Brown, ___________ their property _________________ (estimate)! Miss Biggs, ___________ the draft agreement _____________ (translate)!
Having bought the company Mr. Harris tells his managers: Mr. Bloomdale, ___________ D&Fs production program ___________ (modernize)! Mrs. Black, ______________ mthe companys old machines ______________ (overhaul)!

7. Construct questions using a Causative have based on the given answers.


76

_____________________________________________________? Because I cant cut the branches myself. _____________________________________________________? Because my computer wouldnt work. ______________________________________________________? Because his coat was too dirty to wear. ______________________________________________________? Because I am too busy to translate the contract at the moment. ______________________________________________________? Because we had a puncture.

8. Write the appropriate numbers into the boxes and then construct Causative have sentences with the given segments

I ________________ the boot ___________________ (clean) yesterday. We ______________ the blinkers _________________ (check) tomorrow. They _____________ the headlight ________________ (change) soon. She ______________ a spare wheel _______________ (inflate) the other day. He _______________ the bumper _________________ (straighten) recently. I _________________ the number plate _______________ (remove) now. Tom _____________ the wheel ________________ (change) when we came. He _______________ the bonnet ________________ (open) before I arrived. John always __________ the sidelight ______________ (check) before a trip. We __________________ the tyres ___________________ (fix) last week.

9. Use the Causative have construction to complete these sentences He _______________ the door hinges _______________ (change) next Saturday. They ____________ the leg of the coffee table ___________ (repair) at this moment. He ____________ never ___________ any of his teeth ___________ (fill). They ______________ their computer __________________ (upgrade) soon. She _______________ her scanner _______________ (install) when I arrived. They _____________ their flat ____________ (clean) before they left to the seaside. _______ you ____________ your carpets ______________ (deep-clean) now? ___________ they ______________ their curtains ____________ (make) next week?
77

___________ you _____________ your computer______________ (repair) recently? ____________ he always __________ his suit ______________ (clean) after a party?

10. Use the appropriate form of the verb given in the middle column to make Causative have constructions. Pay attention to the right use of tenses.
He They She We I his bike their windows her lock our dresses my eyes /repair/ /clean/ /change/ /sew/ /check/ now. when we came. lately. last week. before I went abroad.

11.Make sentences using the Causative have construction Your hair is too long. (you/ought to/hair/cut) She doesnt like to wear clip-on earrings, so she/ears/pierce/tomorrow. Their central heating isnt good. They/fireplace/build/ in their living room/soon. We were too tired to cook dinner last night, so we/food/deliver. He liked the painting but he didnt like the frame, so he/it/reframe/before he hung it on the wall of his study. My fridge is still not working. I just/couldnt/it/fix. He parked on the wrong spot. The police/his car/ tow away/now. Their walls are wet. They/must/them/insulated.

78

III. Solutions
III. 1.
He has made his dinner. He has had his dinner made. She is cooking lunch. She is having her lunch cooked. They planted a tree in their garden. They had a tree planted in their garden. Was he cleaning his garage when you arrived? Was he having his garage cleaned when you arrived? We will fill in the forms in ink. We will have the forms filled in ink. Did you dye your hair? Did you have your hair dyed? Do you always bake these rolls? Do you always have these rolls baked?

III. 2.
1. best skirt / clean (Past Simple) She had her best skirt cleaned. 2. two trees / plant (Future Simple) He will have two trees planted. 3. car / service (Future- Going to) She is going to have her car serviced. 4. eyes / test (Past Simple interrogative) Did she have her eyes tested? 5. film / develop (Past Perfect interrogative) Had he had the film developed? 6. some furniture / deliver (Past Cont.) He was having some furniture delivered. 7. tooth / extract (Present Cont.) He is having his tooth extracted. 8. two teeth / fill (Past Simple, interrogative.) Did he have his two teeth filled? 9. hair / do (Going to Future neg.) She's not going to have her hair done. 10. his new house / build (Past Simple interrogative.) Did he have his new house built. 11. text / translate (Past Simple, interrogative) Did she have the text translated? 12. couch / upholster (Present Perfect, interrogative) Have you had the couch upholstered? 13. form / fill out (Future- Going to) He is going to have the form filled out. 14. books / bind (Present Cont.) She's having the books bound. 15. dogs / train (Present Simple)

79

He has his dogs trained. 16. bathroom / tile (Future Simple) She will have the bathroom tiled. 17. living room / carpet (Past Simple) He had his living room carpeted. 18. new dress / sew (Pres. Cont. interrogative) Is she having a new dress sewn? 19. roof / mend (Future Going to) He is going to have the roof mended. 20. skirt / shorten (Past Simple) She had her skirt shortened.

III. 3. Before we moved in, we Popraviti krov (megcsinltatni a tett) We had the roof repaired/mended/fixed. Uvesti centralno grejanje (bevezetni a kzponti ftst) We had central heating installed. Staviti ploice u kupatilo (kicsempzni a frdszobt) We had the bathroom tiled. Promeniti bravu na ulaznim vratima (kicserlni a zrat a bejrati ajtn) We had the lock changed on the front door. Popraviti ogradu (megcsinltatni a kertst) We had the fence mended. Napraviti nov kuhinjski nametaj (j konyhabtort csinltatni) We had a new furniture made in our kitchen. staviti nove itisone u dnevnu i spavau sobu (j padlsznyeget tenni a nappaliba s a hlszobba) We had the living-room and bedroom carpeted. oiati travu u dvoritu (levgni a fvet az udvarban) We had the grass cut in the yard. posaditi cvee ispred kue (virgokat ltetni a hz el) We had some flowers planted in front of the house. ugraditi alarm (riasztt beszerelni) We had an alarm installed. III. 4.
She hasnt made these curtains, she had them made. We arent painting our apartment, we had it painted. They werent cleaning their carpets, they had them cleaned. He didnt fix his bike, he had it fixed at the service. I hadnt sharpened these knives; I had had them sharpened. We aren't going to tile the bathroom; we are going to have it tiled. The Browns won't wash their car; they will have it washed.

III. 5.
I having cakes made now. I am having the cakes made now. Why you have your hair cut so short yesterday? Why did you have your hair cut so short yesterday?

80

When will he these trees cut? When will he have these trees cut? How often they have carpets cleaned? How often do they have their carpets cleaned? I havent wash my car since last December. I havent had my car washed since last December. Will she have the doors paint next summer? Will she have the doors painted next summer? Have you have the stuff taken to the cellar? Have you had the stuff taken to the cellar?

III. 6.
Mr. Thomas, haveD&Fs bank account checked (check) ! Mr. Brown, have their property estimated (estimate)! Miss Biggs, have the draft agreement translated (translate)! Having bought the company Mr. Harris tells his managers: Mr. Bloomdale, have D&Fs production program modernized (modernize)! Mrs. Black, have the companys old machines overhauled (overhaul)!

III. 7. Why did you have the branches cut? Because I cant cut the branches myself. Why did you have your computer repaired? Because my computer wouldnt work. Why did he have his coat dry-cleaned? Because his coat was too dirty to wear. Why are you having the text translated? Because I am too busy to translate the contract at the moment. Why did you have your tyres repaired? Because we had a puncture. III. 8.
I had the boot cleaned (clean) yesterday. We will have the blinkers checked (check) tomorrow. They are going to have the headlight changed (change) soon. She had a spare wheel inflated (inflate) the other day. He have had the bumper straightened (straighten) recently. I are having the number plate removed (remove) now. Tom was having the wheel changed (change) when we came. He had had the bonnet opened (open) before I arrived. John always has the sidelight checked (check) before a trip. We had the tyres fixed (fix) last week.

III. 9 He will have the door hinges changed next Saturday. They are having the leg of the coffee table repaired at this moment. He has never had any of his teeth filled. They are going to have their computer upgraded soon. She was having her scanner installed when I arrived. They had had their flat cleaned before they left to the seaside. Are you having your carpets deep cleaned now? Will they have their curtains made next week?

81

Have you had your computer repaired recently? Does he always have his suit cleaned after a party?

III. 10 He is having his bike repaired now. They were having their windows cleaned when we came. She has had her lock changed lately. We had our dresses sewn last week. I had had my eyes checked before I went abroad. III. 11
Your hair is too long. (you/ought to/hair/cut)- You ought to have your hair cut. She doesnt like to wear clip-on earrings, so she/ears/pierce/tomorrow. She will have her ears pierced tomorrow. Their central heating isnt good. They/fireplace/build/ in their living room/soon. They are going to have a fireplace built in their living room soon. We were too tired to cook dinner last night, so we/food/deliver. We had the food delivered. He liked the painting but he didnt like the frame, so he/it/reframe/before he hung it on the wall of his study. He had had it reframed before he hung it on the wall of his study. My fridge is still not working. I just/couldnt/it/fix. I just couldnt have it fixed. He parked on the wrong spot. The police/his car/ tow away/now. The police are having his car towed away now. Their walls are wet. They/must/them/insulated. They must have them insulated.

82

8. The Passive Voice


I. The Use
# The passive of an active tense is formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. The verb takes a passive form. The subject of the active verb becomes the agent of the passive verb. The agent is very often not mentioned. When it is mentioned it is preceded by by and placed at the end of the sentence. # The passive is used when 1) it is not necessary to mention the doer of the action as it is obvious who he is/was/will be. (The streets arent swept every day.) 2) we dont know, or dont know exactly or have forgotten who did the action (My car has been moved. He was killed in the war.) 3) the subject of the active verb would be general (people, one, they, you, everybody, somebody). Example: This sort of advertisement is seen every day. ; 4) we are more interested in the action than the person who does it (The house next door has been sold.) Active tenses and their passive equivalents: Active Passive Present Simple am/ is/ are +past participle Past Simple was/ were + past participle Present Continuous am, is, are + being + past participle Past Continuous was / were + being + past participle Present Perfect have/ has +been+ past participle Past Perfect had + been + past participle Future Simple will + be + past participle 'Going to' Future am, is, are +going to+ be+ past participle Modals + infinitive modal + be+ past participle

83

II. Exercises
1. Choose the correct form 1. Everybody ___ by the terrible news yesterday. a. shocked b. was shocked
2. Mr. Green ___ to his companys celebration. a. has been working b. has been invited 3. Not much ___ about the incident since that time. a. has said b. has been said 4. A new book ___ by that company next year. a. will publish b. will be published 5. A prize ___ to whoever solves this equation. a. will be giving b. will be given 6. When the manager arrived, the problem ___ . a. had already been solved. b. had already solved.

2. Transform the following sentences according to the instructions in brackets 1. James chose Kathy to be his assistant. (Going to Future Passive) 2. Every new colleague in the office is helped by Michael. (Present Perfect Active) 3. A journalist will take hundreds of photos an important story. (Past Continuous Passive) 4. The article was written by my friend. (Present Continuous Active) 5. Many fine sites are hosted by Software Workshop (Future Simple Active) 3. Fill in the gap with the correct auxiliary verb: do/does, have/has, or is/are 1. Where _______English spoken? 2. _________you study English at school? 3. _________ he going to get up soon? 4. Which foreign language _______ you taken at your school? 5. We _______ done our homework at school. 6. She _______ gone to Paris. 7. All the money ________ gone from the safe.

84

4. Find the correct passive version of the active sentence


1. He may forget the password. a. The password may be forgot. b. The password may been forgot. c. The password may have been forgotten. d. The password may be forgotten. 2. He should have finished the assignment. a. The assignment should have been finished. b. The assignment should be finished. c. The assignment should had been finished. d. The assignment should have been finish. 3. John has started a project. a. The project started by John. b. The project has been started by John. c. The project was started by John. d. The project has started by John. 4. They ought to change the law. a. The law ought to been changed. b. The law ought been change. c. The law ought to be changed. d. The law ought to have been changed. 5. We might see a comet tonight. a. A comet might could be seen tonight. b. A comet might be saw tonight. c. A comet might be seen tonight. d. A comet might have been seen tonight. 6. She was reading a book by Hemingway. a. A book by Hemingway has being read by her. b. A book by Hemingway was being read by her. c. A book by Hemingway is being read by her. d. A book by Hemingway was read by her. 7. He had seen the movie before. a. The movie had been seen by him before. b. The movie had seen by him before. c. The movie was seen by him before. d. The movie is seen by him before. 8. Haven't they painted the building yet? a. Hadn't the building been painted yet? b. Hasn't the building been painted yet? c. Isn't the building painted yet? d. Wasn't the building painted yet?

85

5. Complete the questions using the given verbs: watch, take, fly, make, study, travel, invent 1.One hundred years ago, did people __________________________________? No, the first plane was flown across the Channel by the Wright brothers in 1909.
2. _____________ telephone calls in the 19th century? Yes. The first telephone call was made by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. 3. ___________ photographs _______________ only in the 20th century? No, sooner. The first photograph was taken by Louis Daguerre in the 19th century. 4. Since when _______________________________ by train? The first locomotive train was built by Richard Trevithick in 1804. 5.When ________________ start _____________ television? The first television picture was transmitted by John Logie Baird in 1925. 6.Who ____________________________________ by? The first gramophone or record player was invented by Thomas Edison in 1878. 7. In the _____________ century, _______________ scientists ______________ the stars? Yes, the first reflector telescope was built and developed by sir Isaac Newton in 1607.

6. Make full sentences from the these segments, use Present Simple or Past Simple Passive 1. Grapes \ wine \ make 2. America \ discover \ 1492. 3. Spaghetti \ boiling water \ cook 4. Mona Lisa \ Leonardo da Vinci \ paint 5. Football \ every country \ play 6. Racehorses \ jockeys \ ride 7. Fiat cars \ Italy \ make 8. we \ meet \ at the airport \ tour guide \ after the flight 7. Transform the sentences from Active into Passive
1. Scientists have brought radiation under control. 2. People did not understand its deadly nature in the past. 3. Doctors use radioisotopes for treating certain kinds of cancer. 4. In 1841 the great inventor of vulcanization, Charles Goodyear, manufactured the first rubberized cloth. 5. The clerk has erased all the data from these files. 6. They will exhibit a copy of the Charter in the gallery.

86

8. Choose a suitable active or passive verb form to complete these sentences 1. This problem _________________ at the last meeting. 2. The factory ______________ thousands of computers every year and most of them ___________________ (export) 3. In 1964 Martin Luther King ___________________ the Nobel Prize. In 1968 he _________________ in Memphis, Tennessee. 4. Many computer systems _________________ at Microsoft. 5. The sales manager ____________________ at this meeting by the board of executives about the decreasing sales figures. 9. Show your Passive knowledge! Choose the correct answer
1. Microsoft was ... a. invented in Lyon, France b. founded by Bill Gates c. install on my computer last week d. crashed as soon as it was installed 2. Penicillin was a. discovered by Alexandar Fleming b. invented by Albert Szentgyorgyi c. use by doctors world wide d. saved many lives 3. The BBC is ... a. invented in Lyon, France b. broadcast in English c. directed by London d. written by Shakespeare 4. 'The Times' has always been a. written by Charles Dickens b. come from England c. printed with black and white d. read by millions 5. The cinema was ... a. discovered in Hollywood b. invented in Lyon, France c. starred James Dean d. won by England 6. 'David Coperfield' was ... a. directed by Francis Ford Coppola b. discovered by magic

87

c. written by Charles Dickens d. won by England 7. The 1966 World Cup was ... a. won by England b. commented by Hemingway c. organized in Sidney in 2000 d. lost the match by Germany.

10. Rewrite these passive sentences into active


1. Can these difficulties be overcome soon? 2. His bail was set at $250,000. 3. He has been elected president. 4. I am expected at my office around 8. 5. His book was published last December. 6. Are cameras allowed to be used inside the exhibition hall? 7. During the Second World War famous sculptures, vases, paintings and things from all over the world were hidden in the London Underground. 8. He was being questioned by the police all morning. 9. This university team had been awarded the first prize in basketball

11. Complete the following story using the suitable active or passive verb forms Pumas are large, cat-like animals which _________________ (find) in America. When reports _____________________ (come) into London Zoo that a wild puma ______________________ (spot-Past Perfect) forty-five miles south of London, they _____________________ (not take) seriously. However, as the evidence ____________________ (begin) to accumulate, experts from the zoo ___________ (feel) obliged to investigate. The hunt for the puma _________________ (start) in a small village. Experts __________________ (confirm) that a puma _______________ (not attack-Future) a human being unless it _____________ (corner). The search ________________ (prove) difficult, for the puma _________________ (observe) at one place in the morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening. Wherever it_______________ (go) it _______________ (leave) behind a trail of dead deer and small animals. Paw prints _______________ (see) in a number of places and puma fur __________________ (find) clinging to bushes. As no pumas _______________ (report-Past Perfect) missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow ________________ (manage) to escape. The hunt _________________ (go on) for several weeks but the puma ___________________ (not catch). 12. Find the matching active - passive pairs 1. The company adopted some new regulations 2. The secretary will book a double-room for the guests. 3. Did he offer them a part-time job in his company?
88

4. The assistant installed the new computer. 5. First we must open a new file. 6. Robots are already used in many fields of technology 7. The engineers are working on an international project. 8. Our company has already opened two branches. 9. The supplier will send the components as soon as possible. 10. We sell this electronic equipment all over the world. 11. The release of CO2 into the atmosphere is gradually destroying the tropical rainforest 12. We guarantee these devices 13. Hydroelectric energy produces more than 20% of the world's electric power 14. You can buy these switches everywhere. 15. Will the costs of transportation be included in the price? a. Finally, the new computer we had been waiting for so long was installed. b. Between 20 and 30 per cent of the world's electric power is produced by hydroelectric energy. c. You don't have to go to a special store, these switches can be bought everywhere. d. Please, call our supplier and ask them if they will include the costs of transportation in the price. e. As soon as the new manager had arrived, new regulations were adopted. f. Since our new store in London, two new branches have been opened in Oxford. g. Were they offered a part-time job or will they work freelance? h. Because we follow international standards with all our products, this electronic equipment is sold all over the world. i. You can return the television set to the store if it should break down in the first year. All these devices are guaranteed. j. Double-rooms will be booked for all the guests of the conference at the Hilton Hotel. k. What's the first step when you want to create your own document? A new file must be opened. l. 'The tropical rainforests are gradually being destroyed by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere' a leading environmentalist organization announced yesterday. m. Already scientists use robots in many fields of technology where they perform difficult tasks with great efficiency. n. At the moment an international project is being worked on to decrease air pollution in the industrial centres of Europe. o. According to the contract the components will be supplied as soon as possible, but certainly within two weeks of delivery.

89

III. Solutions
III. 1. 1. Everybody ___ by the terrible news yesterday. b. was shocked
2. Mr. Green ___ to his companys celebration. a. has been invited 3. Not much ___ about the incident since that time. b. has been said 4. A new book ___ by that company next year. b. will be published 5. A prize ___ to whoever solves this equation. b. will be given 6. When the manager arrived, the problem ___ . a. had already been solved.

III. 2.
1. Kathy is going to be chosen by James to be his new assistant. James chose Kathy to be his assistant. (Going to Future Passive) 2. Michael has helped every new colleague in the office. Every new colleague in the office is helped by Michael. (Present Perfect Active) 3. Hundreds of photos were being taken by a journalist for an important story. A journalist will take hundreds of photos an important story. (Past Continuous Passive) 4. My friend is writing the article. The article was written by my friend. (Present Continuous Active) 5. Software workshops will host many fine sites. Many fine sites are hosted by Software Workshop (Future Simple Active)

III. 3. 1. Where is English spoken? 2. Do you study English at school? 3. Is he going to get up soon? 4. Which foreign language have you taken at your school? 5. We have done our homework at school. 6. She has gone to Paris. 7. All the money is gone from the safe. III. 4. 1. He may forget the password. d. The password may be forgotten.
2. He should have finished the assignment. a. The assignment should have been finished.

90

3. John has started a project. b. The project has been started by John. 4. They ought to change the law. c. The law ought to be changed. 5. We might see a comet tonight. c. A comet might be seen tonight. 6. She was reading a book by Hemingway. b. A book by Hemingway was being read by her. 7. He had seen the movie before. a. The movie had been seen by him before. 8. Haven't they painted the building yet? b. Hasn't the building been painted yet?

III. 5.
1.One hundred years ago, did people fly an airplane? No, the first plane was flown across the Channel by the Wright brothers in 1909. 2. Did people make telephone calls in the 19th century? Yes. The first telephone call was made by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. 3. Were photographs taken only in the 20th century? No, sooner. The first photograph was taken by Louis Daguerre in the 19th century. 4. Since when have people been travelling by train? The first locomotive train was built by Richard Trevithick in 1804. 5.When did people start watching television? The first television picture was transmitted by John Logie Baird in 1925. 6.Who was the first record player invented by? The first gramophone or record player was invented by Thomas Edison in 1878. 7. In the seventeenth century, could scientists study the stars? Yes, the first reflector telescope was built and developed by sir Isaac Newton in 1607.

III. 6.
1. Wine is made of grapes. Grapes \ wine \ make 2. America was discovered in 1492. America \ discover \ 1492. 3. Spaghetti is cooked in boiling water. Spaghetti \ boiling water \ cook 4. Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. Mona Lisa \ Leonardo da Vinci \ paint 5. Football is played in every country. Football \ every country \ play 6. Racehorses are ridden by jockeys. Racehorses \ jockeys \ ride 7. Fiat cars are made in Italy. Fiat cars \ Italy \ make

91

8. After the flight we were met at the airport by our tour guide. we \ meet \ at the airport \ tour guide \ after the flight

III. 7. 1. Scientists have brought radiation under control. Radiation has been brought under control. 2. People did not understand its deadly nature in the past. Its deadly nature wasn't understood in the past. 3. Doctors use radioisotopes for treating certain kinds of cancer. Radioisotopes are used for treating certain kinds of cancer. 4. In 1841 the great inventor of vulcanization, Charles Goodyear, manufactured the first rubberized cloth. The first rubberized cloth was manufactured in 1841 by the great inventor of vulcanization, Charles Goodyear. 5. The clerk has erased all the data from these files. All the data have been erased from the files. 6. They will exhibit a copy of the Charter in the gallery. A copy of the Charter will be exhibited in the gallery. III. 8.
1. This problem was discussed at the last meeting. 2. The factory produces thousands of computers every year and most of them are exported. 3. In 1964 Martin Luther King was awarded the Nobel Prize. In 1968 he was killed in Memphis, Tennessee. 4. Many computer systems are created at Microsoft. 5. The sales manager is being questioned at this meeting by the board of executives about the decreasing sales figures.

III. 9.
1. Microsoft was ... b. founded by Bill Gates 2. Penicillin was a. discovered by Alexandar Fleming 3. The BBC is ... b. broadcast in English 4. 'The Times' has always been d. read by millions 5. The cinema was ... b. invented in Lyon, France 6. 'David Coperfield' was ... c. written by Charles Dickens 7. The 1966 World Cup was ...

92

a. won by England

III. 10.
1. Can these difficulties be overcome soon? Can we overcome these difficulties soon? 2. His bail was set at $250,000. The judge set his bail at $250,000. 3. He has been elected president. The people elected him president. 4. I am expected at my office around 8. They expect me at my office around 8. 5. His book was published last December. Longman published his book last December. 6. Are cameras allowed to be used inside the exhibition hall? Are we allowed to use cameras inside the exhibition hall? 7. During the Second World War famous sculptures, vases, paintings and things from all over the world were hidden in the London Underground. They hid famous sculptures, vases, paintings and things from all over the world in the London Underground during the Second World War. 8. He was being questioned by the police all morning. The police were questioning him all morning. 9. This university team had been awarded the first prize in basketball. The judges have awarded the university team the first prize.

III. 11. Pumas are large, cat-like animals which can be found in America. When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they weren't taken seriously. However, as the evidence was beginning to accumulate, experts from the zoo felt obliged to investigate. The hunt for the puma started in a small village. Experts confirmed that a puma wouldnt/wont attack a human being unless it was/is cornered. The search proved to be difficult, for the puma was observed at one place in the morning and at another place twenty miles away in the evening. Wherever it went it left behind a trail of dead deer and small animals. Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes. As no pumas had been reported missing from any zoo in the country, this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape. The hunt had gone on for several weeks but the puma hadn't been caught. III. 12.
1. The company adopted some new regulations e. As soon as the new manager had arrived, new regulations were adopted. 2. The secretary will book a double-room for the guests. j. Double-rooms will be booked for all the guests of the conference at the Hilton Hotel. 3. Did he offer them a part-time job in his company? g. Were they offered a part-time job or will they work freelance? 4. The assistant installed the new computer. a. Finally, the new computer we had been waiting for so long was installed. 5. First we must open a new file. k. What's the first step when you want to create your own document? A new file must be opened.

93

6. Robots are already used in many fields of technology m. Already scientists use robots in many fields of technology where they perform difficult tasks with great efficiency. 7. The engineers are working on an international project. n. At the moment an international project is being worked on to decrease air pollution in the industrial centres of Europe. 8. Our company has already opened two branches. f. Since our new store in London, two new branches have been opened in Oxford. 9. The supplier will send the components as soon as possible. o. According to the contract the components will be supplied as soon as possible, but certainly within two weeks of delivery. 10. We sell this electronic equipment all over the world. h. Because we follow international standards with all our products, this electronic equipment is sold all over the world. 11. The release of CO2 into the atmosphere is gradually destroying the tropical rainforest. l. 'The tropical rainforests are gradually being destroyed by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere' a leading environmentalist organization announced yesterday. 12. We guarantee these devices i. You can return the television set to the store if it should break down in the first year. All these devices are guaranteed. 13. Hydroelectric energy produces more than 20% of the world's electric power b. Between 20 and 30 per cent of the world's electric power is produced by hydroelectric energy. 14. You can buy these switches everywhere. c. You don't have to go to a special store, these switches can be bought everywhere. 15. Will the costs of transportation be included in the price? d. Please, call our supplier and ask them if they will include the costs of transportation in the price.

94

9. Question Tags
I. The Use
These are short additions to sentences, asking for agreement or confirmation. When using tag questions, watch for 4 points: * What tense is the verb? *What kind of verb is it? (to be/other verbs) *Is the sentence affirmative or negative? *Did you change the pronoun? After negative statements we use the ordinary interrogative: You didnt see him, did you?; That isnt Tom, is it? After affirmative statements we use the negative interrogative: Peter helped you, didnt he? She was there, wasnt she? Statements containing negative words such as: neither, no, none, nobody, nothing, scarcely, hardly, barely, seldom are treated as negative statements and followed by an ordinary interrogative form: No salt is added, is it? Peter hardly ever goes out, does he? When the subject is anyone, anybody, everybody, somebody, no one, neither, etc. we use the pronoun they as subject of the tag: I dont suppose anyone will volunteer, will they? No one would object, will they?

95

II. Exercises
I. Match the question tags with their sentences 1. Jack was happy, a. was he? 2. He wasn't satisfied, b. wasn't he?
3. Susan has called, 4. She hasn't visited you, 5. It wasn't warm today, 6. It had rained in the night, 7. They were busy, 8. They don't belong here, 9. You and I didn't play tennis, 10. We weren't angry, 11.You will come to the party, 12. You're not surprised, 13. I'm tired, 14. You've resigned, c. hasn't she? d. has she? e. hadn't it? f. was it? g. did we? h. were we? i. weren't they? j. do they? k. haven't you? l. aren't I? m. won't you? n. are you?

2. Choose the correct question tag. 1. You really wanted that job, .......... ? would you a) b) didn't you wouldn't you c) d) do you 2. He saw that play on Broadway, .......... ? is he a) b) won't he didn't he c) d) doesn't he 3. You know that's right, .......... ? would you a) b) wouldn't you don't you c) d) didn't you 4. He will come to the meeting,.......... ? is he a) b) did he doesn't he c) d) won't he 5. After all this time you would think he'd forgotten to call, .......... ? didn't you a) b) wouldn't you don't you c)

96

d)

do you

3. Match the sentences with their question tags 1. He's waiting for you, a. weren't they? 2. There are seven days in a week, b. is it? 3. I'm not late, c. am I? 4. These colors are pretty, d. weren't there? 5. Her reasons weren't very good, e. isn't he? 6. The doctor wasn't in his office, f. were they? 7. The lights were very bright, g. isn't it? 8. The idea is interesting, h. aren't there? 9. There were a lot of books on the table, i. aren't they? 10. The hole isn't deep, j. was he? 4. Find the right answer! 1. Your parents work,...........? A. do you B. don't you C. don't they D. doesn't he
2. You haven't done the homework, ................ ? A. haven't you B. have you C. did you D. didn't you 3. This is your pen, ...................? A. are you B. aren't you C. isn't it D. is this 4. John and Mary didn't see the film, .................? A. did they B. didn't they C. do they D. did you 5. Mrs. Green, our secretary was ill yesterday, .................... ? A. wasn't he B. was he C. did she D. wasn't she 6. You won't forget to arrange the meeting,................. ? A. won't you B. will you
97

C. do you D. didn't you 7. Margaret comes from England,......................? A. isn't she B. does she C. is she D. doesn't she 8. Your partners can't work without the files,............... ? A. can they B. can't they C. aren't they D. are they 9. You could use the computer since a young age, .................. ? A. didn't you B. could you C. did you D. couldn't you 10. This exercise was easy, ....................? A. isn't it B. wasn't it C. is it D. was it

5. Be creative! Let's say the solutions to the previous exercise are the following: 1.A 2.D 3.A 4.C 5.B 6.A 7.B 8.B 9.C 10.A Now you have to add correct sentences to the question tags
1. ......................................................................................., do you? 2. ......................................................................................., didn't you? 3. ......................................................................................., are you? 4. ......................................................................................., do they? 5. ......................................................................................., was he? 6. ......................................................................................., won't you? 7. ......................................................................................., does she? 8. ......................................................................................., can't they? 9. ......................................................................................., did you? 10. ....................................................................................., isn't it?

6. Match the sentences with their question tags 1. You can't answer all the questions, a. didn't he? 2. You will help me copy the files, b. will you? 3. He believes you, c. can't you? 4. The teacher should explain the lesson, d. doesn't he? 5. The boy didn't know the lesson, e. can you?

98

6. Bob frightened you, 7. You can speak English well, 8. She couldn't arrive on time, 9. You won't tell him, 10. He shouldn't do it,

f. should he? g. could she? h. won't you? i. did he? j. shouldn't he?

7. Try to find the correct question tag and ending to the given sentences 1. Gerald raised the boy his own, 2. He won't make any more trouble, 3. People still enjoy the Beatles' songs, 4. You didn't leave the gas on, 5. If John leaves, we'll be in trouble, 6. Nobody is indispensible, 7. There's hardly anything that you can do, 8. The car pollutes the environment, 9. Mr. Pritchard has been to Scotland, 10.The trip will be quite expensive,
a. won't we? Who will teach mathematics then? b. is there? We just have to wait for some news. c. won't it? But I still think that Paris is worth any money. d. hasn't he? How did he like Edinburgh? e. did you? If you're not sure, better go back and check the stove. f. didn't he? Yes, his wife died when the son was two years old. g. will he? I hope the punishment was harsh enough. h. don't they? Their songs are timeless. i. doesn't it? You should ride a bike more often. j. are they? One day you have a good job, next day you're on the street.

8. Choose the correct question tag (a or b), then add the right answer to the first sentence (# or *) 1. I am a good student ,___? a. I am? b. aren't I? # Yes, I can see from your grades. * Of course, you never pass any exams!
2. Patrick is your boss, ___? a. doesn't he? b. isn't he? # Not yet, but he'll be nominated next week. * Yes, she was last week. 3. Kate isn't a doctor, ___? a. she is? b. is she?
99

# I met her at the post office * No, she works as a secretary. 4. Roosevelt and Kennedy were American presidents, ___? a. aren't they? b. weren't they? # Yes, and they both lived in the 20th century. * Now, Bush is the president since 2001. 5. James is at work right now, ___? a. aren't he? b. isn't he? # He'll be home by 6 p.m. * He isn't working at lunchtime. 6. I'm not near the city centre, ___? a. am I? b. amn't I? # No, that is not near here. * No, you have to drive another two miles. 7. You and your accountant are busy right now, ____ ? a. aren't we? b. aren't you? # Yes, we are still working on some bills from last month. * No, don't make us coffee. 8. It's windy today, ___? a. isn't it? b. aren't they? # Yes, too windy, so they can't go sailing. * No, I didn't take my umbrella.

9. Use the correct question tag or tense in the following sentences It was six o'clock when you called me,..........................? We will drive our new car to the seaside,...........................? The guests did not pay the hotel bill,................................? John was five in December,................................? You have received our letter,.............................? He hasn't come yet,...................................? They did not speak English in class,..........................? He is going to exhibit his new products at the fair,.............................? Their motorcycle has broken down,.................................? The kids had spent a week in London,...........................? You...........................(sign) the papers, haven't you? She always.............................(complain), doesn't she? They...........................(be) here, had they? You............................(show) them round, won't you? They ...........................(get on) well with each other, don't they?

100

You.........................(like) operas, do you? He.......................(help) you, didn't he? They..........................(mend) the car yesterday, weren't they? He ...........................(listen) to her, is he? They.........................(find) their notes, didn't they? They.......................(leave) early yesterday morning, .......................? You........................(come) back soon, ....................................? He.........................(not help) us now,.................................? They.......................(not study) all day yesterday,............................? The students.......................(pass) their exams a week ago,......................? You usually.......................(not take) him home, ...........................? Mr. Brown just ......................(ring) you, ...............................? Our business partners.........................(not come) tomorrow, ...........................? Tom.........................(call) before he left, ..................................? Your boss.....................(not like) everybody,.............................?

10. Use the right tense (active or passive) or question tag 1. Their car(steal) last night,..? 2. His fathertoday, ..? (work) 3. The show..already..(begin),..? 4. The table now, ? 5. Your bike..a puncture last week, ? 11. Transform these sentences into the given tenses and add the question tag He enjoyed the show. (Past Perf. Negative + question tag) He flew to New York. (Future positive + question tag) The wind is blowing. (Past Continuous negative +question tag ) He has lent us some money. (Past Simple positive +question tag) They will choose a nice present for her. (Going to Fut. Negative + question tag) They are drinking wine. (Past Cont. Positive + question tag) We are happy to see you. (Past Simple positive + question tag) Did you know him? (Present Simple positive + question tag) Will he teach physics in this school? (Past Simple positive + question tag) Are you reading something interesting? (Past Perfect positive + question tag)

101

III. Solutions
III. 1. 1. Jack was happy, b. wasn't he? 2. He wasn't satisfied, a. was he? 3. Susan has called, c. hasn't she? 4. She hasn't visited you, d. has she? 5. It wasn't warm today, f. was it? 6. It had rained in the night, e. hadn't it? 7. They were busy, i. weren't they? 8. They don't belong here, j. do they? 9. You and I didn't play tennis, g. did we? 10. We weren't angry, h. were we? 11.You will come to the party, m. won't you? 12. You're not surprised, n. are you? 13. I'm tired, l. aren't I? 14. You've resigned, k. haven't you? III. 2.
1. You really wanted that job, b. didn't you? 2. He saw that play on Broadway, c. didn't he? 3. You know that's right, c. don't you? 4. He will come to the meeting, d. won't he ? 5. After all this time you would think he'd forgotten to call, b. wouldn't you ?

III. 3.
1. He's waiting for you, e. 2. There are seven days in a week, h. 3. I'm not late, c. 4. These colours are pretty, i. 5. Her reasons weren't very good, f. 6. The doctor wasn't in his office, j. 7. The lights were very bright, a. 8. The idea is interesting, g. 9. There were a lot of books on the table, d. 10. The hole isn't deep, b.

III. 4.
1. Your parents work, .................? C. don't they 2. You haven't done the homework, ................ ? B. have you 3. This is your pen, ...................? C. isn't it 4. John and Mary didn't see the film, .................? A. did they 5. Mrs. Green, our secretary was ill yesterday, .................... ? D. wasn't she

102

6. You won't forget to arrange the meeting,................. ? B. will you 7. Margaret comes from England,......................? D. doesn't she 8. Your partners can't work without the files,............... ? A. can they 9. You could use the computer since a young age, .................. ? D. couldn't you 10. This exercise was easy, ....................? B. wasn't it

III. 5.
1. Your sentence: you, Present Simple, negative, e.g. You don't like coffee, do you? 2. Your sentence: you, Past Simple, positive, e.g. Yesterday you came home from work late, didn't you? 3. Your sentence: you, Present Simple, 'be', negative, e.g. You're not really interested in type of work, are you? 4. Your sentence: they, Present Simple, negative, e.g. They don't mind a cheap hotel, do they? 5. Your sentence: he, Past Simple, 'be', negative, e.g. After the party he still wasn't tired, was he? 6. Your sentence: you, Future Simple, positive, e.g. You'll finish the essay by tomorrow, won't you? 7. Your sentence: she, Present Simple, negative, e.g. She doesn't like our new manager, does she? 8. Your sentence: they, Present Simple, 'can', positive, e.g. They can come to the party as well, can't they? 9. Your sentence: you, Past Simple, negative, e.g. You didn't mail my important letter, did you? 10. Your sentence: it, Present Simple, 'be', positive, e.g. It's still raining, isn't it?

III. 6.
1. You can't answer all the questions, e. can you? 2. You will help me copy the files, h. won't you? 3. He believes you, d. doesn't he? 4. The teacher should explain the lesson, j. shouldn't he? 5. The boy didn't know the lesson, i. did he? 6. Bob frightened you, a. didn't he? 7. You can speak English well, c. can't you? 8. She couldn't arrive on time, g. could she? 9. You won't tell him, b. will you? 10. He shouldn't do it, f. should he?

III. 7. 1. Gerald raised the boy on his own, f. didn't he? Yes, his wife died when the son was two years old. 2. He won't make any more trouble, g. will he? I hope the punishment was harsh enough.
103

3. People still enjoy the Beatles' songs, h. don't they? Their songs are timeless. 4. You didn't leave the gas on, e. did you? If you're not sure, better go back and check the stove. 5. If John leaves, we 'll be in trouble, a. won't we? Who will teach mathematics then? 6. Nobody is indispensable, j. are they? One day you have a good job, next day you're on the street. 7. There's hardly anything that you can do, b. is there? We just have to wait for some news. 8. The car pollutes the environment, i. doesn't it? You should ride a bike more often. 9. Mr. Pritchard has been to Scotland, d. hasn't he? How did he like Edinburgh? 10.The trip will be quite expensive, c. won't it? But I still think that Paris is worth any money.

III. 8.
1. I am a good student, ___? b. aren't I? # Yes, I can see from your grades. 2. Patrick is your boss, ___? b. isn't he? # Not yet, but he'll be nominated next week. 3. Kate isn't a doctor, ___? b. is she? * No, she works as a secretary. 4. Roosevelt and Kennedy were American presidents, ___? b. weren't they? # Yes, and they both lived in the 20th century. 5. James is at work right now, ___? b. isn't he? # He'll be home by 6 p.m. 6. I'm not near the city centre, ___? a. am I? * No, you have to drive another two miles. 7. You and your accountant are busy right now, ____ ? b. aren't you? # Yes, we are still working on some bills from last month. 8. It's windy today, ___? a. isn't it? # Yes, too windy, so they can't go sailing.

104

III. 9.
It was six o'clock when you called me, wasn't it? We will drive our new car to the seaside, won't we? The guests did not pay the hotel bill, did they? John was five in December, wasn't he? You have received our letter, haven't you? He hasn't come yet, has he? They did not speak English in class, did they? He is going to exhibit his new products at the fair, isn't he? Their motorcycle has broken down, hasn't it? The kids had spent a week in London, hadn't they? You have signed the papers, haven't you? She always complains, doesn't she? They hadn't been here, had they? You will show them round, won't you? They get on well with each other, don't they? You don't like operas, do you? He helped you, didn't he? They were mending the car yesterday, weren't they? He isn't listening to her, is he? They didn't find their notes, didn't they? They left early yesterday morning, didn't they? You'll come back soon, won't you? He's not helping us now, is he? They weren't studying all day yesterday, were they? The students passed their exams a week ago, didn't they? You usually don't take him home, do you? Mr. Brown has just rung you, hasn't he? Our business partners are not going to come tomorrow, are they? Tom had called before he left, hadn't he? Your boss does not like everybody, does he?

III. 10. 1. Their car was stolen last night, wasn't it? 2. His father is working today, isn't he? 3. The show has already begun, hasn't it? 4. The table has been laid now, hasn't it? 5. Your bike had a puncture last week, didn't it? III. 11. He enjoyed the show. (Past Perf. Negative + question tag) He hadn't enjoyed the show, had he? He flew to New York. (Future positive + question tag) He'll fly to New York, won't he? The wind is blowing. (Past Continuous negative +question tag) The wind wasn't blowing, was it? He has lent us some money. (Past Simple positive +question tag) He lent us some money, didn't he? They will choose a nice present for her. (Going to Fut. Negative + question tag)

105

They are not going to choose a nice present for her, are they? They are drinking wine. (Past Cont. Positive + question tag) They were drinking wine, weren't they? We are happy to see you. (Past Simple positive + question tag) We were happy to see you, weren't we? Did you know him? (Present Simple positive + question tag) You know him, don't you? Will he teach physics in this school? (Past Simple positive + question tag) He taught physics in this school, didn't he? Are you reading something interesting? (Past Perfect positive + question tag) You had read something interesting, hadn't you?

106

Test yourself!
FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Oct. 28th 2002
I. Transform the active sentences into passive, and vice versa 1. I couldn't find the wallpapers on the Internet. 2. The DJ is playing great music on the radio all morning. 3. The fax machine won't be fixed until next Monday. 4. The new furniture has been ordered from Ikea. 5. The boss is not going to support my new plan. II. Translate the sentences into English 6. Nisam znao da ces doci ovde da radis. / Nem tudtam, hogy ide fogsz jonni dolgozni. 7. Nije ti rekao da sam te dva puta nazvala? / Nem mondta neked, hogy en ketszer hivatlak? 8. Nisam bio siguran da je to dobra ideja da posetimo Toma usred noci. / Nem voltam benne biztos, hogy jo otlet meglatogatni Tomot az ejszaka kozepen. 9. Znala sam da si promasao voz za Edinburgh. / Tudtam, hogy lekested a vonatot Edinburghbe. 10. Otkud si znao da boravim u hotelu Hyatt? / Honnan tudtad, hogy a Hyatt szalloban szalltam meg? 11. Da si napisao izvestaj na vreme, ne bi izgubili ovog vaznog klijenta. / Ha megirtad volna a jelentest idore, akkor nem veszitettuk volna el ezt a fontos ugyfelet.12. Ako je pametan, sav njegov novac ce uloziti u berzu. / Ha okos, akkor az ossz penzet a tozsdebe fekteti be.13. Da su mi rekli da je Dublin tako lep grad, pre bih tamo otputovala na odmor. / Ha mondtak volna, hogy milyen szep varos Dublin, akkor elobb utaztam volna oda nyaralni. 14. Ako uspes da mi popravis kompjuter, kupicu ti bocu najboljeg irskog viskija. / Ha sikerul megjavitanod a szamitogepemet, akkor veszek neked egy uveg legjobb ir whiskeyt. 15. Da si polozio ispit u prethodnom roku, sad ne bi morao da ucis engleski. / Ha az elozo vizsgaidoszakban letetted volna a vizsgat, akkor most nem kellene angolt tanulnod. III. Rewrite the sentences using the causative 'have' 16. I called the serviceman to fix my microwave oven. 17. Now my car has a different colour. 18. Somebody arranged my summer holiday. IV. Complete the sentences according to the sequence of tenses 19. He had returned all my CDs ( te noci pre nego sto je otisao / az ejjel mielott elment). 20. I looked out the window and saw that (da je pao sneg / hogy havazott). 21. He felt that (da nece drzati govor na sastanku / hogy nem fog beszedet mondani a gyulesen). 22. Nobody told me that (da jedan video snimi sve u kancelariji / hogh egy video mindent felvesz az irodaban). 23. I hoped my boss... 24. I had to tell the police that ... yesterday. V. Translate these sentences into English 25. Zamolila sam ga da mi donese nesto za rucak. / Megkertem, hogy hozzon nekem valamit ebedre. 26. Mora da si bio u basti kad sam te zvala. / Biztosan a kertben voltal, amikor hivtalak. 27. Trebao si da vidis tu knjizaru, jako je dobro snabdevana. / Latnod kellett volna azt a konyvesboltot, nagyon jol elvan latva. 28. Sto pre zavrsis posao u kancelariji, to vise ti vremena imas da radis kod kuce. / Minel elobb befejezed a munkat az irodaban, annal tobb idod marad az otthoni munkara. 29. Englezi piju mnogo vise i brze nego Spanci. / Az angolok sokkal tobbet es gyorsabban isznak,

107

mint a spanyolok. 30. Nikad se nisam jos nisam popela na Mount Everest. / Meg sohasem masztam meg a Mount Everestet.

Good Luck!

PARTIAL ENGLISH EXAM Oct. 28th 2002


I. Add the correct article where necessary
1. Monday is .............. most boring day in ............ whole week. 2. Please, give me ............ hand with this heavy bag. 3. I'd like ............... sandwich, and ................ coke. 4. ............ British writer Douglas Adams wrote ............... book about ............. life, .............. universe and ............... everything.

II. Use the correct tense and add question tags

1. Two years ago he ......................... (publish) his first novel, ....................? 2. We ......................... (not watch) the film Titanic tonight, ....................? 3. You ........................... (climb) never Mount Everest before, .....................? 4. You ............................ (not listen) to me now, ........................? 5. When your son receives his degree, that ......... (be) a great celebration, ................ ?

III. Fill the gaps with few/a few or little/a little

1. Do you have ................... tea for my rum? 2. We can't make pizza for dinner, there is too ................. cheese in the fridge. 3. Only ............. people in Ireland speak Gaelic. 4. I have to buy ............... more bags of chips for the party.

IV. Make questions to the underlined parts of the sentence

1. The students think the classes are boring. 2. The weather in Ireland is as bad as in England. 3. The furniture has been ordered two weeks ago.

V. Translate the sentences according to the sequence of tenses 1. Zamolio sam ga da ne pogleda resenje na papiru njegovog suseda. / Megkertem, hogy ne nezze meg a megoldast a szomszedja papirjan. 2. Nisam znala da ce mi se kompjuter tako cesto pokvariti. / Nem tudtam, hogy a szamitogepem ilyen surun elfog romlani. 3. Cuo sam da si kupio nova kola. / Hallottam, hogy uj kocsit vettel. VI. Transform the active sentences into passive, and vice versa 1. I can't find the wallpapers on the Internet. 2. The DJ has played great music on the radio this morning. 3. The printer won't be fixed until next Friday. 4. The six o'clock news was compiled by the new assistant. 5. Our boss is not going to fire the sales manager . VII. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense 1. She (complain) about having a headache all day yesterday. 2. Tonight we (go) to the premiere of the the new play at the theatre. 3. Please, turn down the volume a bit, I (try) to study for my exam. 4. She never (travel) by plane because she (be) afraid of flying. 5. After the storm (pass), we (continue) our climb towards the top of the mountain. VIII. Find the mistakes and correct them (Yes, ALL sentences contain mistakes) 1. Eminem like not jounalists with silly questions. 2. Yesterday all afternoon long I work on my PC while Peter washes the dishes. 3. Hey, teachers, leave the childs alone! All in all, you is just another brick in the wall. 4. I'm never listening to America

108

country music. 5. How many times did you try to pass the English exam? 6. After I left the party I had felt much better!

IX. Complete the conditional sentences

1. If you had studied harder, you (pass) the exam sooner. 2. If you ... by airplane, you will pay more for the ticket. 3. You ... the job if you had the qualifications.

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM - Oct. 4th 2002.


I. Make activepassive or passive-active transformations 1. My new boss yelled at me Monday morning. 2. Many computer systems are being damaged by hackers right now. 3. The new students had been greeted by the principal before their first class. 4. At the party they served us some nice coctails. 5. In every episode of Southpark they always kill Kevin. II. Translate the following sentences into Serbian or Hungarian 6. If I had more money, I could afford myself a week on Hawaii. 7. If I had known this job was so stressful, I wouldn't have taken it. 8. You will have to throw a party if you pass this exam. 9. They announced that they were going to get married in May. 10. I didn't realise you were so angry with me because I had dated your boy/girlfriend. 11. I asked the guy in the CDstore wether they had anything new by the DJ Moby. III. Complete these sentences and watch the use and sequence of tenses 12. My tea ................... (go) cold, I can't drink it like this now. 13. I looked out the window and saw that it ...................... (rain) all morning. 14. I ....................... (attend) a conference about student behaviour this weekend. 15. Music journalists .............................. always (ask) Eminem about his lyrics. Eminem ........................ (be) sick of such questions. 16. The students who ............................ (pass) the written part .......................... (study) hard all last weekend to pass the oral exam which ............................... (take place) the following week. 17. I ........................... never (see) such a great film as 'Pulp Fiction' before. 18. Be quiet! I ....................... (try) to concentrate. IV. Rewrite the sentences using the causative'have' 19. I asked someone to film my wedding. 20. I decided to have a haircut. 21. The accountant has checked all my books. V. Translate these sentences into English 22. Trebao si videti najnoviji film Rat Zvezda, jako je dobar. / Latnod kellett volna a legujabb Csillagok haboruja filmet, nagyon jo. 23. Spanci nikad ne ide u krevet pre dva sata ujutru, zar ne?. / A spanyolok sohaem mennek agyba ejjel ket ora elott, ugye? 24. Zamolila sam ga da mi donese casu poluslatkog crnog vina.(semi) / Megkertem, hogy hozzon nekem egy pohar feledes vorosbort.(semi) 25. Bilo ti je receno da ne kasnis jos jedan put jer ces dobiti otkaz. / Meg volt neked mondva, hogy ne kess el meg egy alkalommal mert felmondast fogsz kapni. V. Put the direct sentences into indirect speech or vice versa 26. 'We finished the project and published the results last month' the scientists said at the press conference. 27. 'I hate Mozart' shouted the angry teenager. 28. She asked the manager if she would get the job when she had passed all her exams. 29. The journalists told their boss that they had been working on the top story all night long.

109

30. How do you like my sentences? the assistant wanted to know.

I wish you good luck!

PARTIAL ENGLISH EXAM - Oct. 4th 2002.


I. Complete these conditional sentences
1. If the classroom was warmer, (studenti ne bi sedeli u kaputima / a hallgatok nem ulnenek kabatban). 2. If the world is in trouble again, (Brus Vilis ce opet spasiti svet / Bruce Willis ismet megmenti a vilagot). 3. If I had caught you cheating, ( dobio bi bod manje na testu / egy ponttal kevesebbet kaptal volna a teszten). 4. (ako opet moram da vam objasnim zadatak / ha ismet el kell magyaraznom a feladatot) I'll get furious.

II. Find the mistakes and correct them (Yes, ALL sentences contain mistakes) 1. Tony Blair like not jounalists with silly questions. 2. Yesterday all afternoon long I work on my PC while Tom plays tennis. 3. I'm never listening to hardcore techno music. 4. How many times did you try to pass the English exam? 5. After I failed a student I had felt much better! III. Transform the active sentences into passive and vice versa 1. The tasks are not always understood by the students. 2. In many films the world was saved by a FBI special agent. 3. I have been given a cup of cold coffee. 4. The radio DJ was playing Eminem's song 'Without Me' all day long. IV. Add the correct article where necessary 1. I hate all .............. car drivers. 2. I especially hate ............. car drivers who drive when drinking ............... alcohol. 3. I ordered ................ coffee but I got ..............tea with ............ rum. 4. ........... night is ............. shortest on ............. 23rd of .............. June. 5. ...... White House is where .......Bush, ....... President of ....... USA lives. V. Write questions based on the following sentences. 1. The students wanted to know the results. 2. Vlade Divac plays basketball in the United States. 3. Agent Scully is going to miss Mulder. VI. Use the correct tense and add question tags 1. Two years ago he ......................... (publish) his first novel, ....................? 2. We ......................... (watch) the film 'Men In Black II' tonight, ....................? 3. You ........................... (climb) never Mount Everest before, .....................? 4. You ............................ (not listen) to me now, ........................? 5. If your son fails at the exam, that ......... ( not be) the teacher's problem, ................ ? VII. Transform these sentences using the rules of indirect speech 1. 'Bring me something to eat! I'm so hungry because there was nothing to eat at the party.' 2. The strict professor shouted that he wouldn't tolerate cheating at his exams. 3. 'Since you haven't copied the tasks from your neighbour I'll accept you test' said the kind assistant. 4. I said I understood that he really needed that exam, but I couldn't do anything. 5. 'Do you know that Tom is going to apply for a scholarship?'

110

VIII. Translate these sentences and watch the senquence of tenses


1. Moj caj se ohladneo pre nego sto sam ga popila. / A team kihult mielott megittam. 2. Nisam znala da ce te zamoliti da radis 12 sati dnevno. / Nem tudtam, hogy megfognak kerni, hogy 12 orat dolgozz naponta. 3. Videla sam da se nesto cudno desava. / Lattam, hogy valami furcsa tortenik.

IX. Fill the spaces with few/a few or little/a little 1. Do you have................... whiskey for my tea? 2. .............. people can get into such big trouble like Peter. 3. We can't have a coffee, there's too............... time before the train leaves. 4. Are there too................ tasks in this test?

I wish you good luck!

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 27th 2002


I. Turn the indirect sentences into direct speech or vice versa
1. Eddie Irvine asked if he had to go to the photoshooting himself. 2. He also asked if they couldn't send someone else in his helmet. 3. The teacher told her students to turn off their mobile phones while they were writing the exam.

II. Make active => passive or passive => active transformations 4. They call L.A. the City of Angels. 5. The new program of Microsoft was announced yesterday. 6. Big Brother is always wacthing you. 7. The new Wyclef Jean album will be recorded in Jamaica. 8. Without Mulder the FBI is going to close the Xfiles. III. Translate the following sentences into English. 9. Trebao sam znati da ta luda idea moze jedino da bude Dzonova. / Tudnom kellett volna, hogy az a hulye otlet csakis Johne lehet. (modal) 10. Mogao si da mi kazes da donesem vise novca sa sobom. / Mondhattad volna, hogy tobb penzt hozzak magammal. (modal) 11. Mora da ste napravili neku gresku, jer ja nisam narucio picu. / Biztosan valami hiba tortent, mert en nem rendeltem pizzat. (modal) 12. Koju vrstu muzike obicno slusas? / Milyen zenet hallgatsz altalaban? 13. Francuzi ne umeju da voze kola. / A franciak nem tudnak autot vezetni. 14. Pitala sam ga da li je znao sve odgovore. / Megkerdeztem, hogy tudta-e az ossz valaszt. 15. Jos nikad nisam videla toliko ljudi na istom mestu. / Meg sohasem lattam ennyi embert egy helyen. 16. Obecao mi je da ce mi narezati nekoliko Cda. / Megigerte, hogy irni fog nekem nehany CDt. 17. Juce uvece sam gledala epizodu serije 'Prijatelji' ('Friends'). / Tegnap este lattam egy reszt a Jobaratok c. sorozatbol ('Friends'). 18. Ja nikad ne putujem vozom. / En sohasem utazom vonattal. IV. Give me the English endings to these conditional sentences 19. If you don't have lights on your bike...( kaznice te policajac / megbuntet a rendor) 20. (da su znali da su te ribe iz Dunava / ha tudtak volna, hogy ezek a halak a Dunabol szarmaznak) .... they wouldn't have eaten the dinner. 21. ( ako me on opet nazove / ha meg egyszer felhiv) .... I'll slam down the phone. V. Use the causative 'have' to create 1 (one) new sentence 22. My printer didn't work. The serviceman fixed it.

111

23. My room was white, now it is painted bright yellow. 24. Her ex-boyfriend was always bothering her. She sent someone to beat him up.

VI. Add articles where necessary, then translate the given sentences into Serbian or Hungarian 25. I won't take ...............job if they pay me under ..................... 500 Euros. 26. This is ............... worst excuse that ............. student has ever told me. 27. They told me not to be nasty with my students. 28. When ..........God gave brains I thought he said 'trains' so I asked for ............... small and slow one. 29. Too much ................ alcohol makes .......... people look ........... older. 30. Was this one of ......... more difficult tasks?

Good luck with ........ test!

PARTIAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 27th 2002.


I. Transform the passive sentences into the active, or vice versa
1. I will be given my first salary. 2. The traffic jam blocked the main road across Subotica. 3. They call New York the Big Apple. 4. On Sept.11 they lowered the flag of N.Y. 5. You are being watched by Big Brother.

II. Report these sentences 1. God: 'I will give you brains.' 2. Me: ' You'll give me trains?' 3. 'Can I have a small and slow one?' 4. 'Don't leave the door open!' 5. 'Were you born in a field without a gate?' 6. Eric Cartman: 'Oh no, somebody killed Kevin!' III. Use few/a few or little/a little to complete these sentences 1. ........... English people drink coffee, most of them drink tea with ............ milk. 2. .................. hackers can crash the most secure systems. 3.Usually hackers want to create ................... damage, but make ................. money from hacking. IV. Find the right question tags 1. This is difficult, ....................? 2. You tried to pass the English exam last Friday, ...................... ? 3. You haven't heard the news about my graduation, .....................? V. Use the correct articles where necessary 1. In ........... town where I was born lived .............. man who sailed ............... Atlantic ocean. 2. Can I have ............ pizza with ........... mushrooms and ............ ham? Are ................ salads fresh? 3. ............... new Britney Spears CD is ........... worst in ................ record store. VI. Complete these conditional sentences 1. (Hartford is a very boring city) They will have to close the zoo if the chicken ................... (die). 2. (The town was very deserted) Even if you fired a machine gun on the main street, you .................... (not hit) anyone. 3. I wouldn't have worked for that company even if they ........................ (offer) me 1000 $ a month. 4. I'll walk out of the classroom if you .................... (not finish) the tests on time. VII. Make questions to the underlined parts of speech 1. I don't believe in aliens. 2. She received her degree at the graduation ceremony on Tuesday. 3. The teachers must leave the kids alone.

112

VIII. Find the mistakes and correct them


1. Yesterday it rain all afternoon long. 2. They asked me if do I want to work for Microsoft. 3. I'm always wearing my glasses. 4. We'll be going to the Eric Clapton concert tonight. 5. I've bought the tickets on the internet yesterday.

IX. Translate the sentences and watch the sequence of tenses 1. Htela sam da vidim kako novi radio DJ izgleda. / Latni akartam, hogy nez ki az uj radio DJ. 2. Nisam znala da si bila tako besna na mene. / Nem tudtam, hogy ennyire haragudtal ram. (angry with). 3. Robert de Niro se nadao da ce dobiti Oskara ove godine. / Rober de Niro remelte, hogy ebben az evben meg fogja nyerni az Oscart. X. Use the correct tenses when completing my sentences 1. They .................... Woodstock II in August 1994. 2. I'm .......................... my thesis paper at the moment. 3. I never .................... tequila with salt and lemon.

Enjoy the exam!

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 20th, 2002.


I. Translate these sentences into Serbian or Hungarian 1. If I had seen him, I would have told him about the meeting. 2. He'll be there if nothing goes wrong. 3. Would you be angry if I crashed your car? 4. If she had known that her boyfriend was cooking dinner, she would have come home on time. II. Use past modal auxiliaries in the following sentences 5. I (should know) this crazy idea was Peter's. 6. You (can warn) me that CDs were so expensive in Britain. 7. It (must be) George on the phone. No one else (could know) I'm here. III. Translate these sentences into English 8. Znao si da ce ona doci na sastanak. / Tudtad, hogy o el fog jonni a gyulesre. 9. Rekli su mi da moram biti na poslu u 7 ujutru. / Azt mondtak nekem, hogy reggel hetkor legyek bent a munkahelyemen. 10. Pitao me je kad bi on mogao da diplomira. / Megkerdezte tolem, hogy o mikor diplomalhatna. 11. Nisam mogla ici s njima u kafic jer se jos nisam pripremila za sutrasnje predavanje. / Nem tudtam elmenni veluk a kavezoba, mert meg nem keszultem fel a masnapi eloadasomra. 12. Konacno je razumeo sta ga je professor pitao, ali nije znao odgovor. / Vegre rajott arra, hogy mit kerdez tole a tanar, de nem tudta a valaszt. 13. Otkad studiras na univerzitetu? / Miota jarsz az egyetemre? 14. Poslednji put sam ga videla pre 4 godine. / Legutoljara 4 evvel ezelott lattam. 15. Pre nego sto je predao test pitao je kollegu da li je sve tacno uradio. / Mielott beadta a vizsgalapot megkerdezte a kollegajat, jol csinalt-e meg mindent. 16. Juce sam cele noci krstarila po Internetu. / Tegnap egesz ejjel az Interneten voltam. 17. Englezi nikad ne piju kafu, nego uvek caj sa mlekom. / Az angolok sohasem kaveznak, hanem mindig teat isznak tejjel.

113

IV. Turn the sentences from active into passive, or vice versa
18. Someone must warm up my coffee. 19. This issue will be discussed at the conference by the ministers. 20. The verdict is being read out by the judge right now. 21. The police shot all the bad guys. 22. The new assistant is going to correct your tests.

V. Make one sentence from the two, using causative 'have'

23. Tom's mobile phone was broken. Someone fixed it for him. 24. I needed a photo for my new passport. So I went to the photographer's. 25. I hated the color of my car. Now it's painted in a different color.

VI. Translate these sentences into English 26. Ovoj test je jedan od najlaksih sto sam ikad pisao! / Ez a egyik legkonnyebb teszt, amit valaha irtam! 27. Dosta vam je, zar ne? / Elege van mar, nem? 28. Ovo je sefova kancelarija, nija tvoja. / Ez a fonok irodaja, nem a tied. 29. Za dobru zivu muziku potrebno je pojacalo. / A jo elozenehez erosito kell. 30. Profesorica je njoj rekla da ne bude jako stroga. / A tanarno azt mondta neki, hogy ne legyen tul szigoru.

Good luck!

I. Correct the mistakes in these sentences 1. I am hating Sting. 2. He has went home from the pub. 3. Who call me in the middle of last night? 4. He asked me if it is true that I'll get married. 5. I need to know why was the police looking for my boss. II. Translate these sentences into English using passive voice 1. Zamolili su me da ne dodem na ovaj sastanak. / Megkertek, hogy ne jojjek el erre a gyulesre. 2. Moramo otvoriti ovaj fajl. / Ezt a file-t muszaj kinyitni. 3. Nagrada za 'Najbolji website Subotice' ce sigurno biti dodeljena nasoj firmi. / A 'Szabadka legjobb weblapja' dijat biztosan a mi vallalatunknak fogjak adni. III. Make questions to the underlined parts of the sentences 1. I hate Real Madrid because they won the match against Roma on Wednesday. 2. I think I'll meet him after the show. 3. They have never been on the Empire State Building. IV. Use the correct tense to finish the sentences 1. I was interested in .....(zasto je dosao / miert jott). 2. They never told me........(da ce ovo biti moj poslednji zadatak na ovom poslu / hogy ez lesz az utolso feladatom ezen a munkhelyen). 3. She saw that ......(je padala kisa / hogy esik) but she hoped .....(da ce se kanije nebo razvedriti / hogy kesobb kiderul az eg). V. Use few/a few or little/a little to complete these sentences 1. I have ................. things to do this afternoon but I can meet you after work for ................. while. 2. There are ................. people who really enjoy their jobs. 3. We can't get drunk tonight, there's too...............wine left from the party. 4. I'll graduate soon, I have .................... exams left.

PARTIAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 27th 2002.

114

VI. Write (creative and logical) endings to these sentences


1. If I had a visa to the USA,......... 2. She would have got the job if.............. 3. If you want to go to a really cool concert,...................

VII. Give me good endings!

1. In an English class I usually............. 2. I have a headache now because all afternoon long........ 3. I checked in my calendar and tomorrow.........

VIII. Put the direct sentences into indirect speech and vice versa 1. 'Don't be late for you job on the first day.' 2. 'I'm not going to wait for him all day.' 3. 'Do you remember who the boss fired last week?' 3. The husband yelled at his wife that he had hated her from the first days of marriage. 4. They told me they would call the following week. 5. The chairman asked the partners if they were ready to make a large investment. 6. 'I know you won't like this task.' IX. Use the articles if necessary 1. I had...............coffee and ................ cigarette for ...................breakfast. 2. Unfortunately, .................. coffee was cold. 3.In London ............. Beatles' recording studio is in ................ Abbey Road. At noon ............ Sun is at ........ highest point. X. Add the appropriate question tags. 1. This test is annoying, ...............? 2. He overslept this morning,...............? 3. I haven't seen you before, .....................?

Good luck and enjoy the test!

115

Some Solutions to 'Test yourself!'


I.

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Oct. 28th 2002

1. The wall papers couldn't be found on the Internet. 2. Great music is being played on the radio all morning long. 3. Nobodyis will fix the fax machine until next Monday. 4. We've ordered new furniture from Ikea. 5. My new plan is not going to be supported.

II.

III. I had my microwave oven fixed. 17. I had my car repainted. 18. I had my summer holiday arranged. IV. 19. He had returned all my CDs the night before he left. 20. I looked out the window and saw that it had been snowing. 21. He felt that he wouldn't give a lecture at the meeting. 22. Nobody told me that a video camera was recording everything in the office. 23. I hoped my boss... had signed the contract. 24. I had to tell the police that... I had seen you at that bank yesterday. V. 25. I asked him to bring me something for lunch. 26. You must have been in the garden when I called you. 27. You should have seen that book store, it was supplied really good. 28. The sooner you finish your work at the office, the more you can work at home. 29. The English drink much more and faster than the Spanish. 30. I have never climbed Mount Everest before.

6. I didn't know that you would come to work here. 7. Didn't he tell you that I had called you twice? 8. I wasn't sure wether it was a good idea to visit Tom in the middle of the night. 9. I knew you had missed the train for Edinburgh. 10. How did you know I was staying at the Hyatt? 11. If you had written the report on time, we wouldn't have lost this important client. 12. If he is smart, he'll invest all his money in the stock market. 13. If they had told me that Dublin was such a beautiful city, I would have gone there for my summer holiday sooner. 14. If you manage to fix my computer, I'll buy you a bottle of the best Irish whiskey. 15. If you had passed the exam in the previous exam period, you wouldn't have had to study English now.

PARTIAL ENGLISH EXAM Oct. 28th 2002

116

I.
1. Monday is the most boring day in the whole week. 2. Please, give me a hand with this heavy bag. 3. I'd like a sandwich, and a coke. 4. The British writer Douglas Adams wrote a book about ............. life, the universe and ............... everything.

II. 1. Two years ago he published his first novel, didn't he? 2. We are not going to watch the film Titanic tonight, are we? 3. You have never climbed Mount Everest before, have you? 4. You are not listening to me now, are you? 5. When your son receives his degree, that will be a great celebration, won't it? III. 1. Do you have a little tea for my rum? 2. We can't make pizza for dinner, there is too little cheese in the fridge. 3. Only few people in Ireland speak Gaelic. 4. I have to buy a few more bags of chips for the party. IV. Make questions to the underlined parts of the sentence 1. The students think the classes are boring. Who thinks the classes are boring? What do the students do? 2. The weather in Ireland is as bad as in England. What is as bad in Ireland as it is in England? Where is the weather as bad as in England? 3. The furniture has been ordered two weeks ago. When has the furniture been ordered? V. I asked him not to look at the solution on his neighbour's paper. 2. I didn't know that my computer would break down so often. 3. I heard that You had bought a new car. VI. 1. Wallpapers can't be found on the Internet. 2. Great music has been played on the radio all morning long. 3. The servise won't fix the printer until next Friday. 4. The new assistant compiled the six o'clock news. 5. The sales manager is not going to be fired. VII. 1. She was complaining about having a headache all day yesterday. 2. Tonight we are going to the premiere of the the new play at the theatre. 3. Please, turn down the volume a bit, I am trying to study for my exam. 4. She never travels by plane because she is afraid of flying. 5. After the storm had passed, we continued our climb towards the top of the mountain. VIII. 1. Eminem doesn't like jounalists with silly questions. 2. Yesterday all afternoon long I was working on my PC while Peter was washing the dishes. 3. Hey, teachers, leave the children alone! All in all, you are just another brick in the wall. 4. I never listen to American country music. 5. How many times have you tried to pass the English exam? 6. After I had left the party I felt much better! IX. 1. If you had studied harder, you would have passed the exam sooner. 2. If you ... travel by airplane, you will pay more for the ticket. 3. You ...would get the job if you had the qualifications.

117

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 20th, 2002.


I. 1. da sam ga video, reako bi mu za sastanak. / Ha lattam volna, szoltam volna neki a gyulesrol. 2. Bice tamo, aki nista ne iskrsne. / Ott lesz, ha semmi nem jon neki kozbe. 3. Bio bi besan na mene da ti slupam kola? / Haragudnal ram, ha osszetornem a kocsid? 4. Da je znala da je nje momak spremao veceru, dosla bi kuci na vreme. / Ha tudta volna, hogy a fiuja vacsorat fozott neki, akkor idoben hazament volna. II. 5. I should have known this crazy idea was Peter's. 6. You could have warned me that CDs were so expensive in Britain. 7. It must have been George on the phone. No one else could have known I'm here. III. 8. You knew she would come to the meeting. 9. I was told to be at work at 7 in the morning. 10. He asked me when he could get his degree. 11. I could go with them to the cafe because I hadn't prepared the next day's lecture yet. 12. He finally understood what the professor ha been asking, but he didn't know the answer. 13. Since when have you been studying at university? 14. The last time I saw him was 4 years ago. 15. Before he handed in his test, he asked his colleague if he had done everything right. 16. Yesterday I was cruising on the Internet all night long. 17. The English never drink coffe, but tea with milk. IV. 18. My coffee must be warmed up. 19. The ministers will discuss this issue at the conference. 20. The judge is reading the verdict now. 21. All the bad guys were shot by the police. 22. Your tests are going to be corrected by the new assistant. V. 23. Tom had his mobile phone fixed. 24. I had my photo taken. 25. I had my car painted in a different colour. VI. 26. this test is one of the easiest tests I've ever written.! 27. You've had enough, haven't you? 28. This is the boss' office, not yours. 29. For good live music you need an amplifier. 30. The professor told her not to be too strict.

FINAL ENGLISH EXAM Sept. 27th 2002

118

I.
1. Eddie Irvine asked: 'Do I have to go to the photoshooting myself?' 2. 'Can't we send someone else in my helmet?' 3. 'Turn you mobile phones off while your writing the exam.'

II. 4. L. A. is called the City of Angels. 5. They announced the new program of Microsoft yesterday. 6. You are always being watched by Big Brother. 7. The band will record the new Wyclef Jean album in Jamaica. 8. Without Mulder they are going to close the X-files. III. 9. I should have known that crasy idea could only be John's. 10. You could've told me to bring more money with me. 11. There must have been a mistake, because I didn't order any pizza. 12. What sort of music do you listen to? 13. The French can't drive. 14. I saked him if he had known all the answers. 15. I have never seen so many people in one place. 16. He promised me he would write a few CDs. 17. Yesterday night I was watching 'Freinds'. 18. I never travel by train. IV. 19. If you don't have lights on your bike... you will get fined by a cop. 20. If they had know that those fish were from the Danube... they wouldn't have eaten the dinner. 21. If he calls me again... I'll slam down the phone. V. 22. I had my printer fixed. 23. I had my room painted bright yellow. 24. She had her boyfriend beaten up. VI. 25. I won't take the job if they pay me under 500 Euros. Necu prihvatiti ovaj posao ako me plate manje od 500 Evra. / Nem fogadom el az allast, ha kevesebbet, mint 500 Eurot fizetnek. 26. This is the worst excuse that a student has ever told me. Ovo je najgori izgovor koji mi je student ikad rekao. / Ez a legrosszabb kifogas, amit egy diak valaha is mondott nekem. 27. They told me not to be nasty with my students. Rekli su mi da ne budem gadna prema mojim studentima. / Azt mondtak nekem, hogy ne legyek gonosz a diakjaimmal szemben. 28. When God gave brains I thought he said 'trains' so I asked for a small and slow one. Kad je bog rekao 'mozgove' ja sam mislio da je rekao 'vozove', pa sam trazio jedan mali i spor. / Amikor isten azt mondta, hogy 'agyak', en azt gondoltam, hogy azt mondja, hogy 'vonatok', ezert kertem egy kicsit es lsaaut. 29. Too much alcohol makes people look older. Previse alkohola cini da ljudi izgledaju stariji. / A tul sok alkoholtol az emberek oregebbnek neznek ki. 30. Was this one of the more difficult tasks? Da li je ovo bio jedan od tezih zadataka? / Ez egyike a nehezebb feladatoknak volt?

Good luck with ...the... test!

119

11. Appendix
CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF IRREGULAR VERBS BY DOING THESE EXERCISES
I. Complete the table by supplying the missing past and past participle forms of these irregular verbs as well as their meanings
be beat become begin bend bet bind bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy cast

II. Complete the sentences using the forms of the verbs given above
The performance .. (begin) at 8 yesterday. They have (break) my favorite vase. We .. (buy) a house last year. The postman hasnt . (bring) me any letters. I (bend) the pipe very easily. Toms dog ever . (bite) you? I accidentally .. (burn) my hand while I was cooking. The dinner at Johns house .. (be) fine last evening. Where .(be) last night? His wound (bleed) very badly. The eggs had (bind) the fat and the flour. They .. (cast) their clothes to the ground; they (be) mad.

120

III. Write the given verbs in box A if they have three different irregular forms, in box B if they have two different irregular forms and in box C if all three irregular forms are the same Be, beat, become, begin, bend, bet, bind, bite, bleed, blow, break, bring, build, burn, burst, buy, cast
A

IV. Complete the table by supplying the missing forms of the given irregular verbs
caught choose prijanjati/ tapadni, kapaszkodni came cost puziti/ mszni cut postupati,baviti se/ foglalkozni valamivel dug did drawn drink driven jesti/ enni fell feed

V. Transform these sentences into the tenses indicated in brackets


He drinks coffee all the time. (Past Simple, affirmative) They will fall and hurt themselves. (Past Simple, affirmative)
121

It costs too much. (Past Perfect, interrogative) She will cut the meat. (Present Perfect, interrogative) Will they come to London? (Past Simple, interrogative) You will choose a nice present for her. (Present Perfect, interrogative) The police catch the thief. (Past Simple, affirmative) He is going to dig up the garden. (Past Perfect, negative) They are drawing a nice picture. (Past Simple, affirmative) John will drive me home. (Past Simple, affirmative)

VI. Complete the missing verbs- pay attention to the use of the correct tense
He just (pasti/elesni) off the tree! Call Emergency! The children ..(crtati/rajzolni- Past Perfect) a very nice picture. We already .. (piti/inni) their our coffee. I (izabrati/kivlasztani) a good book for his present yesterday. .................they .......................... (uhvatiti/megfogni) the burglar yet? I ................never ......................... (voziti/vezetni) a car. Congratulations! You (initi/ csinlni) it very well yesterday. They ............................... (kopati/sni) up the garden before I arrived. Have you..............................(hraniti/etetni) the dog? They (piti/inni) wine at the party last night.

VII. Complete the table by filling in the missing forms of the irregular verbs
oseati/ rezni boriti se, tui se/ harcolni, verekedni nai/ megtallni baciti/ dobni leteti/ replni zaboraviti/ elfelejteni smrznuti se/ megfagyni dobiti/ kapni dati/ adni ii/ menni mleti/ rlni rasti, gajiti/ nni, termeszteni imati/ van uti/ hallani udariti/ megtni drati/ tartani raniti, uvrediti/ megsrlni,

122

megsrteni

VIII. Correct these sentences


He have a nice time in London last summer. Last year we keep several pets in our house. We have a two dogs, and a cat. We grow vegetables in our old house. Now we live in a flat and we must buy everything. The two competitors fight for the golden medal last night. I feel fit after my workout yesterday morning. He just find my history notes. They fly to New York October 23rd last year. I get many presents for my birthday last week. I not hear any bad news yet. He give me a good book to read but I not give it back to him yet.

IX. Rearrange these irregular verbs write their infinitive, past and past participle form in the appropriate columns
Infinitive kept kleati/ trdelni known lead uiti/ tanulni left pozajmiti/ klcsnadni let light izgubiti/ elveszteni make meant sresti/ tallkozni oversleep paid put itati/ olvasni retold Past tense Past participle Meaning in Serbian or Hungarian

X. Complete these sentences by filling in the appropriate forms of the verbs from the table above.

123

He mt his old time friend last week. They r.d the book the other day. Have you p.d all our bills, Jack? I was the only one who kw the answer. We had l.t the party very early. I have lt my pencil. Have you seen it anywhere? Please, r.l the story, Jack! said the teacher. I was late for work because I

o.t.

Please, pt the parcel down on the table. The room was not well l.t, so we couldnt see much.

XI. Complete the table with the missing forms of the irregular verbs
rid ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake shoot show osloboditi/ megszabadulni jahati/ lovagolni zvoniti/ csengetni ustati/ felkelni trati/ futni rei/ mondani videti/ ltni traiti/ keresni prodati/ eladni poslati/ elkldeni staviti, namestiti/ elhelyezni tresti/ rzni pucati/ lni pokazati/ megmutatni

XII. Complete the sentences using the correct forms of the verbs given in brackets.
He has ridden a horse. (Past Simple) They show me round London. (Present Perfect) Will you say yes? (Past Simple) We are going to sell our car. (Past Perfect) The sun will rise at 6 oclock. (Past Simple) Will you ring her up? (Present Perfect) They were running out. (Past Simple) He will see the new film. (Present Perfect) I am sending you a message. (Past Simple) I shook up the medicine. (Past Perfect)
124

XIII. Supply the missing forms of the irregular verbs


shrank shut sang tonuti/ sllyedni sit slept slide mirisati/ megszagolni spoke speed potroiti/ elklteni spilt spoil spread skoiti/ ugrani stand stolen

XIV. Make sentences by supplying the correct verb forms


They (govoriti/beszlni) with Tom the other day. We had ....................... (sedeti/lni) in the first row. We ..........................(stajati/llni) in front of the theatre before they arrived. They ..................... (okliznuti se/megcsszni) and hurt themselves. My dress has ......................... (skupiti se/sszemenni). Did you ........................... (potroiti/ ellteni) all your money? The milk was ......................... (proliti/ kinteni) on the floor. The choir .............................. (pevati/nekelni) beautifully. I have not ........................... (govoriti/beszlni) to him recently. The song was ....................... (pevati/nekelni) in French.

XV. Complete the table with the correct forms of the given irregular verbs
stick strike swear sweep swim swing

125

take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weave weep win wind write

XVI. Transform these sentences into the Present Simple, Past Simple or Past Perfect Simple (affirmative)
He will write me. She will understand us. Our teacher is going to tell us something about atoms. Jane will wear a new dress. I shall wake up at 7. He will win the match. She will sweep the kitchen floor. They are weeping. He was swimming. I shall teach you English. He is tearing up his notes.

126

I.
be beat become begin bend bet bind bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy cast

SOLUTIONS
was/were Beat became began bent bet bound bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought cast been beaten become begun bent bet bound bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought cast biti / lenni tui/verni postati/valamiv vlni poeti/elkezdeni saviti/meghajltani kladiti se/ fogadni vezati/ megktni ujesti/ megharapni krvariti/ vrezni duvati/fjni slomiti/ trni doneti/ hozni graditi/ pteni goreti/ gni prsnuti/ sztrobbani, sztrepedni kupiti/ venni baciti/ dobni

II. The performance began.. (begin) at 8 yesterday. They have broken (break) my favorite vase. We bought.. (buy) a house last year.
127

The postman hasnt brought. (bring) me any letters. I bent (bend) the pipe very easily. hasToms dog ever bitten. (bite) you? I accidentally burnt.. (burn) my hand while I was cooking. The dinner at Johns house was.. (be) fine last evening. Where were.(be) last night? His wound bled(bleed) very badly. The eggs hadbound (bind) the fat and the flour. They cast.. (cast) their clothes to the ground; theywere .. (be) mad.

III.
Be, beat, become, begin, bend, bet, bind, bite, bleed, blow, break, bring, build, burn, burst, buy, cast A Be, begin, bite, blow, break

Beat, become, bend, bind, bleed, bring, build, burn, buy

Bet, burst, cast

IV.
catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw drink drive eat fall caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew drank drove ate fell caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen uhvatiti/ megfogni izabrati/ kivlasztani prijanjati/ tapadni, kapaszkodni doi/ jnni kotati/ valamibe kerl puziti/ mszni sei/ vgni postupati,baviti se/ foglalkozni valamivel kopati/ sni initi/ csinlni, tenni crtati,vui/ rajzolni, hzni piti/ inni voziti/ vezetni jesti/ enni pasti/ elesni

128

feed

fed

fed

hraniti/ etetni

V.
He drinks coffee all the time. (Past Simple, affirmative) He drank coffee all the time. They will fall and hurt themselves. (Past Simple, affirmative) They fell and hurt themselves. It costs too much. (Past Perfect, interrogative) Had it cost too much? She will cut the meat. (Present Perfect, interrogative) Has she cut the meat? Will they come to London? (Past Simple, interrogative) Did they come to London? You will choose a nice present for her. (Present Perfect, interrogative) Have you chosen a nice present for her? The police catch the thief. (Past Simple, affirmative) The police caught the thief. He is going to dig up the garden. (Past Perfect, negative) He had not dug up the garden. They are drawing a nice picture. (Past Simple, affirmative) They drew a nice picture. John will drive me home. (Past Simple, affirmative) John drove me home.

VI.
He hasjust fallen (pasti/elesni) off the tree! Call Emergency! The children had drawn..(crtati/rajzolni- Past Perfect) a very nice picture. We havealready drunk.. (piti/inni) their our coffee. I chose (izabrati/kivlasztani) a good book for his present yesterday. .....have............they ..........caught................ (uhvatiti/megfogni) the burglar yet? I ....have............never ..driven................... (voziti/vezetni) a car. Congratulations! You did (initi/ csinlni) it very well yesterday. They ........had dug..................... (kopati/sni) up the garden before I arrived. Have you....fed..........................(hraniti/etetni) the dog? They drank (piti/inni) wine at the party last night.

VII.
feel fight find fling fly forget freeze get give go grind felt fought found flung flew forgot froze got gave went ground
129

felt fought found flung flown forgotten frozen got given gone ground

oseati/ rezni boriti se, tui se/ harcolni, verekedni nai/ megtallni baciti/ dobni leteti/ replni zaboraviti/ elfelejteni smrznuti se/ megfagyni dobiti/ kapni dati/ adni ii/ menni mleti/ rlni

grow have hear hit hold hurt

grew had heard hit held hurt

grown had heard hit held hurt

rasti, gajiti/ nni, termeszteni imati/ van uti/ hallani udariti/ megtni drati/ tartani raniti, uvrediti/ megsrlni, megsrteni

VIII. He have a nice time in London last summer. We had a nice time in London last summer. Last year we keep several pets in our house. We have a two dogs, and a cat. Last year we kept several pets in our house. We grow vegetables in our old house. Now we live in a flat and we must buy everything. We grew vegetables in our old house. Now we live in a flat and we must buy everything. The two competitors fight for the golden medal last night. The two competitors fought for the golden medal last night. I feel fit after my workout yesterday morning. I felt fit after my workout yesterday morning. He just find my history notes. He has just found my history notes. They fly to New York October 23rd last year. They flew to New York October 23rd last year. I get many presents for my birthday last week. I got many presents for my birthday last week. I not hear any bad news yet. I havent heard any bad news yet. He give me a good book to read but I not give it back to him yet. He gave me a good book to read but I havent given it back to him yet. IX.
keep kneel know lead learn leave lend let light lose make mean kept knelt knew led learnt left lent let lit lost made meant
130

kept knelt known led learnt left lent let lit lost made meant

drati/ tartani kleati/ trdelni znati/ tudni voditi/ vezetni uiti/ tanulni napustiti, otii/ elmenni, elhagyni pozajmiti/ klcsnadni pustiti/ engedni osvetliti, zapaliti/ megvilgtani, meggyjtani izgubiti/ elveszteni praviti/ csinlni znaiti/ jelenteni

meet oversleep pay put read retell

met overslept paid put read retold

met overslept paid put read retold

sresti/ tallkozni zaspati/ elaludni platiti/ fizetni staviti/ tenni itati/ olvasni prepriati/ elmeslni

X.
He met his old time friend last week. They read the book the other day. Have you paid all our bills, Jack? I was the only one who knew the answer. We had left the party very early. I have lost my pencil. Have you seen it anywhere? Please, retell the story, Jack! said the teacher. I was late for work because I

overslept.

Please, put the parcel down on the table. The room was not well lit, so we couldnt see much.

XI.
rid ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake shoot show rid rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook shot showed rid ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken shot shown osloboditi/ megszabadulni jahati/ lovagolni zvoniti/ csengetni ustati/ felkelni trati/ futni rei/ mondani videti/ ltni traiti/ keresni prodati/ eladni poslati/ elkldeni staviti, namestiti/ elhelyezni tresti/ rzni pucati/ lni pokazati/ megmutatni

XII.
He has ridden a horse. (Past Simple) He rode a horse They show me round London. (Present Perfect) They have shown me round London. Will you say yes? (Past Simple) Did you say yes? We are going to sell our car. (Past Perfect) We had sold our car. The sun will rise at 6 oclock. (Past Simple) The sun rose at 6 oclock.

131

Will you ring her up? (Present Perfect) Have you rung her up? They were running out. (Past Simple) They ran out. He will see the new film. (Present Perfect) He has seen the new film. I am sending you a message. (Past Simple) I sent you a message. I shook up the medicine. (Past Perfect) I had shaken up the medicine.

XIII.
shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell speak speed spend spill spoil spread spring stand steal shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke sped spent spilt spoilt spread sprang stood stole shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken sped spent spilt spoilt spread sprung stood stolen skupiti se/ sszemenni zatvoriti/ becsukni pevati/ nekelni tonuti/ sllyedni sedeti/ lni spavati/ aludni klizati se/ csszni mirisati/ megszagolni govoriti/ beszlni uriti, ubrzati/ siettetni, gyorstani potroiti/ elklteni proliti/ kinteni pokvariti/ elrontani rairiti/ terjeszteni skoiti/ ugrani stajati/ llni ukrasti/ ellopni

XIV.
They spoke(govoriti/beszlni) with Tom the other day. We had ......sat............... (sedeti/lni) in the first row. We .....had stood......(stajati/llni) in front of the theatre before they arrived. They ......slid......... (okliznuti se/megcsszni) and hurt themselves. My dress has ...shrunk................... (skupiti se/sszemenni). Did you .....spend................. (potroiti/ ellteni) all your money? The milk was ......spilt.............. (proliti/ kinteni) on the floor. The choir ........sang............... (pevati/nekelni) beautifully. I have not ......spoken............... (govoriti/beszlni) to him recently. The song was ....................... (pevati/nekelni) in French.

XV.
stick strike swear sweep swim swing stuck struck swore swept swam swung stuck struck sworn swept swum swung leptiti/ ragadni udariti/ megtni zakleti se/ megeskdni mesti/ sprni plivati/ szni ljuljati se/ leng

132

take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weave weep win wind write

took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wove wept won wound wrote

taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn woven wept won wound written

uzeti/ elvenni poduavati/ tantani kidati/ szaggatni rei/ mondani misliti/ gondolni baciti/ dobni razumeti/ megrteni probuditi se/ felbredni nositi/ viselni tkati/ szni plakati/ srni pobediti, osvojiti/ gyzni, megnyerni naviti/ felhzni pisati/ rni

XVI. He will write me. He writes me. / He wrote me. / He had written me. She will understand us. She understands me. / He understood me. / She had understood me. Our teacher is going to tell us something about atoms. Our teacher tells us about atoms. / Our teacher told us about atoms. / Our teacher had told us about atoms. Jane will wear a new dress. Jane wears a new dress. / Jane wore a new dress. / Jane had worn a new dress. I shall wake up at 7. I wake up at 7. / I woke up at 7. / I had woken up at 7. He will win the match. He wins the match. / He won the match. / He had won the match. She will sweep the kitchen floor. She sweeps the kitchen floor. / She swept the kitchen floor. / She had swept the kitchen floor. They are weeping. They weep. / They wept. / They had wept. He was swimming. He swims. / He swam. /He had swum. I shall teach you English. I teach you English. / I taught you English. / I had taught you English. He is tearing up his notes. He tears up his notes. / He tore up his notes. / He had torn up his notes.

IRREGULAR VERBS
PAST PARTICIPLE been
133

INFINITVE be

PAST TENSE was/were

MEANING biti / lenni

beat become begin bend bet bind bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy cast catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fling fly forget freeze

Beat became began bent bet bound bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flung flew forgot froze
134

beaten become begun bent bet bound bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flung flown forgotten frozen

tui/verni postati/valamiv vlni poeti/elkezdeni saviti/meghajltani kladiti se/ fogadni vezati/ megktni ujesti/ megharapni krvariti/ vrezni duvati/fjni slomiti/ trni doneti/ hozni graditi/ pteni goreti/ gni prsnuti/ sztrobbani, sztrepedni kupiti/ venni baciti/ dobni uhvatiti/ megfogni izabrati/ kivlasztani prijanjati/ tapadni, kapaszkodni doi/ jnni kotati/ valamibe kerl puziti/ mszni sei/ vgni postupati,baviti se/ foglalkozni valamivel kopati/ sni initi/ csinlni, tenni crtati,vui/ rajzolni, hzni piti/ inni voziti/ vezetni jesti/ enni pasti/ elesni hraniti/ etetni oseati/ rezni boriti se, tui se/ harcolni, verekedni nai/ megtallni baciti/ dobni leteti/ replni zaboraviti/ elfelejteni smrznuti se/ megfagyni

get give go grind grow have hear hit hold hurt keep kneel know lead learn leave lend let light lose make mean meet oversleep pay put read retell rid ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake

got gave went ground grew had heard hit held hurt kept knelt knew led learnt left lent let lit lost made meant met overslept paid put read retold rid rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook
135

got given gone ground grown had heard hit held hurt kept knelt known led learnt left lent let lit lost made meant met overslept paid put read retold rid ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken

dobiti/ kapni dati/ adni ii/ menni mleti/ rlni rasti, gajiti/ nni, termeszteni imati/ van uti/ hallani udariti/ megtni drati/ tartani raniti, uvrediti/ megsrlni, megsrteni drati/ tartani kleati/ trdelni znati/ tudni voditi/ vezetni uiti/ tanulni napustiti, otii/ elmenni, elhagyni pozajmiti/ klcsnadni pustiti/ engedni osvetliti, zapaliti/ megvilgtani, meggyjtani izgubiti/ elveszteni praviti/ csinlni znaiti/ jelenteni sresti/ tallkozni zaspati/ elaludni platiti/ fizetni staviti/ tenni itati/ olvasni prepriati/ elmeslni osloboditi/ megszabadulni jahati/ lovagolni zvoniti/ csengetni ustati/ felkelni trati/ futni rei/ mondani videti/ ltni traiti/ keresni prodati/ eladni poslati/ elkldeni staviti, namestiti/ elhelyezni tresti/ rzni

shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell speak speed spend spill spoil spread spring stand steal stick strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear weave weep win wind write

shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke sped spent spilt spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wove wept won wound wrote

shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken sped spent spilt spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn woven wept won wound written

pucati/ lni pokazati/ megmutatni skupiti se/ sszemenni zatvoriti/ becsukni pevati/ nekelni tonuti/ sllyedni sedeti/ lni spavati/ aludni klizati se/ csszni mirisati/ megszagolni govoriti/ beszlni uriti, ubrzati/ siettetni, gyorstani potroiti/ elklteni proliti/ kinteni pokvariti/ elrontani rairiti/ terjeszteni skoiti/ ugrani stajati/ llni ukrasti/ ellopni leptiti/ ragadni udariti/ megtni zakleti se/ megeskdni mesti/ sprni plivati/ szni ljuljati se/ leng uzeti/ elvenni poduavati/ tantani kidati/ szaggatni rei/ mondani misliti/ gondolni baciti/ dobni razumeti/ megrteni probuditi se/ felbredni nositi/ viselni tkati/ szni plakati/ srni pobediti, osvojiti/ gyzni, megnyerni naviti/ felhzni pisati/ rni

136