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IPA

Transcription Practice
trnskrpn prkts

Class materials and exercises


for B2.2 classes taught by Jonathan Lewis and Konrad Szczeniak

Konrad Szczeniak
Universidade do Porto, Portugal Uniwersytet lski, Poland 2010/2011

Instytut Jzyka Angielskiego

Charts
High Front i i Central Back u u

Mid

Low
Table 1. English vowels

The labels Front, Central, and Back refer to the part of the tongue. The terms High, Mid, and Low describe the position the tongue assumes for a given vowel. For example, the vowels in hip, heap and hippy are highfront vowels: /hp/ /hip/ /hpi/.

Bilabial
-V +V

Labiodental
-V +V

Dental
-V +V

Alveolar
-V +V

Palatal
-V +V

Velar
-V +V

Glottal
-V +V

Plosives Fricatives Affricates Nasals


Approximants

m w

Liquids Glides

l, r

Table 2. English consonants The labels in the upper row (Bilabial, Labiodental, etc.) refer to the articulator, or part of the mouth involved in the articulation of a consonant. The terms in the column on the left (Plosives, Fricatives, etc.) describe the manner of articulation for a given consonant. Consonants on the right side in each column are voiced, and the ones to the left are voiceless. For example, the consonant /p/ is a voiceless plosive bilabial.

1. 1. Vowel symbols
i u e tree fish cat car clock horse book boot computer bird egg up three dished mat star lock fourth pull pool doctor third red sun feed finished rat far stop door full fool arrive person very funny

1. Write these words next to the right phonetic symbol above. dork, steam, start, week, lurk, spat, food, foot, lark, cool, corn, far, seat, stern, van, sport, scream, seem, harsh, lurk, rude, born, dull, puke, psalm, rock 2. Odd man out. Eliminate the word whose vowel is different from those in the other three. In words with more syllables, the vowel in question is in bold type. (A) stick (B) blood (C) roll (D) son (E) lock myth muck rot run bottle feet tar dot fun shore fit pub gosh butcher stop (F) lard (G) done (H) sat (I) set (J) sieve father gun Nazi dead leave parent fall clap heat meat jar stub plaid bet Steve

3. Practice. Transcribe the vowels in the following sentences. You may ignore the consonants (simply write their spelling letters), diphthongs and stresses. Love thy neighbor as yourself, but choose your neighborhood.

/l_v a neb_r z js_lf bt t_z j neb_h_d/


If you are not criticized, you may not be doing much.

/_f ju n_t kr_tsazd j me n_t bi du m_t/


Opportunity is missed by most people because its dressed in overalls and looks like work.

/pt_n_ti z m_st ba mst p_pl bikz ts dr_st n vr_lz n t l_ks lak w_k/
I don't think anyone should write their autobiography until after they're dead.

a dnt _k _nibdi d rat r n bagr_fi nt_l d_d

2A. Vowels // and /u/


1. Patterns
The spelling is not a reliable indicator for which of the two is pronounced (idiosyncrasies, irregularities and exceptions everywhere), but there are some soft regularities. spelled u // u-e /u/ When the letter u is pronounced as a high-back vowel, it is usually the short //: bull, butcher, full, pull, push, sugar, wuss But when a syllable containing the /u/ sound is followed by the letter e in the spelling, the sound will be /u/: absolute, cute, crude, dude, exude, immune, include, mute, nuke, rude, use, etc. spelled ew /u/ spelled oo /u/ brew, chew, jewel, Jewish, lewd, Lewis, newt, shrewd, etc. bloom, boom, boost, boot, booth, booze, cool, doom, food, fool, gloom, goof, goose, hoot, loop, loot, loose, mood, moon, moot, noose, ooze, pool, proof, school, shoot, smooth, snoop, soon, spook, spoon, stool, swoon, swoop, tool, tooth, troop, zoom book, good, foot, hood, hook, look, nook, shook, stood, took, wood, wool Words usually end in the long /u/: argue, avenue, bamboo, boo, coo, loo, peekaboo, shoo, taboo, tattoo, too, voodoo, Yahoo, zoo, etc. broom, groom, roof, room; in AmE also root, soot, whoop // woman, wolf /u/ womb, tomb, fruit, group, soup, suit 2. Exercises Minimal pairs. The words below differ only in one sound (the /u/-//contrast). Complete the table. wood /wd/- wooed /wud/ ____ /fl/- fool /ful/ ____ /lk/- ____ /luk/ ____ /pl/ - ____ /pul/ ____ /nk/ - ____ /n(j)uk/

spelled oo // final /u/ both //&/u/ idiosyncratic

Transcribe the following phrases. true blue footloose groupie hooked on books food and booze new tattoo astute conclusion

loose woman cool looking dude Fruit of the Loom cute Susan useful fool groovy music

A Few Good Men spoonful of sugar shooting some bull crude tool wolf on the loose lewd movie

2B. Vowels // and /i/


1. Patterns

// is usually spelled as the letter i: bit, spin, zit, glib, etc. /i/ is often pronounced when spelled as:
ee ea ie / ei e-CONSONANT-e bee, greet, meet, leek, reek, see, etc.; employee, refugee, divorcee, etc. bean, beat, heat, league, peace, sea, weave etc. achieve, believe, field, piece, ceiling, receive, conceive, etc. athlete, complete, concrete, decent, Irene, obese, Pete, Portuguese, Steve, But there are exceptions:

Looks like /i/ but is really pronounced as //: sieve, mischief, counterfeit, foreign Looks like // but is really pronounced as /i/: liter, kilo, and -ique words antique, physique, pique, technique Plus, there are some tricky examples of Irish names: Sean /n/, Sinead /ned/

2. Exercises 2.1 Match and transcribe homophones (words with different meanings and spellings, but pronounced the same). Not all the words have a match!

piece see beat beech meat week heel sweet pick mitt pique peak

sea weak beet beach bit meet suite hill heal peace peek

2.2 What problem do the words sheet, beach, and piece pose? Which words should they not be

confused with?
2.3 Transcribe the following

King and Queen freaking dimwit

kith and kin spitting image

speed limit feeling of bliss


/bin/ /bn/ /lik/ /lk/

2.4 Decipher these minimal pairs /fil/ /fl/ /stil/ /stl/ /rim/ /rm/ /dim/ /dm/

2C. Vowels //, // and //


1. Position of the tongue
Front High Mid Low Central Back

2. Patterns

// (the schwa) is the most frequent vowel in English. It usually appears in unstressed syllables, but
never in stressed syllables: about, afraid, confuse, etc. It is not associated with any specific letter in the spelling (in fact, it can be spelled with any vowel letter: ability, seven, dinosaur, suppose), but there are some useful patterns to remember. For example, if a word ends in -er or -or, this ending is 99% of the time a schwa: mother, cooler, builder, editor, color (colour), etc. The indefinite article a/an is pronounced with the schwa: / bed/, /n pl/.

// is usually spelled as the letter a: ban, cat, dab, hag, stack, tab, etc. // is usually spelled as the letter u: bun, cut, dub, hug, stuck, tub, etc.
Some exceptional cases of // words to memorize:

//

ton, son, won, front; one, done, none, come, love, glove, brother, mother, some, something, other, nothing, money, monkey, cover, govern, color, does; blood, flood; enough, rough, tough; touch, country, cousin, young, couple, double, trouble.

2. Exercises 2.1 Homophones What homophones do the words son, won, and none, have? 2.2 Transcribe the following an ugly cover-up a ton of /v/ money a stunning comeback black color troubled young lad

son-of-a-gun bloodbath an unloved son front man stuck in the // mud

happy go // lucky country cousin number one bad blood funny monkey

3. Past /d/, /t/, or /d/ and plural /z/, /s/, or /z/


1. Transcription. Decipher the following transcription. Underline: all plural suffixes and all regular verb inflections (-ed forms, and -ing forms)

/ivn z hu dnt knsd mselvz fnz v led zepln gri t ts wn v gretst bndz v l tam/ / bgnz v led zepln kn bi trest bk tu bluz nflunst rk bnd jdbdz/ /dmi ped dnd jdbdz n nantin sksti sks / /hi rplest besst pl sm hu hd dsadd t liv grup/ /tli ft ped swtt frm bes t lid gt kriet dul lid gt lanp w def bek/ tr n rkd n d bgn t wand dan/ ki mun n besst dn entwsl/ /fl dptr v bek frm grup n sksti sks jdbdz w tad frm knstnt /ped wntd t fm supgrup w hmself n bek n gtz n huz rm sekn drm /vklsts stiv wnwd n wl stivnz wr ls knsdd f prdekt/ n beks nantin sksti et lbm tru/ /fju grups v ivn km kls tu tiv sem levlz/

/ grup nev fmd l ped bek n mun rkdd s tge beks bler wt z fitd / rkd sen ls nkludd besst kibdst dn pl dnz hu tld ped t i wd bi ntrstd in klbret n fjut prdekts/
Text copied under GNU Free Documentation License

2. The past suffix ed. /d/, /t/, or /d/ (=/d/ in some transcriptions) Write the transcription for the following verbs in the past tense form. collaborated, agreed, achieved, traced, joined, replaced, switched, created, followed, 3. The plural suffix s. /z/, /s/, or /z/ (=/z/) Write the transcription for the following nouns in the plural form. pages, guitars, lineups, times, recordings, sections, projects, moons, albums 4. The 3rd person sing suffix s. /z/, /s/, or /z/ (=/z/) Write the transcription for the following verbs in the 3rd pers form. decides, considers, acts, begins, features, collaborates, 5. Sentences Transcribe these sentences. The jam session lasted a few hours. John strummed a couple of songs. The man in red shorts sings well. He who laughs last laughs best. Consonants. sheep ip church thing j York jk

measure me judge mother m thing

4. Diphthongs
1. Diphthong symbols. Study the following diphthongs symbols. Think of other examples of words that are pronounced with these diphthongs.

e bay, hey a bye, lie /s___v pr___vt r____n/ /lst n trnzl___n/ /eksp____r n lv/ /mdnat k___b___/

boy, boil (=o) glow, go

a now, how ear, cheer

e bear, dare sure, lure /slmdg mljn___r/

2. Practice. Supply the missing diphthong symbols in the following transcriptions.

/br___kbk m___ntn/ /gldi___t /


r

/ grin m___l/

/n___ kntri fr ___ld men/ / kr___ gem/

/d___ndrs lieznz/

3. Practice. Transcribe the following words (each one contains a diphthong), and put them in the following lines. make finds no my lives close James Brown closer White baby I(x2)

/ ma nem z bnd __________ bnd/ /am gn __________ m n fr (h)i knt rfjuz/ (The Godfather) /s t l vis t __________/ (Terminator 2) /t __________ sgnl nli hel/ (Gladiator)

Which two of the following are not pronounced with a diphthong?

arrange change orange grange range strange anger danger manger stranger

/bkz __________ mn kn bi frendz w wmn t i __________ trktv/ (When Harry Met Sally) /e me tek __________ bt el nev tek fridm/ (Braveheart) /kip j frendz __________ bt jr enmiz __________/ (The Godfather) /z f bk z __________ kn rmemb __________ lwez wntd t bi gst/ (The Goodfellas) /hr j nemz mstr __________ mstr __________ mst blnd mst blu mstr rnd n mst pk/ (Reservoir Dogs)
4. Practice. Now you should be ready to transcribe the following sentences (ignore the stresses). Scientists might be quite mistaken about many things, but they always try to find out how much they dont know. | Cambridge Chamber of Commerce | Id only like to know if you can die from piercing your own ear. 5. Separated by the Great Vowel Shift differences in pairs of words know - knowledge wild - wilderness wise - wisdom nature - natural nation - national Christ - Christmas south - southern wide - width grade - gradual fable - fabulous sane - sanity sincere - sincerity

5. Consonants eth // and theta //


1. Eth // and theta //
Spelled the same; difference in voicing: // is voiced, // is voiceless). Which one is pronounced - most often to be memorized. But there are some rules-of-thumb: 1.1 Rules-of-thumb position rule-of-thumb initial In initial positions, foreign or unfamiliar words are never pronounced with the eth //. middle In middle positions, between vowels, usually // (e.g. rather, mother, bother, together, wither), but of course, there are exceptions (ether). In middle positions, preceded by a consonant, most often // (anthem, menthol, panther, synthetic, filthy, stealthy, wealthy). final In final positions, most often //: (birth, both, breadth, death, wealth, seventh, truth, wealth). // depending on the speaker. One common exception is smooth. Words like bequeath or betroth are pronounced with // or

1.2 Regular alternations bath bathe breath breathe sooth soothe swath swathe seethe wreath wreathe 1.3 Tricky words Esther, Thailand, Thames, Thomas, thyme

cloth clothe teeth teethe writhe

loath - loathe scathe

1.4 Voiced plurals baths, booths, cloths, oaths, paths, sheathes, truths, wreaths 1.5 th suffixes noun forming -th: warmth, width, length,breadth, dearth, depth, growth, mirth ordinal th: sixth, tenth ordinal eth: twentieth, thirtieth

2. Exercises
1. What is the difference (in use) between the two ordinal suffixes? 2. The longest cluster of consonants in the final position in English is found in the words /skss/ and /aznds/. In what expressions are these forms used? 3. Fill in the blanks in the following expressions and transcribe them. Better dead . red through . and thin

two . up!

4. Transcribe the following phrases. path to truth death threat thousandths place holier than thou from north to south worth their salt seething with wrath healthy, wealthy and wise in the thrall of death a thirty something dearth rather than wealth in the altogether go through the contract with a fine-tooth comb on the strength of

6. Nasals
1. The velar nasal // (ring tailed n symbol, A.K.A. engma) In which of the words below is the consonant following the // mute? sing - sink sting - stink think - thing single - twinkle Washington - plankton ringer - drinker bunker - hunger prankster - gangster angle - ankle banger - bunker monger - bonkers

Observation #1: After //, the consonant ____ is often deleted, while ____ never is. Observation #2: In final positions, ______ after // is always deleted. What happens when a // is followed by suffixes -er, -ing, -ly, -able? singer singing swimmingly hanger hangover hangout singable

Observation #3: When // is followed by morphemes, the /g/ remains _______. Can you guess the reason why /g/ is mute in the words on the left, but not in those on the right? singer, swinger, bringer, hanger, malinger, linger, hunger, finger, wringer warmonger, hatemonger, fishmonger, etc. For the same reason as above, in the following words, the /g/ is pronounced. Transcribe the remaining three words. shingle jungle spangle /spgl/ dangle /dgl/ tingle

Observation #4 : In the comparative and superlative form, the /g/ is always pronounced. stronger younger longer /lgr/ strongest youngest longest /lgst/ Which ones are not pronounced with the velar nasal? binger bringer tinge singer singe hinge ginger

2. The cluster /mb/ How are the following words pronounced? aplomb bomb numb climb comb limb thumb womb amber bomber number climber bimbo timber somber remember Bambi 3. The cluster /mn/ How are the following words pronounced? autumn column condemn damn hymn autumnal columnist condemnation damnation hymnal

crumb chamber

lamb ember

solemn solemnity

Transcribe the following: engineering, Hong Kong, jingle, monkey, changeling, ranging, spelunker, clingingly, ding-dong, inkling, dangling, long-lasting, wrongdoing, donkey, youngster

7. Affricates /t/ and /d/; fricatives // and //


1. The voiceless affricate /t/ and fricative // Spelled ch (chin, lecher, much), tch (butcher, stretch) or t (mature, nature) But careful with: chasm, chorus, chemist, schism, scheme, schism, scholar, technology /k/ chaise, chagrin, machine, chivalry, chandelier, chef, parachute, chute. // schmooze, schmuck, schm in jocular reduplications, as in santa-schmanta, school-schmool, etc. ? yacht, Crichton What tricky words are transcribed below? /lktnstin/ /skt sfrini /

/mpen/

/fr, fr/

/kwa/

In words ending in -pture (eg. capture, sculpture, scripture) and cture (picture, lecture, structure), the t can be pronounced as either /t/ or //. Transcribe the following phrases. childish selfishness charming and chivalrous watch the show cash a check

fish and chips the shorts match the shirt Portuguese ship Chinese washing machine

English teacher cherries in a dish national chess championships

2. The voiceled post-alveolar affricate /d/ Spelled j (jeans, Jones), dg (dodge, wedge), often g before i or e (gin, ginger, gem, range) Frequent errors. Careful with: Carnegie, gill, Gilbert, gismo /g/ genre, beige, rouge, mirage // Minimal pairs. The words below differ only in one sound (the /t/-/d/contrast). Complete the table. cheer /t/- jeer /d/ chew /tu/ - Jew _________ cinch /snt/- ____ _________ rich _______- ridge _______ Transcribe the following phrases. eschew junk food rich imagination foolish jealousy ____ /tel/ - ____ /del/ cheap /tip/ - ____ /dip/ badge _______- batch _______ ____ /teri/- ____ _______

change your shirt Virginia Beach huge motion picture

just a conjecture Winchester College Chapel Choir social age structure

8. Suffixes
1. Nominal suffixes.
1.1 What words are transcribed next to each suffix? -age d /bgd/ -al l /wdrl/ -ance ns /ksep tns/ -ee i /n t vjui/ -hood hd /fls hd/ -ness ns /dk ns/ -ence ns /kr ns/ -ism zm / ktvzm/ -sion n /sen n/ n /kohi n/ 1.2 Transcribe these words by consulting the above list of nominal suffixes. childhood departure divorcee creature refusal livelihood erasure capitalism evacuee absentee management judgment adjustment nationhood marriage senescence denture highness servant fluorescence firmness marker princess worker actress 1.3 Transcribe a few other nouns with some of the above suffixes. -escence esns /d les ns/ -ment mnt /enkr d mnt/ -ure /klo r/ -ant nt /p l knt/ -er /titr/ -ess1 s / la ns/ -tion n /gn n/

2. Adjectival suffixes.
2.1 What words are transcribed next to each suffix? -able bl /lek t bl/ -al l /n ml/ -er /nit/

-ese iz /mltiz/
is /mltis/

-ette et /koket/ -ic k /runk/ -ous s /d s/

-let lt /pg lt/


-ish /tal d/

-est st /klinst/ -ful fl /jus fl/ -ive v /rpres v/ -worthy w i /trstw i/

-ible bl /dms bl/ -less ls /mand ls/

-some sm /trb l sm/

2.2 Transcribe these words by consulting the above list of nominal suffixes.

likeable

natural ruthless biggish compatible Portuguese starlet fastest careless tasteful abysmal countless ironic handsome awesome awful droplet

impressive foolish brunette cautious

3. Double category suffixes. Suffixes like -ful /fl/ can be both adjectival and nominal. What common meaning element do these nouns express? /fst fl/ /bg fl/ /hnd fl/ /has fl/ /lp fl/ /rm fl/ /spun fl/ /tk fl/

9. Stress
1. Factors responsible for stress. Can you arrange the factors below in terms of
importance? loudness pitch length quality

stress relative perceived prominence of a linguistic unit. A stressed syllable is characterized phonetically by greater intensity than is found in adjacent unstressed syllables. 2. Primary and secondary stress. Placement often depends on the suffix. For now, use your
intuition as to how primary and secondary stress is placed in the following words. extramural horticulture retrospective microcosm situation supermarket superintendent stratosphere extraterrestrial biohazard counterproductive paramedic humanism homicidal What do the affixes do to the bases? hybrid hybridism hybridist graph biograph biography hybridize biographic hybridizable biographical hybridity biographer hybridization

3. Compounds and phrases


farm hand locker room shit list bonehead left hand big room long list butthead shorthand darkroom black list bruised head Quite a few exceptions: apple pie, morning paper, school choir, summer night. How about apple pie recipe, school choir conductor?

4. Weak Forms
Weak form - one of two possible pronunciation variants for a word articulated in connected speech. Weak forms are usually unstressed grammatical (function) words. For example, the preposition of in lots of money is normally pronounced as /v/, not /v/. Some words in English have more than one weak form, e.g. have /hv/ can be /hv/, /v/, or //.

Exercise 1 jes wel ledblti n krekt pktuen mat nt bi strit bt ts ha a rl mrfkr


Used by permission of Phil Selby (Dec. 2010) http://bigeyedeer.wordpress.com/

In the cartoon caption, mark weak and strong forms.

Exercise 2 Complete the vowels in the table

word a am an and are as at be because been but can could do does for

strong e m n

weak ()m ()n (r) z t bi

word from have he him, his is me must not of shall she should so some such than

strong frm hv h____ z

weak frm (h)i zs mi nt

word that the them there to us was we were who will would you your

(h)v,

strong t ____ em tu s

weak t

i, (r) s

nd z bi

(r) ____t bkz bin bt

()n(d)

hm hz (h)m -z mi mst nt v i

e(r)

()m tu, t wz wi w(r) hu, ()l

ms(t) v, v, l i

wz wi hu w(r) wl ju

(b)kz bn bt

l ____d s sm n

k____n kd du

kn

k____d du, d dz f____(r)

d s sm st ()n

w____d j____(r)

(w)d, d ju, j j(r)

d____z f(r)

s____t

Notes 1. The pronoun that is pronounced in its strong form, except when used as a relative pronoun (this is the kind of thing that I meant) or a conjunction (I thought that you knew). 2. Some is pronounced in its strong form when it is a pronoun meaning unidentified persons (Some prefer it on the rocks) or a quantifying determiner with the meaning some, but not all (Only some members voted for him). Weak form is pronounced in the unspecified quantity sense (Would you like some candy?). 3. The weak forms of he, his, her, have, has, and had often drop the initial /h/, except at the beginning of a sentence. 4. The weak forms of do, the, and to behave similarly. Before a consonant, they are pronounced with a schwa, and before a vowel as /du/, /i/, and /tu/ respectively (Do I?, the apple, and to and fro) Exercise 3

Transcribe the following sentences using weak forms where necessary. - The more you try to avoid thinking about them, the more you do than if you didnt. - I dont expect an essay or anything, but I think that she could give me at least a sentence, a hello or something like that. - Would you believe that they have been married for seventy years?
Exercise 4

Can you explain why of is written (instead of have) in the following line? Somebody should of gone with him, said Mack. (John Steinbeck, Cannery Row)

10. Allophonic Processes


1. Phoneme vs. allophone
phoneme minimal contrastive sound unit. Contrastive = replacing a phoneme with another results in a change of meaning, as in pet and bet. allophone non-contrastive variant of a phoneme. Replacing it with another allophone does not result in meaning contrasts.

2. Clear vs. dark l


The sound /l/ is pronounced differently in the initial and final positions. In the phrase look cool, the l in look is pronounced with the tip of your tongue up behind the top front teeth, while the l in cool has the tongue raised further back. See what happens when you swap the two. Do the meanings of the words change? These allophonic distinctions are not marked in the (broad) phonetic transcription. But there exist special symbols to distinguish allophones and these are used in the more detailed narrow, allophonic transcription. broad transcription kilt /klt/ narrow transcription kilt [k t ]

In which of the following words will the clear [l] and dark [] be realized? clean, belt, hell, ruled, lilt,

lull, level, label, finale, final 3. Aspiration


Plosives also come in allophonic variants, one of which is pronounced with a puff of air. Aspirated allophones are marked with a superscript []. Can you figure out the rule?

kit tick pit

[p]t

[t]k

[k]t

get deck bit

[g]et [b]t [d]ek

skit spit

s[k]t s[p]t

stick s[t]k

Aspiration occurs even if the stops are followed by some consonants. Consult the table of English consonants at the beginning to find out what these consonants have in common. In Table 2, why are the last examples in each column not aspirated? phort chot, chut atthack h h p lay c ream thrick h h h p rint q ueen, eq uip thick h h P uerto Rico c lean thwin
Table 1. Aspirated stops

sport splay sprint deeper


Table 2. Non-aspirated stops

Scott scream squint sector,Tucker

stack strap motor

3.2 Shifting aspiration


Some word-formation processes result in stress shift, which in turn affects aspiration. For example, the word atom is pronounced without aspirating the /t/, but the adjectival form athomic takes stress on the second syllable following the /t/, which selects the aspirated version of the /t/. Transcribe the following pairs, marking aspiration where appropriate. retake (n) / retake (v) economy / economic apply / application convict (n) / convict (v) photograph / photography congress / congressional suppose / supposition progress / progression acclaim / acclamation parent / parental present (n, adj) / present (v) contest (n) / contest (v) politics / political accuse / accusation

4. Shortening of vowels
Vowels can be shortened if they are followed by voiceless consonants. Compare the following pairs. feed / feet bed / bet dug / duck rig / Rick cob / cop robe / rope

Will the vowels in the following words get shortened? help hulk harsh warp

belt harp

The shortening of vowels is marked in narrow transcription with two symbols. The single dot [] is used for long vowels, e.g. , which becomes []. Short vowels get shortened with [ ], so for example, becomes [ ]: cart [kt] card [k d] leak [lik] league [li g] rack [r k] rag [rg]

5. Exercise
Transcribe the following words. Use the diacritic symbols for aspiration, shorter vowels and the two variants of the phoneme /l/. Lisbon feed roll god because lisp feet rope got beacon crab pull robe cot wilt crap bull code clot willed

11. Tricky words


1. Letter-vowel correspondence.
The following words come from Gerard Nolst Trenits poem The Chaos.

Look them up in your pronunciation dictionary and copy their transcriptions. corpse, corps, horse and worse beau, queue sword and sward retain and Britain recipe, pipe soil, choir plague, vague, ague shoe, poem, toe Woven, oven signal, signing script, receipt examining, but mining missiles, similes, reviles endeavoured, revered and severed wholly, holly blood, flood, food lumber, plumber discount, viscount laid but plaid, made, bade load and broad bier, but brier toward, forward, reward moss, gross renown, but known brook, brooch knowledge, done, lone, gone, none, tone ninth, plinth kitchen, lichen kind, kindle, kindred, mankind banquet, parquet reading, Reading, heathen, heather grieve, believe, sieve demon, lemon make my coat look new, dear, sew it ghoul, foul, soul mould is NOT like should and would petrol and patrol billet does not end like ballet Satan, satanist, satanic Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet

2. Suffix -able
How are these two words stressed? desirable - admirable What happens to verbs ending in -ate when they take the suffix able? alienable, alternable, articulable, discriminable, duplicable, violable,

3. Homographs
Same spelling; different pronunciation and different meaning. What are the two meanings in each case?

bass number

bow row

close sow

dove tear

invalid wound

lead wind

4. Tricky Greek words


catastrophe, epitome, Penelope, hyperbole, apostrophe,

5. Odd man out

Which of the following do you think is NOT an existing collocation?


a. heathen temple b. to convert the heathen c. heathen rice a. lichen-crusted rocks b. lichen habitat c. lichen removal a. stimulated plinth b. to erect a plinth c. to adorn a plinth a. Swiss chalet b. chalet homes c. mountain chalet a. flower-decorated bier b. wooden bier c. to drink bier d. heathen slaves d. lichen shirt d. Trafalgar Square plinth d. chalet bullet d. popes bier

12. Technical terminology


1. Science suffixes and semi-suffixes. Decipher the examples. ary ism pertaining to, connected with ________ /dwfzm/ dietary AmE/dateri/ BrE/datri/ gen lysis something that produces or destruction, separation induces ________/hadrdn/ ________/dalss/
cyte itis cide (ec)tomy iac gram graph graphy

cell ________luksat lukst inflammation ________ /dndvats/ agent that kills ________ removal, cutting ________ ________/kdik/ something written or drawn ________/kdigrm/ ________ /digrfi/

logy osis pathy philia phobia in, ine rrhoea

________/baldi/ state or condition ________ /hpnss/ feeling disease ________ /pi/ attraction for ________ /pidfli/ fear of ________ /k rf bi / (in some substance names) ________ /meltnn/ flow ________ /lgri/

2. Stress /ba + ldi/ > /baldi/

In which of the following suffixes does a similar effect occur? Transcribe the following patterns. lobe + tomy geo + graphy national + ism discipline + ary amnesia + ac insect + cide 3. More examples. Decipher the following expressions. /wez t kntrkt gnri/ /tu dke n hltss/ /hjumn ntmi lesn/ /strldi n l k mi/ 4. Transcription practice antipathy psychopathy lymphocyte thrombocyte hereditary biography analysis paralysis laryngitis meningitis estrogen diarrhea fungicide neurectomy insomniac amnesiac /ksdn msk/ /smpi kd/ telepathy binary topography necrophilia antigen penicillin cirrhosis

5. Transcription practice Early diagnosis of acute bronchitis may help reduce the risk of long-term problems. Lobotomy was at first used as a primary procedure for a range of psychiatric conditions. Oxytocin is important for cervical dilation and contractions of the uterus during labor. Oxytocin is also used in veterinary medicine to induce birth and stimulate milk release. An individual analysis of the speech of aphasiacs suggests that obscene vocabulary is stored differently and separately from other vocabulary in the brain. Astronomy is not to be confused with astrology.

13. Final exercises


1. Match the words with their correct pronunciation law Shaw crow l o low show craw lo here hair h bear beer b dare dear kro kr d

he dn den kl kl klik klk

be wn wen wnd wnd bin bn

de tn ten lk lk tik tk

done den colour collar click clique

when one wonder wander bean been

ton ten luck lock chick cheak

2. Homophones. In each group, cross out the word that does not fit the others. Then
transcribe the two pronunciations for each group.

yew you ewe youth noon knew new cue queue coo peas piece peace none noun nun selling sealing ceiling whore hoar hour fir fur fair mail mall male ride write right

broke break brake idle idol dill prey pry pray wait weight white cent send sent scent die dye day flower flour floor heal hill heel sight site cite side knead need neat