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Ingls Instrumental

1 - Conscientizao
O que Ingls Instrumental? uma abordagem de ensino que leva em conta as necessidades da pessoa que est querendo aprender a lngua estrangeira. Assim, o profissional ou o estudante com objetivos em mente procura preencher, em pouco tempo, as lacunas relacionadas ao uso da lngua inglesa em suas atividades profissionais e acadmicas. Como lidar com os textos em ingls Segundo Scott (1983), no to difcil lidar com textos em lngua inglesa. Devemos levar em considerao as semelhanas entre o portugus e o ingls, tanto na gramtica quanto no vocabulrio, as estratgias de leitura se aplicaro at as suas leituras em portugus. Alm de utilizarmos as estratgias de leitura os dados abaixo tambm nos transmitem aspectos bastante positivos como lidar com textos em lngua. Inglesa. O vocabulrio de textos acadmicos composto de 20% de palavras cognatas. 60% do texto so compostos das 250 palavras mais comuns da lngua inglesa. Dessas 250 palavras, supe-se que o leitor saiba 50. O artigo the perfaz 10 % de um texto. Trs palavras, em quatro, so familiares. As palavras de contedo, cognatos ou no, so repetidas vrias vezes

YOU MUST REMEMBER THIS


Um bom leitor consegue capitalizar suas leituras. Ele extrai subsdios importantes de tudo o que l e nunca pensa o que foi mesmo que eu li? Desvendar textos identificar caractersticas do autor, da linguagem e da estrutura fazem parte de uma leitura eficiente e podem ajudar muito na hora de escrever. A boa leitura como um dilogo. Quando se entende a linguagem do autor ele parece simptico a voc.

You Are What You Read

Ingls Instrumental

2- ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA
Nesta unidade, voc aprender as primeiras estratgias que o(a) ajudaro a extrair informaes de um texto. Ns aprenderemos as seguintes estratgias: Background knowledge, Context, Non-linear information, Skimming, Scannig e palavras cognatas e o uso do dicionrio.

2.1- BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE (Conhecimento anterior sobre o assunto)

O procedimento tentar levar em considerao tudo aquilo que voc sabe sobre o assunto, mesmo que tenha sido em sua lngua materna. Ao deparar-se com um texto lembre-se de que deve ativar seu conhecimento prvio sobre o assunto para que as informaes textuais possam ser compreendidas com mais facilidade. Ativao do conhecimento prvio No se esquea de: a. Ler o ttulo e pensar o que voc sabe sobre ele; b. Se voc no compreender o ttulo, veja se existe alguma informao abaixo do mesmo, um tipo de resumo. Os escritores usam esse artifcio para fornecer mais informaes ao leitor; c. Observar a data e a fonte do artigo para ver se um assunto atual e se foi retirado de um livro ou jornal que merece crdito; revista, d. Veja se h algum grfico que possa fornecer-lhe alguma idia para que seu conhecimento prvio seja ativado. Tarefa 1- Leia o texto abaixo e entenda como importante Background Knowledge em uma compreenso de leitura. Texto 1-Um plano Ambicioso Ouro e pedras preciosas financiaram o nosso heri. Gargalhadas desdenhosas tentaram impedir o plano. Bravamente, ele persistiu. Ento, trs irms fortes partiram . em busca da prova. Elas avanavam ao longo de vales e montanhas. Os dias transformavam-se em semanas. Fofoqueiros invejosos espalhavam boatos terrveis a respeito dos objetivos finais do nosso heri. Ento, surgiram criaturas de penas saudando-o, parecia que ele obtivera o sucesso esperado.
FONTE- Dooling and Lachman 1971 Traduo -DIAS, Renildes 1996.

Ingls Instrumental a. Quem o heri desse texto? Qual era o seu plano? b. Quem eram as trs irms fortes? Elas partiram para provar o que? c. Qual o objetivo final do heri? Quem lhe deu as boas-vindas? Quem eram as criaturas de pena?

2.2- CONTEXT USING CONTEXT (Usando o contexto): Com est estratgia voc aprender o significado de palavras desconhecidas, fazendo o uso de um elemento vital: o contexto. Ao depararmos como uma palavra que no sabemos o significado deve levantar hipteses a respeito do possvel significado da palavra, usando o contexto como guia. Tarefa 2 - Leia o texto abaixo e encontre o significado das nonsense words. Texto 2- Problema na Clamba

Naquele dia, depois de plomar, fui ver dro o Z queria ir comigo l na clamba. Pensei melhor grulhar-lhe. Mas, na hora de grulhar o celular vi-o passando na golipesta. Ento, me dei conta de que ele j tinha outro programa. Tomei, ento, a deciso de ir clamba. At chegar l, tudo bem. Estacionei o zulpinho, pus a chave no bolso e desci correndo para aproveitar ao chinta aquele sol gostoso e o mar pli sulapente. No parecia haver glapo na clamba. Tirei as gripes, pus a bangoula. Estava pli quieto ali que at me saltipou. Mas, esqueci-me logo todas saltipaes no prazer de ficar ali, inclusive tirei a bangoula para ficar mais vontade. No sei quanto tempo fiquei nadando, siltando e corristando. Foi na hora de voltar da clamba que me dei conta de que nem as gripes nem a bangoula estavam mais onde eu tinha deixado Que fazer?.....
FONTE-SCOTT, 1983 (Dias Renildes, 1996 - Reading Critically in English, 3 edio

Think about it! a. Foi possvel fornecer significados para as palavras inexistentes apresentadas pelo texto? b. Que caractersticas do texto ajudaram-lhe nessa tarefa? c. Que tipo de conhecimento voc utilizou? d. Em sua opinio, o narrador do texto do sexo feminino ou do sexo masculino? Por qu?

Ingls Instrumental e. Tarefa 3 - Inferncia Contextual SOBRE PIRANDONGAS Quem descobriu a pirandonga? Ningum sabe. Sabemos, porm, da sua importncia no progresso dos crafuxos. As grandes civilizaes da antiguidade j utilizavam a pirandonga em suas carruagens puxadas por donguetes. Desde aquela poca at os tempos modernos, os nicos tipos de crafuxos que tivemos consistiam em borombos de duas, trs ou quatro pirandongas, puxados por um ou mais animais utilizados pelo canesso para viagens, guerras e para seu lazer. Houve povos, entretanto, que nunca conheceram a pirandonga e, por isso, em suas viagens, caminhavam ou montavam animais. No satisfeito, porm, com sua dependncia dos animais, o canesso sonhava criar borombos que tivessem movimento prprio. Uma tentativa para isso foi a bicicleta, de apenas duas pirandongas, movida pelo prprio canesso com o auxlio de pedais. No satisfatria, pois, em sua maioria, tinha lugar para uma s pessoa e no oferecia proteo contra o sol, cajapondra, vento, neve ou frio. Alm disso, o motorista ficava bastante cansado, principalmente ao ter que subir uma ladeira. A inveno da locomotiva a vapor, posteriormente, resultou num borombo de muitas pirandongas que se moviam sobre trilhos e podiam transportar centenas de passageiros. Finalmente, o canesso encontrou um crafuxo ideal para o seu individualismo: o psitacumbo, um borombo de quatro pirandongas movido por um motor a gasolina. Atualmente, uma enorme variedade de borombos desfila em nossas ruas, estradas e pistas de corrida: nibus grandes e confortveis, com at trs portas, psitacumbos de luxo com quatro portas (e at ar condicionado para dias de calor), barrigatos enormes para o crafuxo de carga, e os velozes psitacumbos de corrida que ultrapassam 200 metaxineutos por hora. Tudo graas descoberta da pirandonga. Se no fosse a pirandonga, voc hoje estaria indo para casa montado em algum animal.

Descubra o significado das palavras desconhecidas e anote abaixo. Lembre-se: Seja coerente com o contexto onde elas aparecem, confirmando suas inferncias sempre que possvel! * pirandongas - ____________________________________________________ * crafuxo - ________________________________________________________ * donguetes - _____________________________________________________ * borombo - ___________________________________________________ * canesso -_______________________________________________________ * cajapondra - ____________________________________________________ * psitacumbo - ____________________________________________________ * barrigatos ______________________________________________________ * metaxineutos ___________________________________________

Ingls Instrumental 2.3- NONVERBAL INFORMATION (INFORMAO NO VERBAL)

Tarefa 4- Leia o prximo texto e tente fazer uma boa interpretao do mesmo. Texto 3Se os bales estourassem o som no poderia ser ouvido, uma vez que tudo estaria extremamente distante do andar certo. Uma janela fechada tambm impediria o som de ser ouvido, uma vez que os prdios modernos tendem a isolar o barulho externo. Uma vez que toda operao depender de uma corrente contnua de eletricidade, uma quebra no fio tambm poderia causar problemas. obvio que a pessoa poderia gritar, mas a voz humana no suficientemente forte (potente) para se propagar quela distncia. Alm do mais, se uma corda do instrumento partisse, no haveria acompanhamento musical mensagem. claro que uma distncia menor diminuiria sensivelmente os possveis problemas: em um contato face a face um menor nmero de coisas poderia dar errado.
FONTE- Bradsford, Johnson, 1979. Traduo DIAS, Renildes 1996-Reading Critically in English, UFMG, 2002

a- De que se trata esse texto? b- Qual a relao entre o estouro dos bales e o som que no podia ser ouvido e a distncia do andar certo? c- A que se refere a frase toda operao? d- Que mensagem precisa de acompanhamento musical? 2.4- SKIMMING (significa ler as pressas) a estratgia de leitura que consiste em correr os olhos rapidamente sobre o texto, lendo-o linearmente, observando as palavras cognatas e as marcas tipogrficas sem se preocupar com as palavras que no conhece. Utilizando essa estratgia voc vai captar a idia geral do texto Quando se faz skimming, devemos observar: a. O uso de palavras cognatas b. As informaes no-verbais c. As palavras repetidas 2.5- SCANNING (procura informaes especficas no texto ) Sem ler o texto linearmente, mas com um objetivo em mente, procure as informaes desejadas, baseando-se em marcar tipogrficas (letras maisculas, smbolos, grficos etc.) Quando encontrar a informao desejada faa a leitura s daquela parte do texto que lhe interessa. Um exemplo desse tipo de estratgia a leitura de um jornal, e mais especificamente, da seo de classificados quando se procura um terreno para comprar. 5

Ingls Instrumental 2.6- PALAVRAS COGNATAS (COGNATES palavras parecidas com o portugus- KEY WORDS- (palavras-chave)

A lngua inglesa de origem anglo-germnica, mas por causa da invaso Normanda s ilhas Britnicas em 1066, muitas palavras da lngua inglesa tiveram a influncia do francs, lngua do povo invasor, de origem romnica, o mesmo ramo do qual o portugus tambm deriva. Portanto, na lngua inglesa, voc vai encontrar muitas palavras cognatas, tambm chamadas transparentes: Por exemplo: real real, history histria, Europe Europa, population populao.

KEY WORDS as Key words podem ser: a) Especficas de um assunto b) Repetidas com freqncia no texto. c) Aparentemente sem ligao direta com o assunto do texto.

COGNATES TEXT 1

Building science
A significant achievement of the first industrial age was the emergence of building science, particularly the elastic theory of structures. With it, mathematical models could be used to predict structural performance with considerable accuracy, provided there was adequate quality control of the materials used. Although some elements of the elastic theory, such as the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Eulers theory of column buckling (1757), were worked out earlier, the real development began with the English scientist Thomas Youngs modern definition of the modulus of elasticity in 1807. Louis Navier published the elastic theory of beams in 1826, and three methods of analyzing forces in trusses were devised by Squire Whipple, A. Ritter, and James Clerk Maxwell between 1847 and 1864. The concept of a statically determinate structurethat is, a structure whose forces could be determined from Newtons laws of motion alonewas set forth by Otto Mohr in 1874, after having been used intuitively for perhaps 40 years. Most 19th-century structures were purposely designed and fabricated with pin joints to be statically determinate; it was not until the 20th century that statically indeterminate structures became readily solvable. The elastic theory formed the basis of structural analysis until World War II, when bomb-damaged buildings were observed to behave in unpredicted ways and the underlying assumptions of the theory were found to require modification.

Ingls Instrumental 2) Faa a correspondncia entre os termos listados abaixo e suas respectivas explicaes baseado no texto acina. A - Modulus of elasticity B - Statically determinate structure C Building science D - Elastic theory E - Statically indeterminate structures F - Column buckling G - World War II H - Louis Navier ( ) With it, mathematical models could be used to predict structural performance with considerable ) ... the real development began with the English scientist Thomas Youngs modern definition... ) A significant achievement of the first industrial age. ), a structure whose forces could be determined from Newtons laws of motion. ) The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Eulers theory ) It was not until the 20th century that they became readily solvable.

accuracy, provided there was adequate quality control of the materials used. ( ( ( ( (

READING STRATEGIES TEXT 2

Think like an Architect


The design of cities and buildings affects the quality of our lives. Making the built environment useful, safe, comfortable, efficient, and as beautiful as possible is a universal quest. We dream about how we might live, work, and play. From these dreams come some 95 percent of all private and public buildings; professional architects design only about 5 percent of the built environment. While much of what non-architects build is beautiful and useful, the ugliness and inconveniences that blight many urban areas demonstrate that an understanding of good architectural design is vital for creating livable buildings and public spaces. To help promote this understanding among non-architects, as well as among those considering architecture as a profession, award-winning architect and professor Hal Box explains the process of making architecture from concept to completed building, using real-life examples to illustrate the principles involved in designing buildings that enhance the quality of life for those who live with them. To cause what we build to become architecture, we have three choices: hire an architect, become an architect, or learn to think like an architect. Box believes that everyone should be involved in making architecture and has organized this book as a series of letters to friends and students about the process of creating architecture. He describes what architecture should be and do; how to look at and 7

Ingls Instrumental appreciate good buildings; and how to understand the design process, work with an architect, or become an architect. He also provides an overview of architectural history, with lists of books to read and buildings to see. For those involved in building projects, Box offers practical guidance about what goes into constructing a building, from the first view of the site to the finished building. For students thinking of becoming architects, he describes an architect's typical training and career path. And for the wide public audience interested in architecture and the built environment, Box addresses how architecture relates to the city, where the art of architecture is headed, and why good architecture matters. READING STRATEGIES CONTEXT COGNATES

1) TASK 1 Retire do texto acima: a) Dez exemplos de palavras cognatas apresentadas no texto acima.

b) Cinco exemplos de palavras da Lngua Inglesa cujos significados voc j conhecia.

c) Dois exemplos de palavras cujos significados voc consegui inferir (descobrir) atravs do contexto.

SKIMMING SCANNING

d) Descreva em poucas palavras o assunto do texto.

Ingls Instrumental e) Compreenso das idias principais. Basedo no texto 1 (Building science) preencha as lacunas do quadro a seguir .

Quando? 1757

Quem?O que?

O QUE FEZ / FIZERAM? Trabalhou a teoria de flambagem das colunas

1807

Thomas Young

Louis Navier

Publicou a teoria elstica das vigas

Entre 1847 e 1864

Squire Whipple, A. Ritter, and James Clerk Maxwell

Idealizaram os trs metodos de anlises das foras em trelias

Estabeleceu o conceito de uma estrutura estaticamente determinada, isto , uma estrutura cujas foras podem ser determinadas pelas leis de movimento de Newton

At a segunda guerra mundial

A teoria Elstica

Ingls Instrumental TEXT 3

Ancient Egyptian architecture


In Ancient Egypt and other early societies, people believed in the omnipotence of Gods, with many aspects of daily life were carried out with respect to the idea of the divine or supernatural and the way it was manifest in the mortal cycles of generations, years, seasons, days and nights. Harvests for example were seen as the benevolence of fertility deities. Thus, the founding and ordering of the city and her most important buildings (the palace or temple) were often executed by priests or even the ruler himself and the construction was accompanied by rituals intended to enter human activity into continued divine benediction. Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Cities would mark a contained sacred space over the wilderness of nature outside, and the temple or palace continued this order by acting as a house for the gods. The architect, be he priest or king, was not the sole important figure; he was merely part of a continuing tradition!

Task 1 READING STRATEGIES

SKIMMING SCANNING

Segundo o texto responda:

1. As sociedades Egpsias antigas viviam o dia-a-dia respeitando que idia?

2. Quem geralmente executava as contrues dos prdios mais importantes da cidade?

3. As contrues dos palcios e dos templos eram acompanhadas por rituais religiosos. Qual era o objetivo disto?

4. Pelo que era caracterizada a Arquitetura antiga?

5) Com ajuda do texto anterior complete as frases abaixo, preechendo as lacunas:

a) _____________________________ believed in the idea that the mortal cycles of generations, years, seasons, days and nights was afected by theDivine or Supernatural.

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Ingls Instrumental b) The Palace or The Temple was built most often by the_____________________ c) ___________________________ __________was the main characteristics of the Ancient Architecture

d) No matter who was The______________________, he was simply a part of the tradition. FALSOS COGNATOS = Palavras de mesma raiz em Ingls e Portugus, mas com sentidos diferentes. muito comum uma mesma palavra aparecer com funo diferente conforme a posio que ocupar na frase; de modo geral, porm, a idia transmitida em uma funo est tambm na(s) outra(s). Exemplos: *support: sustentar, apoiar (verbo) She supported her husband while he was having financial difficulties. Ela sustentou seu marido enquanto ele estava tendo dificuldades financeiras. Ill give my support to your cause. Darei meu apoio a sua causa. *hope: esperar (verbo) I hope she arrives here on time. Eu espero que ela chegue aqui pontualmente. *hope: esperana (substantivo) The first examination results gave me hope for a cure. Os primeiros resultados dos exames deram-me esperana de cura. Existem palavras que no significam em Ingls aquilo que sua grafia evoca em Portugus. Exemplos:

*agenda diary, ou daily planner The first thing I do every morning is check my diary. A primeira coisa que fao todas as manhs conferir minha agenda. agenda so compromissos, lista de coisas a fazer Todays agenda includes a business lunch with the board directors. Os compromissos do dia incluem um almoo de negcios com o conselho de diretores. * eventualmente occasionally, ou at times I met Roger occasionally when we went to school together. Eu encontrava Roger eventualmente quando amos a mesma escola.

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Ingls Instrumental eventually no final, por fim Everyone will eventually understand why things in life are the way they are. Todos iro ao final compreender porque as coisas na vida so como so. Existem palavras que no significam em Ingls apenas aquilo que sua grafia evoca em Portugus. Exemplos: *abuse no s abusar tambm insulto The team heard nothing but abuse when they arrived. A equipe s ouviu insultos quando chegou. *medicine no s medicina tambm remdio I am taking a kind of medicine that has only herbs as ingredients. Estou tomando um tipo de remdio que tem apenas ervas como ingredientes.

Aprenda e pratique o verdadeiro significado dos falsos cognatos em destaque. Assess = avaliar / access = acesso Advice = aconselhar / warn = avisar Anthem = hino / aerial = antena Army = exrcito / arma = gun / arm = brao Assist = ajudar / watch = assistir Chute = corredeira/pra-quedas / kick = chute Cigar = charuto / cigarro = cigarette Collar = colarinho, gola / necklace = colar College = universidade, faculdade / school = colgio Compass = bssola / compasso = compasses Conceit = convencimento / conceito = concept Data = dados, fatos, identificao / data = date 12

Ingls Instrumental Deception = fraude, trapaa / disappointment = decepo Educated = instrudo, culto / polite = educado, corts Eventually = finalmente, por fim.= finally / Occasionally = eventualmente Exit = sada / success = xito Expert = perito, especialista / smart = esperto Gratuity = gorjeta / gratuitous, free = gratuito Guitar = violo / electric guitar = guitarra. Hazard = risco, dano, mal, perigo / mischance, jinx = azar Hospice = abrigo para viajantes / Bedlam, madhouse = hospcio. Intimate = ntimo(s), sugerir, insinuar (v) / summon, cite = intimar Large = grande / broad, wide = largo Lecture = conferncia / reading = leitura Library = biblioteca / bookstore = livraria Notice = observar, notar / news = notcia Parents = pais / relatives = parentes Particular = determinado, especfico / private = particular, privado Physician = mdico clnico / physicist = fsico Policy = diplomacia, poltica / police = polcia Pretend = fingir / intend = pretender Proper = adequado / own = prprio Push = empurrar / pull = puxar Quote = citar / cota = share, quota. Realize = perceber, dar-se conta / accomplish, achieve, realizar Respite = trgua/ repouso / respect = respeito 13

Ingls Instrumental Resume = recomear, retomar / sum up, summarize = resumir Retire = aposentar-se / remove = retirar Sensible = sensato, ajuizado / sensitive = sensvel Terrific = excelente / terrvel = terrible Traduce = caluniar, difamar, criticar / traduzir = translate

3 - REFERNCIAS CONTEXTUAIS PRONOME DO SUJEITO I OBJETO me POSSESSIVO Adjetivo my Pronome mine PRONOME Reflexivo myself

You

you

your

yours

yourself

He

him

his

his

himself

She

her

her

hers

herself

It

It

Its

its

Itself

We

us

our

ours

ourselves

You

you

your

yours

yourselves

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

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Ingls Instrumental Examples: John loves Mary but she doesnt love him.

The girl cut herself with the knife.

Kate and Paul are my neighbors, they have lived near me for a long time

I have five English books and these French ones.

Shakespeare and Goethe were both great poets; the former was an Englishman, the latter a German. Which shoes do you like most? These or those.

Tarefa 1: Leia as frases abaixo e escolha a alternativa correta para cada uma.

a) I often see (they, them) on the bus. b) She lives near (we, us) c) (We, us) always walk to school together. d) He teaches (we, us) English.

e) She sits near (I, me) during the lesson. f) What is (yours / your) name? g) The man lost ( his / her ) wallet h) (My/ mine) teacher is very cool. i) (It / I) is very full. j) This book is for (we / us)

Pronomes Demonstrativos SINGULAR This : este, esta, isto That: aquele, aquela, aquilo PLURAL These: estes , estas Those: aqueles , aquelas

Pronomes Relativos That; que, o qual, a qual, os quais, as quais Who: que, o qual, a qual, os quais, as quais Which: que, o qual, a qual, os quais, as quais Where: onde When: quando Whose: cujo, cuja, cujos, cujas

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Ingls Instrumental Pronomes Interrogativos What: o que, qual, quais Who: quem Which: qual, quais Where: onde When: quando Whose: de quem How: Como How often: com que freqncia, quantas vezes Why: por qu? How long: quanto tempo How much: quanto, quanta How many: quantos, quantas

Exemplo: A computer like any other machine is used because it does certain jobs better and more efficiently than humans. It can receive more information and process it faster than any human. The speed at which a computer works means it can replace weeks or even months of pencil-and-paper work. Therefore, computers are used when the time saved offsets their cost, which is one of the many reasons they are used so much in business industry,and research. It = computer 1 linha It = computer 2 linha It = information 2 linha their = computers 4 linha which = the time saved their cost 4 linha they = computers 5 linha

Task 1-Observe os referentes em negrito e escreva o que se refere cada um deles TEXT 4

Buildings Style and Architecture


Buildings are material facts. They are physical things. No matter how complicated they are, their basic function is to provide shelter for human beings against a hostile climate. As physical enclosures they also provide a psychological sense of security to their inhabitants. Buildings contain different activities and are built in different locations, which make them necessarily different to one another. They respond to their particular context (time, place, technology & programme). Individual buildings represent very particular individual circumstances.

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Ingls Instrumental Yet there are similarities between buildings and sometimes they are considerable even between buildings of different size and function. A survey of the many buildings built during a period of history will show a great deal of same characteristics. It can classify them into groups of similar buildings. That is, buildings which share similar characteristics. They use the same basic set of forms to solve their very different programmatic, climatic or locational problems. In other words they use the same language to express their different situations. They (linha 1) = Their (linha 1) = Their (linha 3) = Which (linhas 4) = They (linha 7) = It (linha 9) = Which (linha 10) = _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

TEXT 5

Modern architecture
Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. In a broader sense, early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. It would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, some in tension with one another, and often equally defying such classification. The concept of modernism would be a central theme in these efforts. Gaining popularity after the Second World War, architectural modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continues as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most notably Postmodernism which sought to preserve pre-modern elements, while Neomodernism emerged as a reaction to Postmodernism.

1) Usando a tcnica de SKIMMING diga do que o texto fala em linhas gerais:

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Ingls Instrumental 4-OS NUMERAIS

1234567891011121314151617181920212223243031405060708090-

CARDINAIS one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four thirty thirty-one forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety

ORDINAIS first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth thirty-first fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13 th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th

100 - one hundred 1.000 - one thousand 1.000.000 - one million

one hundredth - 100th one thousandth - 1.000th one millionth - 1.000.000th

Os Numerais Nos Substantivos Compostos

Numerais Cardinais - So usados para mostrar a altura, o comprimento, o peso, etc. de vrios objetos. Observe que o numeral vem sempre no singular.

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Ingls Instrumental Exemplo: The wall is twenty feet high = It is a twenty-foot wall. (foot passa ser um adjetivo e perde o plural). Numerais Ordinais - Substantivos compostos formado com numerais ordinais (primeiro, segundo, etc.) so usados para indicar qual a posio algo ocupa numa determinada seqncia. Exemplo: The house was built in the nineteenth century. = It is a nineteenth century house. Substantivos similares so usados para dizer a idade de pessoas ou coisas. Note que neles a palavra relativa ao tempo vai estar sempre no singular. Exemplo: The girl is twenty years old. She is a twenty-years-old girl. Datas Quando nos referimos a certos eventos pelo ano em que aconteceram, ou a carros pelo ano em que foram fabricados, ou outro objeto qualquer que tenha sido feito num ano em particular, as datas podem ser usadas da seguinte forma: Exemplo: The car was made in 1968. It is a 1968 car. Medidas: comprimento Sistema Americano 1 inch (in). 1 foot (ft.) 1 yard (yd.) 1 mile Sistema Mtrico = 25,4 millimeters (mm) = 30,48 centimeters (cm) = 0,914 meter (m) = 1,609 kilometers (km)

12 inches 3 feet 1 760 yards

Height: 5ft. 9 in. (Five feet nine) The hotel is 30 yds. (Thirty yards) from the beach. The car was doing 50 mph (fifty Miles per hour) The room is 10'x 9'6 (ten feet by nine feet six) Superfcie Sistema Americano 1 square inch (sq in.) = 1 square foot (sq ft.) = 1 square yard (sq yd.) = 1 acre = 1 square mile Sistema Mtrico = 6,452 square centimeters =929,03square centimeters = 0,836 square meter = 0,405 hectare = 2,59 square kilometers/ = 259 hectares

144 square inches 9 square feet 4,840 square yards 640 acres

Ex: 5,000 square meters of floor space They have a 200- acre farm. The fire destroyed 40 square Miles of woodland 19

Ingls Instrumental Expresses matemticas + plus - minus x times ou multipled by divided by = equal % percent 3 three squared 5 Five cubed
10

6 six to the tenth Power Example: 6+ 9 = 15 = six plus nine equals fifteen 5x 6 = 30 = five times six equals thirty Fraes a half one third a quarter one eighth Example: One eighth of the cake. Two thirds of the population. ARTIGO DEFINIDO THE (o, a, os, as) Dica: Guarde esta historinha e voc saber sempre onde usar o artigo definido the: O acidente ocorreu quando o melhor mecnico particular dos Estados Unidos se irritou e quebrou o violo sobre o primeiro Rolss Royce que viu. Desta historinha tiramos oito regras de uso de artigo definido: 1. A palavra acidente nos lembra que devemos usar o artigo definido the antes de nomes de acidentes geogrficos: nomes de rios, mares, ilhas, etc. Exemplo: The Amazon, The Black Sea, The Pacific, The Alps. 2. A palavra melhor um superlativo, ento devemos usar the antes de superlativos. Exemplo: He is the fattest boy in class. 3. A palavra mecnico indica que devemos usar the antes de profisses. Exemplo: the professor, the doctor

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Ingls Instrumental 4. A palavra particular usada para indicar que devemos usar o artigo antes de substantivos tomados em sentido particular. Exemplo: A gua do Tiet suja( no nos referimos a gua de forma geral, mas sim a gua particular, especfica do Tiet, ento usamos o artigo) Exemplo: The water of the Tiet is dirty. 5. Estados Unidos nos lembra que usamos the antes de nomes de pases no plural. No usamos antes de Brasil, por exemplo, porque singular. Exemplo: the U.S.A., the United Kindom 6. Violo nos lembra que usamos the antes de instrumentos musicais. Exemplo: The guitar, the pianno 7. Primeiro um numeral ordinal e antes deles temos que usar the. Exemplo: Is this the second floor? 8. Rolls Royce um nome de um carro e nos lembra que temos que usar o artigo definido the antes de nomes de carros, navios, avies, etc.

5 - ARTIGO INDEFINIDO (A, AN) Note o uso de a ou an nas frases, antes de substantivos. A (um, uma) - Ns usamos a antes de sons consonantais. Exemplos: Caetano Veloso is a songwriter and a singer. I live in a house.

An (um, uma) - Ns usamos an antes de sons voclicos. Exemplos: A dog is an animal The teacher left an hour ago.

TASK Translate: a. The basic function of architecture is to represent social institutions in built form.

b. Architecture can be defined as the stylistic similarity between different buildings. 21

Ingls Instrumental c. Architecture in this sense is not a physical state but rather information.

d. Communication between architects produces information styles or patterns of behaviour which influence or shape buildings.

e. Architects in the same geographic area exchange information and experiences.

ATIVIDADE AVALIATIVA - ENVIAR POR E-MAIL

Emergence of design professionals


The coming of the industrial age also marked a major change in the role of the architect. The artist-architects of the Renaissance had the twin patrons of church and state upon whom they could depend for commissions. In the rising industrial democracies the market for large-scale buildings worthy of an architects attention widened, and the different users asked for a bewildering range of new building types. The response of the architect was to develop the new role of licensed professional on the model of professions such as law and medicine. In addition, with the coming of building science, there was a further division of labour in the design process; structural engineering appeared as a separate discipline specializing in the application of mathematical models in building. One of the first buildings for which the architect and engineer were separate persons was the Granary (1811) in Paris. Societies representing the building design professions were founded, including the Institution of Civil Engineers (1818) and the Royal Institute of British Architects (1834), both in London, and the American Institute of Architects (1857). Official government licensing of architects and engineers, a goal of these societies, was not realized until much later, beginning with the Illinois Architects Act of 1897. Concurrent with the rise of professionalism was the development of government regulation, which took the form of detailed municipal and national building codes specifying both prescriptive and performance requirements for buildings.

VOCABULARY Major = O maior / Principal / grande Rising = Crescente / acendente Large-scale = Em grande escala Buildings = Edificios / prdios / edifices Worthy = Digno / merecedor / meritrio / respeitvel / merecido Bewildering range = Estonteante gama / atordoante variedade Structural engineering = Engenharia estrutural Goal = Objetivo / Meta Development = Desenvolvimento

22

Ingls Instrumental 1. RESPONDA AS PERGUNTAS DE ACORDO COM O TEXTO ( cada 1,0)

a) O que tambm marcou uma mudana no papel do arquiteto?

b) O que os diferentes usurios pediram diante do crescimento do mercado de edifcios de grande escala?

c) Qual foi a resposta dos Arquitetos?

d) Em que a Engenharia Estrutural especializada?

e) Qual foi o primeiro edifcio a ter um Arquiteto e um Engenheiro trabalhando como dois profissionais separados em sua construo? Em qe ano e onde isto aconteceu?

f) Em que cidade foram fundadas as sociedades: Institution of Civil Engineers and the Royal Institute of British Architects?

g) O que estava concorrendo com o crescimento do profissionalismo?

2. Diga em que linha e essas idias aparecem. (cada 1,0)

a) Achegada da era industrial tambm provocou uma grande mudana no papel do arquiteto (linha________)

b) A necessidade de se contruir prdios em grande escala aumentou com a acenso da democracia industrial (linha____________)

c) O Granary foi dos primeiros edifcios a usar um engenheiro e um arquiteto no seu planejamento e construo. (linha____________)

3. Choose the correct alternative.(1,0 cada) a) In the sentence upon whom they could depend for commissions., they refers to: ( ) the Renaissance ( ) artist-architects ( ) the twin patrons 23

Ingls Instrumental b) In the sentence which took the form of detailed municipal and national building codes, which refers to: ( ) the rise of professionalism ( ) Illinois Architects ( ) government regulation

4. Leia o texto acima e complete as frases em ingls. (1,0 cada)

a) A major change in the role of the architect was caused by tthe_____________________.

b) A bewildering range of new building types was asked by the_______________________.

c) In the city of__________________ were founded societies representing the building design professions.

d) The development of government regulation was concurrent with____________________.

5. Associe as colunas de acordo com a traduo. (1,0 cada) ( a ) each ( c ) then ( e ) now ( f ) back ( ( ( ( ) agora ) cada ) de volta ) ento

6 - PLURAL DOS SUBSTANTIVOS Regra Geral Forma-se o plural da maioria dos substantivos em ingls com o acrscimo de s ao singular. Exemplo: Actor (ator): actors Bag (sacola): bags Outros Casos Os substantivos terminados em: ch, o, sh, ss, x e z fazem o plural com es. Exemplo: Watch (relgio de pulso): watches Brush (escova): brushes Fox (raposa): foxes Potato (batata): potatoes Kiss (beijo): kisses Buzz (zumbido): buzzes 24 eye (olho): eyes hand (mo): hands meeting (reunio): meetings coat (casaco): coats

Ingls Instrumental Os substantivos terminados em: ch com som de k seguem a regra geral. Exemplo: Epoch (poca): epochs Os substantivos: de origem estrangeira assim com os abreviados ambos terminados em o, seguem a regra geral. Exemplo: Dynamo (dnamo): dynamos Photo (foto): photos

Substantivos terminados em: y Precedido de vogal seguem a regra geral. Exemplo: Toy (brinquedo): toys Substantivos terminados em: y Precedido de consoante trocam o y por ies. Exemplo: Baby (beb): babies Fly (mosca): flies Substantivos terminados em: F ou FE fazem o plural com ves Exemplo: Life (vida): lives Loaf (bisnaga de po): loaves

shelf( prateleira): shelves half(metade): halves

Letras, siglas, numerais e abreviaturas fazem o plural com s (s vezes apenas com s) Exemplo: In the 60s (nos anos 60)

two CDs (dois CDs)

Os Substantivos Abaixo Apresentam Plurais Irregulares Child (criana) children man (homem) men Die (dado) dice woman (mulher) women Foot (p) feet mouse (rato) mice Louse (piolho) lice tooth (dente) teeth Goose (ganso) geeses Alguns Substantivos Possuem a Mesma Forma Para o Singular e Plural Sheep (ovelha, ovelhas) Deer (veado, veados) Fish(peixe, peixes) Fruit (fruta, frutas) means( meio, meios) series(srie, sries) species (espcie, espcies)

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Ingls Instrumental Obs.: O plural de still life (natureza morta) still lifes. O substantivo news (notcia) e outros terminados em ics (politics, physics, etc...) apesar de parecerem estar no plural, fazem a concordncia no singular. Em ingls nem todos os substantivos apresentam a forma do plural. Os que tm plural so chamados de countable nouns. Os que no tm plural so chamados de uncountable nouns. Uncountable Nouns (substantivos incontveis) Advice (conselho) Baggage (bagagem) Bread (po) Butter (manteiga) Cheese (queijo) Hair (cabelo) Luck (sorte) Milk ( leite) Money (dinheiro) Music (msica) News (notcia) Rain (chuva) 7- COMPOUNDS (compostos) Em ingls muito comum usarmos adjetivos para qualificar um substantivo. O que veremos aqui como esses adjetivos so ordenados e como, s vezes, se agrupam para formar novas palavras. Observe os exemplos: Menina bonita Uma casa grande e confortvel Naes Unidas Fundo Monetrio Internacional Beautiful girl A big and comfortable house United Nations International Monetary fund Coffee (caf) Equipamen t(equipamento) Experience (experincia) Furniture (moblia) Fear (medo) Information (informao) Work (trabalho) Water (gua) Time (tempo) Tea (ch) Sugar (aucar) Salt (sal)

(Observe como o adjetivo em ingls empregado) Aps analisar os quadros que se seguem, responda as seguintes perguntas:
a) Qual a posio do adjetivo nos blocos nominais? b) O adjetivo em ingls varia em gnero e em nmero?

26

Ingls Instrumental
c) Apenas palavras com forma de adjetivo podem ocupar a funo de um adjetivo. Essa afirmao verdadeira ou falsa? Por qu?

Exemplos:

(ADJETIVO) Considerable Previous Competitive African (ADVRBIO) Really Well Very

(SUBSTANTIVO) influence experience salaries continent (ADJETIVO) fast deserved big

(TRADUO) Influncia considervel experincia prvia salrios competitivos continente africano (SUBSTANTIVO) car promotion house (TRADUO) carro realmente veloz promoo bem merecida casa muito grande (TRADUO) quadra de tnis sol da tarde garoto de 9 anos refeio feita em p rua iluminada a gs vista de tirar o flego (TRADUO) identidades das pessoas livro do aluno dever de casa dos alunos pesquisa de John

(OUTRAS PALAVRAS) Tennis Afternoon 9-year-old Stand-up Gas-lit Breathtaking (GENITIVO) Peoples Students Students Johns

(SUBSTANTIVO) courts Sun boy meal street view (SUBSTANTIVO) identities book homework research

Um grupo nominal composto de um ou mais modifiers e de uma headword (ncleo). She is a wonderful woman. The teachers book was on the table. San Francisco experimental unit. The physics research department.

importante observar que, nos textos com os quais voc lida, possivelmente encontrar somente um, dois ou trs adjetivos sendo usados ao mesmo tempo com um substantivo. Quando se deparar com tais expresses, tente l-las do final para o incio: voc ver como ficaro mais fceis de serem entendidas!

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Ingls Instrumental 1 2 3 1 3 2 Ex: a low-risk investiment = um investimento de baixo risco 1 2 3 4 1 4 3 2 A single-dose beauty treatment = um tratamento de beleza de dose nica. Nessa estreita relao entre as palavras, um substantivo pode aparecer exercendo uma funo atributiva, isto , trazendo algum tipo de qualidade a outro substantivo que o segue. Ex: drug troubles Substantivo agindo como adjetivo Nessas combinaes, sempre a Segunda palavra que concentra o foco de ateno, sendo a mais importante para o entendimento de toda expresso. Ex: A bird house (a house for birds) A house bird (a bird that lives in a house) modificador Examples: 1. Material: primeiro substantivo nos diz de que o segundo consiste. A silicon chip ( a chip made of silicon) A ferrite ring ( a ring made of ferrite) 2. Function: o primeiro substantivo nos diz a funo do segundo. An address bus ( a bus dedicated to address information) An input device ( a device for inputting) An arithmetic unit ( a unit which performs arithmetic functions) 3. Part: o Segundo substantivo refere-se a parte do primeiro A computer keyboard (the keyboard of a computer) A monitor screen ( the screen of a monitor) A program feature ( a feature of a program) 4. Activity or person. O Segundo substantivo refere-se uma atividade pessoa relacionada ao primeiro A computer programming ( the programming of computers)

Ncleo

ou

28

Ingls Instrumental a computer programmer ( a person who programs computers) Systems analysis ( the analysis of organizational systems) A systems analyst ( a person who analyses organizational systems) 5. Multiple Nouns. 1 5 4 3 2 A document-image-processing program ( a program which processes images of documents) 3 2 1 Light-yelow box 3 2 1 Light yellow box Task 3 1- Traduza as palavras compostas abaixo: a) Architectural styles: b) Buildings design c) Cut stone blocks d) Etruscan stone construction e) Building technology f) Arched bridge g) Classical architecture h) The Ancient Egypt constructions i) Dimension line j) The main house hydraulic project k) The computer security l) Roman stone arches m) A graphics stylus n) Hatch patterns o) A very well done drawings p) South American nations 10 greatest architectural monuments. q) Multileader Style Manager r) Elliptical arcs

light: leve, claro

s) Vertical dimension line t) The light -yellow room size 29

Ingls Instrumental 8- FORMAO DE PALAVRAS AFFIXES PREFIXES Unhappy ROOT Happy SUFFIXES Happiness

Tarefa 1- Leia estas tabelas abaixo e encontre o significado para cada exemplo. Prefixos Negativos, Positivos, de Tamanho e Localizao Prefix uninimilirnonPrefixo negativo mismaldisMeaning Examples unmagnetized incomplete impossible illegal irregular irrelevant non-programmable misdirect malfunction disagree disconnect antiglare demagnetize, decode underestimated reorganize overload equidistant minicomputer microcomputer macroeconomics megabyte interface, interactive supersonic transmit, transfer exclude extraordinary subschema infra-red peripheral

not (no)

not connected with (no conectado com) bad, wrong(mal , errado) opposite feeling (oposto ao sentimento) opposite action (oposto a ao) against (contra) reduce, reverse (reduzir, reverter) too little (bem pouco) do again (fazer outra vez) too much (demais) equal (igual) small(pequeno) very small (muito pequeno) large, great (amplo, grande) between, among (entre ) over (acima) across(atravs) out(fora) beyond(alm) under (embaixo) below (abaixo) around(ao redor)

antideunderreoverequiminimicromacromegaintersupertransPrefixo de Localizao exextrasubinfra peri-

Positivo

Prefixo de Tamanho

30

Ingls Instrumental Ante Pre Prime Post retro Semi Mono Bi Tri Quad Penta Hex Sept Oct Dec multi Pro Before (antes) Antecedent

Prefixo de tempo e ordem

Prefixos de nmeros

Outros prefixos Auto Co con

First (primeiro) Primary, primitive After (depois) Postdated Backward (de volta) Retroactive Half (metade) Semicircle One(um) Monochromatic Two (dois) Binary Three(trs) Triangle Four( quatro) Quadruple Five( cinco) Pentagon Six (seis) Hexadecimal Seven (sete) September Eight (oito) Octal Ten(dez) Decimal Many (muitos) Multiplexor Antes, em avano para Program frente Progress Mesmo Juntos, com Automatic co-ordinate connect

Task 2- Translate these words. a) IN e Un - so adicionados adjetivos para dar um sentido negativo Adjetivo Comparable = Believable = Happy = Expensive = Adjetivo incomparable = unbelievable = unhappy = inexpensive =

b) DIS e MIS - so adicionados a verbos e outros adjetivos para dar um sentido de distoro, erro ou negao Verbo/adjetivo To Direct = To Understand = To Interpret = Obey = Honest = Loyal = Adjetivo misdirect = misunderstand = misinterpret t= disobey = dishonest = disloyal =

31

Ingls Instrumental c) UNDER - adicionado a adjetivos e particpios passados para dar um sentido de insuficiente Adjetivo Adjetivo

Estimated =

underestimated =

d) OVER - adicionado a substantivos, adjetivos e particpios para dar um sentido de excesso Substantivos/verbos Estimated= Load= Verbos overestimated= overload=

Task 3- Translate these sentences below. a. Th cost of the project was realy inexpensive. b. You must take good care of your equipment to prevent against malfunctions. c. If you misunderstand the project will probably have a wide range of problems. d. Improper installation of the drawing program will make impossible to realize your job. e. After transfer text using the cut and paste` feature, you may have to reformat the text you have inserted. f. You can maximize your chances of finding a job if you are bilingual or even trilingual. g. Peripheral devices can be either input devices (such as keyboards or output) devices (such as printers). h. Your pay rise is retroactive to the beginning of June and you will receive a biannual bonus. i. The octagonall and hexadecimal systems are number systems used as form of shorthand in reading groups of four binary digits.

j.

As the floor surface is irregular, the finish has to be redone.

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Ingls Instrumental Sufixo Tarefa 4- Leia estas tabelas abaixo e encontre o significado para cada exemplo. Suffix -ance -ence -er, -or Meaning state (estado) qualit of (qualidade de) a person who (uma pessoa que) a thing which ( uma coisa que) a person who (uma pessoa que) Examples Performance Independence Programmer, operator Compiler, Accumulator Analyst, typist Electrician Compilation Readiness Conversion Multiplexing Measurement Electricity complexity Magnetism Freedom

-ist, yst -ian

-tion, -ation pertaining to (pertence -ness a) -ion the act of (o ato de) -ing condition of(condio Sufixos -ment de) formadores de action/ state substantivos -ity (ao/estado) activity (atividade) -ism -Dom state,action (estado, ao) state, quality(estado e qualidade) condition/state(condi o/ estado) domain/condition (domnio/ condio) condition/ state (condio/ estado)

-ship

Relationship Partnership

Sufixos formadores de verbos

-ize/ ise -ify -ate -en

to make(fazer)

optimize simplify automate, activate, calculate harden, widen Logically Helpfully Comparably

Sufixos -ly formadores de advrbios

In the manner of (na maneira de)

33

Ingls Instrumental -al -ar -ic -ical -able -ible -ous having the quality of (tendo a qualidade de) Computational Circular Magnetic Electrical capable of being (capaz Comparable Divisible de ser) Dangerous Helpful like, full of (como, cheio de ) characterized by Careless Yellowish (caracterizado por) without (sem) like(como) Computed Interactive

Sufixos formadores de adjetivos -ful

-less -ish -ed -ive

Tarefa 5- Observando a lista de palavras abaixo, faa a traduo de cada uma delas: a) or, ar, er - designam atividade, profisso Verbo To work= trabalhar To drive= To read= To research= To teach= To use= To transmit= To operate= b) on, ition, ation - substantivam os verbos Verbo To act= agir To select= To recognize= To relate= To define= Substantivo action= ao selection= recognition relation= definition Substantivo worker= trabalhador driver= reader= researcher= teacher= user= transmitter= operator=

c) Sufixos que substantiva os verbos: ance, ence, ment Verbo To develop= To arrange= To improve= To resist= To attend= Substantivo development= arrangement= improvement= resistance= attendance= 34

Ingls Instrumental To ignore= To interfere= To refer= To occur= ignorance= interference= reference= occurrence=

d) Sufixos al e age-substantivam verbos e designam o ato de Verbo To remove= To reverse= To approve= To refuse= To marry= To pass= To drain= Substantivo removal reversal= approval= refusal= marriage= passage= drainage=

e) ness e ity - formam substantivos abstratos de adjetivo Adjetivo Blind= Happy= Sad= Deaf= Dark= Useful= Jobless= Relative= Probable= Substantivo blindness= happiness= sadness= deafness= darkness usefulness= joblessness= relativity= probability=

f) Hood, ship, dom, ery - formam substantivos de outros substantivos e designam status condio Substantivo Substantivo Brother= brotherhood= Father= fatherhood= Child= childhood= Leader= leadership= Slave= slavery= g) Y - designa qualidade ou aparncia Substantivo/verbo Heath= sade Fat= Sand= Fault= To drowse= Adjetivo Heathy= fatty= sandy= faulty= drowsy= 35

Ingls Instrumental

h) able. Ible - designa que pode ser, digno de Substantivo/verbo To convert= i) ful - designa cheio de, tendo Substantivo/verbo Care Use j) less - designa que no tem Substantivo Job= Breath= k) like designa parecendo, da maneira de Substantivo AIDS= Flu= l) some - d um sentido causativo Substantivo/ verbo Trouble= To tire= Adjetivo troublesome= tiresome= Adjetivo AIDS-Like flu-like Adjetivo careful= useful= Adjetivo convertible

Adjetivo jobless= breathless

m) ish - designa que tem caractersticas semelhante Substantivo Girl= Green= Verbo girlish= greenish=

TASK 6- Translate these sentences below. a. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various tasks on a computer. b. A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to be taken to maximize efficiency.

36

Ingls Instrumental c. Laser printers are preferable to other types of printing devices because of their speed and quietness. d. The microcomputer we have purchased does not have a FORTRAN compiler. It is programmable in BASIC only. e. We have found that operators who have freedom to take short breaks during the day greatly improve their performance. f. The number of shipments will increase over the coming months. g. We decided to computerize the entire plant to give each division more independence. h. Planning is a way to avoid blunders and probably many other small problems that may arise after the project has been executed. i. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a growing global market.

SUFIXES ING and ED Ing Gerndio, quando precedido do verbo to be. Exemplo: He is working hard on his Project. Whats happing? Theyre having a party. Substantivos, quando precedidos de adjetivos , advrbios ou artigos e, em alguns casos, quando indicam oraes. Exemplo: Lasers provide good quality printing. It s your turn to do the cleaning. Bookings are still available for the flight. Infinitivo, quando complementa a idia expressa pelo verbo anterior, quando sucedem uma preposio, ou quando o sujeito da orao. Exemplo: I stopped smoking last year She had difficult in accepting his explanation 37

Ingls Instrumental Drinking and driving is dangerous. Obs: a preposio by foge a regra acima. Na verdade, ela funciona apenas como um sinalizador de que o trecho que vem logo em seguida uma explicao de como algo ocorre. Nesse caso, a preposio by pode simplesmente ser ignorada, e a palavra que a sucede pode ser entendida como gerndio. Exemplo: He learned English by Listening to the radio (ele aprendeu ingles ouvindo o radio)

Adjetivo, quando faz a referncia a um substantivo Exemplo: That girl has a promising future. The doctor told me to change my drinking habits.

ED Passado (pretrito), quando o verbo da orao Exemplo: He worked hard on his project. Adjetivo, quando se refere a um substantivo. Exemplo: Do you prefer canned or bottled beer? This newspaper is made of recycled paper. A balanced diet is essential for good health.

Particpio, quando acompanham os verbos to be ou to have Exemplo: Some people are influenced by strange factors Although she had studied a lot for the test, she didnt do well in it.

38

Ingls Instrumental

LISTA DOS VERBOS REGULARES


Infinitive Abhor Accept Add Adore Agree Amuse Answer Appear Applaud Apply Argue Arrest Arrive Ask Attach Attend Bang Bar Bark Bathe Behave Believe Belong Blame Borrow Brush Call Carry Carve Catch a cold Change Change one's mind Charge Circle Circulate Clean Climb Close Collect Comb Simple Past Abhorred Accepted Added Adored Agreed Amused Answered Appeared Applauded Applied Argued Arrested Arrived Asked Attached Attended Banged Bared Barked Bathed Behaved Believed Belonged Blamed Borrowed Brushed Called Carried Carved Catched a cold Changed Charged Circled Circulated Cleaned Climbed Closed Collected Combed Past Participle Abhorred Accepted Added Adored Agreed Amused Answered Appeared Applauded Applied Argued Arrested Arrived Asked Attached Attended Banged Bared Barked Bathed Behaved Believed Belonged Blamed Borrowed Brushed Called Carried Carved Catched a cold Changed Charged Circled Circulated Cleaned Climbed Closed Collected Combed Aceitar Acrescentar, somar Adorar Concordar Divertir Responder Aparecer Aplaudir Aplicar Discutir, debater, argumentar Prender Chegar Perguntar, pedir Ligar, prender, atar, amarrar Comparecer, assistir Bater ( porta) Barrar, bloquear, trancar, fechar Latir Banhar Comportar-se, proceder Acreditar, crer Pertencer Culpar, censurar Emprestar (de), tomar emprestado (de) Escovar Chamar, telefonar Carregar Esculpir Pegar um resfriado Mudar, trocar Carregar, enfardar Circular Circular Limpar Subir Fechar Recolher, coletar Pentear Traduo Odiar, detestar, abominar

Changed one's mind Changed one's mind Mudar de idia

39

Ingls Instrumental
Complete Confine Consider Cook Copy Correct Count Cover Cross Dance Darken Decide Defy Delay Deny Describe Despise Displease Destroy Determine Develop Die Differ Dine Disappear Discuss Disturb Dress Drop Dust Earn Employ End Enjoy Enjoy ( ... + self) Enter Exclaim Excuse Explain Extinguish Faint Fasten Fear Fill Completed Confined Considered Cooked Copied Corrected Counted Covered Crossed Danced Darkened Decided Defied Delayed Denied Described Despised Displeased Destroyed Determined Developed Died Differed Dined Disappeared Discussed Disturbed Dressed Dropped Dusted Earned Employed Ended Enjoyed Enjoyed Entered Exclaimed Excused Explained Extinguished Fainted Fastened Feared Filled Completed Confined Considered Cooked Copied Corrected Counted Covered Crossed Danced Darkened Decided Defied Delayed Denied Described Despised Displeased Destroyed Determined Developed Died Differed Dined Disappeared Discussed Disturbed Dressed Dropped Dusted Earned Employed Ended Enjoyed Enjoyed Entered Exclaimed Excused Explained Extinguished Fainted Fastened Feared Filled Completar Confinar Considerar Cozinhar Copiar Corrigir Contar Cobrir Cruzar, atravessar, ultrapassar Danar Obscurecer, ofuscar, cegar Decidir Desafiar Atrasar,demorar Negar Descrever, definir, representar Desprezar, definir, representar Desagradar Destrit, exterminar, aniquilar Determinar Desenvolver Morrer Diferenciar Jantar Desaparecer, ausentar-se Discutir Perturbar Vestir-se Cair Espanar Ouvir Empregar Terminar Gostar, apreciar, divertir-se Divertir-se Entrar Exclamar Desculpar-se Explicar-se Apagar, extinguir, abolir Desmaiar Apertar, amarrar, atar, ligar, unir, juntar, fixar Temer, recear Preencher, encher

40

Ingls Instrumental
Finish Fix Follow Force Form Gather Grab Guess Happen Hate Help Hole Hope Hurry Imply Increase Inherit Injure Inquire Intend Interrupt Introduce Invite Iron Judge Jump Kill Kiss Land Laugh Knock Knock Leap Learn Lie Like Listen Live Lock Look Look for Love Marry Mention Finished Fixed Followed Forced Formed Gathered Grabbed Guessed Happened Hated Helped Holed Hoped Hurried Implied Increased Inherited Injured Inquired Intended Interrupted Introduced Invited Ironed Judged Jumped Killed Kissed Landed Laughed Knocked Knocked Leaped Learned Lied Liked Listened Lived Locked Looked Looked for Loved Married Mentioned Finished Fixed Followed Forced Formed Gathered Grabbed Guessed Happened Hated Helped Holed Hoped Hurried Implied Increased Inherited Injured Inquired Intended Interrupted Introduced Invited Ironed Judged Jumped Killed Kissed Landed Laughed Knocked Knocked Leaped Learned Lied Liked Listened Lived Locked Looked Looked for Loved Married Mentioned Terminar, acabar Consertar Seguir Forar Formar Juntar, reunir Agarrar Adivinhar, pensar, imaginar Acontecer Odiar Ajudar, socorrer Furar Esperar, ter esperana Apressar-se Implicar Aumentar Herdar Ferir Inquirir, perguntar Pretender Interromper Apresentar Convidar Passar a ferro Julgar Pular, saltar Matar Beijar Aterrissar Rir, gargalhar Bater Bater Saltar, pular Aprender Mentir Gostar de Escutar, prestar ateno, ouvir Viver, morar Fechar, trancar Olhar Procurar Amar Casar se com Mencionar

41

Ingls Instrumental
Miss Mix Mount Move Mount Need Notice Obey Oblige Observe Obtain Occupy Offer Open Order Orvertake Owe Own Paint Park Pass Perceive Pick Pick up Place Place Plan Play Play a trick Play games Please Point Polish Possess Pray Prefer Prepare Print Produce Promise Propose Publish Pull Punish Missed Mixed Mounted Moved Mounted Needed Noticed Obeyed Obliged Observed Obtained Occupied Offered Opened Ordered Orvertaken Owed Owned Painted Parked Passed Perceived Picked Picked up Placed Placed Planed Played Played a trick Played games Pleased Pointed Polished Possessed Prayed Preferred Prepared Printed Produced Promised Proposed Published Pulled Punished Missed Mixed Mounted Moved Mounted Needed Noticed Obeyed Obliged Observed Obtained Occupied Offered Opened Ordered Orvertaken Owed Owned Painted Parked Passed Perceived Picked Picked up Placed Placed Planed Played Played a trick Played games Pleased Pointed Polished Possessed Prayed Preferred Prepared Printed Produced Promised Proposed Published Pulled Punished Perder, sentir falta de Misturar Levantar, elevar, montar Mover-se, comover-se, mudar-se Mencionar Precisar, necessitar Notar Obedecer Obrigar Observar Obter Ocupar Oferecer Abrir Ordenar Ultrapassar Dever Possuir Pintar Estacionar Passar Perceber Podar, cortar Apanhar, pegar Por, colocar Por, colocar Planejar Brincar, tocar, jogar Pregar uma pea Fazer uma brincadeira Agradar Apontar, indicar Polir, encerar Possuir Orar, rezar Preferir Preparar Imprimir Produzir Prometer Propor Publicar Puxar, tirar Punir

42

Ingls Instrumental
Push Put on Quarrel Quarrell Rain Reach React Realize Receive Reckon Refuse Regret Rehearse Relax Remain Remember Rent Repair Reply Rest Return Review Revolve Rob Salute Satisfy Save Scratch Seem Seize Separate Settle Shave Shield Shout Sign Skate Ski Smile Smoke Snow Solve Sow Spot Pushed Put on Quarreled Quarrelled Rained Reached Reacted Realized Received Reckoned Refused Regretted Rehearsed Relaxed Remained Remembered Rented Repaired Replied Rested Returned Reviewed Revolved Robbed Saluted Satisfied Saved Scratched Seem Seized Separated Settled Shaved Shielded Shouted Signed Skated Skied Smiled Smoked Snowed Solved Sowed Spotted Pushed Put on Quarreled Quarrelled Rained Reached Reacted Realized Received Reckoned Refused Regretted Rehearsed Relaxed Remained Remembered Rented Repaired Replied Rested Returned Reviewed Revolved Robbed Saluted Satisfied Saved Scratched Seem Seized Separated Settled Shaved Shielded Shouted Signed Skated Skied Smiled Smoked Snowed Solved Sowed Spotted Empurrar Vestir Disputa, rixa, discrdia, discusso (USA) Disputa, rixa, discrdia, discusso (England) Chover Chegar a, atingir, alcanar reagir Perceber Receber Medir Recusar Arrepender-se Ensaiar relaxar, acalmar-se, descansar Ficar, permanecer Lembrar-se Alugar Consertar Responder Descansar Retornar, voltar, devolver Revisar, rever, recapitular Girar Roubar, assaltar Fazer continncia, cumprimentar Satisfazer Economizar, salvar Arranhar Parecer, assemelhar-se Agarrar Separar Colonizar Barbear-se Proteger Gritar Assinar Patinar Esquiar Sorrir Fumar Nevar Resolver Plantar, semear Localizar

43

Ingls Instrumental
Stare Start Stay Step Stop Study Substitute Suffer Supply Support Suppose Suspect Swallow Talk Taste Telephone Test Thank Tie Touch Translate Travel Travell Treat Tremble Trust Try Turn Turn deaf Turn in Turn into Type Undress Unwrap Upset Use Visit Wait Sow Walk Want Warn Wash Waste Stared Started Stayed Stepped Stopped Studied Substituted Suffered Supplied Supported Supposed Suspected Swallowed Talked Tasted Telephoned Tested Thanked Tied Touched Translated Traveled Travelled Treated Trembled Trusted Tried Turned Turned deaf Turned in Turned into Typed Undressed Unwrapped Upsetted Used Visited Waited Sowed Walked Wanted Warned Washed Wasted Stared Started Stayed Stepped Stopped Studied Substituted Suffered Supplied Supported Supposed Suspected Swallowed Talked Tasted Telephoned Tested Thanked Tied Touched Translated Traveled Travelled Treated Trembled Trusted Tried Turned Turned deaf Turned in Turned into Typed Undressed Unwrapped Upsetted Used Visited Waited Sowed Walked Wanted Warned Washed Wasted Olhar, encarar Comear Ficar, permanecer Pisar Parar Estudar Substituir Sofrer Suprir Apoiar, sustentar Supor, vamos supor Suspeitar Tragar, engolir (gulp down) Falar, conversar Provar (sabor) Telefonar Testar, examinar Agradecer Amarrar, dar lao (n) Tocar, encostar Traduzir Viajar, cursar, percorrer, passar (USA) Viajar, cursar, percorrer, passar (England) Tratar Tremer Confiar Experimentar, tentar Virar, tornar Ficar surdo Entregar Transformar-se em Datilografar Despir-se Desembrulhar Aborrecer Usar Visitar Esperar Plantar, semear Caminhar, andar Querer, procurar Advertir, prevenir, notificar, informar Lavar Perder (tempo), desperdiar

44

Ingls Instrumental
Watch Water Wave Wax Weigh Whisper Wipe Wish Work Worry Worship Yearn Yearn for (after) Watched Watered Waved Waxed Weighed Whispered Wiped Wished Worked Worried Worshiped Yearned Yearned for (after) Watched Watered Waved Waxed Weighed Whispered Wiped Wished Worked Worried Worshiped Yearned Yearned for (after) Assistir , cuidar de, observar Molhar, regar Acenar Encerar, engraxar Pesar Murmurar, cochichar, sussurrar Esfregar, limpar, secar Desejar Trabalhar Preocupar-se Idolatrar Ansiar, aspirar, desejar ardentemente Suspirar por, sentir-se atrado

45

Ingls Instrumental

Comparativos e Superlativos
As formas regulares de comparativo e superlativos das palavras descritas ( adjetivos e advrbios) sero mostrados na lista abaixo. A. Palavras de uma slaba com acrscimo de er ou est Exemplo: Adjetivo New Old Big soon Late Comparativo newer older bigger sooner later superlativo newest oldest biggest soonest atest

Advrbio

B. Palavras com trs ou mais slabas so precedidas de more e most Comparativo Adjetivo Interesting Convenient Beautiful easily Carefully more interesting more convenient more beautiful more easily more carefully Superlativo most interesting most convenient most beautiful most easily most carefully

Advrbio

C. Adjetivos com 2 slabas pode ser como 1 ou 2 acima que eles sero adicionados er e est se a terminao for: y, ly, ow, Le e er Comparativo Y ly ow er Tiny Speedy Early Friendly Shallow Narrow Clever tinier speedier earlier friendlier shallower narrower cleverer Superlativo tiniest speediest earliest friendliest shallowest narrowest cleverest

D. Maioria dos adjetivos de duas slabas tem antes deles more e most

Adjetivos Careful Careless Boring

Comparativos more careful more careless more boring

Superlativos most careful most careless most boring 46

Ingls Instrumental Awful Complex more awful more complex most awful most complex

E. Advrbios de 2 slabas com a terminao em ly tem seguidos deles more e most Advrbios Quickly Slowly Badly Comparativos more quickly more slowly more badly Superlativos most quickly most slowly most badly

F. Adjetivos e Advrbios irregulares que tem a forma do comparativo e superlative. Adjetivos Bad Far Good Many Advrbios Badly Far Little Much Well Comparativo worse further/farther better more Superlativo worst furthest/farthest best most

worse further/farther less more better

worst furthest/farthest least most best

Comparaes podem mostrar equivalncias e no equivalncias, o grau mais alto de algo ou o aumento paralelo disso. As..as As manyas As much. as The same .as Similar to are similar equal to is like similar/ly The same each either all both alike equal/ly compared to /with

Exemplos: Translate a. Here, the term processor is equivalent to the central processing unit. b. Laptops are as powerful as microcomputers. c. So Paulo has as many peaple as New York. d. Some companies use both disks and conventional filing systems for storing data.

47

Ingls Instrumental e. A computer virus is like in the human body. It can do a lot of damage. f. Many drawing programs are similar in that they share certain common functions.

Nenhuma equivalncia. As seguintes palavras e construes so usadas para comparar e constatar coisas ou pessoas e que separa uma das outras. Not as .as .er than More..than Fewer .than Less ...than Translate: a. Your apartment is larger and more expensive than mine. b. Learning how to use the program AutoCAD is not as easy as learning to use CorelDRAW. c. You probably have fewer problems than your parents. greater than not as many ..as not as much ..as not equal to unequal(ly) unlike not the same as not all

Superlativo - as seguintes palavras e construes so usadas para comparar um membro de um grupo , com todo o resto. The ..est Translate: a. He is the most popular Architect on the market today. b. BASIC is probably the least difficult programming language to learn. c. The best programs are those adapted specifically to your own needs. the most the least

Comparativo- as seguintes palavras e construes so usadas para mostrar um aumento paralelo (dois comparativos). The .. er Translate: a. The more memory your computer has the more data it can store. b. The bigger your computer system, the less time you spend writing. c. The more training you give to your employees, the better they will perform. the more.. the less

48

Ingls Instrumental TEMPO VERBAL VERBO TO BE Presente Simples To be (ser, estar)

Am
Are Is

I am
you are He is She is It is

sou/ estou
/ est we are somos/ estamos

/ est

they are

so/ esto

Passado SimplesWas Were I was You were He was She was It was

To be (era, estava) era/ estava era/ estava era /estava we were they were ramos/ estvamos eram/ estavam

Futuro simplesWill be I will be He will be She will be It will be

To be (serei, estarei) serei/ estarei you will be we will be ser/estar they will be ser/ estar seremos/ estaremos sero/ estaro

Condicional simplesWould be I would be You would be He would be She would be It would be

To be (seria, estaria) we would be seria / estaria they would be seriam/estariam seramos/estaramos

Tarefa 1 - Traduza as seguintes sentenas para o portugus


a) Structural calculations are very important for the entire project. b) One of the first jobs to be done is the topographical survey.

49

Ingls Instrumental c) She is the main part of this company. d) This sentence is not difficult to understand. e) Vitria is located on the coast of Esprito Santo f) These people are hungry. g) It is important to study English. h) The two components of water are oxygen and hydrogen. i) The works of Van Gogh are on exhibit at the museum of Modern Art. j) It is impossible to know exactly what caused the killing k) Many factors were probably involved. l) The most popular video game 0f 1993 was Mortal Kombat. m) They will be there tomorrow morning. n) She would be a good doctor. o) That machine was here last night.

Tempo verbal- Verbo to be Presente ContinuoAm being Is being Are being being (sendo) I am being you are being he is being She is being It is being We are being You are being They are being estou sendo est sendo

est sendo

estamos sendo esto sendo esto sendo

50

Ingls Instrumental Being (sendo) was being were being I was being estava sendo we were being they were being estava sendo estvamos sendo estavam sendo

you were being he was being she was being it was being

Futuro PerfeitoWill have been

been (sido, estado) I will have been You will have been He will have been She will have been It will have been We will have been You will have been They will have been terei sido/estado ters sido /estado ter sido/estado ter sido/estado ter sido/estado teremos sido/estado tereis sido/estado tero sido/estado

Presente Perfeito-

have / has been ( tem sido/ estado)

Has been
Have been

I have been
you have been He has been She has been It has been We have been You have been They have been

tenho sido/estado
tem sido/estado tem sido/ estado tem sido/ estado tem sido/ estado temos sido / estado tem sido / estado tm sido/estado

51

Ingls Instrumental Passado Perfeitohad been I had been you had been he had been she had been It had been we had been you had been They had been had been ( sido, estado) tinha sido/ estado tinhas sido /estado tinha sido/ estado tinha sido/ estado tinha sido/estado tnhamos sido/estado tnheis sido/estado tinham sido/estado

Condicional Perfeitowould have been I would have been you would have been he would have been she would have been It would have been We would have been You would have been They would have been teria sido/estado terias sido/estado teria sido/estado teria sido/estado teria sido/estado teramos sido/ estado tereis sido/estado teriam sido/estado

Verb there to Be (Haver / existir)

Tempos Simples:

Tempos Perfeitos:

There is There areThere will be-

h , existe existem haver

There has/ have been - tem havido, houve There was/ wereThere had beenThere would have beenThere should beThere is going to beThere are going to behavia, houve tinha havido teria havido deveria haver vai haver vai haver

There will have been- ter havido There would beThere can beThere may beThere coulde be There must behaveria pode haver pode haver, talvez haja poderia haver deve haver

52

Ingls Instrumental 2) Traduza as frases abaixo para o portugus.

a) There are several different types of lines in a drawing.

b) There are many oilfields in Texas.

c) There will be no class tomorrow. d) There wouldnt be hunger if people were more generous.

e) There has been a lot of conflict in the world lately.

f) There had been no evidence of the crime until now.

g) Is there a solution for this problem?

h) By this tomorrow there will have been an attack on the enemy forces.

i) Were there enough desks for all the students? j) If we had been more careful, there wouldnt have been an accident.

53

Ingls Instrumental

PREPOSITIONS (Preposies)
O uso das preposies questo idiomtica. No h, portanto uma correlao exata entre as preposies usadas em uma lngua e em outra. O recurso mais eficiente para aprender o seu emprego associ-las s palavras que elas regem (substantivos, verbos, adjetivos e pronomes) e memoriz-las. AS PREPOSIES MAIS USADAS EM INGLS

ABOUT ABOVE ACROSS AFTER AGAINST AMONG AT AROUND BEFORE BEHIND BELOW BENEATH BESIDE BETWEEN

por, sobre, acerca de, a respeito de acima, superior, sobre atravs de, no outro lado de depois de, aps, atrs de contra, de encontro a, defronte a entre, dentre, no meio de em, no, a, junto a, por meio de por volta de, em torno de antes, perante de, na frente de atrs de, depois de, mais tarde que abaixo de, de baixo de, sob abaixo de, de baixo de, sob, ao p de junto de, ao lado de, fora de entre, no meio de depois que, do outro lado por, pelo, por intermdio de, perto de para baixo para, por, durante, por causa de de, do, apartir de, desde (origem) em, de, a, para, dentro, durante

IN FRONT OF em frente de, em frente ao INSIDE INTO NEAR NEXT TO OF OFF ON OPPOSITE OUT OVER TO TOWARDS THROUGH UNDER UP WITH WITHOUT dentro de em, dentro, para dentro de prximo, perto de, junto a ao lado de, junto a de, do fora de em, sobre, no, em cima de contra, em frente de fora de por cima de, acima de para, a, ao, em, at em direo a, para atravs de embaixo de, debaixo acima, atravs, ao longo com, por meio de sem, destitudo de

BEYOND
BY DOWN FOR FROM IN

54

Ingls Instrumental Time (Tempo) At (a, em) at two oclock at Christmas at half past nine at noon In (em) in November in the morning in 2004 in the winter

On (em) on Sunday on November 6th


on Easter Sunday

For (por- perodo de tempo) Since (desde - ponto de partida no tempo)


During (Durante)

Place and Position (Lugar e Posio) AT (a, em) at home at 937 (nmero de casa) at the door at the hotel IN (em) in the library in Rio in a car in Europe

ON (em, sobre) On the farm

On the mountains
On the street On the table

Tarefa 1- Traduza as frases abaixo de acordo com as preposies estudadas. a) Our house is between the woods, the river and the village. b) His house is hidden among the trees. c) They have classes in the evening and get back home at midnight. d) She lives at 243, Texas Street, in Brooklyn. e) She comes from Paris. f) He lives across the street.

55

Ingls Instrumental
Vocabulary:Days of the week Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thrusday Friday Saturday Months of the year January February March April May June July August September October November December Seasons of then year Spring Summer Fall / Autum Winter

VERBOS NO IMPERATIVO O modo imperativo usado para expressar ordens, instrues, sugestes ou pedidos, tem a mesma forma do modo infinitivo do verbo sem to. To open (abrir) Open your books. Please open your books Open your books, please Para formar o imperativo negativo, use-se do not (Don`t, na linguagem informal) To close (fechar) Dont close your books. Please dont close your books. Dont close your books, please. Outra forma (mais suave, polida) apresentar sugestes quando falamos de uma ao a realizar em conjunto, usar lets + infinitivo do verbo sem to: Lets open our books. (vamos abrir nossos livros) O uso de instrues e muito comum em diversas reas, sobre tudo em manuais de computao, tal como o manual de uma placa me, mostrado na figura abaixo. Por isso, vejamos como ocorre, em geral, a estrutura das oraes nesse contexto.

56

Ingls Instrumental Observe esses passos para a troca de uma placa me! A estrutura verbal que aparece nas instrues abaixo a do IMPERATIVO. 1- Add the processor. 2- Fit the new motherboard. 3- Remove the old motherboard. 4- Put it back together. 5- Add the memory. Dont touch the contacts. Tarefa 1 Procedimentos (para nota 10 pontos) Encontre um manual de instrues de algum equipamento da rea de informtica e selecione aproximadamente 4 pargrafos. Objetivo pedaggico da tarefa:

Trabalhar os artigos e o verbo no imperativo. Metodologia a ser utilizada: Crie um ttulo para cada pargrafo do texto, localizando a ideia principal do pargrafo. A seguir, resuma e descreva abaixo o que cada pargrafo instrui ao leitor. Destaque os artigos e verbos das frases. Monte uma apresentao em Power Point e envie para o frum que ser criado.

TEMPO VERBAL-MODO SIMPLES VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES Nesta unidade sero apresentados alguns aspectos gramaticais da Lngua Inglesa. Os aspectos gramaticais de uso de lngua aqui enfatizados devem ser utilizados como estratgia para facilitar o processamento da informao em ingls. As estruturas verbais indicam tempo cronolgico: Presente, Passado, Futuro

Em Ingls necessrio saber apenas trs palavras para conjugar os verbos: work = trabalhar working= trabalhando worked= trabalhou go= ir

Infinitivo Gerndio Passado Perfeito

going= indo (vai) went= foi

57

Ingls Instrumental necessrio conhecer o auxiliar de cada tempo verbal em ingls. (tempo) necessrio conhecer a posio que se encontra cada sentena: afirmativa (+), Negativa (-) e interrogativa (?). Em ingls precisamos saber como devemos substituir o verbo. Quando fazemos uma pergunta em Portugus podemos responder com um verbo, mas em ingls temos que usar o verbo auxiliar. Do you work in a company? Yes, I do. No, I do not ou No, I dont O auxiliar usado quando quer dar uma nfase maior na fase. Yes, I do. No, I do not.

Do you work in a bank ?

MODO SIMPLES (verbo work- regular e o verbo GO- irregular)

A- Presente Simples:
Indica uma ao usual que sempre (ou nunca ou algumas vezes) acontece. Indica fatos que so verdadeiros no presente, no passado e no futuro ( verdades universais). Observe o verbo na 3 pessoa do singular (He, She, It). O Presente Simples tem dois auxiliares, o Do e o Does que formam a interrogativa e a negativa. Eles no aparecem na afirmativa, a no ser para dar nfase ao verbo principal. Observe que a 3 pessoa do singular, na afirmativa, ganha o sufixo s. Na negativa e na interrogativa o auxiliar usado Does e o verbo to work se encontra no infinitivo. Afirm: I work in a company He works in a company. Int: Do you go to the cinema? Does He gO to the cinema?

Neg. I do not work here. He does not work there. Regras do presente simples na 3 pessoa do singular (He, She, It) nas frases afirmativas. o Acrescentaremos es aos verbos com a terminao em: o,ch,sh, ss, s,x e z. She goes to the cinema. (to go) 58

Ingls Instrumental o Acrescentaremos ies aos verbos com a terminao em y antecedido de consoante, eliminaremos o y e acrescentaremos ies. She studies English every day.( to study) o Acrescentaremos s aos demais verbos. She drinks Milk every morning. ( to drink)

Expresses do Presente Simples: Every day Every night Every week Every weekend Every Sunday Every morning ADVERBS (Advrbios) O advrbio uma palavra que acrescentamos ao verbo para modific-lo, ou expandir o seu significado. Os advrbios tambm podem modificar adjetivos ou outros advrbios. Os advrbios podem ser de tempo, lugar, modo ou grau. Eles sempre respondem a uma destas perguntas: Quando, Onde? Como? De que maneira? Em que grau?

a. Adverbs of frequency: (advrbio de frequncia): Eles so usados geralmente antes do verbo principal. Com o verbo To Be aparecem depois.

Repeatedly = repetidamente Always = sempre Generally = geralmente Ever = alguma vez Seldom= raramente

usually = usualmente never = nunca often = muitas vezes once = uma vez twice= duas vezes rarely = raramente sometimes = s vezes

Exemplos: a) He always studies his lesson. b) They have never seen him before. c) You are often tired. 59

Ingls Instrumental

b. Adverbs of time (advrbios de tempo)

Afterwards = depois Then = ento Today = hoje Tomorrow = amanh Yesterday = ontem At once = imediatamente Before = antes

Still = ainda Soon = em breve Now = agora Just = no exato momento Early = cedo

c. Adverbs of degree (advrbios de grau)

Rather = bastante, um tanto Enough = suficiente Almost = quase Too = (muito, demais) Very = muito

Barely = somente, apenas Quite = completamente, um tanto Hardly = mal, quase no Nearly = aproximadamente

d. Adverbs of manner (Advrbio de modo) A maioria formada com acrscimo de ly ao adjetivo.

Careful Quiet Slow Quick Active Bold

Carefully = cuidadosamente Quietly = tranquilamente Slowly = vagarosamente Quickly = rapidamente Actively = ativamenente Boldly = corajosamente, audaciosamente

Outras formas de advrbios Good well (bem) Exemplo: He plays the piano very well manner

at the hotel on Sundays Place time

60

Ingls Instrumental
Adjetivos terminados em Y trocam o Y por i antes de receber ly. Exemplos: Easy easily ( facilmente) Happy happily (alegremente) Lucky luckily (felizmente, por sorte)

A terminao e geralmente mantida.


Immediate Sincere Mas True Whole immediately (imediatamente) sincerely (sinceramente)

truly (verdadeiramente) wholly (interamente)

Adjetivos terminados em able e ible apenas trocam o E final por Y


Comfortable Sensible comfortably (comfortavelmente) sensibly (sensatamente)

Os adverbs of manner so usados aps o objeto, ou aps o verbo (quando no houver objeto) Exemplo: She drives slowly. Bob speaks French well. They do the exercises carefully.

B. Passado:
Refere-se a uma ao que comeou e acabou num tempo determinado no passado. O Passado Simples tem como auxiliar no DID nas negativas e interrogativas para todas as pessoas. Observe que nas afirmativas o verbo principal ganha um ed, que o sufixo dos verbos regulares no passado simples em ingls. Se o verbo for irregular, sua forma ser outra e dever ser conhecida do leitor.

Afirm: I worked in a company. He worked in a company. Neg. I did not work in a company. He did not go to the cinema.

Int:

Did you go to the cinema? Did He go to the cinema?

Regras do passado simples em frases afirmativas. o Verbos regulares com a terminao em cvc (consoante, vogal, consoante),repetiro a ltima letra e tero o acrscimo de ed She stopped near me yesterday. (to stop) o Verbos regulares com a terminao em y antecedido de consoante eliminaremos o y e tero o acrscimo de ed She studied at Ufes last year. (to study) 61

Ingls Instrumental

Expresses do Passado Simples: Yesterday Last year Last month Last Saturday Last weekend In 2001 2 days ago Three years ago Four minutes ago

C. Futuro:
Refere-se a uma ao que vai com certeza acontecer no futuro. Tem como auxiliar o Will para todas as pessoas. Ele aparece, mas afirmativas nas interrogativas e negativas. Afirm: I will work in a company He will work in a company. Neg. I will not work in a company He will not go to the cinema. Expresses do Futuro Simples: Next month Next year Next Century Tomorrow The Day after tomorrow In the 21st C. In 2020 Int: Will you go to the cinema? Will he go to the cinema?

a) O Condicional Simples Tem como auxiliar o Would para todas as pessoas. Ele aparece nas afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas. Observe que o verbo principal mantm-se sempre na forma do infinitivo. Afirm: I would work in a company Int: Would you go to the cinema? He would work in a company would he go to the cinema? Neg. I would not work in a company He would not go to the cinema.

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Ingls Instrumental b) MODO CONTNUO (verbo study =(regular)) Infinitivo: Gerndio: Particpio Passado: study = estudar studying = estudando studied = estudei

1. O Presente Contnuo Indica uma ao que est em progresso, isto , uma ao que estava acontecendo no passado e que continua, agora, no presente e que provavelmente vai continuar acorrendo no futuro. Afirm. Neg. Int. I am studying English right now. I am not studying English right now. Are you studyinge English now?

Expresses do Presente Contnuo. 2. Passado Contnuo Indica uma ao que estava acontecendo no passado. Indica uma ao que estava acontecendo no passado quando outra ocorreu. Afirm I was studying English. Neg. You were studying English. Int. Were you studying English?

3. Futuro Contnuo Indica uma ao que estar ocorrendo no futuro. Afirm. Neg, Int. I will be studying English I will not be studying English Will you be studying English?

4. Condicional Contnuo Tem como auxiliar o verbo to be conjugado no condicional simples (would be). Ele aparece nas trs formas de frases. Afirm: I would be studying English Neg: I would not be working. Int. Would you be working?

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Ingls Instrumental PERFECT TENSES (MODO PERFEITO) 1. Presente Perfeito Usado para expressar a idia de que uma determinada ao aconteceu (ou nunca aconteceu) num perodo de tempo no especificado no passado. O tempo exato da ocorrncia da ao no um dado importante. (Nesse caso ele normalmente traduzido como passado simples para o portugus). Tem como auxiliar o verbo to Have no presente simples (have/has). Afirm: I have studied English. Int. Have you studied English since 2001? He has worked at bank since 1999. Has he worked at bank since 1999? Neg. I have not studied English. He has not studied English. 2. Passado Perfeito Usado para expressar uma ao que tinha acontecido no passado antes do acontecimento de uma outra ao tambm no passado. Tem como auxiliar o Had que aparece nas trs formas de frases. Afirm: I had studied English. He had worked at bank. Int. Had you studied English? Had he worked at bank?

Neg. I had not studied English. 3. Futuro Perfeito Usado para expressar uma ao ter acontecido no futuro antes do acontecimento de uma outra ao tambm no futuro. Tem como auxiliar o Will Have . Afirm: I will have studied English. Neg. I will not have studied English Int. Will you have studied English? He will not have studied English.

4. O Condicional Perfeito Tem como auxiliar o Would have que aparece nas trs formas de frases. Afirm:I would have studied English. Neg. I would not have studied English. Int. Would you have studied English?

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Ingls Instrumental QUADRO DOS TEMPOS VERBAIS EM INGLS Exemplo: Verbo to Help (ajudar)
TEMPO PRESENTE MODO SIMPLES DO/ DOES/DID WIIL/ WOULD am helping = estou ajudando CONTNUO TO BE + GERNDIO is helpinge = est ajudando are helping = est ajudando,estamos ajudando, esto ajudando PASSADO FUTURO CONDICIONAL

Help = ajudo, ajuda, ajudamos, ajudam

Helped = ajudava,Ajudvamos, ajudavam (did) help was helping = estava Ajudando were helping = estvamos ajudando, estavam ajudando

Will help = ajudarei,Ajudar, ajudaremos, ajudaro

Would help = ajudaria,Ajudaramos, ajudariam

will be helping = estarei Would behelping= ajudando, estar estaria ajudando, ajudando, estaremos ajudando,estavam estaramosajudando ajudando estariam ajudando

PERFEITO

Have helped = tenho ajudado, temos ajudado,tm ajudado

Had helped = tinha ajudado, tinhamos ajudado, tinham ajudado

TO HAVE / HAS + PARTICPIO PASSADO PERFEITO CONTNUO HAVE BEEN Have been helping =vm Had been helping = ajudando, viemos Vinha ajudando, ajudando Vinhamos ajudando, has been helping= vinham ajudando vem ajudando

Will have helped = terei Would have helped = ter ajudado, teremos ajudado, teramos ajudado, ajudado, teremos teriam ajudado ajudado

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