You are on page 1of 20

Fall final review

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.

1. Although we use many units for measuring time, for most of physical science we measure and
record time in ____________________.
2. A description of how far it is from one point to another (measured in units of length) is called
____________________.
3. The value calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time taken to travel that distance is
referred to as ____________________.
4. The variable which is plotted on the x-axis of a graph is called the ____________________ variable.
5. The speed you have at a specific point in your journey is best called ____________________ speed.
6. The rate of change in the speed of an object is called ____________________.
7. The SI base unit of mass is the ____________________.
8. A measurement must include both a number and a(an) ____________________.
9. An experiment in which only one variable, the manipulated variable, is changed at a time is called a(an)
_________________________.
10. An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information is called a(an)
_________________________.
11. A(An) ____________________ is a way of organizing data that is used to show changes that occur in related
variables.
12. Computers are an example of ____________________ that helps people solve problems.
13. The two main areas of physical science are physics and ____________________.
14. Natural science is divided into life science, Earth and space science, and _________________________.
15. The _________________________ is the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable.
16. A(An) ____________________ is a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature.
17. A(An) _________________________ explains a pattern found in nature.
18. A flight simulator that helps astronauts prepare for a shuttle launch is an example of a(an)
_________________________.
19. Because lab activities can involve hazardous materials, it is always important to read and understand any
____________________ that must be followed.
20. A(An) _________________________ makes it easier to understand things that are too small, too large, or too
hard to observe directly.
21. In scientific notation, (8.2 × 104 m) × (3.7 × 102 m) equals ____________________.
22. In an experiment, 0.014 seconds equals ____________________ milliseconds.
23. ____________________ is the closeness of a measurement to the actual value being measured.
24. A temperature of 68ºF is equal to ____________________ kelvins.
25. In an experiment, if doubling the manipulated variable results in a doubling of the responding variable, the
relationship between the variables is a(an) _________________________.
26. The three values—10.714 m, 12.821 m, and 13.646 m—have the same number of ____________________.
27. The SI unit for measuring ____________________ is the meter.
28. Displacement and velocity are examples of ____________________ because they have both magnitude and
direction.
29. Speed is measured in units of _________________________.

30. is the equation that defines _________________________.

31. The difference between speed and velocity is that velocity indicates the ____________________ of motion
and speed does not.
32. Because its ____________________ is always changing, an object moving in a circular path experiences a
constant change in velocity.
33. Two or more velocities add by _________________________.
34. The acceleration of a moving object is calculated by dividing the change in ____________________ by the
time over which the change occurs.
35. A car that increases its speed from 20 km/h to 100 km/h undergoes ____________________ acceleration.
36. When a force is applied that moves an object in the direction of the applied force,
____________________ is done.
37. The ____________________ work of a simple machine can never exceed the
____________________ work of that machine.
38. The ratio of the work output to the work input is called the ____________________.
39. To achieve a mechanical advantage of more than one (1), force is traded for
____________________.
40. The rate at which work is done is called ____________________.
41. The ability to do work is referred to as ____________________.
42. A push or pull is an example of a(an) ____________________.
43. The type of force measured by a grocery store spring scale is ____________________.
44. The sum of all the forces acting on an object is called the _________________________.
45. If the forces acting on an object produce a net force of zero, the forces are called
_________________________.
46. The force that opposes the motion of objects that touch as they move pass each other is called
____________________.
47. It usually takes more force to start an object sliding than it does to keep an object sliding because static
friction is usually ____________________ than sliding friction.
48. The two forces acting on a falling object are gravity and _________________________.
49. When a falling object reaches terminal velocity, the net force acting on it is ____________________.
50. The drag force acting on an falling sky diver is also known as _________________________.
51. The path of motion of a thrown javelin is an example of ____________________ motion.
52. The tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion is called ____________________.
53. During a head-on auto collision, ____________________ causes a passenger in the front seat to continue
moving ____________________.
54. The acceleration of an object is equal to the net ____________________ acting on the object divided by the
object’s ____________________.
55. The force of gravity acting on an object is the object’s ____________________.
56. If a golf ball and bowling ball are rolling at the same speed, the ____________________ ball has greater
momentum.
57. When you push on a wall, the ____________________ pushes back on you.
58. In a closed system, the loss of momentum of one object ____________________ the gain in momentum of
another object.
59. The observation that a charged object can attract or repel other charged objects led scientists to conclude that
there are ____________________ types of charges.
60. The universal force that is most effective over the longest distances is ____________________.
61. The centripetal force acting on the moon continuously changes the ____________________ of the moon’s
motion.
62. For work to be done on an object, the object has to ____________________.
63. Any part of a force that does not act in the direction of an object’s motion does no ____________________
on an object.
64. The SI unit of work is the ____________________.
65. You calculate work by multiplying the force acting in the direction of ____________________ by the
distance the object moves.
66. The rate at which work is done is called ____________________.
67. The SI unit of power is the ____________________.
68. The watt and the horsepower are both units of ____________________.
69. A machine is a device that changes a(an) ____________________.
70. A device that changes the size or direction of force used to do work is called a(an) ____________________.
71. The force that is exerted on a machine is called the ____________________ force.
72. Besides a reduction in friction, the only way to increase the amount of work output of a machine is to
____________________ the work input.
73. The ___________________________________ of a machine is the number of times that the machine
increases the input force.
74. The mechanical efficiency of any machine is always ____________________ than 100 percent.
75. A(An) ____________________ can be described as an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder.
76. The fulcrum is always between the effort force and the resistance force in a(an) ____________________-
class lever.

Figure 14-1

77. The bottle opener shown in Figure 14-1 is a(an) ____________________-class lever.
78. The ideal mechanical advantage of a third-class lever is always ____________________ than 1.
79. As the thickness of a wedge of given length increases, its IMA ____________________.
80. Two or more simple machines working together make up a(an) ____________________ machine.
81. A watch consists of a complex systems of gears. Each gear acts as a continuous ____________________.
82. Energy of an object increases when ____________________ is done on the object.
83. Energy and work are measured in the SI unit called the ____________________.
84. If the ____________________ of an object doubles, its kinetic energy doubles.
85. The kinetic energy of an object is proportional to the square of its ____________________.
86. Energy that is stored due to position or shape is called ____________________ energy.
87. When a pole-vaulter flexes the pole, the pole-vaulter increases the pole’s ____________________ potential
energy.
88. You can calculate an object’s gravitational potential energy by using the equation ____________________.
89. Mechanical energy does not include kinetic energy or ____________________ energy.
90. The sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy of an object is called its ____________________ energy.
91. All energy can be considered as kinetic energy, ____________________ energy, or the energy in fields.
92. Wind turbines convert ____________________ energy into electrical energy.
93. The process of changing energy from one form to another is called energy ____________________.
94. “Energy cannot be created or destroyed” is a statement of the law of
___________________________________.
95. When an apple falls from a tree to the ground, the apple’s beginning kinetic energy and ending gravitational
potential energy are both equal to ____________________.

Figure 15-1

96. In Figure 15-1, the kinetic energy of the pendulum bob decreases between locations B and
____________________.
97. In the equation E = mc2, c is the speed of ____________________.
98. Energy resources that exist in limited amounts and, once used, cannot be replaced except over the course of
millions of years are called ____________________ energy resources.
99. A measure of how hot or cold an object is compared to a reference point can be measured in units of
_________________________ or _________________________.
100. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy because of a(an) ____________________ difference.
101. A hot dinner plate has ____________________ thermal energy than a similar dinner plate at room
temperature.
102. If the temperature change of an aluminum nail is negative, thermal energy is transferred
____________________ the nail ____________________ the surroundings.
103. In a calorimeter, the increase in the thermal energy of the water and the decrease in the thermal energy of the
sample are ____________________.
104. The transfer of thermal energy with no overall transfer of matter is called ____________________.
105. A material that conducts thermal energy well is called a thermal ____________________.

Matching

Choose the unit of measurement from the list below that would be BEST to use when expressing a
measurement in each of the following situations. Unit choices can be used once, more than once, or
not at all.
a. centimeter
b. meter
c. millimeter
d. kilometer

____ 106. The length of an Olympic-sized swimming pool


____ 107. The width of a human hair
____ 108. The distance from one town to another
____ 109. The distance between a point at the top of a one-meter ramp and a point halfway down the ramp
____ 110. The length of your foot

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match
any of the definitions.
a. hypothesis
b. variables
c. procedure
d. controlled
e. trial
f. research question

____ 111. Occurs each time an experiment is run


____ 112. A collection of all the techniques you use to do an experiment
____ 113. An educated guess about what will happen in an experiment
____ 114. Description of an experiment in which only one variable at a time is changed
____ 115. Factors that affect the results of an experiment

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match
any of the definitions.
a. acceleration
b. force
c. momentum
d. position
e. equilibrium
f. slope

____ 116. Product of the mass and velocity of an object


____ 117. Any action that has the ability to change the motion of an object
____ 118. Occurs when all forces on an object are balanced
____ 119. The rate of change in the speed of an object
____ 120. A measurement of a line on a graph, equal to vertical change divided by horizontal change

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match
any of the definitions.
a. speed
b. mass
c. weight
d. inertia
e. friction
f. gravity
____ 121. The tendency of an object to resist changing its state of motion
____ 122. Force that always works against the motion that produces it
____ 123. A measure of the pulling force of gravity
____ 124. A force that pulls every mass toward every other mass
____ 125. The amount of matter in an object; it determines an object's inertia

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match
any of the definitions.
a. energy
b. input force
c. power
d. third class lever
e. first class lever
f. output force

____ 126. Human arms or legs are examples


____ 127. Force you apply to make a simple machine work
____ 128. The force a machine applies to accomplish a task
____ 129. Stored work
____ 130. The amount of work performed over time

Match the following terms with the correct definition. There is one extra term that will not match
any of the definitions.
a. cycle
b. hertz
c. amplitude
d. period
e. wavelength
f. interference

____ 131. Time for one cycle to occur


____ 132. A single unit of periodic motion
____ 133. Distance from one point on a wave to the same point on the next wave
____ 134. Unit of measurement for frequency (one cycle per second)
____ 135. Happens when two or more waves interact

Short Answer

You are designing an experiment to determine how the use of a particular fertilizer affects the growth
of tomato plants. Answer the following questions based on this particular experiment.

136. What would NOT be used in your control set-up that you MUST use in your experimental set-up?
Why?
137. A high speed train, full of passengers, is waiting at a station. If the train suddenly accelerates rapidly,
what will the passengers experience? Which of Newton's laws applies to the passengers' experience?
An astronaut brings her lucky horseshoe on a mission to the moon. Answer the following questions
about this horseshoe.

138. Would the astronaut's lucky horseshoe weigh the same, more, or less on the moon than it did on the
Earth? Explain your reasoning.
139. Would the lucky horseshoe's mass on the moon be the same, greater than, or less than the mass of the
horseshoe when it is on the Earth? Explain your answer.
140. What is the single most important laboratory safety rule?
141. Why do scientists speak at conferences and write articles in scientific journals?
142. What is a peer review?
143. What are the major branches of natural science?
144. What is a hypothesis?
145. What is a scientific theory?
146. Why do scientists use models?
147. When a number in a measurement is converted from kilometers to meters, does the number get larger or
smaller?
148. How many significant figures will the answer to the calculation 65.25 × 37.4 have?
149. What is the temperature at which water freezes, expressed in Fahrenheit, Celsius, and kelvins?
150. Explain how technology and science are related.
151. What type of graph would be the best to use to compare the levels of lead contamination in six water wells?
152. What is the relationship between two variables if the product of the variables is constant?
153. The study of an organism that lived 10 million years ago would most likely fall under which two branches of
natural science?
154. Describe a main idea of physical science that deals with space and time.
155. Name an example for each of the three classes of levers.
a. first class
b. second class
c. third class
156. Calculate the work done when a 50 newton object is lifted 5 meters using a block and tackle.
157. Name a metric unit used to measure each of the following quantities:
a. energy
b. work
c. force
d. power
158. A ball is thrown from position (1) to a height of 3 meters (position 2) to give it potential energy. The
ball then falls to position (3). Assuming there is no energy loss due to friction, at the instant it returns
to position (3), compare:
a. kinetic energy at position (1) with kinetic energy at position (3)
b. potential energy at position (2) with kinetic energy at (3)
159. Kinetic energy and potential energy are often considered to be forms of mechanical energy. List
three other forms of energy and state a source for each.
160. If two swimmers compete in race, does the faster swimmer develop more power?
161. Describe the spontaneous flow of heat between objects at different temperatures.
162. How are frequency and period related?
163. Which graphs represent two pendulums that are in phase?
Figure 4.1

164. What is the period of the pendulum whose motion is graphed in Figure 4.1?
165. What is the amplitude of the pendulum whose motion is graphed in Figure 4.1?
166. Write a formula for expressing the speed of a wave.
167. The pictures below represent vibrating guitar strings. Which picture shows a guitar string of one and
only one wavelength?

168. Two pulses are traveling on the same rope as shown in the diagram. As they meet, what type of
interaction will occur at their meeting point?

Problem

169. Would you be more likely to win a ten-kilometer race if you ran at a constant speed of 6 miles per
hour, or if you ran at a constant speed of 8 kilometers per hour? Explain how you arrived at your
answer. (Hint: 1 kilometer = 0.62 mile).
170. A woman jogs for 2.0 hours covering a distance of 13. kilometers. What is the speed of the woman
expressed in kilometers per hour?
171. A man runs 1500. meters in 4.00 minutes. What is the speed of the man expressed in meters per
second?
172. A race car travels at a constant speed. Position and time data are recorded. A graph is prepared using
the data. Use this graph to determine the speed of the race car.

173. A boy riding a bicycle travels at 10 miles per hour for 3 hours. He stops to rest for one hour and then
continues his ride. For the next hour he rides at a speed of 20 miles per hour. During this ride, what
was the rider's average speed for the five hour period?
174. A carton weighs 5.00 pounds. If 1.00 newton equals the weight of 0.228 pounds, what is the weight
of the carton in units of newtons?
175. According to legend, Galileo dropped two balls from the Tower of Pisa to see which would fall
faster. Suppose one of the balls had a mass of 5.0 kilograms. Given the acceleration of gravity is 9.8
m/sec2, what was the weight of the ball in newtons?
176. A block and tackle is designed with five supporting ropes. If a 250-newton object is to be lifted with
this machine, what is the minimum input force that would have to be applied?
177. A first class lever is used to lift a 500-pound load. If the input arm is 6.0 feet long, what is the
minimum length of output arm that would allow the load to be lifted using only 125 pounds of input
force?
178. A construction worker uses a block and tackle to lift 2,400 newtons of lumber from the ground to a
waiting helper on the second floor, 4 meters from the ground. To do this, she applies a 250-newton
force on the rope of the block and tackle. She pulls 50 meters of rope through the block and tackle
before the load is lifted to the second floor. Based upon the information given, calculate the
following for this block and tackle:
a. work input
b. work output
c. efficiency
179. Jennifer, who weighs 450 newtons, and Judy, who weighs 600 newtons, are standing at the bottom of
a flight of stairs that is 4.00 meters high. Jennifer runs up the stairs in 3.0 seconds. Judy runs up the
same stairs in 4.0 seconds. Compare the work done and the power generated by each girl's run up the
stairs. Support your answer by showing calculations for each quantity.
a. Who does more work?
b. Who is more powerful?
180. A father warns his son against speeding in the family automobile by saying "Having an accident at
80 miles per hour is four times as dangerous as an accident at 20 miles per hour." Do you agree with
Dad or not? Give support for your answer based upon principles of energy conversion and
conservation.
181. A crane exerts a net force of 900 N upward on a 750-kilogram car as the crane starts to lift the car from the
deck of a cargo ship. What is the acceleration of the car during this time? Show your work.
182. The mass of a newborn baby is 4.2 kilograms. What is the baby’s weight? (The acceleration due to gravity at
Earth’s surface is 9.8 m/s2.) Show your work.
183. A worker uses a cart to move a load of bricks weighing 680 N a distance of 10 m across a parking lot. If he
pushes the cart with a constant force of 220 N, what amount of work does he do? Show your work.
184. A girl lifts a 100-N load a height of 2.0 m in a time of 0.5 s. What power does the girl produce? Show your
work.
185. The input force of a pulley system must move 6.0 m to lift a 3000-N engine a distance of 0.50 m. What is the
IMA of the system? Show your work.
186. A force of 12 N is applied to the handle of a screwdriver being used to pry off the lid of a paint can. As the
force moves through a distance 0.3 m, the screwdriver does 32 J of work on the lid. What is the efficiency of
the screwdriver? Show your work.
187. What is the kinetic energy of a 74.0-kg sky diver falling at a terminal velocity of 52.0 m/s? Show your work.
188. A 0.49-kg squirrel jumps from a tree branch that is 3.6 m high to the top of a bird feeder that is 1.5 m high.
What is the change in gravitational potential energy of the squirrel? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8
m/s2.) Show your work.
189. A small dog is trained to jump straight up a distance of 1.1 m. How much kinetic energy does the 7.7-kg dog
need to jump this high? (The acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s2.) Show your work.
190. The distance between the crests of two waves on a lake is 2.0 meters. The waves break on the shore
every 5 seconds. How fast do the waves move on the surface of the water?

Essay
Figure 1-1

191. Use Figure 1-1 to describe how the steel ball moved during the experiment. Average speed is calculated by
dividing total distance by time. Did the steel ball speed up, slow down, or remain at the same speed
throughout the experiment?
192. What is the difference between a scientific law and a scientific theory?
193. Describe some of the main ideas of physical science.
194. Describe a possible order of steps of a scientific method used in an investigation.
195. Explain how peer reviews are important in either supporting a hypothesis or revising a hypothesis.
196. Describe each of the following wave interactions using at least one complete sentence.
a. reflection
b. refraction
c. diffraction
d. absorption

Other

197. What is the length of the object pictured next to the metric ruler? Give your answer in centimeters
and include the unit label in your answer.
198. Experiments are done to discover the relationship between variables. When results are graphed, the
graph may indicate a strong, weak or inverse relationship or no relationship at all.
Label each graph with the words strong, inverse, weak or none to indicate the type of relationship
shown by the graph.

A. B.

C. D.
199. Listed below are descriptions of the motion of several objects. If they are accelerating answer YES
next to the description of the object. If they are not accelerating answer NO.
a. _____ A car traveling on a turnpike at a 60 mph with its cruise control engaged
b. _____ A motorcycle whose brakes have been applied
c. _____ A baseball dropped from the roof of a building
d. _____ A girl on a skateboard going around a corner at a speed of 3 m/sec
e. _____ A tractor-trailer parked in a rest area
200. Data is recorded for the change in the distance of a moving car as time passes. A graph is drawn
from this data. Look at the graph of distance versus time for this data. On the empty grid of the speed
versus time graph, draw a line that would correctly represent the motion of the same car.

201. Listed below are daily life scenarios about objects in motion and at rest. Decide which of Newton's
three laws of motion best applies to each situation, and answer 1st, 2nd, or 3rd in each blank.
a. _____ A boat moves through the water because of a rowing motion (using
oars).
b. _____ Spin a raw egg on the table, stop it with your hand, and remove your
hand quickly. The egg will begin to spin again with no help at all!
c. _____ A dropped basketball hits the floor and bounces back up.
d. _____ It takes more force to accelerate a loaded dump truck than it takes to
accelerate a small car with one passenger.
e. _____ A cup of water sits motionless on a kitchen table.

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 1-2
202. Analyzing Data What is the slope of the line shown in Figure 1-2?
203. Controlling Variables In Figure 1-2, what is the responding variable?
204. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-2, what is the relationship between mass and volume?
205. Using Tables and Graphs In Figure 1-2, what quantity does the slope represent?
206. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-2, what metric units are represented by values on the plotted line?

Figure 1-3

207. Using Tables and Graphs What measurements are compared in Figure 1-3?
208. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-3, which month had the highest amount of precipitation?
209. Inferring Why might the data in Figure 1-3 be important to share with a scientist studying agriculture trends
in Port Hardy?
210. Using Tables and Graphs Use Figure 1-3 to determine the approximate total annual precipitation.
211. Analyzing Data In Figure 1-3, how many meters of precipitation were recorded during January?

USING SCIENCE SKILLS


Figure 11-2

212. Using Tables and Graphs Which graph in Figure 11-2 shows periods of constant speed? Explain your
answer.
213. Interpreting Graphics Look at Figure 11-2. Describe the motion of the object in Graph A.
214. Using Models Which graph in Figure 11-2 shows acceleration? How do you know?
215. Calculating Using Graph A in Figure 11-2, calculate the average speed of the object in motion from 12 s to
20 s. Explain your calculation.
216. Comparing and Contrasting Compare Graphs A and B in Figure 11-2. At a time of 2 seconds, which graph
shows a greater velocity? How do you know?
217. Study the wheelbarrow picture. The arrows in the drawing represent the input force, the output force
and the fulcrum.

a. Write the words input force, output force and fulcrum next to the arrow to correctly identify what
each arrow represents.
b. Identify the wheelbarrow as a first, second or third class lever.
c. Tell why you have identified the wheelbarrow as this class of lever.
Figure 12-3

218. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-3, what is the momentum of each skater at Time 1?
219. Comparing and Contrasting In Figure 12-3, compare the size and direction of the momentums of both
skaters immediately after the push shown at Time 2.
220. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 12-3, describe the motion of Skater B after Skater A pushes her.
221. Applying Concepts In Figure 12-3, if Skater A is pushing Skater B, why does Skater A move?
222. Applying Concepts Suppose that the skaters repeat the demonstration in Figure 12-3 again. This time Skater
B is holding a 10-kilogram mass. If Skater A pushes exactly as he did the first time, will Skater A’s motion be
different this time? Explain your answer.

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

Figure 14-2

223. Calculating What is the IMA of the ramp in Figure 14-2? Show your work.
224. Applying Concepts If the ramp shown in Figure 14-2 was coated with a smoother surface, how would the
AMA of the ramp change?
225. Applying Concepts If the ramp shown in Figure 14-2 was coated with a smoother surface, how would the
ramp’s efficiency change? Explain your answer.
226. Classifying What type of simple machine is the ramp shown in Figure 14-2?
227. Comparing and Contrasting In a post office, a 3-m long ramp is used to move carts onto a dock that is
higher than 1 m. How does the IMA of this ramp compare with the IMA of the ramp shown in Figure 14-2?

Figure 14-3

228. Applying Concepts Look at Figure 14-3. If Machine A moves through an input distance of 4.0 m, what is the
output distance of Machine B?
229. Classifying What type of simple machine is Machine A in Figure 14-3?

Figure 15-3
230. Interpreting Graphics At what location in Figure 15-3 does the ball have the least gravitational potential
energy?
231. Comparing and Contrasting Compare the gravitational potential energy of the ball at locations B and E
shown in Figure 15-3. Explain your answer.
232. Applying Concepts In Figure 15-3, does the total mechanical energy of the ball between locations A and F
ever equal zero? Explain your answer.