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Klaus Mainzer
THINKING IN COMPLEXITY
The Computational Dynamics of Matter, Mind, and Mankind
Fourth Revised and Enlarged Edition

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Translation from the English language edition: Thinking in Compfexity Klaus Mainzer
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117312, . , - 1 ~m~, 9.
70 100/16. . . 29. 3000 . 1 5951.

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ISBN 978-5-397-00002-4

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Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994, 1996, 1997,:2004.


Springer is part of Springer Science + Business Media.
All Rights Reserved
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E-mail: URSS@URSS.ru
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:J-

: ,

I/ >> <<,

<tii

([-!<;) ,

, ,

>> <<>> .

<VI

48

2.

() :

, , ,

. ,

. ,


, ,

, -

, - .

<<,

, ,

1, 2

.J3,

1, 1

v'2. ,

<< ,

(),

, -

. ,

>> (. .

, .

) <<

. ,

, . (

. ,

. , ,

, , -

2.1.

49

, i,

. ,

<

:~

. i:"!

...

:t

, ,

<:~ ,

, ,

. 3I,

[2.8].

.
,

<<.

, (<;). ,

? ,

(,

),

(u1J).
,
,

<:~.

(ouvapt<;) .

;(

, .

>>

(E:vEpyE:ta)

, ,

. ,

().

, -

50
I

.,

2.

1)

, , ,

(crte:pvcrt~),

alis); 2)

( causa materi-

(causa formalis);

3)

.)

() ,

. ,

(xtve:c;)

(causa ejficiens); 4)

( cau"~a jinalis).

1,

( .

).

, . .

(rpu-

c;),

I>

. ,

;1,

:~,

~3 ,

(),

(), -

(),

).

i,

i,

i! . i,

i, ,

, .

? ,

2.1.

51

<
,

I, .

JII, , t

, : :

II

:i

:~ii<UII

~.

\ ;i,

lie

CHJI

( II<I

).

? : J,

: :,

;:t

, I\

:,

, <

<UII\'

i,

:J

BeHIII':i

v,

rl

(, :).
:J 11 "' /

d.

<u

( :

1II

(),

, .

; . ,

) ;! -

OIII>

. :J :~

IIIIII .

()

ii

ii

::

() .

LU!

II

\11151.

, v

\1

ii /! ,

( )

, ,

iii-i : ,

, ?

: , ,

, ;

i1 t 11

, , I> -

(r).

52

2.

, ,

. ,

, . .

jp. ,

: , ,

, , , .

v ,.___

, -

( )

().

<<

, ?

) ,

<< ,

. ,

) .

,
,

, . .

2.1.

53

(""' 21

. .)


.
,

110

(),

(
) (-.
).

2.1.

,
;( ,

,
.


-;( t
,

, l(
:

[2.9].

2.2.

:,

<i

, .

. .

2.1

: 1

. .

2.2

, ,

. ,

: .

I<

. /(

110

<<

<t.

54

2.

. , 1\


. ,

= f(t). .

: .

= f(t) + pe<2~it/T)+ia.

( 2)

1\

. :

pe< 2 ~itll'Hia /\

1)
2)

= ;" e<2~ii/T) = aei!:t,

/\ =/=- -n ,

, .

(,

)
1

z =, eik1t + a 2 eik"t + ... + a"eikt.

= + iy =

rei

(,

211').

= f(t)

. ,'\

,'\. /\

,'\:

00

(r, (}).

[2.1 ].

,'\

= + xpei((2~1/T)+o)

f(t)

SN(t)

2:

c"einl

(!!)

=-N

11
,

(1)

G. (.)

(4)

r
1\.,

. /\

n=-oo

/\

2: "'"

f(t) =

(, )

(~)

r
1\ JI Z

,'\ J(

(,

/\

1.

,'\

/\ ,

k,

k-

, :1

i<

z.

pe<2~t/THio

N.

11 /\

>

11

N0 ,

N ;;:, N 0

/\

55

2.1.

11Cp~C\ICTIIO

ni

lf(t)- S.v(OI <.


r

(!i)

:r

;(

:-Jr .

61, ii

, :rr. :r.

/\I<I'

/\IIII

;!,

. .

( )

, ii

, :1.

/I

J( ;!

KOIICLJ

n /(Icrrii :-

paBHOllCCH, UI

, /\ rr,
;ur <

:~I(II

+211", 11",

fo7r, ....

~11",

411",

:~, LJ,

r,:J<mr

:r<

<, r ,

J\yxc

rr

r /\, .r:
n

IICOI.oaJI

t:

II:! 1111

t:i

OTIIOCTt:JibliO

:JcMJIII

J::II,

J\<VI

/\r

( 1

1 // ,

l1 : 1011,

/\r rr!J:I

r;(.

Im,;
;r r

(193~)

[2.11].

. ,

IIOMt:IJI

, .

i. ii,

r r(ii

, t:

:~II

ii, u

IOII-)\eepciiTOII, llt:JIJ,:I OTI\eI\I,,

i.\. ,

)\IIi!

Tt:XIIIIKa

: ;(

:~ /\/\ .

CKOJII> Obl

.r,

:->IOOT'IIIM OII II

, . 11 .:rr

(11

:~; r,

<1

) IOJIJ,:\OIIa!II 11 !\

, ,

<, i<

, - ,

J\pe1111ei'r

I , ,

Clle)(CII COIII>IX )\IIIJeHii

IIJiaiie

I,yp.

Nlep-

I' <VI <'>

<

;\",

((

pt:<-UIIOCI'II,

, <l}'

'II. I,

56

2.

Mysteriurn cos-

rnograjJiticurn>> (1596)

. ,

. , ,

, ,

, , ,

. ,

, , ,

. .

, .

,, Astnornia naua>> (1609)

. .) :

[2.12].

(IV

.
,

()

II.

i, :3-

) (<<

57

2.2.

2.2.

. n

n .

Kai<

. ,

, ,

: ()

, .

().

, ,

,.

(<<)

(<<) .

, ,

. ,

58

2.

. ,

..

).

(,

. ,

>>

, , , ).

,
,

<<

i,

, ,

(,

. ,

).

,
,

. ,

. -

2.2.

59


. 1350- .

'/Jt

1!11

. :
,

(<<
.

). n

2.3.

( ).

r.:-r

:i

r.


l(

2.3,

PQ,

[2.13].

DC

2.3

,
. .

2.3

s=

(vo

1':1
. ,

;,u

, I<

<
t.
J : ;1

( 1t>38)

! t"
2 -

:m

+ v1 )t.

, :

),

r, .

<uJ

),

'l (t)

( :r

x(t)

) .

j:'I

(.

2.4

).

60

2.

V(t2)

l\(t2)-

--

(.

2.4 ).

v(t,)

x(t,)}

i(t)

v(t)

(~ ~(t0)

( ).

'/

), ,

......_

v- r--..

----

,_/

,

.

= ( 1 , 2 ): -

).

2.4

<<

(.

r-\ \
['\_' f-J )

2.4.


.

, , :

2.2.

:J

, ,

, ,

) .
<< :
,

61

(,

),
v

. ,

, ,

, ?

. ,

I( .

()

<ui

(.

2.5).

:3

, -

'

v
/(~\

\ \

'

1
.

2.5.

( )

62

2.

-,

, 1

. :

i<

n. -

i,

, ,

:,

. ( >>)
,

. !(n ,

.
,

.
,

r.

ermpunujrmuJI.t (

).

(n :).

: !(

XVIII

XIX

. , .,

;~ ,

<v

i<

<ui

~). ,

. ,

(<<>>)


J-I<Ui

. , ,
.

,
<UI 1
:

~) 1) ,;.: :~~ a
MIT<>IIOliX , <t

/1iII npOCCCbl ( <ICIIOCT\1

). -

f. f'.

2.2.

63

J!r,. ri

: (: )

;i1 II<Ui-i1

-,

ii

. ,

) :-

I<

:. IOIJ!Ot"

. 'l

, 1

),

t :

. ]~<, ,

: i>

t,

i:'1 .

;\l v

;Ja

a[(OIJ

i. !III

. "l~. ,

t =

t( )

> t(e)

2.6

<

t( ).


<.

I'!'
,

r.,


. ,

:l) . <tiil' (. l.a.(l') - copl'Ml'llllii ll


fm-11. nr'fi

i(. -

:.
, 1

<.

;{J


:.

.
:l,

:-

[2.15].
. ~) <UI

i IICJIOBllblM :;,

-I ,

:J

vJ':'I ,

:~ .
; , i\

iJJI- ii
:1
It.

r{;,

( 1905)

64

2.

R
)

. 2.6. - n
(); -
(); n

RQ

RS

SQ

()

()

't.

: .

, . .

. -

2.2.

65

. ,

, ,

, j

ii ~ , :{

/(OITeJIIIO,

~,

(.2.6)

[2.16].

. 2.

R,

, ,

()

. I

45

~ :

Q,

. , :-1

ii :

r.

ii ,

RQ

/\

)' ':i

, ,

:~

RS

u,

SQ.

, .

, :~

:~ 1

<.ur:

: .

0:

;(

~{

, v ,

-.

1\Il'HIMII .

66

2.

.
,

, .

-.

. ,

2,

. .

2. 7

, -

2.

1 2,

r,tut

( jJ

F- , F cos

ut).

. ,

F sin

= = 211" !(

I< , ,

, ,

w.

(.

2. 7 ).

. ,

I.AJ

. ,

XVIII

(,

w) = (0,

[ 2.17].

XIX .

. -

67

2.2.

\
\
\

=cosa

F=m

~=sia

)
.

2.7.

() ();

( ) ()

[2.17]

. :

, ,

;,

, J( >

>

( ~.8 ).

. <vi

:.

(.

i<

<1:1 i1

1 i'I.

; I-'IaJia

:J

2.8 ).

, 1

<VIi,

1 i<

:~

(.

2.8

<

).

, ,

. :.1-

, ,

< ,

. i

68

2.

<
)
.

2.8.

();

(); ()

, , . .)

, .

2.9

, . ,

(.

[2.18].

( -

2.9).

2.2.

69

).
, ,

. .

2.10

.
.

2.9.

, .

. ,

XVII

. ,
,
,

.
.

, ,

2.10.

70

2.

)
.

2.1.1..

(,

6).

(
n n ) (,

r)

. ~

i\

(.

ceJiaI>

(.

, t?

i .

iI .

[2.19].

2.11

2.11

).

).

<
/\

2.2.

71

<:UJ

<

(.

).

. 1~1

. (:,

2.11

{3)

[2.20].

(.

2.11

2.11

2.12).

, .

2.11

2.12 .

. ,

I<

~'1'
)

!V

2.12.

)
.

/
)

72

2.

(.

2.12 ).

(,

mlm,,j(ml + m2)
m 1 m 2 .

), ,

. ,

-,

, .

XIX

. :1

. .

. ,

2.3.

73

[2.21].

),

. ,

,

, r


, 1, .

. ,

(. .
).

2.3.

XVIII

XIX

, .
,

. ,

3n

3n

XIX .

74

2.

!! IIaMHCCI(l/X M(eJICII

aa;oiii':t

IJCJJJ, , :m,i1

. r :J

. r

BeJIHI!Hbl ~'I O"I'JIIIaT

1, IJii

/\

/\,

II:I

, :J ii

11 . 11. :

/\

li /( MIIYJJJ,Ca

J':i ,

( i"1 : 5

, :

K<IJIIO

( ;

. .

i? . ~.1 :1 . :

II

;t.

ll<l<VIbliLIX

KOIJCIIC

COCT051HII5IX, JIO-

IIHX

!(

';"t

Ro

R1 ,

r;\

\' pervteiJJI

:J. {)

(,

IJ:Jofipae

: 11

r.

l11-

) [~.22].

<v
.

: <ui 1
COCTOIIIHJ

1r

II

Jl.

!.

6:1

J>t'/(

;\

t"I!

)\l

ujmtpm njmuuri/O!l11 :

. :

J\II>' / i\II<tMOt: 111/I/1'

r
. :J

+ ~n =

~n

njmu j)
JIJ1/.

}{

1'

IUJXo.ni.M t)lltm

:t

i>

:. :r

OUl'CIJe'IIIB<VI VI

, ,

rt

, rJ,,

llf>OCCCa

r.

;1 t<ut

I!<>.

_. njJocmjucrne. ,

;1
;;

: ,

;(

, ;t "t
J'II :3 IJ<):
, r yucp;(CJIIIC 11

. riii

(J

, "\1

ii

2.3.

)
.

2.13.

75

n R n

R1

()

[2.22]; ,

n ,
, {)

[:2.22]

2.13

r, ,

Rt

<

(.

r .

(.

(.

),

Ro.

2.8

2.13 } [2.22].

~
,

2.14

. t

2.14

).

[2.23].

2.14

, .

;,

, ,

\1'1> ,

r, n

. :,

()

76

2.

:
/\

,
:

2.14.

) ();
( -

(,
),
,

) ()

,.

11,

. v

, ~r
-
, ,

. .

) ,

XVIII

XIX

. ,

1-I

). rr

\1.

).

, ":"r ,

1":'r

. r<

77

2.3.

1892

. ,

2n

n=1

i:i

=2 -

[2.24].

(1954),
(1967)

(. .

2.11 ).
n

(196~)

2-

- () ,

n-

n-.

[2.25].

<<

, n

. ,

.

,

(.

2.15).

, n

. ,

[2.26].

1964

2.15.

78

2.

q1 , q2

t,

1, '!.,

1 , ;{;.
. n

:vi:'t

H(q1,q2; PIP':!)

<r m.i,

i,

E=l__
8

, :

t:

1
6

q 1 q2 (

).
<.h (. 2.16 )

. (. 2.16 )

2.16.

[2.27]

I,

. :

= t


r~

iII<

.
(. 2.1 )

1. =
(. 2.16 )

[2.27].

j:1

2.17.

) !1

<'\ ;(

<:: :vt.

(.

. :~

2.17).

2.3.

79

, ,

. ,

, ,

. ,

sub specie al!ternitatis

[2.28).
1900 .

),

v
h ( << )
= hv.

.,

( ),

1923

( <<

, ,

hv

2.

, <u <VI

I<

<t.

. r (.

1913

<<

2.18).

()
,

, ;"}

, ,

n=

h/21. ,

(h ----+ 0),

ad ltoc,

D..pD..q

~21

~"/

(-

2.18.

2.3.

81

. ,

, ,

!J.p.

!J.q,

t/J(x).

()

[2.29].

lt/J(x)l 2 !J.x,

!J.x-

, ,

(,

. ,

),

, (
).

Ill.

4 ),

, ,

. ,

, :, cynepnoulj,

. ,

(,

,
,
,

f. f.

).

82

2.

r ii.

IIII. ~f I .;

IIJIOTIIoci, <>

()

ii<>-rr .

;(

<

m I:~i'

. r

3r .

:-

;(

IIit

;(

():

BIIIIMI

-,

<ICIIeKT IJ /1110-

;,

i'r.

, :.

r ;1 .

, () ,

;(r

3tt

:{

2. 1.

, .

, : :

: .

h 11

2-

r, [2.~].

hn.

:::!

r -

I-r,

(. 4-).

< .

Cl\ICJie

"

-ii

l\<J, .

<:~r<

r,

:l

I'u . JHI

( }(

[2.31].

<

111

- u.

t. .

, .

;( .

, ,

Ml')I(){V

I,

<,

83

2.3.

, ,

, ,

, <~

.
,

2.19

2.19 ,

[2.32].

:J

2.19

(.

2.19

2.19

:J

2.19

2.19 ;

,
,

2.19

. .?

2.19

<<

. 1-f,

, -

), -

0,5
.

2.19.

0,5

[2.32]

84

2.

[2.33)

1963

. .

. , ,

,
,

2.4.

,
,

.
,

. ,

(1892)

.
,

(- . .),
.


. ,

( ),
.
,

.

, ,

i = F(x, ),

( 1 , . , Xd),

F i =

2.4.

85

(. .

2.13

. , ,

Ra,

2.14) [2.34].

Ra

..

(.

2.20

[2.35].

Ra,

. .

Z,

(.

2.20

).

. -

1
1
._,

+ D.T

_______

-J

1'

1'

1'

2.20.

t
1

<----- - - - '- -- -- -- . J

)
.

1'

1
1

6)

. ,

86

2.

Z!

2.2.1.

.:
11

{:

flyci - IJOJ\IIIOt:CTI\0
ll n.\1 : pocpa

I<u,
. l\i!."I

r
;

I\I>

11
I>

r,
,

. . (.

2.21)

CTJ>CMI!TCIII{ IIVIO ( --1

,_,

\ N(e)
---.
\

':'r

Ir:, r :.

-l

1\1.

N(e) 11 :rl>! . . .

[~UIO].

0),

(I<.!l'I~! :

t'IIOBa

peuep l(
N () - iJ ri.

:1 ;

: .

:1 11 m

CI'IIt:.

(.

:.?.J 4 ),

, :~

,, :

J . i1

. r:

J' 1 (

5I :r. ;t.

sr

2. 9)

J':'I ', IIII llt''

~~t~.

;r ttl-

1v1<..

r.

, X<IOIJ'ICJI.

rr

J)\'

. <.:I !.

, J\'r,

1u J,

;t

<

:~

2,()f)

;,

0,01.

; ,

oT<Jpo(r :~r :l'r.

ififJ J:u [2.:].

X<IOTI!'ICCKOe

1II.

peaKIIH

2.4.

87

+ 1),

-)l{.

x(n

....

+ 1)

x(n

= G(x(n), ).

iIIi-ni:'I

I<.

. ,
v:i

!I-iir,{I

. .JI,

,
.


i,t.

r.

, : :.


J, , . .


1 ( )
,

: f,

i,
. ,
J, i

.
.

(

";

= axn(l - Xn)

Xn+I

"; 1

";

- ,

";

"; 4.

, 2 , :~

...

. <

(.

2.22

,
,

( d - 1)-

J<

d- :

(. .

2.16).

') t,. -

x(l),

(2),

tn !i),

... ' x(n),

u~ - 1 l(

i1I .

).


(.

2.22

).

2,

,,

88

2.

0,50

(.. \ = 0.5)
0,25

)
]:::::

0,80

0,75

xn
0,50

(.. \ = 0,8)
0,25

0,10

(.. \ = 1,0)

1,0

xn
0,5

2.22.

= 4..\ = 2 (); = 4..\ = 3 (); = 4..\ = 4 ()

2.4.

89

1 =, 75

= 0,8624

3 =

0,8860

0,4
0,2

=0,8924864179...

-2

-6

-4

ln[(-1)/-0,6]

1,0

xn
0,8

0,6
)

0,4
0,2

0,88

0,90

0,92

0,94

0,96

0,98

1,00

2.23.

()

n n n

1, 2,

...

, ,

= 4

()

i1

(.

Xn)

2.22 ) [2.38].

2.23

( j

[2.39].

90

2.

fi)

l.O .-----------~
=

0,625

0,5

()

0,5
x.ll

0,5

1.0

! .

1!

___..

1,0

;r,, -.....
.

2.24.

rr
:

1, ,.,

II IICJI!Ie(I!IOCT

2.2~ .

. :~ , .

Xn

2.24

- fi

Xn+ 1

: .

<t;

IIJJIOHl\I . ;1 fi
/(i: .

: . :~

:,

:~ 1

liI J,

:1

( 2.2~ . ).

, -

!\I ii.

2.4.

91

.1

J,

I<

oclto'lioe ,

(. .

2.6

).

,
,

(.

),

'

2.20

(). ,

( )

(>>).

'

[2.40).

i,

',

. ,

) ' .

. ,,

( )

(.

n n

2.20

).

>> ;,>>.

<UII

<<>>

. ,

<J

2.25

, ,

. ,

- (

),

(.

2.25 )
2.25

(.

92

2.

pl~

)
.

"

(), ()

2.25.

()

(.

2.25 ).

2.25

[2.41].

. ,

(.

4.9

).

. ,

) .

. ,

<

(. .

2.1).

, -

, <<>> -

2.4.

93

.1\

, ,

. .

(. .

3).

, , .

Re,

(.

2.26 ).

(.

2.26

).
(.

2.26

, ).

:r.

(.

).

2.26 -

2.26

, . .

[2.43].

. ,

[2.42].

2.4.

(.

2.20

(.

2.20 ).

94

2.

Re= 10

Re

= 20

Re= 100

Re= 10

Re = 10
.

2.26.

1>

. n n n:
:

(.

2.27 ).

;!

3i.J

J\\

;t

()oii

co

;, :

, 1

ii

, ii

(.

, -

2.27 ) [2.44].

( ii)

Bl\<IJ!It

2.4.

95

)
.

2.27.

, , .

<<

>> .
I<

. ,

>>

<<

, u

, ,

. ,

- .

. n

ii:

. nn

().

, , .

n -

n.),

96

2.

( <<

>>) ,

<<

>> <<> .

(.

2.28).

[2.45].

:~

( ,

<ur . .)

::,

[2.46].

()

: <<

r.,

[2.4 7].

2.4.

97

..

1
1
1
1

1------

~~""""

1
1
:----J

2.28.

:.

, ,

(U(l)

SU(2)),

<J.

:.

. , ,

, :

(.

n.

2.28).

, >>

, n

.), ,

(,

>>

. .

(SU(2)

U(l) ),

II : .

, ,-

98

2.

(,

().

).

(, .) :

, ,

/\

:,r

,

<<:

Rt'

. <~,

i.

. ,

, li)

(<<

SU (3) ,

1,
:~

i;~

( )

( I ).

, .

;( II !I

(':i

11

: .

ii,

l(

<<

(.

2.28).

I,
,
,

( <<

),

, .
<<

i.,

r,
.

}:

; r
1.

:: ;u

II

- r, -

::

:
<,

\1

li)

l2.4H].

, 1

Ta-

IOie

. ,
<

2.29

2.:), :

Ji

( :t), i)

II ii/\'-'.

lfJt.

uep.

01(

2.4.

99

\020

2\

\0
10

10

2.29.

::

""'

:I:

;;:J

""'
~

::

f-

t>:

"'::;:

::;:
""'

:I:

u
::
u
ro

:I:

::;:

f-

R(t)

""':

-10

[2.48]

ro
:::1
ro

1510

10

L..

""'

:I:

u""'
~

10

5
.

4*

2.30.

10

12

15

20

\00

t(iO )

[2.51]

100

2.

:~

;1

):

. :-,) 1':r

[2.50].

? ,

/\

, <)

, . .

. 0~

(. .

:.

) , ,

r. <<r, 3",

<<

<,

<<

, ,

[2.49].

r,

, ,

- ,

- r':1.

, r,

ii,

. ,

, -

:,

2.4.

101

. ,

<< >>.

;1.

;,

. ,

. ,

, . . (.

>> .

>>

2.29)

, .

1948

ii

n (<< >>

n),

>> ,

[2.49].

102

2.

:, ,

(<<),

ti

'I'<t,

:l'

:, v

, ,

-. ,

,
,

. ,
, ,

2.5.

[2.52].

1 .

[r :~,

:.

, 1

:~

:.f

2.5.

103

1-10 2 ( 1
() = 10- 9 ).

1980- .

1980-

rr.


3
9

10 10
10 4 10 10 . . .

, ,

[2.53].

. ,

<<,

, ...

, :

[2.55].



,
,

... ? ,

.
n ,
,

,
.

[2.54].


.
,

,
,

.
,
, ,
. ,

1950- .

, -

104

2.

, ,

I>

, ,

Le~o,

Escfterirlzia Coli

. , ,

<1

<,

:~,

l(

<!

. ,

;I~

<1

, , ~

:l

,
,

[2.56].

. ,

:1 ,

: .

, ,

. ,

2.5.

105

;J

. ,

, ?

. ,

. ,

-.

;(

(1894),

[2.57].

i't

- ).

().

n,

..

106

2.

, /\ ,

1':1 .

. j\

i., r

, :

!.

. v

;.

: .

1.

yJIJiepe, ,

. 2.!

[2.58].

:3
C<IMOI'O

) ,

(7UO

. ,

, ;1 ,

ii

5~2 ;.t

154

;1

<1,

(1895-198~). 1;

2.31.

11:!

60

14

i,

24 000.

,
:

n ( .. ), n

n n,

[2.59]

2.5.

107

, ,

<< ,

( )
(
).

,
,

.
<< ,
<<

>>

.

7 ).

.

,

(.

2.32).

. ,

, , .

i)

, .- .

j.

108

2.32.

2.

( )

[2.60]

( )

. ,

. ,

1<

( <<

>>)

, ,

, ,

). -

, -

2.5.

109

- ,

:J

: .

[2.61].

<VI

<

J<

, ,

-.

; :J

),

: .

I<aK

<< >>,


>> .

<<

>> .

!l <l <<

i:"r

[2.62].

<VI

. ,

3 .

II

I<Ui


, -

. ,

110

2.

(), ,

. ,

.
,

,
,

Sun JWicrosystems,

[2.63].

,
r
,

(1996),

[2.64].

: , ,

.
, .
,

),
.
,

(. :.

5.2),

2.6.

-,

. ,

.
1 ... <:


: -:

014,
.

f. .

2.6.
\\

"

\1 () . 1

' .

.
,

I ,
/\ .

111

i-
.t. ji j

[2.65].

-,

- .

. ;I

:~


/\<' ;\1

<<-

;{

<<

>> : ;1 .

->>

->>.

I,

/\

:.

. r,

. -1

, ,

, <

. ,

1 ,

- <<->>. , ,

;J

i:'r

, : -

, -

112

2.

-/
dxldt
dxldt = -. -!
, D(t)
= x(t)

. ()

, ,

(,)

2.4.
= f(x 1) (t 1, 2, 3, ... )

Xt+ 1

2.24

1 1
,

D =

= dD 1 dt

i,

dD 1dt

Dt

t.

Dt+ 1 ,

Dt+l D 1

' 9 ).

D1 ,

/\

dx

dt

f(x,

dy
dt ""'g(x, ).

1 .

/\ !>

, ,

!, :

dt

-.

[x(t

lt ~~
1

+ h) ~ x(t)]
h

: (, ).

d2 xld(~

dxjdt
f(x. ),

D(t)

= x(t)


!l)

I, f,

fJe.

f.

D 0 , D 1 , D~, ... <: '



=, 1, 2, ....

113

2.6.

, :

1/:!! )\<l!

<Vrr l\. ,

= 1, 2, ....

u l\II :\ll

1.

(.

, u

h.

:J

D1

Dt+t

11

: , I i>

D1

:J i :J

. :

(D 1 , D 1 )

( .:

(, ) .

D,

2.21)

X(t), Y(t)

;1

Z(t),


. . 2.~~ :J

Dt

. -

11I, j_v

D(t)

x(t),

(D 1 , Dt-!1 , Dt-:!1,)

(. 2.3:~ )

~~~-~-~

-1

-10
~

YllYm]

50()

1()()()

1500

2000

)
.

2.33.

(, ,

(D1 ,

Z)

[2.67]

();

();

D 1 _, D 1 -~)

[2.68] ()

114

2.

(, , Z) ( . 2 ..33
. ) .

- -

h.

[2.66],

1~ 11r, -/
-

n11

1.

11 -

J, /\

6r ; --

= (Dt. Dt-h. Dt-'2h ... , Dt-(p-Oh)

11 D 1 ? 1

, 11i.

Dt

10 >.

J 6 jJ.

11;1

h.

11

, 11
, i,

D = (D, D-h. D-~h ... , D-(-1)1,).


J<

, :

Dc

Dc.

n n

Dc,

Dr+ 1

/\

. ,

1\l :1

11 :JI< D+l :,

Dc+l

:1 D+ 1

Dc+l

ll).

:\

, /\

D+ 1 , 1\
,

J<.

1\ :
:J I

cpe/\IICC

JI

11J<:.

-,
,

. r

u,

J(xt)

Xt+I

Xt+ 1

Xt

f.

, ,

,
-

D1

lll) , Ji 1,

111

f. jJI'.

,
. ,
t auutx

1l)
rt .- jJ..t.

j)('{J.

2.6.

115

100 r777:=777=;-;--=-'
80

60

20
.

60

80

2.34.

40

3,52 1 (1- 1 )

100

0,001); -
1 + 1 = 4 1 ( l - 1 ) ( = 2, r = 0.00 1). Pii.
jD;- Dj/ < n [2.69]

2, r

rrj,

<

;). :~

; 1 , ;\

li- jj

pliY AnejJuoiJu

ocm

i j,
nT. n =, 1, 2, ... l:LJ.
Di Dj

;\<

<J'I

. ,
,

r,

(i, j).

tt, I

. ;1i,

; f

?

. -

h.

J<

110/(

:1

:. KojJ/JeJI'IJ,Uout ..
j.

(i, j)

C(r)

;r
,

=1=

D; Dj
2.34).

(.

t.

!.'

j ;j

[2. 70].

(. 2.~).

i-'1 C(r).

= /D;- Djl

:-

1\

, :i

C(r)


(,

~1 cpo)(II'IIIOCTII J; 1

Ji- j[ = nT.

116

2.

(. .

2.4).

(,

r r 2 )

(,

r ~r 3 ).

, ,

v,

v- ,
,
,

r,

rv.

r,

. ,
,

- ,

rv,

. .

C(r)

= qrv,

q-

.
v-

log C(r) = v log r

v,

p=2v+l.


,
.

.
,

n .

+ log q.

(.

2.35).

n .

Iog (r)

Iog r

. ,

. ,

, .

. <<

>>

117

2.6.

~(t)

x 1(t)

rv

ll(O)expj.\t}

...___5
.

2.35.

...

[2. 71]

1101

opa1H1l'IIIIO f). KCIIOIICIIJ1-

().

aIOe :1 .

x(t)

jx(t)j "' \()\t.

. ,


!I.

oof)paeiille

Xt+t = f(x,)

:~

;1

()

110

Xt

Yt

1, 2.....

...J

;~v.

\'

pa:I-

r,

.
11111

.
11111

lim

l \ ()- () l =

[y"-.l'ol-->0

Jy"- \

[yo-J"f~"

= li111 /+ t

'

11

Jyt-Xt.J

IYo - J

= lim-1 l\df /. (Xo)J,


l~x.

d'f

'(

\/ ()- f'(x")J
.
1IIJJ
[r"l-->0
\- \

N1

<tJII

l:l)

1,

:i(t),

:11. -

Yt =/()= f'(y"),

.'<I

I, OIICII<tl'MX

=/

1\j>YI'

jy"-x"j, llaXII
;~ t-+ . J,
iVIIOKt Xt = / 1( 11 ) -

. iI

aal)lll)t~

fi:111

IJOCI

i " 0 :

Xt = f()

,~

f): 1 l

~.

1111

lim sup-

1+.-.v

jd:i(t)j.

:1 . miYJI(a ;~

/!I I<IIiI (,l,

11 ~JJ

;1

C<>ce)liiX i:t ;llltta

!Yt- x,j

> .
t -+

~ \
t

= IYo- \'

11

v,

( !Yt - Xt\ )
\-\

ecoii , -1i'1

n >:Jii
.,

~?

... ?

/1. J

-+ .

<I:!

. vcoi'1 I

oco-

f)v ;< (i = 1, ... , n) :


l

1 = 11 ;

<

;(I

(i = ~- .... n)

1 2-

118

2.


r-

1-~
1 2

")Q

,~

w0 w

xl

"k

wl ""'2 w

!~
t

, =~ = ;

<

r-

(-.-.-)

(0,-,-)

(0,0,-)

(+,0.-)

2<h<3

~ r:_
w

()

[1_ ~

L t=
Ll t;:

"':_

'f?~
. . ..1:9 ~
/xi

2.1

[2.72]

>0

3, ... , n)
(i
11 . Jl. 1\

r.

/\

! !I>,

.r.

:1 ii,

11 crcTIICII

, J< ,

X<IOC<t

OTIIC<'ICT ;iII

(JII,

) 1. rr
n (n
r

-),

1 <-,.

1

110

ik~1

1-leO/\IIIII>IX ( )
, 1-

:.

5.3.

2.1

:
. :
. ,11,

Kai<

:{

1, 1.

II

JIII 1\:{

(<<, JII) ,

(.

3.4).

. :ii

, ,

<<,

<I

ii .

(.
,

3.1 ).

u(

'!

, :.,

i :. :i

;(

:1. ,

J\IOKe

/\, /(

<>)

:1,

. ,


/\ , :
1. ,

3.1.

U! ~I
(:. ;~.2).

. ;
I oJIOIl'CI<)'IO aBOJIIOIO

:, i

r ;~ :

[ ~.1].

:l.

, :

IICJIIIHcli-

:J


i<.Ui<

() :J<.Jl\I

i":i , .

. ) /\

; I

<VI, e

(. ~.~~). :~-

JIIIIOIM

1 , 1

120

3.

, ,

. .

, .

I,

110 . .

VI

.


.

, ,

...

[3.2]

. , <<

>>,

1.

>>

<<>> .

, ,

, ,

121

3.1.

, n ,

, :

<<

, ;;,

)\.

[3.3].

/\ ,

:,

1 J":J

[3.4].

<ui

()

(<U!).

- ,

(). ,

1 .

uJ

<<

. ,

, ()

<<>>

. , ,

z,

, .

, ,

;:~

, ,

<<

<<>>.

<<.

(scala naturae)

:i

I. , ,

<UJ , ,

, -

122

3.

l(.

, <<,

),

. ,

~,

[3.5].

, ,

. ,

, .

(1608-1679)

, ,

, <<Ma-

<<

rneamu~tecue arrt)'P(l'to

( De

motu anirnaliurn ):

<UI

, n

(1687).


1).

. ,
. ,
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l)

:J ( . wlle - ) -

n /\JJ:J 1:11J,

;~ 1. 1
,

'I.

jtt.

J J,

nrjJ,

[3.6].

,
,

-,

(1747).

3.1.

123

XVIII

, i TOJII,o

<<

, <<

i.,

<

)l<ti~i ii; l\i

...

I<

[3.9].

;(

:3.

(<<)

i.

<<

:<J-:

. <J.

, :
,

. ;,

, <i
<<

... 1 ...

: .

[3. 7].

( 1720-1793)

(<<
ycrnjcrna f't)

[ 3.1 ].

, I>

;( l(

r,

XIX

.,

.
;.ur

:ii

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<<.

, ,

:3<\

( 1779-1851),

XVIII

[3.8).

(1775-1854)

<1r <<

:J

[3.11].

f:,

r: <<

:1 :,

:.

<! ,

;t

<<

124

3.

(1865)

XIX

. ,

, :

- , ,

( )

(,

, )

[3.12).

(1744-1829),

3.2.

()
,
, ,

. ,

, .

. ,

[3.13].

XIX


<<
<<.

,

.

<<

. ,

XIX .

(1824).

<<

XIX

. .,

(. .

2.2),
.

3.2.

125

;I :

I:i

( 1865 ),

<<III>>

, :

[ ~.14].

- .

[~.15].

, ,

, ,


.
,

, .

,

( ),

:,

( )

. .

,,

W,

i1,


, . .

<:

,
,


=
J\

k -

W,

. .

kinW,

<~. .

r. .

. ;v

<1

r-Ii':i

126

3.

. (,

n,

(3.17].

- ,

[3.18].

. ,

(}

. .

1)

<u

. , ,

2)

) :,

si .

n .

, J,

, . . <Ui .

3.1

. . ,

. :,

. ,

t------

\..

3.1.

n , n
n

3.2.

127

1<

! !IU

IJ<I?

(<I

[3.19].

,
,

, . .

. .~.

1.

II ,

1 ,

I>. ,

. ,

3.1.

;uiI


,

.

( 1844-1906)

, -

. :,

1, ,
III !":'!

, i;,:l
1

i1 :\
, :~t

188{)

.:

;-

XIX

u
,

;(,

... ...
,

[3.20].

.~; -

;(,

;-

. ,

:i<. ;-u1,

1,

\i,

, , ,

.:

, :

3 -

128

3.

, n

[3.21].

<<

1894

),

n

[3.22].

.
,

1906

.,

<<

1905 .

. ,

<<

>>. ,

V-XVI .

XIX .,

i:i

. ,

XVII-XVIII

.,

1927

, . ?

XIX

:
,

.
? -

,
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[3.23]? ,

3.2.

129

l<

- .

,,

(I

u.

( -

-)

, -

. ,

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,


.
,
,

:3,
,
, , , ,

-
,

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:,
,

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1930- 1940- .
<ur
,

.
? ll1 :

1920- 1930-

. , ,

. ,

- ,

"

[~.24].

I11

, n

[3.25].

-,

130

3.

, J

[3.26].

i, , , ,

. ,

XIX

i1 I,r.

~ui

1879

i ( ,)

<<

J\

, I,

[3.27].

, t<

XIX

, ,

. ,

. , ,

. <J

J, ,

(1931),

l\i,

131

3.3.

. ,

. ,

:~

(. .

~1

2.3).

: ,

:-1

, :1

1.

;1

f ,

IIJ\e,

..

:-1I .
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~,
, l\

:!ii

;1 . .
~

>>,

, :~
,
~

1 :1

;\

v :.

r>
11

fioee .

II .
i.

. G


i
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,

II .
,

ii

~-ii.

IJ< :'!.

~1

;\

:'!,

, :,

ru

!.

1,

5*

:l.

132

3.

10 1000000

. ,

. ,

Cvk(-

l)k

v!
k!(v-k)!

(,

[3.29].

1)k

3.2

129

2 ),

, )

[3.28].

:
(

1)

);

10 1 '~ 0
.

,
,

10 2
. 20
, 20 100

);

3)

r
,

2)

[3.30].

2
) I\!, :
k : 11 v
, ci'
:3 11 k :
Jla 01\II - ] CMIIOOII,

, :
.

jJUJit. .

3.3.

. n

3.2.

133

129

.,1.

()

n ,

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Eciton hamatum

3.

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170

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180

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209

mathesis Universa/is

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5.1.

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mathesis Universa/is

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[ 5.5].

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5.2.

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(i) = (j)

i,

(j) :::::; (j) ..:.. 1

+ 1.

(j)

(i)

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2)

213

i,

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(j)- 1.


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2).


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RM

(R-),

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5.

sF(x 1 , ... , "),

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16

16
5

16

16 32
EDGE (. 6.12).

(0 , , z)

, ,

512

6.2.

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

. 6.11.

()

()

EDGE [6.15]

285

286

6.

6.12.

ii :,

ii

3i .

[6.16]

XOR,

\ \1\

:. JI

, 3

Jri .

KI-IC

:..

r,

(.

6.12).

KJ-IC

2'-, 1 ~ :

i1

JI! .,

l"<:'

2: 2 ~ 1,3408 10 1'; 4 > 10 154,

AND,

NOT.

; ( 0 ,

. 1
(0 , , z) r.

. :

? .

6.1

z)

Tl>'II<e

: :3-

i:'r.

. , Ii!I1-

XOl~

).

t,, ( 0 , , z)

(.

li.l

6.2.

l<

287

JIi

. ,

f3y 2 ,

- 1

+ 1

i:2 = -'2

+ 2

- fYI

<UI

~>
.

Yi ( i = 1, 2)

l.=

f(x)
z = ' 5lxz + 11- ' 5lxz

11

-i-Iir':r .
.

6.14

1 1
2 ( t)

= 2, f3 = 2

(t)

1 (0)=0,1, 2 (0)=0,1.

(.

6.14

) ,

:1

<ui

,
.

f3

-(3

z=@J

1,2

-1,2

6.13
2

z=@J

( )

, .

6.13

-/3

)
.

6.13.

() ();
n

(6) [6.17]

288

6.

-~~~~rr\

-1

-2

-3

-2

-3

10

~ v~.

-~-~~-~-~Jh
10

15

20

25

30

35 40

)
.

6.14.

1 (, )

()

[6.18]

u 11

(t)

(1,

(.
,

6.8

12

=
1)
=

(1,

2)

).

;r

= -1 + 2 1

2 =

-~

6.15

,
,

(.

6.15


.

,

- 1,22 + 4,04 si ( ~),


,
--

1,2 2 - 2'2

(.

6.15

4,04si (~t)

x 2 (t)

Yi = f(xi)

r 1 (t)

6.2.

289

11

il ~
1

1 \1
11 i_ . j i
:11
11' :1
1_111111
j
_'1 .,
1
1
1 1: >! ~!JUI
{ " 1' lt 1
\
1 1

-1

-2

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W~

~ IOOIWI~IIOJ~WO

1.

,\li

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1/i
1

20 40 60 1-iO IOU 120140160

1!200

)
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3
2

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()
2
4
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-\
()

~
.

6.15.

n r (. ). ()

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n , i

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n

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(
).

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4.22).

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lTI> /(

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6 ..16.

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292

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1930-1940- ., r:

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6.17).

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6.18

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z},

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294

6.

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rtt

a.tJJOJ-o: 1 n

6.17.

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295

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(-r)

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( )

t
,

6.18.

11

nr n n

[6.22)

I <U ,

BASIC.

; r

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r ,

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296

6.

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6.19.

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64 64
5 )

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6.19).


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4096


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10

3,0

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200

200


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10

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5.4

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5


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6.3.

297

I{

=,

(i

1, 2, ... , ).

,

;,

;-1

ci,

Uj -

ci

Ui+I -

ci+l

I( cj.

ci.

Yi

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B(ui-I.,+I)

Yi

/3;,

-1

1,

= (/37, f3ti {3,;, /34, f3~, f2. f1, f3o)


::

1,

= {3; 2 7 + f3,; 26 + /3:. 2'; + /34 2'1+


+ f3~ 2~ + f2 22 + /31 2 1 + {30 2,

-1

Ui-I, ; 1 .

Ui-1

1,
1.
256
. 6.20.

1, 2, ... , 255,

=,

25

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(. 6.20).
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(. .

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= 256

5.21

).

Ji

(.

6.20).

~>-

i-1

U.i

ui+I

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-\

-1

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li

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1 -1

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1
1

1
-1

l4

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1 -1

l7

6.20.

u;_ 1 ,

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3
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7

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U;-~i,;---:z+l
f

7
( 1' 1'1)

2 = 1
u 1-=--:.._--+---4
(-1,-1,-1)

(-1,-1, 1)

, ,

[6.24]

298

6.

U;+ 1 ~ ( u;_ 1 , U;, ui+ 1 )

k (k

k-

li),

1, 2, ... , 7)

. .

-1

1,

( U;-1,

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k,

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k , Mhi
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25
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5.21

r, .

1,

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I,. 1,

1 , 2, 3,
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6.21

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fJnot. f}('().

6.3.

6.21.

299

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110;

150 [6.25)

232;

300

6.

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256
104

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152

().

(),

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1.

152

3.

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110

150

.=

3.

2.
2
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256

N (N

.
u;

uwu, :
,

1 3
Ci

-
,

6,

(.

6.20),

Ci-1 Ci+ 1

ci)

Ci

Xi ,

256

Ui+J)
Xi(O) = -

Xi = f(xi, Ui-1 Ui,

ui_ 1 , Uj 1
Yi = y(xi). ,

6.21

(.

Yi.

. ,

150

Ui- 1 , ui Ui+ 1 (

. .

1, 2, ... , 255)

(. .20)

=,

80

. ,

, ,

-7

47

:J

256

33

. ,

6.3.

301

iJ

;:::: - 1 + 21

<~i:[:-:-2tl(u.1 :.. 1

2u1 ,-3 1

-l)IJ

:::::.-"-";+1~.+{3 -l{i'
- 2u1 4- 41+, -)IJ 1}.

:i;..

"

1. ..

. 6.22. 1 ,

t == .

2. 110. 150

2, 110, 150

232.

232 [6.26]

1
Xi

(. .

Yi

Yi

y(xi) := 2(lxi
.

6.22

+ 11-lxi -11).

5.21 ).
30 61 ,

N.

302

6. .

, ,,()"

) ,
,

(). ~

29

,, 1

01<

30.

n,

... , 255),

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=,

l, 2,

/(l

<t

; (.,

, .

6.22)

;= (;) :=

2(lx; + 11- lx;- ll)

-;

+ lx; + 11-lx;- ll

w(ui-1 ;.

;+ 1).
w(_ 1 , ;,

tt;+ 1 )
=, 1, 2, .... 7)
(u;_ 1 , ;, ui+ 1 ) n

n (n

(.

6.20)

w(n) := w(u.;_ 1 , , ui+ 1 ).

= g(x;) + w(n)
n

:= h(;)

l/I

g(x;)

1,

. . .2~
, r;( ()

= g(x;) + w(, ;, Ui+l ),

g(xi)

( ).

w(n) >

CJ+ (~
J

P_(D)

R31I11>1)

(~..

Ci!IIOIIIC

11"(,1 "" m/n) <~~

.6 .23. n

!6.27)

303

6.3.

+ 2; + :~ 1,

" := 1 Ui-1

I/\I!

>

w(n)

(;-1' ;' 1) l' ~

: 1 (.

w(n) <

Xi(O)

-,

opaJII, :-1

=,

+(),

6.20).

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w(u)

ocr.

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w(n) >,

0"0 ,

w(u0 )

, !I

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w(n)

<.

Xi

>

Q+,
= Xi(Q+) > 1.

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Q-

= Xj(Q_)

Q_,

Yi (t)
-

Yi

1,

n :

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x;(Q+)

/\ :t

, :

> 1,

w(u).

r.

< -1,

r. :r

Yi = -1.

, Xi ( Q_)

;, ;+ 1), !l

:!

(;_ 1 ,

+ 2i + ~i+ 1

, r. r ,

w(u)

/\r (. .21).

Xi

< -}.

r!l

w(;- 1 , , 1)

r. " := l ;-1

( )

n1I'U.

+() ,

Xi

()

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. .

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/\

w(;-1, ;, 1)

k = 1.

(.

6.1),
6.2)
(. 6.3).

(.

. :

w(u)

304

6.

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(.

6.2),

104

( )

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(AND,

NOT).

v v v-

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152

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<t-

II

6.24

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OR.

105,

110,

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(),

106 106

AND R ().
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n
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1 238J

n
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6.24.

43

64J

253J

n n,

n n

[6.28]

6.4.

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3.

6.4.

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[6.29].

u'

306

6.

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1

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6.4.

307

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6.25

-,

(.

J,

6.25 ).

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11


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6.25 .

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309

n,

n,

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n

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[6.32].

n n.

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cu.cme.JII/t u

m ().

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310

6.26.

6.

[6.32]: Baseline

ON -

OFF -

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6.4.

311

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;z

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r<

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(. 6.27).
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6.3),

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6.27.

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312

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i)

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pa:J

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6.28.

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n n

r .

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2.6).

314

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315

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321

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6.

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35

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151

n n
n

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6.33

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tt

[6.41]

324

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nq = N,

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nq

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).

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8.3)

120-160

8.2.

413

~- 200

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.

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= 3;------i = 4;----i = 5 ; - - i = 6

[8.8]

i:"I

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,

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2.22).

<~.

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414

8.

i i<,

/\t :J

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i'I 01'::'1.

, ,

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3.4).

. ,

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t,

x(q, t). x(q, t) dq

dq (. 8.4 ).

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.

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-(n)

(r(
\ ..

n n

(n)

(r)

(); n

x(q, t) q = (q 1 , q~) n n
t () [8.9]

8.2.
.

415

~, IIpeJie

v,

:~

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:. , Ky-

li

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. ~

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OIIOJ':"J>> 1

:ii. ii ,

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q', , x(q,

t)
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li

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8.4

).

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, ;
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.

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~) t~ ii- Jt~t:i.JIOCTII
l';it:,, <JGII~t'11pt1JIHTYH) IIJ lt
!~: -

lf/JIIII. tlljJ.

416

8.

1960- . ,

. .

7.1

. ,

. ,

<< ,

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.

.
,

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.


,

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- j. nrj>.

8.3.

417

, ,

XIX

. -,

, <Ui:J

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l(

8.3.

I<

i,

, ,

[8.1 ].

, ,

, .

. ., , ,

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.

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, ,


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,

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,

.

14

, l)

n:..,

: .

;ii r .rr.

jmAt. rf'

418

8.

[8.11].

[8.14].

. ,

_,

- ,

, ,

, ,

, , .

rpe

, ,

[8.12].

f,8,

. Ji

, ,

, .

, .

[8.13].

r ,

(polis),

8.3.

419

. .

. ,

i-'1 I>

[8.16].

< :

[8.15].

, , n,

I ;,

~ , II

\.

. 1J <<

-1
.

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l

i,

. ~,

. 1

[H.l7].

, ,

~ .

[8.18].

1,

, , n

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420

8.

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. ,

. ,

, J:J

XIX .

, I,

[8.19].

, ,

. ,

. ,

. .,

, ,

q .

? -

8.3.

421

[8.20].

? :

? -,

[8.21].

n ,

, ,

, , ,

? ,

, ,

. ,

u'u u1m .

, uu.

m'',

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422

8.

, ,

! ,

[8.22].

? ,

. -

. , .

, ,

[8.23]

, ,

, -

, ,

. ,

. ,

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()
. ,

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8.3.

423

11 . , n

(.

:~;,

;t.

).

niJti;t,

1111

r I

~.

JIIO)(C .

IICJIIHieHOCT,

J!tJ

<< :~

!IOSIII>OI <I 1

(List dPr Vernunft).

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;u

i'l :ii

;~ , :-!r

, BOCIIIIOiJ /J//!)

11

G :3

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t :<ii

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1 :J

ii, n

. tt XVI .

. :

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: I

(17%) [R.24].

llcpoi'r

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1J.

r ii.

;tr

I>

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ii

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()

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. i<

1101\ II, 11:~-;

; , :!

;1 :'ll\

~t.

1,

l.

200] r.

11

<UIJ<J -1

tt

I<i, tt

KOIIOM'ICCIOIM \II .

tu 11 .

, :~ :

II> ii, ,

CIIJA,

, .

(~

!I -

424

8.

:Ja

':'J. ,

, ,

. ,

>>

>>

<Ui (

. ,

, ;t

l\

;t

<<

ll:- ,

i-'I J,

, .

J, . ,

;t

, .

:II>.

<u.

. ,

, .

[R.25).

425

8.3.

:~

;(

l,

: ,

Q , ~

;~,

I 110/\I .

ll

;1

CYMM1Ipo<ur
: :

:l

.
\ J'?

1111

1 \ ~

:.

1 -


, , .

, :1
1, 1i\
,

<I\iiii.

i\
. 1

, ,. :1;1
rrr,

p<11111'1CI111ii

I :~IIIOI
,

:~,

\'I.

Hl'

l\1 :1 1

11 < .
fi,

~;(, \) u :
CJIOIIOCTII :~J!I.

:~

ol.\l'HIOI

, 1

:.

fi~.

ii

llepi'1 ;~
; :!II O

lIIX .

!\1< ciicTJIII
MII CJIOIIMII

,
JII

:~aii

BCOKO'I)'BCTJICJ!bl II.III

li!JIIpOe

~. i\
;.

1111

,,

; :11111-

COJIIOI\"I

\Il'\ .

;1

J\ u 11

. )' JI

:.

. ,

()1 \,

JIII ;(

. 1

, fi;,

llaJI:IM\'.

/\

IJ:!

CIICTCM)'

1\1011011p11'1HHIIOCTII
J(

11:1

l'

:1, a

ll1

:\1 H<li\l''IOI~" -

426

8.

summum

t:

, -

1.1. Mainzer ., Schirmhn W: (erls.). Quantcn. Cl1;s i i. EkcntistiJcoJctis


che A~pektc de1 modeme Phy~ik. . 1. Wi~secll't~vcla-: !Ji (1994).
1.2. Stein D. I. (erl.). Lcctcs i lt: Scieccs ! Complcxity, S l;c Istitutc Stlics i
the Sciences of' Complcxity. Vol. l. Acldiso-\<~'cslcy: \vl Cit . . ( J 99): }n1 .
(ed.). Lectucs i Cotnplcx Svst~;;s, Sata 1: lstittllc Stlks i tl: Scic:s ! Co
p!exity. VoJ. 2 (}990); Stfin JJ.l.. (nl.). Lcct:s it1 k Systcs. Sata r:c lstittttc
Studies in the Scicnccs [ Cplcxit . Vol. :~ ( 1991 ): Ku trfyunum S. /'. E\'Oittt i !
self-organization laws i l systcs, lt1. J l l'l1y~ics . Vol. 1, . 4
(1990) 299-327. 11 ii . . \'j>/\ ; :
Kanuya . ., jJ(l . . tr< 11:1 fiyvcm. :~;: :. .: UH.SS.
2003; u'"IJI . 1: (Jmi).). G{:: :~IIOJIIOI\I !ett. 2- :. .:
, 20011.
1.3. Nicolis G., Prigot"rint I. Explorig Cotplexity. llti. W. .I:.n: Ncw 'k
( 1989) (jrnouu ., J~ :t tt. ;t. .: ::
K/URSS, 2008).
1.4. Haken . Synergetics. An lntrodttctio, 3l Edn. Spti.~c: lkt\i ( 1983). t/1
n /\l!: Xa:mt

1:

r. .: . 19.

1.5. Mainzer . Symmcties in Natc. lk (;tuytct: Ne\v k (I) (<; igial:


Symmetrien der Nat. 19).
1.6. Chua I.. . CNN: Paradilo\ f Complcxity. W-ld Scictilic: Si; ( 1991-1).

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.

2.9.
2.10.
2.11.

, :1.

2.1 .: MainzN . Syctics iiJ Natc. lk (;t.l:


Ncw Yotk ( 1994) (Gcrman original 19) Cllaptct 1.
iels . Die Fragmcte clcr Vopkratikct~ lit/1 ccl .. I'C\'iscd }' W. K1anz. 3 !. Iktli
(1960/1961) (.: icls-Kranz), 12 10 (Pscdo-Placll).
Diels-Kranz 13 5, 1.
Diels-Kraz 22 64, 30.
Hei.~enlrr; \<V. Physik und Pl1ilosophic. Ullstci: r:t<kl't ( 1970) 44.
Diels-Ktanz 22 BS.
[)icls-Kranz 31 8.
Hei.senlrg W: I>ic Planckscl: Enleckng td dic p11ilpl1ische (;tuncllagc dt
Atomlchre. In: Heisml~err; W: Wacllt~en i <l (;ll l Natvisscscl1alic.
S. irzcl: StuHgart (1959) 163.
. : Hanson N. . Constellatio ancl Cof!jccturcs. Hoston ( 1973) 1<}1,
HaronN. R. (. . 9, 113) caied otll cespondig calcLtlations.
Bohr . Fastperiodische Funktione. 11i (1932).

428
2.12.

J'rke .

Ccscl1icl1tc d altc chicsisc!Jcn l'l1ilosopl1ic. Harnbx (1927) 4R6: Ffm,l!;


HistOI)' of Cblncsc Philosopl1y. Vol. 2: TI1c Pciod Classical Li~S.
it NJ (195:~) 120.
IviaintP . Gcscl1icl1tc <ic1 Ccomct1ic. . I. Wissc;cllal'tsvclai{: Ma11ci/Wicn/
Zuich (l9RO) : J;(ivan/.1 . The Histoical c~loprncnt ol' tl1c Calculus. Sptingec
Be!in ( 1979) 9.
Mair~r . Ceschichtc dcr Ccornctic (. . 13) 100; Almll!am . ., Shmu C.JJ.
Dynaics- Tl1e :ll)' ol' Bclvio Part 1. Acrial Prcss: SaLa Ctuz (194) 20.
Aurlretsch }.. Mainzer . (nls.). Pl1ilosophic d Physik dct l{aam-Zeit. . I. vVissen
sclftsvcrlag: ManiJeim (l9HH) :-.
Airetsc/1}., !14ainzn . (nls.). Pl1ilosopl1ic tcl l'hysik d Rau-Zcit (. . 15)
40; \Yeyl . Rau, Zeit, Matcic. Votlcsnj.; t Alli{emcinc Relativit~itstheorie. \Vissenscl1aftlicl1c Bcl1gc5e\lsclli: \)anstadt (196 1) (Reptint !' thc 5tl1 Eclition ( 1923))
141.
Marh . i Mccl1anik. Histoisch-kritiscll datl-iestellt. Wissesclli.liche Buch~e
sellschaft: Bastadt (1976) (Rep1it !' the 9th Editio (1933)) 149; Alaham . .,
Slmzv . D. Dyaks The CeoctJ)' Belvio (. . 14) 57.
Ruelle /). Sall J'andom pertubatios [ dyaical systems d thc dcliition of aac
tors. . Math. l'l1ys. 2 ( 19l) 1:17-151; Aliralm . , Slv . D. Dyarnics The Geornctry ol Bclvio (. . 14) 45.
.: ,'-,'tauff ., Stanlry . . F Newton to Madel
bot. Prier in Thcotetical Pl1ysics. Sprin~er: Bcrlin (1990) 26.
Nicolis G., Prigat,rine /. i Etloscln!S cles Koplexcn (. r. 1, . 3) 132; Aft
ham R. ., Sha . D. ynaics Thc Ceoetl)' [ Bc!Javio (. . 14) l 68, 174.
.: Mainzl'l' . Syctlics in N (. . 1)
Chapter 3.31: Stauf(f'r /)., Stanll'"j . . Frn Ne""to to Madclbrot (. . 19) 24.
ArnnM V. /. Matl1emat.ical Metl10ds (' Classical Mcc!Jaics. Sij.;: Bclin ( 1978)
(. .: j . . .'\1<; t . .:
URSS, 2003); Davits 1~ . ~V. The Pl1ysics of' i Asymett-y. S Uivc;ity Pcss:
Lndort (1974); Penmse R. Tl1e 's New Mind. Oxfotd Uive1sity Pess: Oxford
(1989) 181 (. .: j . . 3- :!JI. .: URSS, 2008).
Uchtenlrg A ..J., Ut4Jermann . . Rcgu!a t Stoclstic Motio. Sig: Ber!i
(1982) (. .: u.xmeuP"jJ ., u. .
t. .: , 1984): Sr}ster . r.. Dctcniistic Chaos. Imodction. Pl1ysik-Vclag:
Wcinl1ei (1984) 137 (. .: yrmr : .
.: , 19R8).
Poincan>, . Les Mctl10des Novel!cs dc la Mcchaiuc Cclcstc. Cautl!ier-Villats: l'<~is
(1892) (. .: . : .r.
. .: , 1971).
Arnoltl V. 1. Sma\1 Ocnoiatos , f of thcoem ol . N. Kolrnogorov on the
pesenation of coditionally-pciodic rnotios d sall rti of the
Hamiltoian, Rss. Matl1. Suvcys 18 ( 1963) 5 (Ajmom,iJ . .

Yu-I.an

2.13.

2.14.
2.15.
2.16.

2.17.

2.18.

2.19.
2.20.
2.21.
2.22.

2.23.

2.24.

2.25.

. . - 1

/ / . 1963. . i R, . 5( 113). . 13-40); Kolmngnrov . N. Coservat.io of Conditioally-Periodic Motios fot- Sall Cl1age
i Hamilto's Fnctio,

Ookl. Akad. Natik. USSR 98 (1954) 525

(j . .

/ / . 1954. . 98 . .N2 4. 527-530); Mose-r }. Covc!Sent seies


expansions of qasipeiodic otios, Matll. . 169 (1967) 163.
2.26. .: Arnalrl V.l. Matl1ematical Mctlds !' Classical Mecl1anics (. n. 22); Sch;
ter . G. Deteriistic (s (. . 23), 141.

Thc applicability !' tl1e t\1il itc~ta\ ! tl1c l i: Somc ttmct


J. 69 (194) . 7:1: S!s/ .(;, lktciistic Cl1aos (.
. 23), 150; . 2. \(j a-d :~: . V. lky i S.Jo!a ((\.), T<>pics i tli
dynaio. . Ist. l'l1ys. n. . Vol. 4fi ( 197).
2.28. 1-' atl1catical dctails :, .~ Slaufi' JJ., Stanlfy H.l~. f Nc\vto to Ma
dclbrot (. n. 19), 3.
2.29. Mainzer . Syettic d Nat (. . 1). 423; fJimrt.\ ., Mlln'Hni!lrl .
lt Quatc:l1cic. Tcubel': Stllial'l ( 194) t;t

2.27. Hinon

ical

.,

429

Heiles

expcicnts, Aston.

. : v

(lt 3).
2.30. Aur/retsch .J., Mainzer

(nls.). Wicviclc l" l1al Scl-i'>di~cs Katzc? 1~. 1. Wissc

scl1afisvela~: l1i

( 1990).
2.31. Culzzvil!Pr . . Cl1aos in Classical l Qattt\11 Mcc11aics. Sptitli4'Ct: lktli (19tiO).
2.32. l'rier/riclz . \s i t. l: MaiiiZfl' ., Srbll'll/(/1111'1' 1. (nls.). Qtt<IIIIC\1, Clos
ud iin (. . J . 1); l'tinltifl ., 1illt,nt JJ. Tl1c IJyclm~cJJ at OJJJ iJJ
ui ;ti /ic\(1, Pl1ysics H.cpots 183 ( 19H~I) :17-79.
2.33. Birkhojf'(;, JJ. Novclles ccl1ccl1cs s lcs systccs ci\'IEtllliCJliCS, . l'oJJt. Ai:a(l. Sci.
Novi Lycaci 1 ( 1935) 5.
2.34. Enz .. Bescl1reib~ icl-kosctvativc icl1t-licat Systcmc I-11. l'l1ysik i tmscter Zeit 4 (1979) 119-12fi, 5 (1979) 141-144 (II).
2.35. lrenz N. lktemiistic onpe1iodic /low, J. Atoms. Sci. 20 ( 1%:~) 1: (pvc. .:
j~& . ; 11 . 1'., .
. . (/\.) . , 191);

Cl1aos

2.36.

2.37.

2.38.
2.39.

2.40.
2.41.
2.42.

Schusln .(;, lktcnitlistic

(. .

23) 9.
Erkmannf. . Roads to t! i clissipat iYe (!i! systems, \{. !. 1'!1ys.
53 (19HI) 643; ;t 11. ~.21 :1: Injiml 0.1:.
l Semina. I: !tmuml ., oti11 (t'tls. ). l,cct \IJ'C Notes i Mat!Jcmal ics () 15,
Spriga: !i (1977) 114.
Manrlell!rol /. . Tl1c Facta! Ceomet1y ! Nat . [."Jccan: S l;1.ar1sisco ( 1~IH2):
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25; Uclztenlr A.J., Ue!Jamann . . \{c~lat ancl Stocl1ast ic Mot ios (. . 23).
Cullet ., Er:kmann.f. . Iteated Maps !' t\1c ItcJ'Yal as J)yamical Systcms, iikll{iusc:
Bosto (1980) (. . 2.22-24).
CrofJmann ."i., Thom' 1\. lvaiat disttibtions (\ statioal')' coclation !'nctios ol'
-disi1 c\iscete pocesscs, Z. Nat l.oisc\1. 32 (1977) :153: li,imlmum M ..J.
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( 1978) 25.
Mainzer . Sti d Nat (. . 1 ).
.: Niolis (;,, Pligugine /. I>ic li>s!- cles l (. t!. :~ . 1) 205.
.: Pri.,rine 1. fom Bein~ to i~- Timc \ Complcxity i l'llysical Scicnccs.
Fm: S Fasisco (19) (. .: jmICUII . i' :=
: i. . 3- :. .: KoKJJaiUI{SS.

200.

296 .); Itodctio to Tl!COdyamics ol' IITCVCJ'Siblc l'mccsscs, vVilcy: Nc\\'


(1961) (. .: : . ;\ 11I
. : :I, . 2001).
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Vol. 11., Addison-Wcslcy ( 195) (. .: 1'., l' .. C:~Jl/\C .
:111. . 1: /\. :~ .
.2: . . . .: U\{SS, 2007).
2.44. Haken . Syegctics (. .4, Cl1aptc \) 5.
k

430

. Syner~etics (. n. 4, r. 1) 202; Haken . Advanced SynerA"ctics. Instaility Hicrachies of SciH>ganizin~ Systems and I>cviccs. SpinA"ec Bclin ( 1!-JH3)
187; WeinlmgS. G1avitation and Cosmoloy. J>inciplcs and Applications !" tl1e c;cncal

2.45. Haken

h of Relativity. Wiley: New k (1972).


2.46. .: Mainzer . Symmetrien der Nat (. .l) Chapter 4.
2.4 7. Curi.e . Sur \ Symetrie dans lcs J>henomcnes Pl1ysiucs, .Jonal de Physiuc 3 ( 194) 3.
2.48. Afretsth J, Mainzer . (etis.). Vom AnHg dcr Wclt. . . Bcck: Miincl1cn (2 1990);
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Ze1fa/l. Die Welt zwischen l~g und Endc. J>ipcr; Munchen (191-!3) 271-!.
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2.51. AudretschJ, Mainzer . (eds.). Vom Anfan der Welt (. n. 48) 165.
2.52. Greene . Thc Elcgant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden imension~. and the Qucst for
the Ultimate h. W. W. Norton & : New York ( 1999) (. .: l]mu . :-i
r : ,
. 4- . .: : K/URSS, 2);

2.53.

2.54.
2.55.

2.56.
2.57.
2.58.
2.59.

2.60.
2.61.
2.62.
2.63.
2.64.
2.65.

Hmvking S. W. Thc Univeisc


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Feynman R. There's plenty of m at tl1e bottom. Miniati7.atio 22 (1961) 295-296.
/)rexle/' . . Nanotcchnology summary. Encyclopcdia Btitannica Scicnce and tl; F
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431

2.66. 1hkms J: L)etectig str<Inge atll<los i ul. In: Narul/J. ., Ytmng />. S. (Nl.\. ).
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2.67. Kafiln
Class />. Ulestadig Nonliea1 IJynks. Spinge: New r<k (1Y9!'i)
310 (..20).
2.68. KttfJlan D., (;[. l-. Undetstanding Non/ie<tt' is (. n. 67) 31 (. .2!),
311 (..22).
2.69. KafJlan D., (;/,. /". Undetstading Non!iea ynamics (. . 67) :~! (. 6.2(}).
317 (. 6.28).
2. 70. (;ra.~s/,p;er /~, J>mma:ia /. {;haractetizat i ol soangc att ts. Pl1ysical .evie\\' [>ctl ets
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n.,

3.1.

3.2.
3.3.
3.4.

3.5.

, :. 3.] .: Mainzer . l)ie P11ilosophc ud da~ L.


ln: Fisher E.l~. Mainzer . (erls.). Ft<tRe nac\1 d Leben. i: Miiche ( 19!:10)
11-44.
HiclsKtanz (. . 2, Clt<tptct 2) 12 30.
Arislotle. Histoia animalitt 588 4 (pvc. .: Apuanor'1. t. .:
:. , l99H).
Aristotle. geneatioe anialiu II 736 12-15. 35-bl~ (. .: Afmcmomnn.
: . .; .: : (;, 1!:140).
JJesmrtes . ss de \ ethodc. Leipzig (1919/20) 39 (. .: r' 1~
. t. 1 .

// . : 2 . . J. ., 1989. . 250-296).
3.6. Belli (;.. l>e otu animalin. Leipzig (1927) 1.
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< r

J, : . .: ,

1991); Tl1e ~t ot Man. d Selection


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(ed. Andteski S.), Ld {1971); .:
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3.14. .: S!'hneirla 1. Rdolp C\;sius' Heitag z Eiilng wal1sc!teilicl-tkcitst t1eo
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432

3.15. Prigogine /. Intductio to Tl1eimodyaic~ of Itcvetsihlc Poccsses (. . 43


r. 2).
3.16. .: Boltz.maun 1~. Uber die mechanische Bedeutu dcs zwciten Haptsatzcs dc1 \Viitmet!Jcoic ( 18fi ). I: Boll:z.nwnn /" Wisscscha!chc Abhadlu.;c ( cd. Hasei>111l F.).
Vol. 1. Leipz.ig (1909), tept. New York (1968) 9-:~3; Aalytiscl1ct Bc\veis des Z\Veite
Hauptsatz.cs d ccl1aischcn W5.mctl1colie aus d Satzc i'lbc das Clekl?;ewicl1t
d lebcdigcn Kraft (1871) 288-30R.
3.17. . n . 'U die von dcJleklatkinetiscllen
Tl1eoie de1 Warc gef(dette Bewegug von i rultcde Fliissi!{keitc sspcndictte
Tei1che'. Ana\en der Physik 17 ( 1905) 549-560.
3.18. Poinmre . Sur Jes tentatives d'explication mccli<JUC des principcs dc ] 1111
iqu. Comptes endus de I'Academie des Scienccs 108 ( lHH9) 550-553: 'h'mu'lo Z.:.
eincn Satz d Dyamik und die mecl1<tnische Wiitmctl:oie. nl detl'!Iysik
57 ( 1896) 485.
3.19. .: Pof1r, . R. Ievesiie ss in pl1ysica\ tl1eoy. Natue 181 (195) 402-403;
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3.20. Boltzmann lo. zweitc Hauptsatz det mechaniscllcn Wiitmethcoiie. l: Boltz.rnann 1..
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3.21. Boltzrnann z__ die Frage nacl1 d o~jcktivcn Exist.enz d V in dct Llll
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3.26. Srlzrurlinger . Was ist L? (. . 25) 147.
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, I'HK MS2 (1\l!infou W.,
Haegemann G., Ysebaert ., Piers, W. Nate. 237 (1972) 2). ;\
129 . t n. Gp.
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., HalumKell

kl.

433

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\Vis( 1~9): Hoflmua L. Evultiostl1eoie ul


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Eigen . Hotcltts im Zeitaltc1 dc1 Bioteclolo~ic - 1'11ysikoc!Je11Jiscl1e ll
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Kauffrnan S. Atocatalytic sets p1oteis. Jomal ol Tl1eetical ioloh'Y 119 (191)
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: : Kauf!rnann . S. 01i~is !' OJcfeJ: Seii~O~aizatio l Selectio i
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Hakm . Syer~ctics (. . 4 . 1) :11 (pvc. .: Xal'll r. .:
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Srnan . GO\vth d J)e\clopet.. l'ITJ!lice-H~tll: E~le1vood Cli!s, N.J ( l9!i4);
PrigoginP 1. \ tlo~l1 fluctllatio. l: .Jani.III , ~Vfrlington . . (erls.). Evoltio
d Cosciousess. Systers i Ttasit i. Aclcliso-V\'eslcy: L1 ( 1976) 1 .
Gmsclt ., Hrss, . Cyclic-AMI'-cotllecl oscillatios i sspeclccl c!ictyostcliu cells:
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Hosen . il Syste l i Biolo~y. \rVileY-Il!teJsciecc: Ncw Yo1k (1970);
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110 /\ . ~..
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/\l! : k ~ (Nf.). O!IIllll~l<:IJa(JS i clet'\)c\eiJtClllllHitllll){.'lcl>tt'll Natlll'.
Vcldl1!-{CII dc1 CcsellsciJa!i lkLttsciJet Nat CoJsciJel l!IJcl Azte. l] !'J. Vetsatllllllug (19), St\ltt!-{al't (1989): Mainzr. <:IJ<tos l Sc!IJstOJXaisatio als mccliziiscl1e
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i d Mcdizi. (;ut: Belli/Ne,l k (199:!) 2:!5-2['>8.
Haken

seschali.licl1e ~LtCh!o{escllscl1aft: \)astadt

3.31.

3.32.
3.33.
3.34.
3.35.
3.36.
3.37.

3.38.
3.39.

3.40.

3.41.

Bassinp;thaip:filf

.J. .,

vrm n~kf. . G. . Li~llt if.( l t l1e l:att: 17 actal l>cll<ll'i i


t l1c IEEE 76 ( 1~JHH) tiii.
3.43. Golrlfrp;er . L., t; 1'., ~st U.J. Nolicat c]yamics /' tl1c !Je<ll'l bcat. l'l1vsica 17D
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cacliopllloav oscillatios. r1i Heart Jotrral 107 ( l9H4) li 12- 1ri; Hr'r> Umy .
Him:.rl.f. sti~. ti~. arl cl1<10s i cxt:itable remiJtacc moclel. iopltysit:al
J\ 47 ( \98:1) ;{:}7-:\t)(); H1illji-l'l', . vV\K'l1 i Hleaks Bo\VII: 1'\lc Tlmcicsional !)varics (' Elcctmc!Jcmical v\'aYCS arl Caliac Al1vtlias. l'ticcto
(1987); (;urvm'f; . N., Clttss !" .. S/il'l . l'I1~N' lockit, peiocl-rlot;bliJJ~ blltcatios,
d ir~1 dyaics i pciodically stillllllatcd caliac: cclls. Sciccc 214 ( l9l) 1350.
3.44. .: Jolmson [_. Tl1e ti1Cl'll1()(1yaric i~i ccosystcm': talc IJtokc symmety.
l: l/J . ., Drjzv JJ ..f., SmilllJ. /J. (1'1/s.). t, Il'oatiOJI, l E\oltio. Ncw
Pctspectives Pl1ysical d Biolof.(ical E\oltio. MIT 1'1ess. C:amlnid!-{c, ( 1~JHH)
75-105; Scllmi1ln 1:'. . Tl!ci\'Jiarics. ccolo~ical 'uccessio. ltl sekctio:
m tl-ear!. l: \tw~IJI' . ., 1'jil'1v .J. Smilllj. /). (1~1!.1.). t. I({matio,
d E1oltio (. . 44) 107-1 :!.

3.42.

cardiac

15

f'ti. l'oceccli~s [

434
3.45. (blum

Tl1e

state~

u[ ecosy&tetn

devclopet. Sciece

164 (19<19) ~2-270; Mar'


Chica!4o ( \).
. L'..f. (erls.). Scientists

al1jn. Pespectivcs i Eco\o~ical l1. Uivesity [ Cl!ica~o Pcss:

3.46. Lovelock.f. . Tl1c Ages ot'C<tia. Batam (1990); SchneirlerS. .,


on Caia. MJT Press: id!4<\ ( 1991 ); Pimm S. l.~ Bal<tce Natc, Ui\csity
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3.47. .: Uosen U. il System \1 i iolo~ (. . 37); F1"P-Nimann .!. e
teniistic Matllerttical Models i Poplation Ecoloh'Y lkcke: New k ( 19); Almt
hmn R. ., Sha . D. Byamics - Tl1e t of Belvior (. n. 14 . 2) 85.
3.48. l~olka A.J. Elcmcllts of' Matl1ematical Biolo~. v: New k (19~5 ); Vollerm V. Lons
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3.49. Ul'llenrneyer . Z Bclvioal st dies ( ats. Kasas U iv. l\. 44 (1963) 2 1; Pti
goinl' !. l1 t.h Flctatio: Sci!~Oganizatio l Social System. l:.Jantsclt ,
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Oganizatio d \)issipati\ Stctrcs. Applicatios i the Physical d Social Scienccs. Uivetsity of' Texas l'css: Asti (192) 28; Wicken .f. S. Tl1c1clyamics,
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Smiti!.J. D. (Nls. ). Eotropy. Iloation, anci Evoltion (. . 44) 139-1 9

4.1. Dicls-Ktanz. 36.


4.2. .: Cuthn't', ~V. . . Histy of' k I'\Jilosopl1y. Vol. I: Tltc li l'csocatics
ancl the Pytha!4oeans. Cambtidge Uivesity Pcss: Carnbidgc ( 1962) 349; JJjr . .,
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4.4. . . . . . l. .: ,, 1990.
4.5. .: Ca/1!1z Calcn Aatomical Pmccdes. Tr;slation /' the Sviving Books \\'itiJ
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4. 7. Desl'(Jr/rs . Mcditatios ( 141 ). !~. . Halclanc, G. Ros~. Cabidge Univesity 1'1~~:
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435

4.16.

Helmlllz .,

v. Voliiligc1 lkkl l!h(T <lic l't pllaZN-\'csclviligkeit <kl' Ne!'VCII


1'11vsiologic l<l \visscsc!Ja!cl: Mccli;~.i ( 1!) 71-7:1.

rciz1g. A1hiv !it ti,

4.17 . .James IV:


4.18.

Psycll,ry (B1ielc s).

Jnes ~V. Psycl!ogy (. .

Holl: Nc"

( Jl-\~0) ;),

17) 2!",4.

4.24.

Psycllo,hry (. n. 17) . 57.


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1111' Simlation itl lkai Scictlce. i\R lii:rsity l':~s: Caliclgc/N('w
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4.25.

. Clm:ltlmul,

4.19. .James W
4.20.

4.21.

4.22.
4.23.

.:

(1990).

J>. S.,
Mass. (IY92) lliY.

4.26. He!llt

Sejnoski

Tf. Tl1e ComptHalional

. !: Ol{anizalior1 ! lklvim.

4.27. Kohorum

Sci!~Otgaizatio

\'\lilcy:

and AssociatiYc

i.

Nc~1 k

MIT Ptess;

Cabiclgc,

( 1949) 50.

. Sptigcl': lkli (19)

10!'.'>;
S., Sejuo~ki TJ. l~ Comptllatioal Btai (. . 25) 54: ille1 N.,
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Cltua L. 0., Roska . Cellt1lar Neura\ Networks and Visual Computing (. n. 12)
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441

6.17.

Cht

L. 0., Hoska 1:
8.1 ).
6.18. Chu L. 0., Roska
207 ( 8.1).
6.19. Chua l" 0., Rsl 'J:
206

211

!J\

Netmtl

Netwoks d Vistl Comptltin~ (. t.

12)

(.

Cellula Neal Nctwoks d

Compig (. r.

12)

Celllal' Neal Netwks l Visal Coping (. n.

12)

8.2), 213

Visua!

!-1.4).
Netmtl Net\vks

6.20. Chua /" 0., s/ 7: Cellu!a


d Vjsal Compig (. 1. 12)
289 (. 12.9).
6.21. Chua [".., 11.~k1: Ccllula Neual Net\votks l Visual Coping (. . 12}
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6.22. Ckua L. 0., oska Celll; Ncual Net\votks l Visal Comping (. . 12)
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(' ~i (. .

6.27.

24) T<tblc 2.

l L, 0., Y()(m S., r L nli di.' pc~pcctivc


of sciece (. . 24) . 3.

ol' Woam' s \V kiod

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885-91.

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wit.\1 ttmbcts ro tig witl1 words- rn maipulations of measerncnts to rnaniplation ol perccptios. IEEE Transactions Circuits and Systerns-I: Fndamcntal
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7.67. Mainzer . I- Ki.instliche Intelligcnz. Grndlagen intelligenter Systce. Wisscnschartliciic Btl1gcscllscl1alt: Banstadt (200:1).
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appoacl1cs l' il'ornatio rctrieval. In: Crestrmi /:, Pasi . (etls.). Sof"t Corputing in
Itim11atio Rcticval (. . ) 179 (. 1).
7.69. 1\:lerkl lJ., Raulr . t classificatio with spevised artilicial cural nctworks.
I: Cmslani z:, Pasi (;. (eds.). Soli. Coputing i Infoion Rctieval (. . )
102-121.
.
7. 70. Cho S. . Artificial lile techology [ot adaptivc in[cmatio pcessig. In: Kasalv N.
(nl. ). Ftue Biections (() l:\ligent Systems and I[matio Scieces. l'hysica-Verla~
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7.71. HulJernum . ., Arlami . CI"Owtll dyamics ot thc Wold Wide Web. Natuc 401
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7.72. Minsl1y . 1 Socicty of Mind. (. . 57).
7.73. Hegel (;. W. /~ Ph~nomenoloA"ic dcs Ccistes. (JH07) I: Wekc izwanzig indc. Vol. 3.
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7. 7 4. Wrliser . The compute f'or tl1e 21st t. Scientilic mi 9 ( 1991) .
7.75. Gr~rshe'nfelrl N. Wl1en Thigs Stt to T11ink. r Ho\t: New York (1999).
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Clazlicle d Wissensciiaft. Lcius ud Lucitts: Stttgat"t (2000) 133-142; Mainzer .
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8.1.

(;olrnann

N. Fact, Fictio d Forccast. London (1954); Lenk . Ekliiug, Progosc,


Rombacl1: Fciburg (1 972).
Mm.,F()mety JJ. ., .folmson l . . Forecasting d Time Seies Oata Aalysis d l1.
Holt, Rineltat't d Wiston: Ncw k ( 1975).
A/Jf(tham ., Ll!doltl!r .J. Statistical Mctlds of Forecasting. WiJcy: New York (1983);
Pinrlye/1 ., ublnfblrl D. rti Modcls and Economic Forecasts. McCt"aw-Hill:
New k (1980).
Makritlakis S., Wheelzuright S. . Fecastig Mcthods for Managernct. Wiley: New York
( 1989); Makridakis S., Wheelwrigltt S. ., Mr: (;ree V. . Foccasting: Mcthods and Applicatios. Wiley: New k (1989).
Kravtsov . . (l.). Liits Predictabllity. Sig: li (1993) 82; Sartler Z.,
Ravr~tzj.R (etls.). Cornplcxity: fad futc? In: P"utures.J. Fccast.ig, Plaing, d
Policy 26 (1994).
Plaug.

8.2.

8.3.

8.4.

8.5.

447

8.8.
8.9.

8.10.

8.11.

8.12.

8.13.
8.14.

1ayntz . l~ l/l tl sciccc tl:01i<:s <'Ot<.'fJO!'aly socia! scic:c.


In: iHeinolf U., erzJfrl . (afs. ). ~': Social Scicr<: i Tsil ion. Asscssmcm and
Olook. Wcstvic\v l':ss: BoLII(i<:J, Colmlo (1!1!1:!) ~7-7!1.
1eton . . Thc SocioloAy oi'Sciecc. T!Jcorcticai l Epi1ical [vcsti).;<\lios. Clticao (197~); Somkin . .. Social <<l Clt ! Hvaics. N<.~\\' Yotk ( l~Hi:!): l'ti' /). tlr'
, }lla. Sciccc sicc 1\l}\. Ne\\' lia\'t~ll ( 1!lli i ): (;o/lmau 11: cpi<kic pmccss i
poplatio. In: Natc 205 (191ir)), ~(\1-:2; Matl~atical appacltto tl1c
s e<~.d ol scictitic idc;
tlte l1istv ol mast cell :s~\1. I: Natc 212 ( 19(i),
4 -452; )., !r,s.,r:~cibl; U. 'lt idicsio! aalysis ol' scicm ilic dis.
In Scictomctics 3 (I!:I(i), 321-~~41}.
/Jr (knn . '., N){>liu ~V.. SlmmJmt . Tl1c applital i ol' evoltio clcls i stie
101 t:l!"ics. I: Scicloe!lic~ 18 (J ~~). :1:~.
Sm ll ., S1vnmy, (;n,mle . Clf i~ tl.: scic:e ciu i ir1cx ttsil{ coci!a! ios.
II.
i~ scicce. I: Stictoctlits 8 ( 19:,) :! -:: Ca/lon .. Cmotial J.P.,
1ur tr \\1: ., Bauin S. t; tt<.slatio to pmbkmaric ctwk~- An i!llm(itttlio to
co-w Jl'd aalyscs. I: Social S(:i.: It(mat i 22 ( 193). 191-2::15.
Maytltz n. Soziale l)iskotiitiilc.:: sl1igs!\ ! UsaciJ~:B. I: Hielh:.
er , ~Villmm IJ..(;. (etls.). l'llascsptii~e l(l Stctigkcit i mtllliclte l
kltqJc\lc \Velt. \Viss. Vct'lags~tsellsc/1alt: Stll~att (19) 15-:'.7.
Mai1lzer . l)ic \Vutdc (ks s1: ist tast~Jat. Z ilct<s[cieJg v Al'likel
li Crudgcsctz cl:lt d tcclisclvi'iscsclial'lliciJcJJ l;tscli. Jl:11 clc1 Ui
vt;jtiit 199. i{~14 ( 1990) 211-221.
: pe;!CJ'il'JJ : Sl'lummu~ . F.tl1ik. !: 'filli!I.afi.J. (1'11.). Emy
klopii<lic l'l1ilo~opl1ie l \Visscscl1ali.st!IeOJic. \ 1ol. \.. 1. \Visscscllts\'e!'lai{: Man
!Jeim/Wic/Zt'iciJ (/) 592-!!9!-J; !l. ., Nit'lsl'll Histoty ol ct11i~.:s. l: J~rlanis
(erl.). /: Encyclopc(\ia ol'l'hilosop!Jy. Vol. . Nc\v Yo1k ( 1967) Hl-117.
lviu 1: l'lato's Moral l:. l: Ea1Jy l Mid(lk l>ialo~ucs. Oxld ( J 977).
Kenny . The Alistotc!ca li:tllics. St<ly !' t ltc /{elal i1sl!ip cL1veerJ 1l1e Et!(lcia
d Nkoacl1ca Etltksof'Aistotlc. Oxl<>l

(1971-i).

8.15. .: ll.ftj>lu!Rll>. . (erl.). H1itisl1 Mo1\ists ( llii'>O-IH\IO) 1-11. Oxi'ol (lH!i9).


8.16. Patmt H ..f. Tl1c CatC).;OI'ical lpc!'<Hi\'c. St<ll i 's Mma\ l'l1ilo~opl1y. tl
(1947); Williams IJ. . Tl1e t ol tl: C<!IC).;kal lpcativc. Sl ol rl1c
l'!acc otl1c Catc~-rokal Ipcatii'C i Kat's Et\1ical TIJcO\y. OxJol (1968).
8.17. Mill.f S. Utilit<iaism. Ld ( 1i{()l ); U1'.'iu S. st ilt i\:c Jt!sticc. Cost t i~
iti of' tlrc Utilitaia 'J of J)isttilio. Iliaapolis ( l9tiO).
8.18. .mvL~.f l~ o.Josticc. Ll ( 1972).
8.19. Sirtm.J. [<'ie<li~.:l Nictzscltc. I: Hiiffi' . (1'11.). Klassikct <lct l'lli\;opltie Il. iil:
(19) 20~-224, 42 4.

8.20.

Al. ()ie Teclik l <lie Kcl11'e. l'l.lllliH).;CII ( 192); l.osmf .f. lki11i4 l
in tl1c I'Itilosoply ot' 11i Heid<:/{!1,'CJ', Thc Ha)!;l\C (19).
.J . l)as l>l'inzip Ve!JIWOJ'\\g. Vc!ll eict Etl1ik lt <lie tcclologischc Zivilisatio. Sk: Ftakt't ( 1979).
l.enll . Z\11iscl1cn \VissesciJall d Et!Jik. Sl11'kap: l:kUJ'I ( 1992): Aliltf4slmji ].
Ld v\"clt. Uet vVisscc!m!'l .. J.'mll).; d Vcta\-.:ttiiiA"- Slk: I:k
fu ( /92).
CJIUa . \Vold 1. ottblcclay: Nc\\' \~>tk (200~).
Kanl 1. Z cwigc I;icrlc ( J/L)!) ). l: Kats i-\CSaJ\JJcltc Sclil'tc. ccl. Kiiii{li<:!J
PJ-eusche Akadt~ie dc1 Wis~t~sclta!k Bd. VIII. !i ( 1912/23).
Wolf;am S. Ne\v i<l ot'Scic (. . !').47) 750.
Kant !. Kilik <kt in Vcl'lllt ( 17). :.
HeiAt~gger

Tet:lolo.L,')' Stly

8.21 .
8.22.

8.23.
8.24.
8.25.
8.26.

127, 133, 134, 142

27, 34, 122, 123, 157, 208. 209,


211,212,252,253

c..lt.

()
1\t:

212, 252, 321, 322, 328

258

256-258

252, 322

30, l 18, 255


86, 113, 114
- 118, 142
- 351
- 86, 2! 288, 350, 352, 378,
384,389,406,408
- .
- 114,116,174.256,289,
324,348,352,407

309

27, 116, 196, 256, 346,

1UJ

95, 358, 359


162, 167, 170, 183, 184, 250, 312
142-144
r 109
11, 211
325-327, 390
35, 41. 186, 2n5, 307, 315,
327. 390
31, 43, 110,
111, 114-116,313,314,361,402,
403
35, 122, 143, 154, 184, 18,
191, 279, 309
r 98
330, 334, 339
(;. n {

114, 115

()

395,39(},398

184
157, 160, 161, 170, 177
316
47, 53, 55, 56, 58, 79, 183,
210, 340
27. 29,39,40, 45,47, 48, 79,80,95
47, 49, 57, 120
9, 30-34, 37, 68, 76, 118, 174,
188, 199, 254
200, 202

347,350,369,372,421,423
32, 49

108,

143,325

lf\3
85, 91, 402
r 121
392
, 7, l, 21, 26, 31, 33, 39, 40,
66, 69, 93, 96, 103-105, 111, 119,
121-124,139,143,152,183,228,
271, 273, 290, 305-308, 320, 321,
325,328,329.420
31,39,40, 133,134,137
305, 314
309, 394
: 122
33, 34, 143, 191, 195, 241, 306
-

r r.

16, 22. 30, 89-91, 102, 105,


13], 144, 151, 255. 288, 321, 330,
355.359,368,378,407-410
336, 340, 346, 361, 369,
419,422,423
-, 346
79, 122, 151, 153, 156, ]57, 187, 200,
204,265,368
~~_ i< 326
175-177, 270

\
449

Go

92, 176
317, 332
- 100, 101, 134
41, 206, 24R, 354, 36R,
21
91, 126, 127

17, 400-402, 404, 407, 409, 410,


4 , 417,422
32, 137
- .
297, 29R, 300

ot.

1\0IIOHI f'M.

t1

3!">, 152, 153, 157, 226, 316


33, 155, 157-160, 164, 165,
lti8, 169. 193, 309
396
30,58, 112-116,118,
141, 142, 227, 2(i9, 287-289, 350,
351,354,364,365,388,402
20, 217-221. 224,

:~. ~97

218
- - !l: 8~, ~ 1~. 220
- - IlJ 218, 220, 221
- - 21
- 100
--

:r
38,331,393,394,398,399
370
43, 59
-, 171, 174, 177, 1R8, 190, 26
- 43, 60, 61, 147
- 27, 81, 245
- 173
- 27, 30
60, 61, 71, 72, 74, 147.
352
348, 349, :
390
166
28, 105, 155, 157, 309,
376,379,386,392,425
- 403
- 172, 183, 184, 199, 270, 309,
310, 365, 370, 421
- 153,176,179, 18R,19, ;
- 26, 27, 29, 32, 34, 37-39,
177,200,255,309,310,320,321.
330, 364, 36, 367, 370, .'{72. 378,
423
] 84,
197,309,310,321
r , 36, 316, 317,
393, 394
:J 121, 129, 160, 212
30, 40, 47, 85, 93, 94, 255, 410
152, 193, 195, 291
9, 21, 25,29-31,
33, 34, 37, 43, 44, 57, 73, 84, 91, 95,
96. 9R, 107, 1 12R, 130, 132, 149,
150, 152, 183, 195, 208, 255, 273,
324, 326, 330, 331, 356, 366-368,
383,402

(WWW) 388, 391


28


. 11.,

BI,!COKOTeXIIIJ<>IIa <>J,

38, 3f'>5
:
~60, ~R1.

282
34, 20, 212, 216,217,
222, 22, 320, 330, 399, 409. 425
r 258,
259, 409

I>


. 1r,

u:

.. !: <v
tm.ir :1 . .'1all,aa t
-

27, 81, 83,245

. ,
\'lr 01. l~,

rr

82, 83

/\ r.
li

lfrt.

rr,

9, 33, 45, 52, 120, 121, 154, 332

104, 307, 327


21, 280, 400
}(), 315, 320. 321, 32.?, .12(), 391

-
CIIOTll

450

40
8, 54, 57, 58, 62, 64, 65, 120,
122, 155, 159, 165, 182
t 1!-15
r 271
9, :, 93
rnI> 63, 78, 83

n .t. ,
nu

n:J

63, 100, lOl, 152, 156,

206,

259, 338, 348


r:

197, 275, 276


21, 330, 40(), 422-424
331, 393, 424

<UJI
r

.~t.

402, 404, 406

: r:. :

rt t:. 11

370

, 184, 248

185, 186
cnyci{ 185, 266

321

321

97, 98
13, 21, 26, 27, 37,
39,3, 402
56

!<

332,

;,

401
339,

417, 422,

27, 57, 73, 76, 77,371,401


130
105, 321
27, 1)2, 114, 338
222
40, 41, 59
- n 52
- 21, 35, 41
52, 57
rI,t 74, 75
ITCIOIIaJIHa }99, 201, 203, 204
- 41, 208, 399
- I{)I 83
- 28, 24-249, 355

141, 14~1. 144,


325
103, 132, 225, 228, 315, 320, 328,
399
181

I>

129, 300
29, 43, 44, 47, 58. 120, 153,

Hi2

34, 46, 156, 159

n-tt

27,

:,

80, 129
120-122, 152-157, 159, 207

: 107
:~72,

423

n i{

!IJI\ )'J>aHIICIIIOI
l:. <

376, 377, 381


21, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31,
34-!,39,41,43, 110,137, 146 .. 151,
152, 165, 198, 200, 209, 2/, 27R,
287-289, 292, 300, 314, 330, 348,
354-3!'>6, 30, 363,372,384,392,
399,408,423,425
- 227
- 26, 57, 58, 119, 137, 139, 170,
195, 271, 320, 324, 325, 329. 1331'
346,353,362.364, 384,410,41!'>,
422
137, 208, 364,410, 425
- UII<\11 21, 333, 373, 374, 379-381
- 89, 111, 114, 116, 324

n . r

8, 136, 369

/\

155, 156, 159


40, 48, 85, 94, 131, 204
187
: 31, 41, 105, 119-121, 124, 127,
128, 132, 136, Hl9, 250, 255, 325,
32H,331,400,4I7,420, 424

r.

:.

; 219-221
220

- r

219

Ji

124
27, 63, 124, 159
:, 349, 353, 402, 405, 411' 412
154, 158, 228, 230, 243

451


,"

2!'>9, ~92
26, , 46. 47, 92, 1~3. 1~4. 1~8.
Hi9, 188, 349, 382
H:IMC 8, 26, 27, 30, 31), 44-46, 51, 58,
, 91, 125, !38, :J57. 381, 392, 404
1 1 ot.
, 327
n; 308
- 308
27, 64, 6!'>, 91
- 63, 65
142-144
\11\ 39, 1~1. 209,348,349,38/,
382,399,410,411,416
37, 339, 368, 369, 383, 420, 423

2!'>. 28, 31, 32, 3, 37, 40, 41,


124, 128. 151, 1!'>9, 197, 332. 368,
420.423
.
<IiJ 4:J, 59, /iO, 217, 229, 343

98
97
- '27, 77, 78
1 '2:>4, '2!15, 271, 27'2
1'2:-1 158, 1!19, 14, 171, 18:-1
419
1 i' 1 l
79

34, 198-200. 204,


206, 207
::18. 39, 41, 331, 38!'>-:J88, :190.
393, 394, 396, 397, 399, 400, 422.
424
248
- 248
98, 101
316
- .

IIH, 125,

- .. <~
- ..
- 2
- - II11 ~l.
- .
r:.


<\I~ <\

400

20, 22::\-22

38, 221), 227.


330, 364, 3fiO, 388, 390, 402
- n 38, 388
5, 38, 39, 224, 226, 228,
233, 255, 362, 369, 33, 385, 392.
394, 399, 400
- 226, 227
- 225, 320, 399
- 208, 226, 228
> 4(), 56
:, () 1, 21, 23.
;J5, 260,319-:321. :~24, 32!'>. 327-329,
394
- 11 , :120. 328, 329
() 6, Hi.
34, 39, 82, 104, 165, I, 208. 209,
216,228-230,235,239,243,250,
262, 263, 266, 277, 278, :319, :320,
329, 331, 32, 397

I! .. VI

IIII 3~\

c.ht.

ot.

ot.

1Oi, 108
98

lJi

343,

3!1~.J

G 3,
11

:.J1:1.

317. :.J'28

:~15

KIIeT\11\<l ~liiTCJI-ai!TCIIOII

1~

ii

~: ,

'205
1011, 145. 177, 190, 22i, 291,

317
-

t: !

24, 1~2. 40, 103, 104, 108, 137, 138,


140, 178, '211, 2, 293

r1 30

30()

01 , ()

:!5, 3,
38, 39, 2()(), 279-288, 290-296, 298,
303,311,312,314, 386, 388,410
- - - 289, 290, 310
- - - 287
- - -, <I ANI> 282, 28, 292, 304
- - -, NOT 282, 286
- - -, OR 28'2, 304
- - - El)CE '2l, 282. 284, 285

452

THRESHOLD

283, 284
---,

281, 286, 302


288, 292
-, 281
-, I1 283-286,
297, 298, 301, 302
-,

---, (
}

36, 292-296, 304, 311, 312


281, 287,
288,290,300,302,303
-, 287

---,

3~~.

34, 160, 162,


170. 193, 194, 196, 197, 227, 2.59
() 16, 35, 36, 38,
41,208,250,252-260,279,280,292,
296-298, 300-303, 30.5, 321-325,
328.347,364,365,386,388,409
- - () , 259, 292
n ()

158, 159
25, 159, 178, 290

- (),

208,227,228,256,313,402
11 r...

I<.

38, 73, 76, 84, 110,129,183,


209,214,250,252,312,318,372,
406
- 3.5, 36, 279
220, 228
208, 228, 244, 249, 250
- 220
- 209, 295
- 35, 260, 276
- 35, 260, 273-277
- 1 104, 214, 216, 252, 292,
322
q 108
12, 110, 327, 328,
391
- 21, 32, 34, 253, 254, 257,
259,296,321,324,326,329,350

338, 369
199
220
- 219
11

tni{ n

28, 129,

247
rt

160, 162, 168,


179-181, 183, 184, 192, 207
- - - I\ 180, 181, 197
- - - -182
- - - 192
r 101
40, 47, 58, 101, 126
277
39, 197
271, 272
. l, 25, 36, 37, 198, 207, 331,
366,382,384
269, 270, 409
40

26, 29, 93, 95, 108, 131, 138, 143,


276,277,325,358

27,331,334,335,339,393,419

350

263, 264
9, 28, 82, 246, 249, 334, 335,
342,345,347,366,404

~I>

38, 56, 104, 190, 305, 306, 309,


315,335,342,343,345,366,375,
378,392,418,419
160, 209, 221, 232, 250, 262, 293,
343,418
...

--

349, 368, 381, 382


249

251

--

251
251
29, 30, 44, 45, 153
: 342, 343
-

-
C.At. -

. r:

- 309

~.

79

453

MeTOJI ,

373
373
162, 32, 327, :
3, 331, 394, 39, 399
, 120, 122, 133, 154, 157,
239, 320, 373
- 330, 347
- 33
23, 24, 43, 92, 102,
103, 107
21, 102, 104, 105, 107-109,
329
- 328
21, 25, 29-33, 36, 40, 43-47, 49,
92, 96, 9, 99, 101, 110, 123, 129,
134, 153-155,226,255,331,400
106
- 165, l, 168, 171, 173
- 344, 345
- 345
27, 34, 35, 103, 104, 123, 155,
209, 210, 224, 245, 318
- 210-212, 214
- 212, 217
- :1 ;~4
- r. <.~
;

.. 1
1 (),

1 ( )
--

212-214, 216, 252, 4~)7


--I,34, 3, 110, 20fi, 214-21,
220-222. 244, 249, 250, 25, 260,
292, 298
27, 66-68, 75, 76, Hi5
/\ 36, 46, 107, 121, 122, 146, 190,
230, 2(i0, 277, 2911, 305, 313, 425
J\IIi!<L CCe;(<>llaTCJIJ,CK<l

33, 197, 305, 421


ti, 7, 13,
:~. ::~7

4. 13,

34 7

416
40;1
13, 25, 26, 33, 39, 57, Hi5,
235, 236, 271, 33, 341, 342, 350,
3, 374,415,421
27, 209, 250, 20
- 209, 244

80

;~3
,

16. 27, 2, :~9, 40, 74.


100-1 02, 128- J:IO, 184,
244-246, 248, 249, 343, 347
- I'It , 14. 27, 77, , 12,
130, 157. 212. 246, 330. 347
- 27, 75, 77-79, 84, 33
- llblOTUIIOBa ()(), 73, 123, 130, 1!1!-\
- 29, 35, 125, 132
79-2,

!17,

3,

93, 330, 375, 377,

37,

412

:140
79, :1 Hi
257

<i:!<>/\<>

r:;. IJii

II caiiiipy(I iii

103, 107
- -

:ii

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37, 420

30
:It

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108, 279

MKp0~1JICKJIOIIIOI

<{ !5
MIIIIMYM L)/,

1()5, 172, 174-1/, 2/0, 344


(i!J. 100
248

~IIIoroopae 011.

352,

;~5;~,

361

179

32, 33
! . I

:1

26, 32, 40, 56.


41 (j

46, 119, 127, 132, 136, 191,

32

123, 139

. v

;)52

39,

1~, ;~52

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412
:'152
7, 38. 112, 830, 342,
350, 370, 421
- 85. , !7, 34
;

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454

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1'17, 352, 411


350
62, 61}, 123, 19;~, 3:14,

t:r-

342,418
-
-

412, 4]3
9, 39, 41, 84, 112, 147,343,
347,348,350, 354,37,406, 408

JI

- :

349

147
- n 173, 174, 270
- : 350, 351, 353, 370
- :~ 410
. 261
-/\I. 261
R-. 2
S-~.

261
30, 95. 142, 325
- 1 30
:1 2, 32-, :. 41, 127, l52-1.5, 157,
160, Hi2, 168, , 11, 184, 186,
187, 190, 191, 195, 199, 200, 209,
225, 227, 250, 2bl'J, 259, 21, 2,
289,305,394

:H7-3J9

181

27, 29, 31, 3!1. 40, 79,

8:~. 91,
225, 248
316, 328
123, 156, 157, 211
156, 159
405
MOIIOp'IIOCTI> 37, 41, 209, 425
140, 141
139-144, 320

92, 95, HJ3, 125,

18:~.

MYI>IIMe;'\<I !, :i:~ 1, :~94

149, 1!')0
124, 134, 136-138, 209, 32\i, 327.
390.411
<~rr 205, 24, 318
:19, 343, 353
t

29, 92, 9R
103, ) 04, }} ()
23. 29, 41). 102, JIO, 107
110, .
10:1-105, IOR, I l
r 21, 23. 103, 104, 107
lla\IOMUI!a

30, 43, 44, 55, 91,


92, 9-98, 14:~. ]9f), 197, 273, 35,
359. :-, 3Ro
12, 38, 370, 371, 375
zzr 33,331,417,425
[J-7, 13, 14. 21, 34. 49, 54, ()2. 211,
339,400,401,410
- 1\JIi 425
13, 24, 39, 51, !, 87, ~.
122, 124, 128, 257, 354, 408, 417,
420.421
- 21-23, 25, 158, 212,
229, 234, 243, 250, 279, 320, 321'
367,399
- :!II 102, 123, 2R0, 319
<LJ 36, fi9, .'~:', .'"ifi, 367, 3/!J,
417,421,444
1 411, 4 15
r , 12, 217, 262, 4 I 1,
412
IIC!HMa~l 38, :':(), :~(){j
r 39, 41, 170, 306
1 25. 26, 152, 177, 1Hii,
188,280,305.307-309.311
36, 20, 305, 312-315, 32
, 35, 41, -1(}2, Hi7, 1()1{
- - 250, 251
11 C4t. !

1 !9

1!')3, 160, J \)!'), J7H. \9:,


3\i, 305, ;ii, 309
\ICJIIICIIOCTJ, , 21' 24, 25, 28, 29, 4:-{,
84, 87, 1:~2. 247, 24\-1. :\20, 343, :,
350, 31)6,373,423,424
I!CiipoH:\IIOOI

ii

IICMOIIOTOIIIIOt' MblJICIie 2:~9

, 9(),

12f>, 257
30, 2~2, 33, 35, 87, !,
93,111,137, 14R.170, 174,254-256,
270. 273, 324, 34, 349, 352. 3()8,

IICfiOIII!a I(

413,420
lleoJIIIOT<I ;,

129, 222-224, 250,

!lepIIOJI;MOCTI,

OL.

:2

HHCJITeJII<IJI

1111,I

cpaapeIIIMOCTJ,
JJ

34, 222, 223, 251'!, 321


52, 79. 2, 114, , ;~50,

353
<~J.

2\IH, 300,
348, 355

:. :4

~. ,.,.,
1
1
,

315. :IR<i

OIIMII:I<II 1:~:~.

r:1 420

455

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:3,

391. 420
- til 404

::169

rr

ot.

- :11\0J\IOOllllaH 13~, 3l)H


:~!' (:~-)I())I:

JIIOT0/10/Ia

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24ti

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. lt19

27. ::!9, :. :~9, 40, 4:1, 46, 49,


50. :i(i. 107, 119, 120, 123. 129. 131'
1:'>7. 1:~9. 140, 14ti, I:A. 15[>, HiO,
\()4, 170, !, 22!'>

O(>l'a!IJI:IM

\4,

1!1;1, 157.
18, 183, 1, 224, 227. 229. 255,
256, 29, 27~1. 2, 293, 29/i, ~~ 11.
314, 315, 3<i2, 383, !IH!i, !1~11, 3~14,
395, 3~1, 399
!I> 27, 29. 128,256, 2!'J7
:. 131, 172, 270, :,
315-317, 3!19, 342, 3.rJ5, 3!);1, 409
- - 171-173
- - i\i<I , 3, 179, 35:>, :!\,
:

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360,

3 1'

3()4,

: 1

<mr

OCIIOII!lfaH

ot.

11<1 :lllalllll/ CI1CTCMa

, :

loH. fi

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70-72

- l'<IPMOIIIICi'l bli, 77, 2, 112


JleIICllllil

353
94
v %. !24. J:~. :12!">. 41]
OI\CTCTI\CllllO!"l 42, ~9:~, 417,421,422,
425

OCI\IIHII

3!">. 1!'>. 1iiO,


2(i7' 29, !191
3:~. 35, 3, Hi9, 170. 17!i. 177,
260, 321i, 368, !!94
- 177. 17
- 177
- !\2(i

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IJI

- JIOIICIIl'Ci(Ol' 7

OT!IOCHTL'JIIOCI'I>, fi Tt:Op11H

25,

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2::-\, 74, 9(), 1()(),

102
ti

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lciO

oo(>paciiitl' 7. 7-90,

1:17. lli7,

112, 114, 115,


2::!7, 407

f'.M. 01'1/l'II,

lll'Jillllciloe

OIIOCTl'Jli>IIOC1

7, 7

il ;t 3:

7. Hi. 21, 22. 25.:12.:17, .


259. :130-33?'>. :13, :1:1~1. :2. 34ri,
5, %!i. ()(J, !i. :112. \l,
33, 392,399,402, 40~1, 410,417.
421

- , OCIIOIIOe Ila :IIJ<tll \92

oc/I,IICIIe :

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97

~IH

01\<I/I.CHIIC :alll1HMII 2\,

2:12.

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.

.:1

II

24, ;{9, ] 14,

:2, \70.

41()
/\Ii.
110(IJ1

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63
44, ~IH, 101
1 1, 1\

1il 1 .t.
i,

ll<H'I 127. l[)(j, 1!">7, 2~13, 3()2


11<1\ITC:IM

apal\fiMa

[5(j
7, :~5.

:,

2:~0. 27~!. 23.

122, 1::!3, 21/i, ::!29,


289. 290, !~Hl, 392,

404,417
fi:

ti4,

(j:j

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;i: :.

209, 249, 2!)0, _; 1, 312,

!\14
~1 r;

10. 2!!. 2(i, :-:!:,, :17,


%. 121. 142, 149, 1!',2.
J(i:!. lti4, 1%-199. 27:~. 274. 27<i,
:12<1. ci5H, !~59, !!2. :~7. 409, 4::!2.
42:'>
- 1'11il :. 4. 85, /-90. 9:1, 94,
1:~1. 1: 142, 1-, J4(i, 202, 27:!,
21<1. :~2:,. :'>r,. :1:>9. :7. 407. 409,
41:'>
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456

n ntr(~

27

115
261-205, 279, 291

-II

345

- <~

107
32, 40, 111,347,402,403,406,
408,423
171
I, n 117, 118, 313,406,
407

n . J<,

331-333, 368, 393, 418, 420


37, 41, 339, 353, 361, 400, 402
n 340, 341

30, 33, 41, 138, 142, 143,


196,273,274,277
74, 80-83
- 9, 27, 28, 30, 81, 82, 87,
246,334,342,366
22, 25, 27, 29-32, 50, 56, 57, 62,
103, 120, 123, 151,200, 331
..

31, 32, 200


338, 393, 419
OR 263, 264
- XOR 263, 264
- 43, 72, 73
- 222, 223, 258
- 222, 223
-

n:

290

194

c.~t. 1

95, 96, 131, 172, 173, 194. 250,


280,281,300,378,381,391

116, 269, 343, 408, 410,

416

r n 24
.

344, 345
344-346
- 59
- 35, 170, 176, 177, 184,
262
- - 184, 186

n .

68-71,75, 76, 86, 111,


117, 131, 139. 141, 145, ]48, 174,
228,277,287,288,348,352,353,
377,384,406
<t 342, 407, 408
r< 227, 365, 407
35, 230, 232, 233,
270
n: 30, 48, 51, 91, 97, 105,
125, 171, 281,300
- 166, 171, 188
- 63, 429
- 65
- 166, 188
, 91, 15, 332, 346, 355
~ 1 105, 107
- .
n

279, 291

-
21,

408
269, 426
269
408

401

116

COIICIJX

:r

408
406

J,"

239, 240
. " (3)

229
ANALOCY 229
- BACON 240, 241
- OALTON 241
- DENRAL 229, 230, 235-237, 243, 438
ELI:lA 319
EURISKO 240
GENE..'IYS 328
- GLAUBER 241
- Gl'S 394
- 241, 242
- LOC;ICAL THIIORIST 229
- META-I>ENl>RAL 236, 237, 438
-SHILU 230
SIHYL 405
- STAHL 241
- STUHENT 229
n 343
- 278

457

11

404

228, 229

293,

29~. 31~. 3~~.

209, 244. 2!i8.


397

402, 416
- II 402
- 409
- 409
n 43, 55-57, 64
. : <.~I,

63
389
27, 81, 245, 246
J ] 65, 4] 4
Hi9
- ~. , , 67, 69-71, 140.
147, 166, 174, 369
-- 166
- l 65
- 64, 100
- 64, ~
- 63-65
- 64, 66
306, 307
145, 289, 290
- 28, 74, 244, 246-248
41, 1~2. 190, 191, 198,243,
271
-

21, 22, 25, 26,32-34,36, 41, 82,

1.?2-159, 195, 199, 200, 204,


207-209,216,217,221,243,244,
25~.261, 305,306,317,318,329,
331,392,417,418,420
.
II

33, 35, 158, 270. 271, 27:~.


275, 315
- 33, 36, 41, 108, 152, 174,225,
250, 260, 262, 273, 275, 290, 327
17, 225.
226, 245
123, 155, 1~8
39, 345, 361-363, 393,
418
- 39, 32, 363
:1 403
- - 404

/\101111

121, 122, 125, 129, 139,


154.191,243,367,391,425

. J,

J, :~; ()
r. <<r,
11 (!'()
fi

314,

;~3

fi 41

21, 104, 230, 2l, 278, 31!), 329,


31'14, 394
260, 277, 296, 305, :,
315, 328
IITeJICKT 383, 391, 393
:r 415
:~53, 355, 364, :~85, 422
..

;t 108, 395, 398, 399

157, 190, 232, 341


123, l.'J,

:r

2!,

412,

413

103
395, 398

29,

43, 102
395
395, 399
:1r 7-9, 11, 16, 29, 31, 33,
3S, 3R, 93, 102, 123, 129, 138, 139,
170, 172, 173, 183. 2<, 209, 250,
2~5. 332, 335, 347, 359, 30, 366,
37. 394,417,420
- r 9, 24, 29, 31, 93-95,
108, 119. 131, 138, 275, 325, 40!i
- 11sr 24, 29, 108, 172, 175,
275
318, :192. 417
34, 152, 189, , 194,
r,

:~95

fi

105, 1
221
33, 34, 152, 190, 206, 318
30, 43. 11 , 111, 1~7, 353

r.

11 :1 .
r

. J, fi

:II\ii .
CIIH:Iblii<II!

458

11, 256,

331

100, 101
5, 7-10, 12, 14-18, 23-25,
30,32,33, 36-39,196,202,271,276,
278, 358, 359, 368, 373, 374

r,

r
. , r

!I-i l\

166, 167
122, 144, 145, 153, 154, 335
166, 180, 181, 188, 225, 2,
308, 310-312
172
- 160, 161, 171, 172
- 145
- .
- 331
- 168, 312
- 38, 368, 383-385,
388,424,425
- .
()

251, 252, 261


266
- 35, 168, 178, 181, 184,
264, 26!'J, 390
- 393, 398
- 16, 22, 33, 35, 38, 41, 153,
160, 162, 165, 167-169, 172, 173,
176, 178, 179, 181, 184, 18ti, 195,
216, 260, 262. 266, 268, 269, 278,
279, 287, 291, 307-310, 315, 331,
384,390,391,409
- r..
-

, ()

171
35, 179, 270
- 265
- 267, 269
-
307, 308
- 25, 136, 137, 144, 147, 157,
160, 173, 193, 239, 268, 306, 308,
310,383,398,410
- 144
- 168, 169
32, 149
27, 44, 46, 49, 52, 53, 55, 91,
96, 98, 143, 241, 290, 346
35, 161-164, 193, 250,435
- 161, 170
-

221, 223, 224,

341,418
-

1\I<I

Hi, 41, 110, 208, 224,


249, 260, 296, 315, 320, 383, 385,
392,398,399
- . 62, 73, 75-77, 79, 81-84,
131
- 278, 315
- rr n; (Cl'S)
394, 395, 398, 399
- r/\ 370-373
- .
- 30,'32-37, 43, 59-62, 67,
69, 73, 74, 78, 84, 87, 111, 112, 115,
118, 130, 174,227,228,255,270,
324, 352, 358
- l\ 27, 29-32, 38, 84, 86,
87, 95, 96, 108, 119, 131, 136, 139,
174,255,277,325,401
- 31, 93, 119, 124, 125, 127,
128, 130, 141
- 136, 138, 327, 391
- 1 63, 64
- 77
- 201
- 227, 315, 382-384,
387, 392, 399
- 27, 28, 40, 80-83, 228,
245-247, 249, 399
- 31, 34, 104, 142, 323
- 27, 73, 75, 76, 84, 359
- I. 367
- 321
- 9, 343
- 113
- r 77, 78, 84
- 24-26, 33-35, 39,
40, 131, 132, 255, 277, 278, 293,
360,367,421
- <1 27, 352
- l 7, 131
- 11, 109, 127, 136, 154,
162-164, 1, 168, 17S, 197,290,
293, 394

459


, i< : ~4. 20,

2~4.2~9-241,243,244.~32,405,
4(/(j

191,

29, /,
406

1!, 13,

140, 14!i,

34,

-, 1~:~.

134. 13<i

139, 223

195
25-27, 29-:. :~6. !\7, :\~1.
41, 43, 9, 102, 105, 107, !. 119,
12, 131, 13, 139, 144. 146, 147.
151-15:\, 156, 157. llil, Hi2,
171-174, 17, 183, I7, 190, 195,
191i, 19-200, 2<i-20, 22, 253.
255, 259, 260, 262, 266, 271, 27!>,,
277, 27. 2, 294, 309, :-:~21.
323, :~29, 331, 332. 335, 340, 342.
~50, 352, 353, 356, 359, 361, 3114,
366, 3<i7, ~72. 37, 32, :~~. :~92,
394,409,417,421,422,425
- r 199,357,375, 3Hl. 411,417
- 412
- 2, 86, 1 Hi, 118, 22, 402.

- 2~\.

407,40

--

-, II 3(), 291), 300, 302, 303


- :1 20. 223. 224
BXO!\IIO 167, l<iH, 177, 2()!), 2<i7,
:~~. 391
- JIXOJ{IIO 168, 262. 265, 2!)7, 277
- ii 261, 2<i4. 277
; or. 1\

107
35, 173, 174, 191, 269, 270,

275
-

26, 32, 14, 4<


- r 2!i, !}, 40, 111, 321>,
330,335,343,349,353,359,423
- 208, 209, 230-235. 277,
27, 320
:32, 139,140

t:At.

141i, 152, 1!">3, Hi:J.


Hi4, l, 170, 195. 199,217, 21.
220. 221. 224. 22, 249, 250, 271.
277, 278, ~5, 331, 3, :m1. 424
- - 20, 244
- - 244
. 7. 9, 21, 22, 29, 43, 44, 47. 49,
53, 92, 119, 152, 187, 20, 214.218,
221.224,258.2611,330,356,366,
367,394,401.410,417
- 34, 208, 212, 222.
223, 257
- 1 223. 224, 227, 22.
329, 362, 3114
- 21. %, 118, 21i0. 292.
296, 300, 305

cpcMCIIIIaH

221), 227
21, 2<i, !{5, 39, 41. 42, 20,
22:i, 224, 250, 2:>7, 2!"JH, 280, 330,
!7, !~59, ;>,61, ~2, !ki5, 402, 403,
409. 421, 424. 421)

:1

COVCilCIII!OCTf, ~~:1. :~39

Co:!II<IIIIIC l, 28, 3!\, \4, 120, 127,


1!">2-1!">7. 161, 17, 190, 191,
19~-19:J, 198. 207, 244, 247-249,
30, 315. :-, 3i9, !I. :-ti, 392
COOIIOIIICIIC II/\I ,
2,

100-102, 128. l!l.r,, 343


1\IICIIIIICC ;~3. 19(1
v 3!~. !34. 190, 194
I<liiTOIIOC 27. 2, 81, 82, 9, 22(), 245,
246, 249
II 2, 30, 13/i, 24
rr :1:1. 152-154. 157. 159. 1!i2.
191. 19!>,, 198, 204,206,207, 209,
249
12!">, 1:~2. 133, 226
II!\!I 85

II 19
!!"! 'ICCI(OC 19
:

71. 1:~~). 27:1, 313, 406


58, 15!">, HIH, 22!), 31!">,

3:34

ot.
;>,9, 380. 381, 424
149. !\56, !\3, !\9 1
IIf:>r 37. ~57, 35, 375,
;\<t ~:r

:;

11, !19, 40. 343. 37:1, 378,

379, !\99
if<I! III

l"oll. OIIOCTCJIIOCI., <I!


TCOj)I !JIIOCTCJJJIJCT

220,
418,420,422

!\32-!\\4,

33~\

339,

1,

460

ii,

333

3R, 40, 340, 400


404
10, 29, 30, 41, 77, 79,
92, 96, 126, 143, 198, 325. 335
407
- 21, 151, 157, 19R, 20R, 217,
228

235
- - -, 235, 237
- - - 238
- - -, n 235
- - - 236
- - -, 239-241
---,- 239, 241
111, 163,257,271
- 163
126, 127
9, 40, 96, 98,
131, 132, 142, 143, 146, 147,369,
370, 373, 381
- 146
- .
- r.
; 9R
2R, 55, 82, 87, 228,
246-249

29, 124, 125, 127, 128,


130,176,342,357,365
-, 31, 93, 119, 124-128,
130,257,258
- 130, 290, 356
-, 124, 130
- 127, 132, 187, 270, 275,
330, 347
317-319
- 53-55
348, 349
8, 29, 35, 36, 110, 230,
277-279,355,359,381,401
- 260, 279, 280, 315
- 279, 294
306, 309
n 185
l:.

l,

124, 167, 172, 181, 24R


77
- 1R6, 315, 390
68, 70, 71, 77, 117,352,353
27, 43, 52, 55, 58, 60-62,
66-68,71,74,77-79,82,84, 86,87,
102, 111, 116, 129, 158, 169, 174,
349
- 67, 147, 148
- n 55, 148
36
312
-


31, 121-123, 12R, 157, 212
r,

, -

( )

126
- -

7R

:.

262

229
100
330, 334

218, 219
343, 345-347
- 22, 35, 223, 224, 226, 228,
399
- 43, 98
- 89
-

r r.

75, 84
221

.t. ,

(),

31

f:.

81,

280, 290
-

84, 85, 87, 91, 112,


117, 131,259,281,287,288,290,
302, 410
- - 411
!J 87, 90, 111, 203,
276,290,347,364,408

461

'1.7, 28, 81-84,


128, 129, 245-247
- 30, 34, 138, 142, 148, 150,
152, 203, 273, 276, 330, 347, 352,
357,359,392,411
~>u 27, 73, 74
51, 62, 67, 73, 372
219
419

1> 112, 113


71, 74
: 27, 60, !, 69, 74,
75, 77, 82, 8, 114, 175, 353

- r..
:

21, 29-33,43,90, 91,


97' 98, 196, 197' 270, '1.75, 330, ;~35,
339,423
- 60, 61, 67, 69, 71, 147, 354
16, 320, 321,414
29, 92, 97, 172, 173, 3fiO
: 7, 21, 26, 3:~. 43, 45, 50, fi9, 80,
93, 97, 122, 128, 143, 152, 183, 185,
271.273,305,320,343
- 100
- .
- l, 66, 81, 244, 248, 257,
334,338,341,403
- 26, 39, '1.79
- , 31, 330, 338, 339, 401
- 35, 172, 260
- 91, 228, 373
- 104, 191, '.!.
- 48, 83, 96-98,
101, 102, 129, 226, 248, 249, 3bli
: 26, 34, 37, 129, 17, ,
331,343
330, 337, 33S, 368
35, 56, 122, 143, 159, 162,
186, 279, 30()
31' 181, 1;~
, Hi, 25, 31, 33, 3ti, 4, 47.
49, 53, 56, 57, 62, ()6, 122, 124, 15(),
230,243,318,331,333,335,400,
415,420,422
- 120, 121
- ~> r.. 1
- 14, 239, 401, 415, 418
- n 123, 154, 15()

154-157, 190
57
139-141
:. 91, 96, 97, 101, 111, 119,
12!), 128, 131, 132, 138, 150, 1,
172, 183, 196-198, 269, 271, 274,
355, 356, :169, 37:~. 387, 412
- 38!i-389
- IJI ]00, 102
- :155, 359, 3()0, 365, 40!-\
30, 49
J 27, 204
< Hi, 116, 144, 145
'd pa:JM<:;pllOCTI> 8fl, }}(), 118
!, 110. ~!")5
(;ENEl{ATE ANB TEST 236
- 340
- 1!~7. 240, 23. 283, 286, 300
- IIO/!OB<IH 27, 81, 82
- 34
- n: 370, 420
- 216, 217, 23(), 240
- 164
- 111 341, 419
- 3:1
- 78
-

11, 21, 22, :, ;~. 41-43,82-84,90,

111, !. 145, :, 2!'>0, 258,277,


324,335,347, 36(), 394,421,4~4
- ;\ 30, 79, 4. 255,
:118. 401, 41:~
- 26, 43, 79, 82-84
7, 2G, ~9. ;~;~. 39, 40, , ti9. 93,
103, 104, 107, 108, 127. 128, 152,
183, 241, 271. 273, 309, 316, 320,
321' :~25, 329
- I 2, 129
- 23, 24, 104, 105,
;121
: , cAt.
: .
..

. 129
I>\l~ JI!IOCTI

392

11111 . Tifl<a

462

()

163, 164, 166, 183. 184, 198, 200,


225,306,308,311
269, 347, 355, 357-359, 361, 363,
364, 403
- 340
- 340, 365
- 332, 333, 340
349, 351, 353,
369, 370
- 01 400
I< 110II011

()

139

l33,65, 69-72
102
216, 217, 236
93
- 85
337, 338
36, 109,114,116,127,
146, 228, 250, 261, 321, 325, 354,
407
24 7

330, 347-349, 370

1
.

340, 341

ot.

124

41, 121,

14,

150, 402, 421, 425


383, 384
21, 22, 25, ~~9-41, 330, 333,
33~3, 348-350, 352. 353
- 34, 419
- 343
- 335, 336
-

I>

II

336, 337, 442


335
341. 353, 354, 400
- 341, 347

63, 64, 73
35, 250, 279

21, 25, 30
-

34, 36, 37, 44, 119, 127,


128, 132, 151, 183, 195, 199, 207,
209, 252, 261, 265, 325, 329, 331,
366,368,382,395,398,414

r.

371

-
-

244, 270, 277


31, 32,119,391

174, 175
27. 29. 45, 46, 66
31, 121, 154, 187.211
93, 125
- .

28, 96, 100, 248


-JII, 151, 164, 207, 382
- 259
- 262
- 136
- 381, 417- 368, 369, 381, 384,
393,417,426
- 108. 209, 400, 420
- 34, 125, 273, 275
- 273, 275
- < 151

315

. - (),

226
410
r 21, 35, 41, 42, 7, 158.
190, 198,305,317,338,339,417,
418,425
42,332,339,400,401,417-420,
424,425
- 425
- 339
409

463

<t l5H, 209, :~97

--

- - JaYa 393, 397


- - LISP 224, 229, 2~0.
242, 244
- - PROLOC 230, 244
-- 292

2~(;,

L-

239, 240,

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