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,

-Microsoft Research
,
, 2010

?
?

PASCAL Visual Object Cognition Challenge


(Everingham et al. 2009)


/
, ,

Viola & Jones system, CVPR 2001

Enzweiler & Gavrila. Monocular Pedestrian Detection: Survey and Experiments. TPAMI09

Enzweiler & Gavrila. Monocular Pedestrian Detection: Survey and Experiments. TPAMI09

Video from Dariu Gavrila/Daimler


1.
2.
3. :

/range maps

4.
5.
( , ...)
Gould, Fulton, Koller, ICCV09


:

-
-

-
:
-

Disclaimers
( !)
:
Pictorial structures
Generative models
( online):
Li Fei-Fei, R. Fergus, A.Torralba,
Recognizing and Learning
Object Categories,
ICCV05, CVPR07, ICCV09
B. Leibe, K. Grauman,
Visual Object Recognition, AAAI08

Olivetti faces dataset

Dataset
(Weizmann Horses)


:
1 =
0 =
Daimler pedestrians data

:
1.
2.

1.
2.
3. Branch-and-Bound


1:

f()

(HOG)
Dalal & Triggs, CVPR 2005

1.
2.
3.
4.

0 45 90135

0 45 90135

0 45 90135

0 45 90135




: SIFT, SURF, DAISY, etc.


: +1 -1

SVM :


:
[Cortes&Vapnik, ML93]

loss

1
0

-
Dalal&Triggs, CVPR 2005: HOG+ SVM

From Navneet Dalals presentation:

W+

W-

-
( ):

+
-

>

1 ?

+ - + >
+ >
- +

2 ?

3 ?

loss

1
0

:
:

loss

1
0

:
1.

()

2.

3.

4.

-
[Viola & Jones, CVPR01]

1- 2- ,


?
A = (A+B+C+D) (B+C) (B+D) + B

- vs. -
-
- ( )
[Dollar et al. BMVC09]: -
-


[Sivic & Zisserman, ICCV03]
[Csurka et al. ECCVw 04]


[Sivic & Zisserman, ICCV03]
[Csurka et al. ECCVw 04]



: , , ,


Sivic & Zisserman, ICCV 2003


Sivic & Zisserman, Video Google, ICCV 2003
:
http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~vgg/research/
vgoogle/
:

SVM

(w)

SVM

SVM:



, SVM Branch-and-Bound
[Lampert , Blaschko, Hofmann CVPR08]
SVM (w)

(w h(

))

(w+ h(

)) + (w- h(

))


[Lazebnik, Schmid & Ponce, CVPR 2006]


Branch-and-Bound

Images from [Lampert, Blaschko, Hoffman, TPAMI08]


[Hough1959], [Duda & Hart, Comm. ACM 1972]


(-)
[Lowe ICCV99]

[Ballard PR81]
[Lowe ICCV99]
[Leibe & Schiele DAGM04]


[Leibe, Leonardis & Schiele IJCV08]

+

y

s
y

Slide based on Leibes presentation


[Leibe, Leonardis & Schiele IJCV08]

s
x

Slide based on Leibes presentation

-
Juergen Gall & Victor Lempitsky,
Class-Specific Hough Forests for Object Detection, CVPR 2009
Jrgen Gall

Jrgen (currently at ETHZ)


[Breiman et al.84]
3

f1[x y 1] T 0

4
f2[x y 1]T 0

1
2

6
1


1. Yali Amit, Donald Geman: Shape quantization and recognition with randomized trees.
Neural Computation, 1997.
2. Leo Breiman: Random forests. Machine Learning, 2001.

-
[Breiman JMLR01]
function Node = _( {(x,y)}, Level)
{
if {y} Level == maxLevel
return _( y);
{tests} = _N__({(x,y)},N);
test = ___({tests});
{(x0,y0)} = {(x,y) | test(x) = 0};
{(x1,y1)} = {(x,y) | test(x) = 1};
LeftChild = _( {(x0,y0)}, Level+1);
RightChild = _( {(x1,y1)}, Level+1);
return _(test, LeftChild, RightChild);
}
//
function main() {
{X,Y} = __();
for i = 1 to N
{Xi,Yi} = _({X,Y}));
TreeRoot_i = _({Xi,Yi});
end
}

E(S) = 0
:
(information gain):

E(S) = 1

-:

I(p) I(q) +
p
q

30 (, , HOG-like)
[Moosmann et al. NIPS 06], [Winn & Shotton CVPR 06]

-:

:
+

-:

:
+
:

-:

-:

55

-:

-:

-:

-:

, 6

-:
:

60

-:


()


:
(100.000+ )

Calltech pedestrians, [Dollar et al. CVPR09]: 10 (350.000 )


ImageNet project at Princeton, 10.000.000+

[Hoiem,Efros & Hebert, Putting objects in perspective, CVPR06 best paper]

[Desai, Ramanan & Fowlkes. Discriminative models for multi-class object layout,
ICCV09 best paper]