You are on page 1of 18

TITLE: TONGUE ROLLING ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to identify the population of dominant and recessive traits

of tongue rolling among UPSI students in between FSMT, FSKIK and FBK. The research was done on 120 students from these three faculties. 40 students are from faculty of Science and Mathematics, 40 students are from faculty of Language and Communication, 40 students are from Faculty of Art, Computer and Creative Industry. Each respondents were provided with a questionnaire that ask them regarding speed test, pronunciation, ability of respondent to roll tongue, ability of parents to roll tongue as well as the number of their siblings that were able to roll tongue as well as not able to roll tongue. After we collected the entire questionnaire, the number of students that were able to roll their tongue and the number of students that were unable to roll their tongue were counted and interpreted in table. The total number of respondents can roll tongue are 95 while respondents cannot roll their tongue is 25. FSKIK has the highest number of respondents who can roll tongue. According to the speed test result, respondents from FSMT and FBK show around 30< x 40 second while respondents from FSKIK show highest time taken around 20< x 30. Ability of respondents father roll their tongue show highest for faculty FBK, ability of respondents mother roll their tongue show highest tongue for faculty FSMT. Some of the respondents have siblings cannot roll their tongue while the respondent able to roll tongue. Besides, the distribution of male and female between siblings can or cannot is not significant. This is not affected by sex-linked but assort randomly.

INTRODUCTION: The tongue-rolling trait is frequently used in Biology lessons to demonstrate the basic principles of genetics. Tongue-rolling is commonly thought to be controlled by one gene with two different forms, or alleles. Simple traits like these are called Mendelian, after Gregor Mendel, a biologist who lived in the 1800s.Mendelian inheritance is a scientific description of how hereditary characteristics are passed from parent organisms to their offspring, it underlies much of genetics. Published data suggests that around 65-80% of people can roll their tongues. Some studies have shown that northern England has fewer tongue-rollers than southern England, right-handers are more likely to be able to roll their tongues, and more men than women can tongue-roll. Thus, this investigation is needed to find out does tongue rolling is affected by genes or environment and affect the ability of a person.

OBJECTIVE: 1. To find out whether tongue rolling affected the ability of a person.

METHODOLOGY: 1. Prepare a questionnaire and distribute to respondents. 2. Observe whether the respondents have the ability to roll tongue.

Results

QUESTION 1: Ability of respondent to roll tounge


40 Number of respondent 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FSMT FSKIK FBK Ability to roll tounge YES NO

Ability of respondent to roll tongue Faculty YES NO

FSMT

32

FSKIK

35

FBK

28

12

TOTAL

95

25

QUESTION 2 : Ability of respondent to say alphabet R and S correctly


35 Numberof respondent 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FSMT FSKIK FBK Ability to say alphabet R and S YES NO EXCEPTED

Ability of respondent to say alphabet R and S correctly Faculty YES NO EXCEPTED CHINESE AND INDIAN

FSMT

33

FSKIK

35

FBK

31

TOTAL

99

13

QUESTION 3 : Time taken to read tounge twister


70 number of respondent 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0<x10 10<x20 20<x30 30<x40 Time range (s) 40<x50 50<x60 60<x FSMT FSKIK FBK

Faculty 0<x10 10<x20

Time taken to read tongue twister (s) 20<x30 30<x40 40<x50 50<x60

60<x

FSMT

31

62

FSKIK

13

10

FBK

13

TOTAL

57

78

11

10

13

QUESTION 4 : Time taken to read text


25 Number of respondent 20 15 FSMT 10 5 0 0<x10 10<x20 20<x30 30<x40 Time range (s) 40<x50 50<x60 60<x FSKIK FBK

Time taken to read text (s) Faculty 0<x10 10<x20 20<x30 30<x40 40<x50 50<x60 60<x

FSMT

21

13

FSKIK

13

10

FBK

17

10

TOTAL

19

48

29

13

QUESTION 5 : Ability of respondent's father to roll his tounge


35 Number of respondent 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FSMT FSKIK Ability of father to roll tounge FBK YES NO

Ability of respondents father to roll tongue Faculty YES NO

FSMT

26

14

FSKIK

25

15

FBK

32

TOTAL

83

37

QUESTION 6 : Ability of respondent's mother to roll her tounge


35 Number of respondent 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FSMT FSKIK Ability of mother to roll tounge FBK YES NO

Ability of respondents mother to roll tongue Faculty YES NO

FSMT

33

FSKIK

27

13

FBK

29

11

TOTAL

89

31

QUESTION 7 (i) : Number of Male Siblings


25 20 Number of siblings 15 FSMT 10 5 0 0<x1 1<x2 Range 2<x3 3<x4 FSKIK FBK

Faculty 0<x1

Number of male siblings

1<x2

2<x3

3<x4

FSMT

13

18

FSKIK

10

11

10

FBK

18

15

TOTAL

41

44

26

QUESTION 7 (ii) : Number of Female Siblings


25 20 Number of siblings 15 FSMT 10 5 0 0<x1 1<x2 Range 2<x3 3<x4 FSKIK FBK

Faculty 0<x1

Number of female siblings

1<x2

2<x3

3<x4

FSMT

19

14

FSKIK

10

11

10

FBK

11

22

TOTAL

28

52

29

11

QUESTION 8: Male Siblings That Can Roll Their Tongue


25 20 15 FSMT 10 5 0 0<x1 1<x2 Range 2<x3 3<x4 FSKIK FBK

Number of siblings

Number of male siblings ability to roll tongue Faculty 0<x1

1<x2

2<x3

3<x4

FSMT

16

15

FSKIK

13

FBK

22

12

TOTAL

47

30

22

QUESTION 9: Female Siblings That Can Roll Their Tongue


25 20 15 FSMT 10 5 0 0<x1 1<x2 Range 2<x3 3<x4 FSKIK FBK

Number of siblings

Number of female sibling ability to roll tongue Faculty 0<x1 1<x2 2<x3 3<x4

FSMT

20

FSKIK

12

10

FBK

15

21

TOTAL

32

51

21

LEGEND: R = can roll tongue r = can not roll tongue (1) Cross A Mother Parental genotype : RR Homozygous dominant X X Father RR Homozygous dominant

Gametes:

F1 generation: Phenotype ratio : Genotype ratio:

RR All RR All offspring can roll tongue

(2) Cross B Mother Parental genotype: Rr Heterozygous X X Father Rr Heterozygous

Gametes:

F1 generation: Phenotype ratio:

RR

Rr 1 RR : 2 Rr : 1rr 3 R_ : 1 rr

Rr

rr

Genotype ratio: (3 ) Cross C

3 can roll tongue : 1 cannot roll tongue

Mother

Father

Parental genotype :

RR Homozygous dominant

rr Homozygous recessive

Gametes:

r r

F1 generation :

Rr Heterozygous offspring

Phenotype ratio: Genotype ratio : (4) Cross D Mother Parental genotype: rr Homozygous recessive

All Rr All offspring can roll tongue

X X

Father rr Homozygous recessive

Gametes:

r r

F1 generation:

All rr All homozygous recessive offspring

Phenotype ratio : Genotype ratio :

All rr All offspring cannot roll tongue

DISCUSSION: In order to properly explain the different patterns of inheritance, it is all about genetics. DNA is present in each of our cells, and it contains all of the information that makes us human. Humans have thousands of genes encoded in their DNA, each of which plays an important role in life. Everyone has two copies of every gene; one inherited from the mother, and one inherited from the father. In this report, we are investigating whether the ability of a person to roll tongue affect the ability of a person in speaking. As we know that, tongue rolling is a simple two alleles character with the allele for rolling, for the symbol R, being dominant over the allele for non-rolling, for the symbol r. Tongue rolling was demonstrated according to Mendelian genetics. It was based on first Mendelian law that is Law of Segregation. This law states that during gamete formation, the paired factors segregate randomly so that half of the gametes received each of it respectively. From the studied of inheritance, the process of passing characteristics to the next generation, it came to conclusion: The characteristics of an organism are passed along from parent to child by pieces of information called genes. Every gene represents a single of information containing one characteristic. Alleles are two or more genes that carry a piece of information about a single characteristic, for example: one of the allele pair may be for roll tongue and the other may be for non-roll tongue. Alleles are usually found in pairs, one of which is dominant, or over powering, and one recessive which is masked by the dominant. In reproduction each gamete, or reproductive cell, (sperm or egg), has only one of the pair present. If a dominant and recessive allele are both present, the individual will be affected by the dominant allele. So, the phenotypic expression of a gene is determined by dominance, the allele for tongue rolling R. For example, for the tongue rolling, if a parent had even one R in the pair, the R trait will be expressed. This means that the person can roll their tongue. Only in the case of entirely recessive inheritance, where both parents give their offspring the rr gene combination, the offspring will not express the tongue rolling. According to the Law of Segregation, the F2 generation phenotype ratio will give a ratio 3:1. This means that there are

three in four chances that the dominant R gene will be expressed in the offspring, leaving a one in four chance that the offspring will not be able to roll their tongue. The respondent is divided into two categories that can do tongue rolling and cannot do tongue rolling. According to our research, from 120 respondents we had obtained that 95 respondents can roll their tongues, only 25 respondents cannot roll their tongue. FSKIK show the highest number of respondents ability to roll tongue which are 35. While followed with respondents from FSMT and FBK, 32 and 28 respondents. This result had been shown that the phenotype ratio is 3:1 and it followed Mendel Law of Segregation. The numbers of respondent that can roll tongue are many rather than the number of respondent that cannot roll tongue. This result shows that the ability to roll tongue is caused by a dominant gene (R) and not able to roll tongue or known as non-roller is caused by homozygous recessive (rr). Therefore, the respondents can roll their tongue are inherited the dominant gene (R) from their parents either in an allele or in a pair. For question (2), the number of respondents able to say alphabet R and S are almost the same among all respondent. The ability of respondents to say R and S of FSMT, FSKIK and FBK are 33, 35, and 31. The number is almost same with respondents can roll their tongue. For question (3), most respondents from all faculties take time from 20s to 40s to finish the text given. This does not show the ability of respondents to roll tongue affect the ability of a person. Since that respondent take the shortest time is from FSKIK, which is around 10 < x 20 second. Besides, if the either one of respondents parents can roll their tongue. The respondent also can roll their tongue too. Since, the tongue rolling is controlled by dominant R gene. If there is one R gene in the genotype, it will show phenotype roll tongue. But, if the parents are heterozygous, there will be 1 child cannot roll tongue with rr gene. But if either one of the parents is homozygous dominant, all of her children can roll tongue either RR or Rr. From the result we analysis, we can conclude that ability of tongue rolling person to read and speak does not affected by genetic inheritance tongue rolling. This is because reading and speaking can be practices based on individual knowledge. It does not show that FBK have the shortest time taken in speed reading text and also tongue twister. Speaking and reading is affected by environment.

CONCLUSION: As the conclusion for this experiment an example of Mendel's laws with two traits can be illustrated in the human trait of tongue rolling. Tongue rolling is the simple genetics characters and it is influences the genetics of their both parents. This tongue rolling is establishing the Mendelian First Law. According to the result from respondent that we have, all the ratio will be obey Law of Segregation that produced 3:1 ratio. This means that, 3/4 from the offspring can rolls their tongue. This is proved by many respondent can rolls their tongue compared to respondent that cannot rolls their tongue. Based on that, we can know that dominant allele will suppress the recessive allele and show its characteristics through the appearances of the offspring. Then, we can conclude that tongue rolling is the one that can be inherited from their parent through genetics from one generation to the other generations.

REFERENCES 1. Principles Of Genetics, D.Peter Snustad And Michael J.Simmons, (5th edition), Wiley United State 2. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/activities/pdfs/inherited%20human%20
traits%20quick%20reference_public.pdf

3. http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/5/221.extract 4. http://library.thinkquest.org/C004367/be1.shtml 5. http://www.thetech.org/genetics/ask.php?id=125 6. http://www.zerobio.com/drag_gr11/pedigree/pedigree1.htm

GENETICS SBU3033
TITLE: MINI PROJECT- TONGUE ROLLING Prepared By: NAME PHUA WAN JIEN SALMIZA ZAINAL ABIDIN NORHARYAN ERDAYU BT SAHAR SITI MARDIAH BT MOHD BAHARI ID NUMBER D20091035127 D20091035074 D20091035078 D20091035103

PREPARED FOR: DR. FATIMAH MOHAMED