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652000
071800 ,
210300
:

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.. , .. ,
.. , ..

..
..
2005

621.865.8
32.816
66
:
071800 ,
. ..
..
,
.

( )
..
,


..
-

, . .
66 : . / . . ,
. . , . . , . . ; . .
. . ; . . -. : - . .
-, 2005. 276 .
ISBN 5-89368-619-5

071800
, 210300 .
.
220401 (071800), 220402 (210300),
220301 (210200) 200201 (072300) ,
.
. 155. . : 71 .

621.865.8
32.816
ISBN 5-89368-619-5
2


, 2005


................................................................................................. 5
......................................................................................................... 9
1.
.......... 15
1.1.
.................................................................................... 15
1.2. - ........................................................ 30
1.3.
......... 48
1.4. ................................................................................................. 61
2.

...................... 80
2.1. ...................... 80
2.2. ................. 94
2.3. ........... 99
2.4.
......................................................................................... 112
2.5. .......................... 118
3.
......... 130
3.1.
............................................................................................... 130
3.2. .................................................. 145
3.3.
- ........................................ 160
3.4.
........................... 169
3

4.

............................................................................... 181
4.1. ....................................... 181
4.2. .............................................................................................. 192
4.3.
- ................................................ 204
4.4. .............................................................. 222
4.5. .......................................... 232
5.
- ................................... 248
5.1. ................... 248
5.2. ............................................................................................ 260
5.3. .......................... 266
.............................................................................................. 270
.......................................................... 271


, , . , ,
, , , ,
.
20 ,


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1976 .

5

,
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- , . : (. , . , . ),

(.. , .. , .. ), (.. ,
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.

(.. , .. ),
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- .
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:
.. , 1.1 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.3, 4.5;
.. 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 4.2, 4.3;
.. 2.1, 2.3 2.5, 3.1, 3.33.5, 4.2 4.4, 5.1 5.3;
.. 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 3.1, 3.4, 3.5, 4.3 4.5, 5.1 5.3.
2.1, 3.1 3.5 .. ; 1.3, 4.3 .. ; 1.4 .. ; 3.4.
.



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- , .

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() . ()
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. , 15 50 60 %. 40 % . ( 90 %) 0,01 1 . , 50 70 %.
, .

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RH
(REIS, ), ,
- , ; U
(Kawasaki, ), (Smart Comav, )
, ; Amart-35 , ; 36.25 R (Comav,
)
11

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, , .

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SCARA, SKILAM,
PUMA, ASEA, , , .

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;
F (t) 0 0 t F (t) = 0 t >,
; , ; , , .
14

1.


1.1.


.
[62]. () , ,
, . ()
,
( , , ..). () , . () , . ,
.

, , .
, , , ,
(, ()) [27].
15

, . () () , , ..

,
.

g (t)
,
. g (t)
()
, - -
. g (t)
[59]. ,
, [39]
. ,
, .
[39, 59], , , .
, , , , . . ,
. , . , . , . , .
16


() [22]
, .
, , . .

, .

0 (t)
; , ;
( ),
;
,
,
; , ;
.


, . , . .
. S. Arimoto, F. Migazaki, .. ,
.. , .. ,
-.
.. , ,
100 130 .
17

-,
.
.
, .
, , ,
, ,
, .. .. .
.
, ,
[22],
(. 1.1).

. 1.1.

18

,
.
(. 1.2)
[22]. . ,
S0 (t).
.

q(t)

Fa (t)

q(t)



F
F 0(t)
m

f(t)

F(t)

S 0(t)
k1

..
S 0(t)
..
S0 (t)

k2

S(t)
.
S 0(t)

.
S(t)

S(t)
.
S(t)

. 1.2.

, F0 (t).
[34, 35, 36]
g ( p ) f ( p ) W ( p ) V ( p ) .

1
V ( p)
( p) =
g ( p) +
f ( p) .
1 + W ( p)
1 + W ( p)
19

C (p) /D (p) = Cd (p)


B( p)
B( p )Cd ( p )
( p) =
g ( p) +
f ( p) ,
A( p ) + B( p )
A( p ) + B( p )
H ( p ) ( p ) = B( p) g ( p ) + L( p ) f ( p ) ,

(1.1)

: H (p) = A (p) + B (p); L (p) = B (p) + Cd (p).



g (p) f (p)
(1.1) :
1. B (p) 0, g (p) = 0; L (p) 0, f (p) = 0.
2. B (p) = 0, g (p) 0; L (p) = 0, f (p) 0.
3. B (p) 0, g (p) 0; B (p) g (p) = 0;
(1.2)
L (p) 0, f (p) 0, L (p) f (p) = 0.
4. B (p) 0, g (p) 0, B (p) g (p) B1 (p) g1 (p) = 0;
L (p) 0, f (p) 0, L (p) f (p) L1 (p) f1 (p) = 0.

. g0
(p) f0 (p).
. f ( p) = F ( p)[ x0 ( p) x( p)] .
, f (p), g (p).
g (p) = g0 (p) + g (p); f (p) = f0 (p) + f (p).

:
L (p) f (p) B2 (p) g (p) = 0.
(1.3)
(1.3) (1.2).

: g (p), f (p). f (p)
20

g (p) g
(p). [36]
.
f (p) :
1) 2 ()
g (p);
2) g (p) 2 ();
3) 2 () g (p).
, 2 ()

L( p )f ( p )
g ( p) =
.
B2 ( p )
. , , .
, XOZ ,
, , ,
,
H x ( p ) x ( p ) = Bx ( p ) g xz ( p ) + Lx ( p ) f xz ( p ),

H z ( p ) z ( p ) = Bz ( p) g zx ( p ) + Lz ( p ) f zx ( p ),

(1.4)

gxz (p), gzx (p); fxz (p), fzx (p) G (x,z) F (x,z) .
(1.4)

H x ( p) x( p) = Bx ( p) gxz ( p) + Lx ( p) f xz ( p) + Lx ( p)f xz ( p) + B2x ( p)gxz ( p);
(1.5)

H z ( p) z( p) = Bz ( p) gzx ( p) + Lz ( p) f zx ( p) + Lz ( p)f zx ( p) + B2z ( p)gzx ( p).

21

(1.5)
fxz (p), fzx (p)
L x ( p)f xz ( p) + B2 x ( p)g x ( p ) = 0;

L z ( p)f zx ( p ) + B2 z ( p )g z ( p ) = 0.

( )
,
. (1.5) gx (p), gz (p) :
;
(- );
( .
(1.3), (1.5)
.
,
.
.

, . , (), () -.

.
,


22


,
.
, , ( ), .

- .

= bFTc-1. = 1
(0) , 0 ,
0 << F .
.

,
. 1.3 1.4.

, , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. . , .
1. : , F ( S S ) , , (0, N0) - . , -
.
,
[27].
23

24

. 1.3.

25

. 1.4.

2. : .

, , () .
, .
3. , ,
, , .
4. .
- [1] : () ,
;
, -, , ;
, .
,
- .
.
, (), .
.. . .. .
.
26


. ,
, ()
. , , , : , , , , .

, ,
,
.

(), ,

.

(). - () , , : -
, ,
; -
..., ..., .
,
.
.
27

, , . ,
,

. ,
, ,
, . , , , ,
.


, , .
, , , .
,

, ..
,
,
F , S , S , 0

.


28

, , .
. . ,
; ; ; , ,
,
; , ..
[11],
. .

29

1.2. -


- 0 N0 - () [28]. H. Asada, H. Kazerooni, M. Liu,
M. Vukobratovic, A. West, .. , .. , .. ,
.. . , ()
T


() F = [ FM ]T , S = SS
.
.
S
/ S F (),
() () .
() () S / S ,
F ;
S / S F , .. ; S / S F . () .
(impedance control), - (position / force control), (force control),
30

(hybrid position / force control), (parallel position /


force control) - (hybrid-impedance
control).
, , - ,
, - ,
H [47].
(. 1.5) - ()
() , . , . () ,
, : F , S , S ; S S ; F / ( S , S ) ..
0

( S ),
( S ) ( F ).
() , , - [27].
[29].
() , , .
- -, . , .
.
, , () .
31

32

Fo V ( So, Soc)

Fo, Foc

So V S oc

S o, S oc

S o , S oc


1 2

. 1.5.


.
() , (
) 1 2.
2 .
.


.
,
, - ,
,
.
, .
, , ,
, , .. .. [54].


. , .
U ,
[16].
33


, ()
- ,
.
, , U () .
i F j
S / S
U = ( F0 J T (q)WPF U 0 i ) ( S 0 J 1(q)WPS S J 1(q)WPS
0

U = 0 j ,

(1.6)

FO = ( Fo - F ), SO = ( So - S ), S 0 = ( S0 S )
; WPF ,WPS ,WPS , ; J .
,
 1W  + J T F )]g ( F , S )
[ FO J T WPF D + SO J 1WPS (1 D) ( SJ
0 0
PS
U =
, (1.7)
T
T
1


[
J
W
D
J
W
(1
D
)
J
F
]
g
(
F
,
S
)


FO
PF
0 0
SO
PS
D ,
.


D, .

F0 S / S .
D

, .

34


, F0 S 0 / S0 F0
/ S / S ; F / S / S ; 0

A0 / N 0 , F0 , S 0 ,
S ; .
0

(1.6) (1.7).
,
[27]
F > F0 ;
 SOS > S0 S > S0 ;
F = FO
 S = SO
0S S0 S > S0 .
0F F0 ;


. g ( g 1, g 2 ) g 1, g 2:

g1 = S0 S0 , g 2 = F0 : ( A0 S01 N 0 S01 );


g=
1
1
g 2 = F0 , g 2 = S0 S0 : ( S0 = A0 F0 , S0 = N 0 F0 ).

(1.8)

F0 , S 0 , S0 , ,
A0 / N 0 (1.8) , F0 = F , S 0 = S
S = S .
0

() .
1. g ( N 0 , F0 ) ,
F 0 J T (q)WPFV ( N0 N ) J 1(q)WPN (.1.6, );
(1.9)
U =
T
1
F 0DJ (q)WPF + ( N0 N )(1 D) J (q)WPN (.1.6, ) D = 0 1;
35

F 0 J T (q )WPF  J 1(q )W  (. 1.7, ) S0 = N 0 F01;


S0
PS

U = F 0 DJ T (q )WPF + S 0 (1 D) J 1(q )WPS


1
(. 1.6, ) S0 = N 0 F0 ( D = 0 1).
2. g ( N 0 , S0 ) ,
( N0 N ) J T (q)WPN  J 1(q)W (.1.6, );
S0
PS
(1.10)
U =
1
T
N
N
DJ
q
W
D
J
q
W

(
)
(
)
(1
)
(
)
(.1.6,
)
0
1;
0
PN
S 0
PS
F 0 J T (q)WPF  J 1(q)W  (.1.7, ) F0 = N0 S01;
S0
PS

U = DJ T (q)W +  (1 D) J 1(q)W  (.1.7, ) F = N S 1


F0
PF
0
0 0
S0
PS

( D = 0 1).

3. g ( A0 , F0 ) ,
F 0 J T (q)WPF ( A0 A) J 1(q)WPA(.1.7, );
(1.11)
U =
T
1
F 0DJ (q)WPF + ( A0 A)(1 D) J (q)WPA(.1.7, , ) D = 0 1;
F 0 J T (q)WPF S 0 J 1(q)WPS (. 1.7, ) S0 = A0 F01;

U = F 0 DJ T (q)WPF +  (1 D) J 1(q)WPS (. 1.7, ) S0 = A0 F01


S

( D = 0 1).

4. g ( A0 , S 0 ) ,
S 0 J 1(q)WPS ( A0 A) J T (q)WPA(.1.7, );
(1.12)
U =
T
1

DJ
(
q
)
W
(
A
A
)(1
D
)
J
(
q
)
W
(.1.7,

)
D
0
1;
S 0
PS
0
PA
F 0 J T (q)WPF S 0 J 1(q)WPS (.1.7, ) F0 = A0 S01;

U = DJ T (q)W + (1 D) J 1(q)W (.1.7, ) F = A S 1


F0
PF
S0
PS
0
0 0

( D = 0 1).

(1.9), (1.10), (1.11), (1.12) WPN WPA


. 36


F , S , S .

. 1.6. . 1.6,
,
1 2 . ,
. 1.6, , 0
N0 .
2 0 N0.
, . 1.6,
N0 F. 1
(). () -
, .

S0 K1 K3SS < Sc S > Sc S F0 < F S0 ;

U = S0 K1 K3SS > Sc S F0 > F S0 ;

F0 K 2 K 4 F S > Sc S < 0.

14 ; S
(),
. F S (, ) F S , .

37

F0

U1

T
J T (qq)W PF
PF

1
S0 S0

S S

J J (q(q)W
)WPSPF W PS
1 T

U2

)
A0

F0

JJTT (q )W
WPF
PF

U1

N0

S0

JJT1((qq))W PF
PS

S

S
F

U2

A0

)
N0


S0

JJTT (q )W
WPF
PF

U1

1
F0

JJT1((qq))W PF
PS


S
W
F

U2

)
. 1.6.

38


F0,
,
:
sW psU = 0,

U 1 = F (1 + ) 1WPF U 0 ( F0 K F ) < 0,

FWPF U 0 ( F0 K F ) > 0;

U 2 = sW psU = 0 ( F0 sgn s F )WPF U < 0;

sW psU = 0 t < t1,

U 3 = ( F0 ( S S ) F )WPF U 0 : t1 < t < t2 ,

( S + *s )W psU = 0 t > t2 .

: S = ( S 0 S ), s* = ( S 0 (1 + Tp)-1 S ), F = ( F 0 F )
; WPS, WPF
; U
; S So ; ; t2 ; > 1.


, S , S , S F = [ F ; M ]T .

( - 1 = S/F),
( = F / S ) ( m = F / S ).
. F (s) S (s), F (s) S (s ) .
.
, .

39


, ( S S ),
U [( 1 J 1 ( q )W PS S J 1 ( q ) K S J T ( q ) F ); ( 2 J 1 ( q )W PS J T ( q ) F );
( 1 J 1 ( q )W PS + 2 J 1 ( q )W PS S J 1 ( q ) K S J T ( q ) F );
(( S 0W PS S ) J 1 ( q )W PS I I K ) J T ( q )W P1 ]
1 = 1 3 : 1 = ( S 0 K ) ( S 0 S K ); 3 = S 0 : S 0 = A0 F 1 ;
2 = 2 4 : 1 = ( S 0W PS S ) ( S 0 S K ), 4 = S 0 : S K = N 0 F 1 ;

S 0 = ( S0 S ); S 0 = ( S0 S ); I 0 = ( I 0 I );
I 0 = ( S 0WPS S ) J 1(q )WPS .
1 , 2 g ,
.
. 1.7
, ,
R.J. Anderson, N. Hogan, H. Kazerooni.

,
( F ),

U {(F 0J T (q)WPF + S0 );[(F0 F0 + FK) (F0 F 0 FK)]J T (q)WPF }


F
= [(F (S ) F (S )) (F (S ) F ( ))
K

S

(FK (S , A0 ) FK (S , N0 )) (FK (S , A0 ) FK (  , N0 ))]:


S

: FK ( S ) = S W1 ( F , S ) S f1 ( S ); FK ( S ) = S W1 ( F , S ) S f1 ( S )
FK ( S ) = S 0W2 ( F , S ) S 0 f 2 ( S );
FK ( S , N 0 ) = N 0 S 1W1 ( F , S ); FK ( S , A0 ) = FK ( S );
S = A0 F 1; FK ( S , N 0 ) = FK ( S ); S = N 0 F 1
40

M 2

1
p

 0

k2(T2p+1)
p

M1

c
R(T1p+1)

1
J1p

1
Up

M2

c+ bp

ce

Jp2

c1 +b1p

)
. 1.7.
() ()

41

1. g (t ) = F0 (t );
( F 0 + FK ) ( F 0 FK ): FK = FK (S ) FK (S ) ( A0S 1 N0S 1);

F =
F 0F = A0S 1 N0S 1;

F 0 : F = 0, F = A0S 1 N0S 1.

2. g (t ) = S0 (t ) F0 (t );
( F 0 + FK ) ( F 0 FK ) : FK = ( FK ( S ) FK ( S , A0 ));
F =
F 0 S = ( F 0 J T (q )WPF f (q ) S0 ).

3. g (t ) = S (t ) F (t );
0

F = [( F 0 + FK ) ( F 0 FK ) : FK = ( FK ( S ) FK ( S , N 0 )].
4.g (t ) = (S S ) F ;
0

F = [( F 0 + FK ) ( F 0 FK )]: FK = ( FK ( S ) FK ( S , A0 )) + ( FK ( S )
FK ( S , N0 )).
, (S S ) F0
.
.
S S F
, .
.
A0 N 0
( S S ) () F , U -:
U (1.23)( 1 = 1, 2 = 2 ) : S K , SK , I K F 0WPFi i ( F 0 ),
U
i = 1S K , i = 2SK ,

i = 3I K F : F f ( A0 , N 0 ) ( F = A0 S 1 N 0 S 1)];
U (1.24)[( F 0 J T (q )WPF + S0 ) = 0, F0 F 0 = F 0 ,
42

FK = (( FK ( S ) FK ( S )) ( FK ( S , A0 ) FK ( S , N 0 ))]:

S f ( A0 ) S = A0 F 1, S f ( N 0 ) S = N 0 F 1;

.
F = const. (0 = const) (N0 = const).
, , ,
, .
.
1. g = F0 , g = F,

F 0 J T (q )WPF | F || F |;

U = [( S0WPS S0WPS J 1 (q ) : S0 = A0 F 1; S0 = N 0 F 1

 1
1
T
[ F0 J (q )WPF : F0 = A0 S N 0 S ] | F |<| F |;
2. g = S S ,
0
1

[ S 0 J ( q)WPS  J 1 ( q)W  ] | U |<| U |;


S0
PS

1
: S 0 = A0 F ] [ S0 J 1 ( q)WP S :
{[ S 0 J ( q)WPS
U =
S = N 0 F 1 ] [ F0 J T ( q)WPF : F0 = A0 S 1 N 0 S 1 ]}

| U |>| U | .
F , U
,
.
. 1.8. (. 1.8, ) ,
0 N0. (. 1.8, )

.
.
() -

43

. ,
, , . , .
J 1 (q )[WPS WPS ]

J T (q )WPF

F0

A0 N 0

F0

JJ T (qq)WPF
PF

A0 N 0

S 0 S 0

S
S
F

J T (q )W PF

A0 N 0

F0

A0 N 0

S 0 S 0
WP S ]
J 1 (q )[WPS
S0

J 1 (q )WPS

S0

J 1 (q )WPS

)
. 1.8.

44

S
S
F

. , - -
,
, , , .
, -
, ,
.
,
.
- [27]

J = J1 + J, J1, J ; () . ,

. .
.

. 1.9.
F0 , S0 , S0
- . -
. 1,

45

() , . 2 5 . Wps, WPF, ,
, .
- / ,

/ .
- ,
,
,

.

. , ..
.. , ,
- F , S
, , , .
, -
, , ,
, - , .
, .
46

47

S0

F0

J 1WPS

1
WPS

PF

1-D

N0

N0

A0

JT

J 1K S

A0

. 1.9.

J TW

S

1.3.

, , : 1)
; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ;
5) ; 6) [51]. , , ,
- .

.

.
.

- .

.
.
. ,
FN
FZ.
Nn = Fz V = const,
Vn = Nn / Fz.
48

.
.
.

.
(. 1.10) , (U 0)
(
) . ,
,
, , ,
.
(FN)
(Fo) . Vn, ( ) .

, J (kch)1.
Fz
.
Vn = Nn / Fz, Nn , .
()
. , , , .
49

[37]
(. 1.11, ). USo , UNo
.

. 1.10.

50

U SO

UK

U *N

U NO

UN

a)
S F

U SO U FO

PC PF

UK

PN

U *N

U NO

)
F0

F
F

S0

S

)
N0

S0 F0

PC PF

F0 S0

PC PF

S
2

)
. 1.11.

51

UK USo UN >UNo. .
N0
(. 1.11, ) , . 1.11, . , , N0 = const (. 1.11, , ). , . 1.11, ,
.
()
F0 S0. . 1.12 J ( h) -1: W1 = K7 (T + 1) -1; W2 = (J1p) -1;
W3 = (Up) -1; W4 = (JHp) -1; W5 = K (T + 1) -1; W6 = U (K4 + K3K5) K3-1; W7 = U-1.
, ,
(, ),
, U1:

K1U S U = 0;

U = K1U F U 0 U1 U > 0;

K1U S U 0 U1 U 0.
, .
1.13, ,
.
, , . .
() S0 S . ,
.
( ), .
. = S0 S .
52

53

W1

K5

CE

W2
W3

W7

C1 + b1 p

W7

%
W5

MH

. 1.12.

W7

W7

W4

 Z

 Z

K2

KC h

S

S0

F0

S0

S

SGN
2

F0

+ F

)
. 1.13.

> 0, , 0, .
1, S0 , 54

2. 1,

U > 0;
U 1 =
0 0,

U , .
,
,
, , . .
. ,
, .. , ,
.
,
, , .. .

.
- 1 2. ( 1.13, )
, F0,
1 , ,
F0. , F0 > 0, 1 .
, ,
,
, , ,
, . . , 55

. , . -

.
, . N1
N2 .
,

().
,

. .
U, . , Nn.

,
.. [9, 10]. .. .


(. 1.14).
U
(t) (. 1.15).
h < 0. 1
1
Us3 (t). , h > Us (t) .
56

S0

I
I

I
M

dt

S

S
K

S



dt

. 1.14.

S

U S (t )

U S

Sk1

Sk 2

I
h
h0 (t )

. 1.15.

57

2, 3, ,
2 2 (. . 1.15) .
, ,
(J = J/Kch) ,
, 2, 2 1. , J . .
, F 2 2 3 , , 1 Sk1 = J, . J, 2
.
2 Skz = h. h ,
, 1
Sk2 2 .. .
,

(. 1.16).
, , - . 1.17.
. ( )
( )
( )
,
.
58

W1

 2

MH

K1

MH

 2

1
Jp

W2

J
i

JH

 2

uJ1

p-1

 2

. 1.16.
Kqi
1
2
3

1
2

+1

-1

F
FZ

FN

Nn=const

J-1

1
1

2
&
5

3
1

. 1.17.

59

1 2 .
, .
Fn = F0 ,
s > 0. , 2
2 . 1 2.
. , . , . 3
Vn, N = const Vn = N/Fz. () -1
J ,
( )
. ,
Vn < V, . , , .
1 2.

,
.
, , , , .
60

1.4.
-

, () () () ,
, [32]. - [1].
- , : ()
; ,
() ().
-
- () (. 1.18) (),
() , () .

, , , , , () -.
(),
, .
() (), . , , , .

61

: - -;
, ,
,
, .

()

()

. 1.18. -


()
, , .
- , ,
.

62

, .
. 1.19 : 1 ; 2 ; 21
; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6 .
(. 1.19, ),

. .
3

2
a)

b)

3
1

5
4

c)

4
2

)
. 1.19.
-

(. 1.19, ) ,
.
, . .

, .
(), 63

,
. ,
.
.
-, .

: (. 1.19, ), (. . 1.19, ), , , . (. . 1.19, ),
,

.


: ,
.
: ,
, .
, , .
.
, , , , , . 1.20,
: 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 .
64

L/ , ,
L// , Q(t ) , Q (t ) .

L/ L// L/
n

R = LI + Li + LII , R - , Li
i =1

i- .

Y0
Z0

O
L

2
Xd

B
l1

2
L1

l2

4
4

L3

X0
A
Xb

. 1.20.

, N = n + 1 Li 0 ; N = 1 Li = 0 , L/ L//

; N = 0 Li = 0 , L/ L//
.
, N = 2 ( N = 1 N = 0 )
65

R = LI + L1 + LII , L1 , LI LII D B, .
X 0Y0 Z 0 , X 0 , D B , . , k (k = 1...4) l j ( j = 1...3) , , ,
,
(k , l j ) =
= B (k , l j ) M BA ( L/II ) . , (k , l j ) 44

LII
X 0Y0 Z 0 , k , l j ; B (k , l j )

; L/II LII , [71].


, k l j , , , . ,
,
qn (n = 1...7) . N = 2 2,4 = 0,5( 2,4 ) , 2,4
D B .
LII
Q (t) 5 (f = 5) .
N = 2
[71]:
P1 R2 P3 R 4 R5 ; R1 P2 P3 R 4 R5 ; R1 P2 R3 P 4 P5 ;

R1 R2 P3 R 4 R5 ; R1 P2 R3 R 4 R5 .

66

Pi Ri : , , : ,
, ( 2
4 ).

,

.

- ,
.
.
.
.
- . 1.21, Si
(
) () ; i
, ; Fi
(
) () ; U i

~
; Pi , ; Pi ,
- ; P .
i

67

S ,
F
:
B1
SF
SF
0
= 0
0
0
0
OO

SF
B2
SF
0
SF
SF
S
0
1

0
0
0
B4
SF
0
S
0
1

SF
SF
B3
0
0
0
0
SF
2

0
SF
0
SF
B5
0
SF
SF
2

0
SF
0
0
0
B6
SF
SF

0
S
0
S
SF
SF
B7
0

0
0
SF
0
SF
SF
0
B8

U4

P4

P1

P6

P1

S6

U2
1

P1

U2

F1

P U1

F6

P7

S1

P2

F2

OP

MO

S2
P2
S3

P5

P3

P3

F7

S7

S 4 S5

F5
P U2

F4

F3
U3

P4

1.21.

-

68

: 0
; i
( ).

, , - . ,

i = i ( i , q i )Ti ( Di + Ti Vi2 ) 1( M qiVi2 Di qi ); ,

Ti = C i + i p; i = 1,2.

H i (qi , i ) p 2qi + Bi (qi , qi , i ) = i Gi (qi , i ) Hi ;

Hi, Bi, Gi, Ti, Di , -


; i , i
, ; qi , i ,
Vi , i .


-

1 = J1T (q1, 1 ) F12 + J 3T (q1, q3 , 1 ) N3 FTC ;
22 = J 2T (q2 , 2 ) F12 ;
F12 = T1[q1N1 (q1, 1 ) q2 N 2 (q2 , 2 )];

FPO = ( STC , SO ) T2[q1N1(q1, 1) N3 J 01


SO ] + FTP + FO

F = F #M

Ti = diag Ci + i p ,6 6.

Ji, (i = 13); J01 ; FPU, FPO, FTP , ; SPU, SO


; F # M

69

( ) , -

T
T

1 = J 1 F1 ; H 2 = J 2 F2 ;

T
J 0T F1 = H 0 p 2 S + G 0 + J 02
F2 + FmC ;

F1 = T1 ( q1 N 1 S10 );

F2 = T2 ( q N 2 S 20 );
,

T
FPO = ( S mC , S O ) T3 ( S mC J 01
S O ) + FTP + FO ;

m0 E 0

T
H0 =
; S 0 S 0 # 0 6 6 ;

0 J 0 E 6 6

G 0T = m 0 g T w0 ( J 0 w0T ) ,

m0, J0 ; FTP .
-
-

;
.
- , ,
, , , . , () .
- (. . 1.19, a, )
.

70

,

.
, .
, ,
. ,
, .

.
,
.
(. . 1.19, ), (. . 1.19,
) (. . 1.19, ). ,
.

. . , 71

. , , - .

, ..

.
. , . . , , , - .
,
,
(. 1.22, ) , . 1,22, .

, .
. 1, 2 .
- .
( 1) ,
. ( 2) 72

. ( ) , .

)
. 1.22. - :
;

73

(1), . (. 1.23) j = l .
j = l , X Y
, .
, ,
. , . ,
,
j + 1. ,
, . , ( ) ,
j + 1. ,
, ,
, j + 1 , ,
.
,
,
. (1), 5 (2), 5 . , , , j + 1 . ,
. j + jk, .
( 2) , , , . 1.24.
74

75

i=ik

i+1

-?

-5

. 1.23. - 1


i=1

+5

76
. 1.24. - 2


. , ,
, , ,
; .
3 ,
,
. 1.25.
j = l
, 1, 2 3 F1 = F2 = F3 = 0.
Fj (j = l, 2, 3).
.
1. 1 (FIX) ), F2 = F3 = 0, Y . 1 Z,
1 2 (F1 > 0, F2 > 0). Y
X 3 (F3 > 0).
F1 > 0, F2 > 0, F3X3: Z 1,5
.
2. 2 (F2 > 0), F1 = F3 = 0. 1 Y
X.
3. 3 (F3 > 0).
Y 1 2.
1 2 .


j + 1.
77

( Fj > 0),
1, 2 3.
.

. 1.25. - 3

78


,
. , , , , , -, ,
.
.
1. . .
2.
. ,
.
3. , . ,
,
.
, : , .

79

2.


2.1.

() .

, .
. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. , H. Van
Brussel, J.P. Merlit .
: ;
, ; ; , ,
; ;
,
.
, ,
,
. , .
, .

.
80

. ,
.
.
.

, .
.
,
. .
. , , .
, , .
,
.. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , . Van Brussel, C. Lee,
J. Simons, R. Smith, D.T. Pham, P. Watson, D.E. Whitney .

,
, .
. .


, .
E 81

, : E E ; , E
.
. ,

, . , . , ( .).
, , .
, . . J.L. Nevins, D.E. Whitney, D.T. Pham, J. Simons, . Van
Brussel .
() , J.L. Nevins D.E. Whitney
(. 2.1, ).
, (RCC), , , .
(RCC)
. 2.1, , , .
, ,
, .

82

, ,
.

. 2.1.


1...2 ,
.
. ,
, ,
,
. .
, .
, ,
[20]. , ,
, . , . 83

, ,
.
.
.. , .. , . Inoue, W. Khalil, P. Borrel, P.C. Bolles,
R. Paul .

, , ,
,
.. . -, , -,
, , ,
..
[24].
, , .
, [24, 56]. -5,
.
.
, PUMA , (. 2.2). . .
84

,
,
, , . (. 2.3), ,
.

PUMA

. 2.2. PUMA

. 2.3.

, ,
. X = X (t ) 85

G,
, G = G .

- , ,
G.
() [31].
()
. , , , .


.


. , ,

.
. , .

.
86

: ; , ; , ;
; ,
; ;
- ; , .
, .
, , .
-

.
.


.
. 2.4, : 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; 4 ; 5 ; 6
; 7 ; 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; 11 ; 12 .
, .
: ;
87

; ; .

12

4
5

11

10

6
7

. 2.4.

88

, , , ,
.
- .
: ,
, .
.
.
.
, . (
412 6 ) , , , . .
X, Y 5 , 0,38 . .
-440,
-1000, -1500 10 , 10, 100...200 .
,
() (. 2.5).
: 1, 2 ; ; ; ;
; ;
I, II, III ; X, Y, Z ; , .

XOY X Y , , .
89

,
. Z ,
.
,
,
, . ,
.

Z
C

II

III

I
2

. 2.5.

90

: ( X, Y, Z);
( ); (
).
,

; , . ,
, , . ,
, , .
,
.
,

, .
1
,
.
2
. 2.6, : 1 ; 2 ;
3
3 . 4

X Y,
() .
. 2.6.

91

.
90.

[46] (. 2.7),
Y
, X
Z 0

,
(1) (3) 1
,
2
(2) ( 3
Y
), '
Z 0
X
.
' '
'

. 2.7.

.

Z, ,
.
, , , (. 2.8),
- -
,
, ,
. (, , )
. 92


. .
-

X,Y,Z

. 2.8.

93

2.2.


. , X Y
,

.
. XYZ
n

{ X i 0 , Yi 0} . -
i =1

{Xi,Yi}
i=1

, ..
n

i =1

i =1

{ X i 0 , Yi 0} { X i , Yi } .

,
,
. ,
.
,
.

[64].
, ,
() .
, , . - , 94

. , , . , . , , , , . , ,
. .
,
,
. .
.
,
, ,
.
,
. , .
,
.
. ,
,
, .
.
,
95

, .
.
, ,
: -.
. 2.9.
,
.
-. , . ,
. : ( ) ( )
, .

. ()
.
.
- .
,
. .

, , . , .
, , , : 96

( , Z, ) ( ).

. 2.9.

97

, .
, . .
, . ,
.
,
,
.
, -.
( X +, X-, Y +, Y-, ,
..).
.

- . ,
.
, , , , . , .
.
. 98


(). -
() .
,
, , .
2.3.


. . 2.10. X,Y Tk1 (x1,y1) x y,
. Z
( VZ)
.
{Kx1, Kx2, Ky1,
Ky2} . ,
zi
aj = 1. , .
,
.. a j = 4 .
j

Z
( z x1, z x 2 , z y1, z y 2 ) .
x y :
x = f (l , d , d , z x ), y = f (l , d , d , z y ),
l ; d ;
d ; z x = z x 2 z x1 , z y = z y 2 z y1
Z X
Y .
99


Vz

" - - "

Zi

a1=1

a1=1

Kx1=1

Zx1

a2=1

Zx2

a3=1

a3=1

Kx2=1

a2=1

Ky1=1

Zy1

a4=1

Zy2

x,y

a4=1

Ky2=1

Vz=0

Sai=4

. 2.10.

100

-
, .

, .
.
, ,
.
. 2.11. Z.
- Tki ( xi , yi )
Z , Z . Pz
x0 , y0 .

x = xi +1 xi ,

y = yi +1 yi


.
F (Pz , x , y ) = 1.
x y x , y
, .
,
.
101

Vz

" -
- "

PZ>0
X0,Y0

Xi,Yi

P-Pz>0

Xi+1-Xi>0

a=1

Yi+1-Yi>0
b=1
c=1

f=abc

f =1

X,Y
VZ=0
K

. 2.11.

102


.
, .
,
[30],
.
: , ,
.
, ,
. 2.12. Z
(. 2.12, ).
x , y x , y
x y , .

X 0O0Y0 .

x , y ,
Z x , y . ( X)
(. 2.12, ).
.
2x, x X Y Z. , Y .
,
Z (. 2.12, ).
Y y, X
(. 2.12, ). Z 103

.
. Z Z,
, .. x = x , y = y . -
.
,
X (, , ),
.

Y =Y+Y

Z
Y

Z
Y =Y+Y

X
X
X

X=X+X

Y
X

Y =Y +Y

Z ,Z

X
X
)
. 2.12.

104

U 0 Vx (p ) sgn Px1 = 1;

Gx = U 0 Vx (p ) sgn Px 2 = 1;
0 (sgn P sgn P ) = 1 t = t .
x1
x2
2

Gx = x2 x1 ,

1 ( Px Px0 Px ) < 0 t = t1;


1 ( Px Px0 Px ) > 0 t = t1;
sgn Px1 =
sgn Px2 =
0 Px > 0 t = t1;
0 Px < 0 t = t1;
Vx (p) , ; Px
Px 0 ; t1 t 2
; Gx
x (t1) x (t2).
:
Gx =

Gx
2

= Gx (p ) .

Gx (p) , .
. 2.13, : zi Z; ; 0 ; Pz, P ; z Z.
, . , - ;
X, Y, Z.
: - Tki Z , X Y X+, X-, Y+, Y-.

X Y. Z,
Z .

105

V z

" - "

P z i

Z i

Z -Z i 0

V z=0

a=0

b=1

f1 = a b

DX-X < d0

Pz -P >0

DY-Y < d 0

f1 = 1

. 2.13.

106

. 2.14 .
N
, K(1) K(4).

. 2.14.

Pz = 0.
,
107

, ,

-, (. 2.15).
.

. 2.15.

BP1 BP4,
, X Y . X i Yi
. z Z , , X Y
. Px Py,
x x ,
y y (. 2.15, ), Px1 = Px2, Py1 = Py2.
108

(. 2.15, ), x, y .
. 2.16.
: , , X, Y, Z
W V,
.
:
X i = 0,
Yi = 0.
( x xi )
( y yi )
Ux =
Uy =
K (Y2 Y1 ) Yi 0;
K (X 2 X1) X i 0;
( z zi ) X i = 0 Yi = 0,
,
Uz =

(
P
P
)
X
0
Y
0,

z
i
i

x, y, z - Tki ( xi , yi , zi ) ,
Pz = Kf (X + Y ) .

. 2.16.

. 2.17. .
f1 Z,
f2 f3 .
109

Vz

" - "

Px

|Px1-Px2|>0

a=1

Py

a=0

|Py1-Py2|>0

a=1

Pz

b=1

Pz<P

c=1

Vz=0

x,y

K
f1=abc

f1=1

f2=abc

f2=1

f3=abc

f3=1

. 2.17.

110

x y :
0 X1 X 2 Y1 Y2
U =
.
1

X
=

Y
=

1
2
1
2
X Y . X . 2.18.
Vx, x Px1 = Px2.

. 2.18.
X

111

2.4.


. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. .

. ,
, q q .

F ,
.
,
q . q , , ,
.
f .
, F , ,
:

F = F (q, q , q , q , f ) .
f
q
q

F

. 2.19.
q
q



. 2.19.
.

112

,
X cos + Z sin R = 0,
P X p , Z p (. 2.20), ,

D = X p cos + Z p sin R .
P O
Z
,
A
D
P( X p , Z p )
D > 0 , , D < 0 .
,
P C
, D < 0 .
R
B
D = 0 D > 0 P( X p , Z p )
X
N - 0
N
,
. 2.20.
.. N = CD , C
.
Z
,
R2
.
4
O
5
. 2.21.
D

3
XOZ 6
B
, C
. X0, Z0
1
A
O
2
H
R1
.

, .. X
, 0
XOZ,
()
. 2.21.
OZ.

113

X, Z O , .
A, B, C, D ,
. 2.21 1...6. :
A:
X a = X 0 + H sin + R1 cos ; Z a = Z 0 H cos + R1 sin ;

B:

X b = X 0 + H sin R1 cos ; Z b = Z 0 H cos R1 sin ;

C:

X c = X + H sin + R2 cos ; Z = Z + H cos + R2 sin ;

D:

X d = X H sin R2 cos ; Z d = Z + H cos R2 sin ;

1:

( X X 0 ) cos + ( Z Z 0 ) sin + R1 = 0 ;

2:

( X X 0 ) cos + ( Z Z 0 ) sin R1 = 0 ;

3:

( Z Z 0 ) cos ( X X 0 ) sin + H = 0 ;

4:

( X X ) cos + ( Z Z ) sin + R2 = 0 ;

5:

( X X ) cos + ( Z Z ) sin R2 = 0 ;

6:

( Z Z ) cos ( X X ) sin H = 0 ,

(2.1)

R1, R2 ; H .
,
.
. = > 0 .
.
1. C 3, D1 > 0 .
2. B 6 D2 < 0 .
3. A 5 D3 < 0 .
4. D 1 D4 < 0 .

. = < 0 .
.
5. D 3, D5 > 0 .
6. A 6 D6 < 0 .
7. B 4 D7 > 0 .
8. C 2 D8 > 0 .
114

Ni, ,
: Ni = CDi ,

i = 1...8, C Di:
(2.2)
Ni = sgn(i )CDi ,

sgn(i ) = [10001011] Di > 0; sgn(i ) = [ 01110100] Di < 0.


T

Di A, B, C, D
(2.1). , 1 ( C
3)
D1 = (Z + H cos + R2 sin Z 0 ) cos ( X H sin + R2 cos X 0 ) sin + H .
N1 = 1 CD1 .
Ni
. ,
XOZ;
YOZ.

Ni , , Ni
.
6 > 0 6 < 0 .

, Ni (2.2). , ,
M M , O () -

O ().
:
1. F1 X = N1 f ;

F1Z = N1 ;

M1 = N1( H ( f + ) ( R2 + X )) ;
M1 = N1( H ( f ) R2 (1 + f )) ,
; X 115

X.
.
2. F2 X = N 2 + N 2 f ;

F2 Z = N 2 N 2 f ;

M 2 = N 2 ( H ( f + ) + R1(1 f )) ;
M 2 = N 2 ( R1 fH X ) .
3. F3 X = N 2 ( + f ) + N3 ( f 1) ;

F3Z = N 2 (1 f ) + N3 ( f + ) ;

M3 = N 2 ( H ( f + ) + R1(1 f )) + N3 ( H ( f 1) R1( f + )) ;
M3 = N 2 (2 R1 R2 fH ) + N3 ( H 2 R1 fR2 ) .
4. F4 X = N3 f N3 ;

F4 Z = N3 f + N3 ;
M 4 = N3 ( H ( f 1) R1( f + )) ;

M 4 = N3 (( R2 R 1 X ) / fR2 ).
5. F5 X = N 4 ;

F5Z = N 4 f ;
M5 = N 4 ( fR1 + R2 + Z H ) ;
M5 = N 4 ( R2 ( f + ) + H ( f 1)) .
6. F6 X = N3 ( f 1) + N 4 ;

F6 Z = N3 ( f + ) + N 4 f ;

M 6 = N3 ( H ( f 1) R1( f + )) + N 4 ( H + fR1 + 2( R2 R1) / ) ;

M6 = N3 ( H 2 R2 + 2( R2 R1) / fR2 ) + N4 ( R2 ( f + ) + H ( f 1)) .


Ni f = Fi ; Z
.
, 4 5,
: sin = , cos = 1 .
116

:
4

F i = Bi N j ,

(2.3)

j =1

F i -, F i = {Fxi , Fzi , M i ,M i }T ; i = 1...6


; Nj ; j = 1...4
;

f
1
B1 =
H ( f + ) R2 X

+ f
0 0 0
0
0 0
0 0 0
0
1 f
0 0
; B2 =
;
0 0 0
0 H ( f + ) R1 (1 f ) 0 0

H ( f ) R2 (1 + f ) 0 0 0

R1 fH X

0 0

+ f
0
f 1
0
0
1 f
f +
0
;
B3 =
0 H ( f + ) + R1 (1 f ) H ( f 1) R1( f + ) 0
0

B4 =

2 R1 R2 fH

H 2 R1 R2 f

0 0

f 1

0 0

+ f

0 0

H ( f 1) R1( f + )

0 0 ( R2 R1 X )/ R2 f

0 0
0 0
B6 =
0 0

0 0 0
; B5 =

f 1
f +
H ( f 1) R1( f + )

0 0 H 2 R2 + 2( R2 R1) / fR2

0 0 0
f
;
fR1 + R2 H + Z
0 0 0
0 0 0 R2 ( f + ) + H ( f 1)
1
f
.
H + fR1 + 2( R2 R1) /
R2 ( f + ) + H ( f 1)

(2.2) (2.3) .

117

2.5.


,
, , ,
, .. .
, , :
; ; , , , , ;
.
, , ,

.
-

. ,
[44] .
. ,
, . : . , .

.
: > 0 < 0 .

118

1. (. 2.22, 1).
N .
2. (. 2.22, 2).
N .
3.
,
(. 2.22, 3).
,
X Z,
.

N2

N1

N2
N 3 F3

F1

N3

F2

F2

F3

F4

F4
N4

N3

F3

N4

. 2.22.


.
.
, ,
, 119

, . , .
()
, a, b,, h.
c, d,, h.
, .. . h
. , .
. , , .
S S = D d , D , d .
(. 2.23)
( ).

-ei

EI

es
em

ES+

EM

. 2.23.

EI, ei; ES, es; EM, em , :


EM = 0,5( ES + EI ) ; em = 0,5(es + ei) .
: t = ES EI t = es ei .
,
, S
S = EM + em .

, . S 2 500 . 2.24. , 6 8-
120

, . , (c, d,, h).


, : 144-75 145-75.
H7
c8

H7
d8
H7
e8
H7
f7

H7
d6
H7
h6

. 2.24. S D

S D
S = f ( K , D ) , K , .
S , 1. S
1
S = Ki D e .

(2.4)

Ki .

Ki

H7
h6
0,0053

H7
g6
0,0074

H7
f7
0,0132

H7
e8
0,0214

H7
d8
0,0295

H7
c8
0,0445
121

, > (. 2.25) . ,
d DS
S
(2.5)
cos = =
=1 .
D
D
D
d

(2.4) (2.5), :
1
De

K
cos = 1 i
D

. 2.25.

Ki

; = arccos 1
1

D e


. 2.26.
-

,
H7
. ,
f7
D = 10 4,5. ,

.
,

. 2.26.

122

, .
, .
4. (. 2.22, 4).
.
5.

(. 2.22, 5). .
6. (. 2.22, 6)

: > 0 < 0 .
, . . 2.27.
Z

Z
C N1

N2 C

N1

X
0

F1
2.
Z

1.

F3 X

F4

N3 F3 X

N3
3.

4.

2.

N2 C

C
0

F2

1.

N2

F1 F
2

5.

N4

F4

F3
0C

N4

N3

6.

. 2.27.

123

, 1a, 2a, 3a, .


, 3 (. . 2.22) 3a (. . 2.27)
. . ,
, , 45. , , 3 3a.


, .
.
Z FZ .

(.
. 2.22).
.
1. 1 2. Z (Z = 0) Z A , ( Z H ) . : Z = H Z ,
Z = d sin , : Z = d .
Z ( H Z ) ( H C Z ),
C .
2. 4, 5 6. Z Z = H ,
Z H.
, 1 2
X. 1 FX = 0 , 2 FX = FZ / tg . M0

( > 0 < 0 ). 4, 5, 6
FX FZ
.
124

(2.3), FX FZ .
5
FZ = f FX FX = FZ / f , f .
4
FX = N 3 ( f 1) ,
FZ = N 3 ( f + ) ,
F = N3 ( H ( f 1) R1( f + )) .
M = FX H FZ R1 .
, FX, FY,
Mc, . , . 2.28.

. Z
1

. M,FX,FZ

. Z

Z >H+Z
0

. VZ
1

VZ=0

Z <H-Z

M=FXH-FZR1

. FX,FZ

. FX
1

FX=0

. MC
0

M>0

.1
>0

. MC
1

.1
<0

M>0

.2
>0

. MC
0

.2
<0

M>0

.4
>0

. MC
1

.4
<0

M>0

.5
>0

FZ=FXF

. MC
0

.5
<0

M>0

.6
>0

.6
<0

. 2.28.

,
, . . - 125

. .
,
.

.
.
() ,
.
.
,
4- 5-, 6-
2/3 .
, . 2.29, .

. 2.29.

. , 7 .
3 6 , 126

. , 0-1-4-7 0-2-5-7
3 6, .
, , 3, ,
. 2.29, .

n

{ X i 0 , Yi 0} . i =1

, (.
2.30) :
Z .

. -
( ).

X Y
().
. Tk ( x0 , y0 , z )
Tk 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) .

Y
X

. 2.30.

127


(1,,5), :
1.
Z , . .
G
P ,
Z, .
X Y .
Z0.
2. (,
) Z
: - , . :
) ;
) 1;
) 3.
3.
,
, - , . ,
:
) 2;
) 5.
4.
.
X Y

, ..
. 128

X Y
:
;
, Z;
, , , .
1, 2 3.
5. :
, Z ,
2. (

); - 4, :
1 zn1.

129

3.

3.1.


, . 2. , . 3.1,
, ,
. 3.2.
( , , ),
13.
() (), , ()
() .
Ti ( xi , yi ) XOY 1 U 1
Z Vz = f (U z ) .
z i x y . Z ( Vz ),
. x , y
2, 3, X, Y Tki ( xki , y ki )
xk = x + x ,

yk = y + y ,
.
n

{ X i , Yi } .
i =1

130

H
Tk i(x i,y i)
U k1 =1
V z =f(U z )
i=1...4
z i

K i
z i
U k1 =0
-V z

DZ=0

x ,y
U k2,3 =1
x =x +x ;

y =y +y

x ,y
K
. 3.1.

131

132

Y X

K3

K2

UK2,3

Zi VZ

K1

UK1

. 3.2.

. 3.3 , . 3.4
, . z
Z, X Y x
y, , . 1 (U1 = 1) Z Vz = f ( Pz ) Z.

P Pz > 0, x y .
, 1 Z (U1 = 0),
.

, . ,

, .

, (. 3.5),
X, Y, Z, , , . x, y, z, 15
()
(). .
.
Z X Y. 4 (6) . +U .
133

H
Tk i(x i ,y i)
U k1 =1

V z =f(P z )

P -P z >0

x ,y
U k1 =0

-V z

DZ=0

x =x +x ;

y =y +y

x ,y
K
. 3.3.

134

135

X P Z
P

UK1

K1

Z
Z

CZ

. 3.4.

136

, ,
, U, .
.
, ,
.
,
X Y Tki ( xi , yi ) . 2 (3) ,
4 (6), X (Y) , ,
. Z,
, , Y
, Z z .
1 Z . ,
.

, Z
( ) ,
,
.
,
(. 3.6), X, Y, Z x,
y, z, Kx, Ky, Kz. . M 1 Z . z 2
Z . DC X Y.
Ux, Uy Kx Ky
. Ui
: DC0, DC2 + ; DC1,
DC3 -.
137

138

&
2

&
1

DC
0
1
2
3

Uz

Uy

Ux

. 3.6.

D1

Q1

D0

CT2 Q0

DC0 = 1, . X
x 2 .
DC1 = 1 .
Y
. Y
. . , Y . , 2 , DC .
X Y
1 Z .
, R Z
.
Z .
, , , , .

, , . 3.7. :
x, y, z, , 13,
; x1, x2,
y1, y2, ,
, , -
, , - RS- .
.
X x x. x 1 , x x.
139

140

R
T

Pz

K3

K2

K1

Y
Y1

X2

X1

. 3.7.

Y2

Y Z y, z
Y Z. , . .

x1, x2, y1, y2. RS-
. 3 Z Pz. Z
.
x1, x2
1 ,
.

. Y. Y Z, .
, ; ,
- . -
RS-, Y . 1
2 , RS 3. , .
, , : , ,
141

, ,
, .
, .

. 3.8. PZ, P Pmax
, ,
Z; PX PY
G
P .
,
.
G
U { g Z , g X , gY , g } gZ, gX, gY, g .
:
g Z C1 C 2 C 3;
G g Z g X gY C1 C 4 C 2 C 4 C 3 C 4;
U=
g Z g C 5;
g g X gY C 5 C 4,
15 .
.
g Z (z0 ,PZ ,P ,Pmax ) Z :

z0 VZ GZ ( p) PZ = GC ;

z0 k ( PZ ) VZ 1( PZ ) GZ ( p) GC < PZ P ;
gZ =
k ( Pmax PZ ) VZ 2 ( PZ ) VZ ( p) P < PZ < Pmax ;
z V ( p) P = P ,

Z
GZ
max

Gz (p), Vz (p) Z,
; VZ
; GC ; k k Z.
142

H
X0,Y0,ZH,a=0

Z0

PZ>GC

PX,Y>0

PZ>P

PX,Y>0

Pz>Pmax

PX,Y>0

. 3.8.

143


X Y :

0 Py < Py 0 ;
0 Px < Px 0 ;

x = +X sign( Px Px0 ) = 1; y = +Y sign( Py Py 0 ) = 1;


X sign( P P ) = 1;

x
x0

Y sign( Py Py 0 ) = 1,
Px0, Py0, Px, Py X Y ; X Y ,
.
X
g X ( x0 , x , PZ , PX , Smax )
x0 G X ( p ) PX < Px 0 ;

x
+
x G X ( p ) PX > Px 0 PX = 0 S < Smax ;

0
i =1
gX =
k ( P )( x + n x ) ( p ) P > 0 S < S ;

GX
Z
max
x Z 0 i
=1

x0 + xS G X ( p ) PZ > 0 S = Smax ,
Gx (p) X, ;
kx (PZ)
Z X; S Smax
; xS Smax
.

Y:
y0 G y ( p ) PY < Py 0 ;

y
y G y ( p ) PY > Py 0 PY = 0 S < Smax ;
+

j =1
gY =
k

k
P
y
(
)(
+
y Z 0 y ) G y ( p ) PZ > 0 S < Smax ;
j =1

y0 + yS Gy ( p ) PZ > 0 S = Smax ,
Gy ( p ) Y, ;
ky (PZ) ; yS Smax.

144

g X gY ,
2

n
k

S = X + Y
i =1
j =1


,
Smax =

D dC
2

d ; D ,
, , , :
D zi = z ;

D = ( z0 z )
k ( z z ) z < zi < z0 ,
0
i

D ; k .
g

0PZ GC ;
g =
G ( p)PZ = GC zi = zn1 ,
G (p) , ; zn1 .
3.2.

. , X, Y
, Z .
. ,
145

(. 3.9) XOY
.
XOY, ,
X, Y :
U S > 0;
Ux = 0
0 S < 0;

U S < 0;
Uy = 0
0 S > 0,

S = S (X, Y) , dS/dx, dS/dy, S = <X,>: S (,) = 0 .

. 3.9.

dS
dS dS

U
S

>
0

> 0;
0
dY
dx dY

dS
dS dS

U x (t ) = U 0 <0S

> 0;
dY
dx
dY

dS dS

S
0

< 0;

dx
dY

146

dS
dS dS

U
S

>
0

< 0;
0

dY
dx dY

dS
dS dS

U y (t ) = U 0 <0 S

< 0;
dY
dx
dY

dS dS

> 0.
0
dx dY

dS (x, y ) dS (x, y )
P(x, y ) = S (x, y )
.
dx
dy

dS
dS
dS (x, y )
dS (x, y )
U =< U x ,U y >

, sgn x =
;sgn y =
.
dy
dx
dx
dy
Z

. .
, Sk, S Z , ,
.
( ) (. 3.10)
Z. C (S = 0), X x = / 2 Z ,
.
, X Z [27]:

147

U S < 0;
Ux = 0
0 S > 0;

0 S < 0 U 0;
x

U y = U g S < 0 U x = 0 , Fz Fg ;

U 0 S > 0 Fg ,

U g ,
Fg .

dS
<0
dX

. 3.10.

- , . 3.11.
, XOZ (. 3.12).
. X
V x , Z
.
S.

148

: V ,V ,F
x z

S=0

X =
2

a = Z Zi 0

b = FZ F 0

ai=1

bi=1

f=ab

f=1

. 3.11. -

149


, S < 0 - .
X Z :
U 0 S 0 Fx = 0 , U z = 0;

U x = U 0 S 0 Fx 0 , U z = 0; : x ;
2
0 U 0;

U 0 = x tg S > 0 Fz = 0; U x = 0;

U z = U g S = 0 Fz 0 , U x = 0;

0 S 0 Fz = 0 ,U x 0,
; .

. 3.12.

, , . 3.13, .
150

. 3.13. -

151

U 0 S < 0 Fx = 0;

U x = U 0 S < 0 Fx 0;
F
g S > 0 Fx = 0; 0 S < 0;
F S > 0 F 0;
x

U 0 S > 0 Fy = 0;

U y = U 0 S > 0 Fy 0;

Fg S < 0 Fy = 0;
F S < 0 F 0; 0 S > 0.
y

g
, Z .
,
()
. . ,
- - .

[30].
, ,
Z
152

. , Fz
() F z , Fk .

Z Fg .
X, Y, Fx , F y
Fg , . .
, .., .. X Y
- ,
, V x V y .
,
.
,
Z V z
.
, .
, , . . , ,
. 3.14.
() G, , RS-,
AN dF
dU, K1K3, .
153

K1

dF

dU
K2

&

K3

UA
A0

UB
B0

UN
N0

R
. 3.14.

.
dF dU ,

, . .
154

AN .
, , . K1 K2. , , .
. AN
. ,
, G
, .
, .
,
RS- ,
3, , .

, dU, . , , ,
, . ,
, .
,
,
, ,
, .
,
155

, . . , . ,
, ,
. , ,
,
,
,
,
.
RS- .


.
,
, .
Z,
X Y -
. gZ gX
:
z0 GZ ( p ) PZ = GC ;
g *Z =
k PZ 1 PZ ( p) GC > PZ ;
0 PZ = GC z = z0 ;
g *X =
AX ( z , PX )sin X ( z )t PX ( p ) GC > PZ z < z0 ,
AX ( z , PX ) X (z ) .

, 156

, . , ,
:
z0 z
AX ( z , PX ) = A0k A
,
1 + k AX PX
0 , ; k, k
.

, ,
.
X ( z) =

0 k
,
1 + ( z0 z )

0 ,
; k .

Y ( gY ) , , ( g ).

. 3.15, , ,
. 3.16. 1 : Z
, X Y ( ) -
.

157

H
X 0 ,Y 0,Z 0
V Z
Z,P X

Z i=Z k

P Z =G

P X ,P Y ,P a

U X =A X (Z,P X )sin X (Z)t

U Y =A Y (Z,P Y)sin Y (Z)t

U a=A a (Z,P a)sin a(Z)t

VX

VY

Va

P Z =G

VZ

Z i=Z k

V Z =0
X 0 ,Y 0,Z N
K

. 3.15.

158

kP

K1

Z0

Z
Z

A0

KAX(PX,Z)

KX(Z)

K2

X0

KAY(PY,Z)

KY(Z)

CY

K3

Y0

Y
. 3.16.

159

3.3.
-

, . 2.22
2.27. ,
, . , (. . 2.22, 2),
, , 5 7 (
). 2-3-4-7 2-3-5-6-7 .

.
.
X, Z . , (-). : . .
. .
Z
FZ .
. FZ = FZ .
, - (. . 2.22, 1). Mc . , Mc < 0,
X Vx, Mc > 0, +Vx. Z. Vz = 0,
. 1 - Z FZ Vz. , 4. 160

X. , , . 3.17, :
+VxM c > 0 Vz = 0,

V (1) = VxM c < 0 Vz = 0,

0Vz 0;

Vz (1) = k ( Fz Fz ) ;
(1) = 0 .

Mc > 0

V = + Vx

V = - Vx
Vz
Vz = 0

0
V = 0
4
. 3.17.


, 5-7
. . Z
FZ . 161

X . Z, , , . 2.22, 3.
. 3.18 :
k ( Fx Fx )M c > 0 Vx 0 Z H ,

V (2) = + k ( Fx Fx )M c < 0 Vx 0 Z H ,

0Z H Vx = 0 Z < H ;

Vz (2) = k ( Fz Fz ) ;
(2) = 0 .
3...6, .
:
V (3) = 0 ;
Vz (3) = k ( Fz Fz ) ;
+ k ( M M )Fx > 0 M c < M cn ,

(3) = k ( M M )Fx < 0 M c > M cn ,

0M c M cn M c M cn .

:
k ( Fx Fx )M c > 0 Vx 0 Z 0,

V (4) = + k ( Fx Fx )M c < 0 Vx 0 Z 0,

0Z < H Vx = 0 Z = 0;

k ( F Fz )Z 0,
Vz (4) = z
0Z = 0;

(4) = 0.
:
k ( Fx Fx )M c > 0 Vz 0 Z 0,

V (5) = + k ( Fx Fx )M c < 0 Vz 0 Z 0,

0Z < H Vz = 0 Z = 0;

k ( F Fz )Z 0,
Vz (5) = z
0Z = 0;

(5) = 0.
162

:
k ( Fx Fx )Fx > 0 Z 0,

V (6) = + k ( Fx Fx )Fx < 0 Z 0,

0Z = 0;

k ( F Fz )Z 0,
Vz (6) = z
0Z = 0;

k ( M M )Fx > 0 Z 0,

(6) = + k ( M M )Fx < 0 Z 0,

0Z = 0.

- . 3.19 3.22.

Mc > 0

V = -k(F-Fx)

V = k(F-Fx)
Z
0

Z <H

V = 0

Vx
0

Vx = 0

5
V = 0
3

. 3.18.

163

F >0
x

= -k(M -M )

= k(M -M )

M <M
c cn

M <M
c cn

= 0

= 0

. 3.19.

Mc > 0

V = -k(F-Fx)

0
V = k(F-Fx)

Z
0
V
0

Vx = 0

Z=0

1
V

x
1

= 0; V =0
z

5
V

=0

6
. 3.20.

164

M >0
c

V = -k(F -F )

0
V = k(F -F )

Vz
0

Vz = 0

Z
0

V
1

Z=0

= 0

= 0; Vz=0

. 3.21.

F x
1
V

F >0
x

= -k(F -F x )

= -k(M

0
V

-M )

= k(F -F x )

= k(M

-M )

Z
0

Z=0

1
V = 0; V =0; =0

. 3.22.

165

, (. . 2.22, 3), . 1 2
(. . 2.27). 4, 5, 6

, 1, 1, 2, 2 :
1:
+VxM c > 0 Vz = 0,

V (1) = VxM c < 0 Vz = 0,

0Vz 0;

Vz (1) = k ( Fz Fz );
(1) = 0.

1:
k ( Fx Fx )M c > 0 Z > H ,

V (1) = + k ( Fx Fx )M c < 0 Z < H ,

0Z H ;

Vz (1a) = k ( Fz Fz );

(1a) = 0.
2:
VxM c > 0 Z > H h,

V (2) = +VxM c < 0 Z > H h,

0Z H h;

Vz (2) = k ( Fz Fz );

(2) = 0.
2:
+VxM c > 0 Z > H h ,

V (2a) = VxM c < 0 Z > H h ,

0Z H h ;

Vz (2a) = k ( Fz Fz );

(2a) = 0.
166

- . 3.23 3.26.


1
V

Mc > 0

= + Vx

=-V

Vz
Vz = 0
0
V

= 0

1a
. 3.23. 1
( )

Mc > 0

V = -k(F-Fx)

0
V = k(F-Fx)

Z
0

Z <H

1
V

= 0

2a
. 3.24. 1a
( )

167



1
V

Mc > 0

= -V x

= +V x

Z
1

Z >H-h

0
V

= 0

. 3.25. 2
( )


1
V

Mc > 0

= +Vx

= -Vx

Z
1

Z >H-h

0
V

= 0

5
. 3.26. 2a
( )

.
168

3.4.



. . .
. , ,
, , .., ,
.
Z0 X0
Y0. . , , , . Z Z, X Y ( V X VY ).
:

;

;
( ) ;
169


,
, ;
, , ,
.
,
Tk ( x0 , y0 , z ) . .
I : ;
,
Z l .
II : ; Z .
G
U {g Z , g X , gY } g Z , g X , gY . :
G
U {g Z , g X }, X Y
. gY
g X
. .
Z .
, Z PZ = GC
.
, PZ < GC .
, A, B C . 3.27,
: z ; z , z ,
z 0 .

170

, 0
, X

PX
M . zi
PZ
Z
A, B C .

g Z Z,

Z K
g X A , g X B , g XC X Z K

,
,
Z0
A B C.
Z
g Z ( z 0 , PZ ) ,
. 3.27.




AC, :
z0 G ( p ) PZ = GC ;
Z

g Z = U Z k (GC PZ ) VZ ( p ) (GC PZ ) < PZ 0 ;

k PZ 0 PZ ( p ) (GC PZ ) PZ 0 ,

(3.1)

GZ ( p) , VZ ( p) , PZ ( p) Z, , ; UZ ; PZ0 PZ,
; kPC kP
Z.
Z
; (GC PZ ) < PZ 0
-; (GC PZ ) PZ 0 . A. ,
171

X MT c Z VZ ,
B. g X A ( z, PZ , M T ) X :

gX A

+U X VX ( p) (GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T > 0;

= U X VX ( p) (GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T < 0;

0 (GC PZ ) < PZ 0 ,

(3.2)

Vx (p) X, ;
UX ; .
B Z , X
G
P ; z zK
.
g X B ( z , z , PZ , PX , M T ) :
gXB

+U X k X ( PX ) PX ( p ) (GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T > 0 z < zK ;

= U X k X ( PX ) PX ( p ) (GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T < 0 z < zK ;

0 z = zK (GC PZ ) < PZ 0 ,

(3.3)

PX ( p) X, ;
k X ( PX ) .

g X ( z, z , PZ , PX , M T )

g XC

+U X k X ( PX )kZ ( zK z ) PX ( p)

(GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T > 0 z < zK ;

= U X k X ( PX )kZ ( zK z ) PX ( p)

(GC PZ ) PZ 0 M T < 0 z < zK ;


0 z = zK (GC PZ ) < PZ 0 ,

(3.4)

kZ ( zK z ) ,
172

. , zK . ,

g X = g X A g X B g XC ,

(3.5)


. G
U { g Z , g X }
. 3.28, ,
, . 3.29.

, , Z, (3.1) (3.5) ()
() .
.

: A
B (. . 3.27) ; ; , .
:

+U VX ( p) PZ < GC PX > 0;
z GZ ( p) PZ = GC ;

g X = U VX ( p) PZ < GC PX < 0;
gZ =

k PZ 0 PZ ( p) PZ < GC ;
0 PZ = GC PX = 0;

+ U VY ( p)PZ < GC PY > 0;

gY = U VY ( p)PZ < GC PY < 0;

0PZ = GC PY = 0.
173

H
X0,Y0,Z0,Z,ZK,Z
VZ
P
Z

GC=PZ

z<z

VZ=0

VZ=k1PZ0

+UX

z<z

VZ=k2(GC-PZ)

MT>0

-UX

MT>0

+kXUX

GC-PZ<PZ0

VZ=k3(GC-PZ)

-kXUX

MT>0

+kXkZUX

VX=0

. 3.28.

174

-kXkZUX

GTBC

PZ0
UZ

PZ

z
z

kPC

K1

z0

kP

Z
Z

KZ

UX
x0

KC

KX

X
. 3.29.
( Z X)

. 3.30
. PZ = GC
z = zK.

.
, ,
, .
175

X0,Y0,Z0,Z

VZ

z>z

PZ=GC

VZ=0

PX

PY

PX=0

VX=0

VX=+U

PX>0

VX=-U

VY=0

PZ=GC

PY=0

VY=+U

PY>0

VY=-U

. 3.30.

176

PZ 1 Z,
G
U {gZ, gX} :
z0 GZ ( p ) PZ = GC ;

g Z = U Z k (GC PZ ) VZ ( p ) (GC PZ ) PZ 1;

0 (GC PZ ) > PZ 1;

gX

+U X k X ( PX ) PX ( p )

(GC PZ ) PZ 1 PX > 0 VX 0 z < z0 ;

= U X k X ( PX ) PX ( p )

(GC PZ ) PZ 1 PX < 0 VX 0 z < z0 ;

0 VX = 0 PX = 0 z = z0 ,

VX X, , .
,
PZ1 ; ,
.
Z

. 3.31. - , . 1 , 2 -, 3 . 5 Z .
X Y 4
. 3.32. S > S max
. Z X, , . 3.33 ( ).
13 ,
4 PX0, 5 xS.

177

H
X0,Y0,ZH,P,Pmax
1

Vz

PZ=GC

PZ=GC

Vz=f1(PZ)

Pz>P

PZ

Pz>P

Zi=Z0

3
4

Zi=Z0

Vz=f2(PZ)

PZ>Pmax

DZ

VZ=0

Zn1

X0,Y0,Z0
K

. 3.31. Z

178


PX
Py

|PX|>PX0

signPX=1

DX=+1

signPy=1

DX=-1

|Py|>Py0

DY=+1

DY=-1

X=X0+SDX

y=y0+SDy

kx=f(Pz,Px,z0-z)

ky=f(Pz,Py,z0-z)

S<Smax

X
Y

. 3.32. X Y 4

179

GC

PZ
2

Pmax

R
KZ
1+PZ

Z0

Zi

Z
Z

K1

Z
Z

Smax
KX
1+PZ

KX
1+PX

PX

X0

X
X

Y
PZ

Y0

. 3.33.

180

4.


4.1.

, , () . () [14] , ,
, , ,
,
, .
.
[26, 38] ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
,
, .
181


[3, 8, 61]. ,
, , . , , ,
.
: 1 : 30000
1 : 100000, 100...250 ,
8...10-. ,
. -
, ,
-
. ,
, , - [70],
- [17, 18, 50]. -
, ,
, , .
, .
.

182

. . , [2, 5, 6, 53, 58].



(-,
-) , , , , [52, 66].

(),
(. 4.1).
US

UU

UV

. 4.1.

, [40], , , : ,
; ,

; ; ,

.
183

[41, 60] . ,
,
( X Y)
( Z), (. 4.2, ), , . , ,
, , , .

Z
Z

2Z
X
1X

1Y
Y

)
1

M1

PM

)
. 4.2.

184

1 2 , . , ,
, (. 4.2, ) [40].
, ,
,
X Y
.
(. 4.3, a) [19, 69],
(. 4.3, b). [40].

UX

C1

C2

. 4.3.



X
FC ;
X = ( X 0 X X K ) J 1K P J 1KV X W

F = KE ( X XC ) ,
(4.1)
J ; X , X
; X ; F
; X 0 X
; X K ; K P , KV , W
185

, ; K E , ; K F ;
.


X
X = X 0 X K F F J 1KV J T F W
.
(4.2)

,
.
G
T
S = X X

X X , (4.1)

(4.2)
G
S = ( X 0 K F F ) J 1K P + X 0 K F F J 1KV + J T F .
(4.3)

. 4.4.

X0

J-1
XK

X0

J-1

KP

KV

M'

MK

XC

W
2

JT

XK
K'F

KE

KF
. 4.4.

. , . 186

,
: , X 0 ,
0

(
); , X 0 = 0 ,
.

[21, 48, 69].
.
. 4.5.
F0

JT

K*

SC

MK
JT
K

KE

. 4.5.

: F0 , F
; S , S C ; J *
; K F
, K E , W , K , , .
, .
,
() , . , ,
.

187


. 4.6, : , ; ,
, , , , , .

,
.

X0

X0

F0

. 4.6.

. [19, 69], ,
, :
M

i = {Fij [ s j F j ] + Pij [(1 s j )x j ]} ,

(4.4)

j =1

Fij Pij
j- i- ; sj ; i ; Fj ; xj .

. .
188

,
- , .
, , . . 4.7, ( ) S F . , ,
(Z), X Y.
X,Y
S
S0

F0
U

F
U Tp

SC

. 4.7.

Z.
, (. 4.7)
(). [15], .
189

. 3 ,
Z , .

,
. ,
- .
, , . 4.1.
. ,

.
, [33].
, ,
- ,
,
. . 4.8.
X Y Z a

S0

U1

F0

U2

SC

. 4.8.

190

,
,
3
, .
4.9.
(
), i, , (
Z), , , .

K(p)

K(p)

K(p)

Y
X

. 4.9.

191

4.2.

, -

, , .

.
, , [43],

[66]. ()
.

*
X (t )

g * (t ) = L1 x * ( p ) .

(4.5)

x* ( p ) =

W ( p) *
V ( p)
M ( p)
,
g ( p)
f ( p) +
1 + W ( p)
1 + W ( p)
1 + W ( p)

(4.6)

p = d dt ;
A( p )

W ( p) =
B( p)
;
A( p) , B( p) p m n, m>n;
C ( p)
V ( p) =
D( p)
;
C ( p ) , D( p ) p k l, l > k;

192

M ( p ) , .
X * (t ) g (t ) = g m1(t )
g * (t ) . (4.6)

g * ( p) =

V ( p)
M ( p)
1 + W ( p) *
x ( p) +
f ( p)
W ( p)
W ( p)
W ( p)

(4.7)

G* ( p ) = Gn* p n + Gn*1 p n 1 + Gn* 2 p n 2 + ... + G1* p + G0* .

(4.8)

g * (t )
(. 4.10, ). Ei ( p)
. .

1. g * (t )
, (. 4.10, ).
, , . (4.7)
1 + W ( p) *
V ( p)
M ( p)
x ( p) +
f ( p)
g ( p)
W ( p)
W ( p)
W ( p)
.
E0 ( p ) =
=
g ( p)
g ( p)
*

(4.9)

, , .

g * (t ) = L1 ( g * ( p )) = L1( E0 ( p )) .

(4.10)

2.
X * (t )
E1 ( p) (. 4.10, ).

1
V ( p)
M ( p)
* ( p ) =
. (4.11)
g ( p) +
f ( p) +
1 + E1 ( p )W ( p)
1 + E1 ( p )W ( p )
1 + E1( p)W ( p )
193

f
V(p)
g

E0(p)

g*

X1

W(p)

X2

X*

)
f
V(p)
g

E1(p)

X1

W(p)

X2

X*

X2

X*

X2

X*

)
f
E11(p)
g

K0

V(p)

X1

W(p)

)
f
V(p)
g

X1

W(p)

E2(p)

W 2

)
. 4.10.

194

, (4.11)
E1 ( p ) ,
g ( p) V ( p) f ( p)
E1 ( p ) = *
+
1 W ( p ) .
* ( p )
( p)

g (t ) = g m1(t ) E1( p)

B ( p ) g m + C ( p ) f ( p ) G* ( p )

.
E1 ( p ) =
A( p ) D( p ) R ( p )

(4.12)

E1 ( p) f ( p)
.
, (4.12)

g ( p)

1 W ( p )
E1 ( p ) = *
( p )

(4.13)

E1 ( p) =

B( p )[g m + E ( p)]
.
A( p) R( p )

(4.14)

(4.11) (4.14) , E1 ( p) .
.
,

F t t 0 . X * (t )
(4.7), (4.11).

, X * (t ) g (t ) = g m 1(t )
W ( p ) . , E1 ( p) = K 0 W ( p ) = K 0W0 ( p )
195


,
( ) : ,
n = 1; = 05 %; t.. = (45) /.
3.
E11 ( p ) (. 4.10, ).

* ( p ) =

1
V ( p)
g ( p) +
f ( p) .
1 + [ K 0 + E11( p )]W ( p )
1 + [ K 0 + E11( p )]W ( p)

(4.15)

g (t ) = g m1(t )
E1 ( p )
E11( p) =

gm

( p )W ( p )

V ( p)
*

( p )W ( p )

f ( p ) * ( p )[1 + K 0W ( p )] . (4.16)

K 0 = 1 , .

E11( p ) =

gm

* ( p )W ( p )

V ( p)
* ( p )W ( p )

f ( p ) * ( p )[1 + W ( p )] .

(4.17)

.
4.
E2 ( p ) .
(. 4.10, ). E2 ( p ) [60].

Hed ( p ) x( p ) = Ad ( p) g * ( p) + C ( p) f ( p) + M ( p) ,

(4.18)

Hed ( p) = [ H ( p) + E2 ( p)]D( p) .
Hed ( p )
hi = a i + bi 0 + bi 00 + ei ( g * ) ,

196

bi 0 ;

bi 00 ;
ei ( g * ) .

(4.18) .
:
1.
(
) .
2. .

[57]:
1. g * (t )
g * (t ) = g m (1 e1t1 ) + g m (1 a1 )e 2 t2 + g m (1 a1 a2 )e3t3 + ...
n 1

... + g m (1 ai )e n tn .

(4.19)

i =1

(4.19) , t i
, . ti

K i , i . (4.19) , W ( p ) [57]:
n

ai = 1 ; a1 > a 2 > a 3 > ... > a n ; a1 0,5; a 2 0,5 a1 ; ai 0,5 a i 1 ; n = 46.

i =1

2. X * ( p) = L X * (t ) g * ( p) (4.7).
3. ( p) * ( p ) (4.15) g ( p)
g * ( p ) .
197

4. (t ) = L1( p) * (t ) = L1 * ( p) .
5. (t ) * (t ) * = f () ,
* .

E = f () .
.. 24 .

* (t )
[12] , [63].

, .

, .
.
g (t ) = g m 1(t )
:
1) g m m , m ;
2) g m > = m , = ( m 0) ,
, .
.
1. g m .
(4.7), (4.11) ;
, M ( p ) = 0 .
.
.
,
, . = M c K , K
,
0,5 m . , * = f ()
198

g m , . g * (t ) = g m .
2. g m > . ,

, .. << g m . g m 97 %.

= g m = m .
= M c K
K m . (4.7), (4.11) .
, .

W ( p) =

K
,
p (Tp + 1)

(4.20)


( p ) =

1
T 2 1
p + p +1
K
K

(4.21)


= 1 , .
K

1
.
4T

(4.22)

,
(4.11) m
199

g m = ,
:
t

2T + m
1
( cos t +
sin t ) e 2T K >
;
4T

2T + m
1

(4.23)
g (t ) = ( ch t +
sh t ) e 2T K <
;
4
T

( + ( 2T + m ) e 2T K = 1 .
4T

. , , = m K , .
(4.23)
m < .

(4.24)

. , : , , .
,
, ,
. 4.11, :
K = K 0 K (, t ) F1() ,
(4.25)

K (, t ) = K sin

2
2 (t ) ; K = (0,1...0,2) K 0 ; 2 (t ) = (t ) 1 ;
1

11 (t ) <
.
F1 () =

<

t
0
(
)

1
: = (0,81,0) ; 1 = (0,050,1) .
= (0,30,5) 1 . 200

,
K = F () , . 4.11, .
U ,

U ,

4
3

A2
A1
0 1 2

. 4.11.


, .
. 4.12. Fi ()
, .

S0


F1()
, S
F2()

F3()
-
.
F4()
, ,

-.
. 4.12.

, . 4.12.
. 4.13.
201

202

. 4.13.

(3.15), (3.16) . 4.11, .


: = [0,2; 2,5; 9,0; 10,0];
= [0,2; 1,0; 12,0; 17,0].
. 4.14.
, , 0,18 . ,


.
10,
X

200
150
100
50
0
-50

0.1

0.2

0.3 T,c

0.1

0.2

0.3

8
6
4
2
0

T,c

. 4.14.

203

4.3.
-


.

. , .
,
, X.

. ,

. [7, 45].
. 4.15. : ; ; ;
; ; - ;
; 13 ; ; ;
; ; ;
; F(S) ;
; .
, [25].
-. -2
2165. -8,
, .
.
.
204

205

U2

F0

U1

S0

SC

F(DS)

. 4.15.

MC

, :
1. , T (t )1 ,
T (t ) 1 =

Vx
[],
NK t

(4.26)

Vx [/] ; N [360 /n]; n


; Kt .
2. X[T].
3. G[T] , T.
4. [T].
5. ,
.
.
. 4.16.
K

UPC
1

UPC
K2T2 p + 1
p
x(1)

UP

UP

U
K3T3 p + 1
p
x(2)

x(3)
x(4)
x(5)

. 4.16.

206

J p

1
ip

x(6)

x(7)

, ,
:
, ;
;
.

.
:
U = K1( K X (7)) K X (6) ;
X (7) = ;
X (6) = ;
U U C U U C
0
U
=
;
U

U
>
U
sgn
C

C
0
pX (1) = K 2U
;
0
U = X (1) + K 2T2U
;

U = U K ( I a* + I b* + I c* ) ;

I aI a 0
I a* =
;
0I a < 0
I bIb 0
;
I b* =

I
<
0
0
b

I I 0
I * =
;

I
<
0
0

U UT U UT
0
;
U
=
U
U
U
U
sgn

>

(4.27)

0
pX (2) = K3U
;

0
U = X (2) + K3T3U
;

X (3) = I a ; X (4) = Ib ; X (5) = I c ;


I c = ( I a + I b ) .
207

.
1. 00 < 600 :
1.1. I b 0 :
( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (5)) + R ( I b + I c ) + Ebc = 0 ;

( L + M )( pX (3) + pX (5)) + R ( I a + I c ) + Eac = 0 ;

(4.28)

C I c cos( ) + I b cos( + ) .
2
6
6

M = M ac + M bc =
1.2. I b = 0 :

2( L + M ) pX (3) + 2 R X (3) = U Ebc ;


M = M ac =

C I a cos( ) ;
2
6

Eab = Eac = Ebc = C cos( ) .


6
2. 600 < 1200 :

2.1. I c 0 :
( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (5)) + R ( I b + I c ) + Ebc = 0 ;

( L + M )( pX (3) + pX (4)) + R ( I a + Ib ) + Eab = 0 ;

(4.29)

C I b cos( ) + I c cos( + ) .
2
6
6

M = M ab + M bc =
2.2. I c = 0 :

2( L + M ) pX (4) + 2 R X (4) = U Eab ;


M = M ab =

C I a cos( ) .
2
6

3. 1200 < 1800 :


3.1. I a 0 :

( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (3)) + R ( Ib + I a ) + Eba = 0 ;


( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (5)) + R ( I b + I c ) + Ebc = 0 ;
M = M ab + M bc =

208

(4.30)

C I b cos( ) + I a cos( + ) .
2
6
6

3.2. I a = 0 :
2( L + M ) pX (5) + 2 R X (5) = U Eb ;
M = M b =

C I a cos( ) .
2
6

4. 1800 < 2400 :


4.1. I b 0 :
( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (5)) + R ( I b + I ) + Eb = 0 ;
( L + M )( pX (3) + pX (5)) + R ( I a + I c ) + Eac = 0 ;

M = M a + M bc =

(4.31)

C I cos( ) + I b cos( + ) .
2
6
6

4.2. Ib = 0 :
2( L + M ) pX (3) + 2 R X (3) = U Ea ;
M = M a =

C I c cos( ) .
2
6

5. 2400 < 3000 :


5.1. I 0 :
( L + M )( pX (3) + pX (5)) + R ( I a + I ) + Ea = 0 ;

( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (3)) + R ( Ib + I a ) + Eab = 0 ;


M = M a + M ab =

(4.32)

C I a cos( ) + I c cos( + ) .
2
6
6

5.2. I = 0 :
2( L + M ) pX (4) + 2 R X (4) = U Eab ;

M = M ab =

C I a cos( ) .
2
6

6. 3000 < 3600 :


6.1. I a 0 :

( L + M )( pX (3) + pX (4)) + R ( I a + Ib ) + Eab = 0 ;


( L + M )( pX (4) + pX (5)) + R ( Ib + I ) + Eb = 0 ;
M = M ab + M bc =

(4.33)

C I c cos( ) + I a cos( + ) .
2
6
6

209

6.2. I a = 0 :
2( L + M ) pX (5) + 2 R X (5) = U Eb ;
M = M b =

C I b cos( ) .
2
6

:
1. 3000 < 3600 3;
2. 2400 < 3000 2;
3. 1800 < 2400 1;
4. 1200 < 1800 6;
5. 600 < 1200 5;
6. 00 < 600 4;

U = U
pX (6) =

U
;
K3U

M M C
J

(4.34)

X (6)
,
i
p ; U, U, U
; U U
, U
; Ia, Ib, Ic
; L M ;
R .
(4.27)
(4.34)

:
T -1 X[T], G[T], [T]
( -1 > 10);
pX (7) =

210

,
[33],

W =

1 z
,
1 + pT

(4.35)

z .
(>10 ), , ,
.
,
, . 4.17.
:
Y 1 = x K X (5) ;

Y 2 = Y 1K1 ;
Y 3 = Y 15 K Y 19 ;
Y 4 = X (1) + K 2T2Y 3 ;
Y 5 = Y 13 K Y 17 ;
Y 6 = X (2) + K3T3Y 5 ;

Y 8 = Y 18 CEY 19 ;
Y 9 = CM Y 17 ;
Y 10 = Y 9 M C ;

(4.36)

10Y 4 10;

Y 13 = Y 4 10 < Y 4 < 10;


10Y 4 10;

10Y 2 10;

Y 15 = Y 2 10 < Y 2 < 10;

10 Y 2 10;
25X (3) 25;

Y 17 = X (3) 25 < X (3) < 25;


25X (3) 25;

211

300Y 6 300;

Y 18 = Y 6 300 < Y 6 < 300;


300Y 6 300;

200X (4) 200;

Y 19 = X (4) 200 < X (4) < 200;


200X (4) 200;

pX (1) = K 2Y 3 ;
pX (2) = K3Y 5 ;
pX (3) = (Y 8 z X (3)) T ;
pX (4) = Y 10 J ;

(4.37)

pX (5) = Y 19 i .
, , . 2165 : PM = 2,7 ;
= 17 ; N = 2000 /; I = 12 ; Im = 25 .
(3.15), (3.16) : 1 = 1,0; 2 = 700; 3 = 5500;
= 0,4 /; = 0,0477 / (); = 1,0; 2 = 0,01 ; 3 = 0,01 ;
= 0,0088 ; z = 1,0 ; = 1,4; = 1,4; J = 0,00512; I = 1.
IBM PC MATLAB. . 4.18.
V = 1 e 4 .
V = 75 c-1. 1 = 1. = 8,5 .
33 %. , .
,
. g = = 1(t ) , X = , X = .
212

213

X Y1

K1

Y2

Y15

Y3

K2 T2 p + 1
p

X(1)
Y4

F2
Y15 Y5

K3 T3 p + 1
p

X(2)
Y6

Y18 Y8

F3
T p + 1

1 Z

X(3)

F4

Y17

Y9 Y10

MC

J p

X(4)

F 5 Y19

. 4.17.

F1

1
ip

X(5)

20
0
-20
-40
0

0.1

0.2

0.3 T,c

0.1

0.2

0.3 T,c

0.1

0.2

0.3

10,
X

200
150
100
50
0
-50

0
,

8
6
4
2
0

T,c

. 4.18.

214

: = 6 , = 2000 /, = 48300 -2; ,


0,75 12,5 %; t = 0,22 ; t = 0,168 .
,
. , (
- , ..) ,
, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
.
.
(. . 4.15) ,
. 4. 19.
MC

F(DS)

S0
U1
F0

SC

U2

. 4.19.

215

, . .

F
(s),
( , ).
:
1. .
0 ( S SC ) 0;
(4.38)
F1 ( s ) =
(
)
(
)
0.
K
S
S
S
S

>
C
C
1
2. .
0 ( S SC ) ;
F2 ( s ) =
K 2 ( S SC ) ( S SC ) > .
3. .
0 ( S SC ) 0;
K ( S S ) ( S S ) > 0 dS dt > 0;
1
C
C
F3 ( s) =
K1 ( S SC ) ( S SC ) > dS dt < 0;
0 0 < ( S SC ) < dS dt < 0.

(4.39)

(4.40)

4. .
0 ( S SC ) 0;
H 0 < ( S S ) < dS dt > 0;
C

F4 ( s) = K1( S SC ) ( S SC ) > dS dt > 0;


(4.41)
K ( S S ) ( S S ) > dS dt < 0;
C
C
1
0 0 < ( S SC ) < dS dt < 0,
SC ; ; K
(K2 >> K1); H .
216


(. . 4.17)
(4.38) (4.41). , . 4.20. : CE = 1,4; CM = 1,4; K5 = 1,0; K7 = 1,010-2; i = 1000; = 5,0105; K1 =
10; K2 = 1,0107; H = 0,08; = 1,510-4.
K4
F

K3 T3 p + 1
p

K2 T2 p + 1
p

1/ Z
T p + 1

K5
J p

1
ip

S0

F(s)

6
1/i
7

. 4.20.

(4.38) (4.41)
, . 4.21
4.24 . , ( tk = 0,3 )
,
( .. ) . , F1 (s)
, , (. 4.21). F2(s) 0,05 ,
(. 4.22).
F3(s) ,
0,12 (. 4.23).
F4(s) 0,06 ,

15 % (. 4.24). .
217

,
/
0
-5
-10
-15
-20 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

,
/
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200 0
,

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 0

. 4.21.
F1 (s)

218

,
/
0
-5
-10
-15
-20 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

,
/
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-2000
,

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 0

. 4.22.
F2 (s)

219

,
/
0
-5
-10
-15
-20 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

,
/
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-2000
,

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 0

. 4.23.
F3 (s)

220

,
/
0
-5
-10
-15
-20 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5 ,

,
/
500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
-200 0
,

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0 0

. 4.24.
F4 (s)

221

, ,
, , .

4.4.


,
. 4.3. -
.
,
. 4.15.
() ,
.
(. . 4.17) (4.36, 4.37). : K = K1 F1, F1 Y15; K = K2F2 ; K = K3F3 ;
K = F4/Z; KV = F5.
:
X = A X ,
(4.42)
1

A1 55:
0
k
A1 = k kT3
0
0

0
0
k
0
0

0
k k
a24
k k
a33
a34
cM kV / J 0
0
1/ i

k k k
a25
,
a35
0
0

a24 = k k kT2 ; a25 = k k k kT2 ;


222

a33 = (k k kT3 + 1) / T ;
a34 = ( k + k kk k 2T3 ) ;
a35 = k k k k k 2T3 .
, () ,
, . .
1. Fx Fz .
. 4.25.
F

+ p

1
J p

. 4.25.

: J , J = J + J + 2 , , .
2. M0
. . 4.26.
M

+ p

1|
M

1
ip

1
J p

. 4.26.

223

3. M0
. . 4.27. : J 1
, J 2
.
M

1/i
M
M

1
ip

JS 1 p
w

+ p
a
U

JS2 p

1
ip

. 4.27.


. 4.28.
,
, :
X = A X ,
(4.43)
2

A2 55:
0
0
0
k k
k
0
k k
a24
A2 = k kT3 k a33
a34
0
0
cM kV / J 0
0
0
0

k k k
a25
,
a35
kV / J
0

a24 = k k kT2 ; a25 = k k k kT2 ;


a33 = (k k kT3 + 1) / T ;

a34 = ( k + k kk k 2T3 ) ;

a35 = k k k k k 2T3 ; .
224

225

K T3 p + 1
p

T p + 1

1 Z

V
J p

. 4.28.

K T2 p + 1
p

KC

FY

:
k1 = 1,0; k2 = 700; k3 = 5500; k = 10 /25A = 0,4; k = 0,0477; kC = 0,01;
T2 = 0,01; T3 = 0,01; T = 0,0088; Z = 1,0 (O); c = 1,4; ce = 1,4;
J = 0,0051; = 0,001; c = 500000; kV = 1,0.
, . 4.29.

. 4.29.

,
. 20 %.
226

. , .
,
(. . 4.27).
,
,
X = A3 X ,

(4.44)

A3 77:
0
k
k kT3
A3 =
0
0
0
0

0
0
k
0
0
0
0

0
k k
a33
kV / J 1
0
0
0

k k
a24
a34
0
1/ i
0
0

a15
a25
a35
a45
0
/ J 2
0

0
a17
0
a27
0
a37
0
a47 ,
0
0
0 / J 2
1
0

a15 = k k k ; a17 = k k k ;
a24 = k k kT2 ; a25 = k k k k 2 ; a27 = k k k k 2 ;
a33 = (k k kT3 + 1) / ; a34 = ( k + k kk k 2T3 ) ;
a35 = k k k k k 2 3 ; a37 = k k k k k 2 3 ;
a45 = kV /(iJ 1) ; a47 = kV /(iJ 1) ;
c .
, . 4.30.
() .
0,2 .
, .
. 4.31 . , (0,4 /), .
227

. 4.30. ,

. 4.31.

228

. .
()
. .
. 4.32.
KC

K
F

1 Z

KT3 p + 1
p

V
J p

T p + 1

E
. 4.32.


:
X = A4 X ,

(4.45)

A4 44:

A2 =

k k

c k k

a22

a24

0
0

cM kV / J
0

0
1/ i

kV /(iJ )
0

a22 = (k k kT3 + 1) / ; a24 = k k k 3 .

229

, . 4.33.

. 4.33.

< 1 %
t = 0,1 . F = 50 .

, .

. . , 230

, , .
,
(. . 4.27)
X = A5 X

A5 66:
0
k k
0
a14

k
A5 =

0
0

a22

a23

kV / J 1 0
0
1/ i

a24

(4.46)

a16

a26

kV /(i / J 1) 0 kV /(i / J 1 )
,
0
0
0

/ J 2

/ J 2

a14 = k k ; a16 = k k ;
a22 = (k k kT3 + 1) / ;
a23 = k ; a24 = k k k 3 ;
a26 = k k k 3 .
, . 4.34.
, 65 %,
0,15 . ,

, ( )
.
, (4.42, 4.45, 4.46) :
X = A X ;
1

X = A4 X -

(), ;
X = A5 X , .
231

. 4.34.
,

4.5.
-
.

. ,
(. . 4.15).
, ,
. 4.35, : FSPi (S), FPSi (P) ; Si (S0,P), Pi (P,S) .
232

233

. 4.35.
-

, ,
. 4.36. : W (p)
;
W (p) ; ,

W (p) = ; Ws (p), Wp (p), WFsp (p), WFps (p)
,
.
Us

U1
Us0

Ws(p)

Us

WFsp(p)

W(p)

W(p)
2

W(p)

S0

WFps(p)
Up0
U2
Up

Wp(p)

Up

W(p)

F(s)

. 4.36.

1 (. . 4.36) . 4.37, . (), () (),


1 2
(2), [69]. 1 F (S), 2
U S U P :
234

U S (t ) U P = 0 U S 0 U P 0 U S < 0;
y=
U P (t ) U P > 0 U S > 0.

US

A(p)

US0

US

UP0

UP

K1

y
B(p)

U
UP

(4.47)

1
(p)

F(S)

. 4.37.


: U P , U S ,
.

. :
U S (t ) U P = 0 U S 0;

y = U P (t ) U P 0 U S 0;
(4.48)

U P (t ) U P > 0 U S > 0.

US0 = 0 UP0 = 0:
:
0 U P = 0 U S 0;
y =
(4.49)
K U P (t ) U P > 0 U S > 0,
235


:
0 U P > 0 U S > 0;
y =
(4.50)
K U S (t ) U P = 0 U S 0.
[69], ,
2
: , , , , .
,

.
, , , , .
S0 P0
FSP (S), FPS (P), S (S0,P), P (P,S)
FSP (S ) = sgn( K SP S );
F ( P ) = 0;
PS

S ( S0 , P) = 1;
P ( P, S ) = P0 FSP (S ),

(4.51)

SP .

. 4.38. FSP
(S) - SGN,
P (P,S) .
S0 0, . 0,
, , . 236


,
(
)
, ,
.
S
U S0

sgn

F S P ( S)

U P0

P (P, S)

U
P

. 4.38. -

. 4.39.
S0 ( 1) 0 ( 2)
( 2, 0t1).
S0,S
,P
P
0
9

S0(t)

8
7

P0(t)

5
4

S(t)

2
1

P(t)
0

t1

0.5

t2

t3

t4

T,c

. 4.39.
c

237

S , . ( t1)

. S0
, S = (S0 S). , 2 ( t1t2)
( 4), 0. S , 2 .
,
. 2, X Y , t2 , 2
S ( t2t3). , , (
), ( ), .


P (P, S) :
K P1 ( K P 2 P0 ( P0 P )) > 0;
P ( P, S ) =
1 ( K P 2 P0 ( P0 P)) 0.

(4.52)

, . 4.40,
. 4.41.
P0
t1. 1 (1 + ) -1,
.
(t1t2)
P02 = P01 mP02, t2 P10 = P0,
P.
(t2t3) P = P0, S = 0 ( 1). t2 1
, 2.
238

3 1. , 4 .
S
US0

P(P, S)

UP0

&
2
U
P

. 4.40. -

P,
V
9

P0

S0(t)

8
7

P1

5
4

V1
4

3
2

1
0

t1

0.5

t2

t3 1

T,c

. 4.41.



239

S (S0,P). FSP (S), FPS (P), S


(S0,P), P (P,S)
FSP (S ) = sgn( K SP S );
F ( P ) = sgn( K P);
PS
PS

K S ( S0 S0 ) dt FPS ( P ) = 0 S0 < S0 ;
=
(
,
)

S
P
0
S 0
S F ( P) = 1 S = S ;

PS
0
0
0

P ( P, S ) = P0 FSP (S ),

(4.53)

S, KSP, KPS ;
S0 .
, ,
. 4.42. : , 2
, S, .
S 2, S0
S0, .
S
US 0

S(S0 ,P)

0 dt
sgn1 1

FPS(P)

FSP(S)

P(P,S)

2 sgn2

U P0

U
P

. 4.42. -

240

- , 2 , ,
S, S0, . S0 S0
, .
, .
, . , , (.
. 4.34),
. , ,

-
.

, . (. . 2.17)
. , , . 2, 3. . 4.43.
Z (S ) , X Y . . 241

( -)
.
S Z0

Z
S

Z
Z

PZ0

sgn

PX0
KX

Z0
X
X

SX

SZ

"-"

X1
X2

mod

Z
CX1

PZ
PX

CX2
Y1

PY0
KY

Y1

Y2
Y

SY

y=az+b
x=cz+d

PY

CY2

. 4.43.

. 4.44, .
= 60 a = kb + c ; X 10 , Y 20 .
Z .
MATLAB.
242

,
, . 4.44, . (. 4.44),
,
. 4.45. Z privodZ
- ;
Z.
Y
0

1
X

in_1

0.5

+
+
xt1

kz0

200

240

260

+
+
+
xt2

26
b2

90
100

3
in_3

130

+
+
yt1

1
xk

130

4
in_4

out_1

0.5

in_2

100

+
+
+
yt2

1
yk

2
out_2

3
out_3

4
out_4

. 4.44. :
;



swz0 int2,
sign. Z .

243

244

+
S7

privodY

+
Sum4

privodX

Int

swz0

20

sz

mz0

sz0

privodZ

Px

swz1

S8

S6

Int

-K-

Int

-K-

dz

Sign

S2

+
Int

-K-

XY

z0

24

Model
konus

20

y2

y1

10

19

x2

x1

+
dy2

+
dy1

+
dx2

+
dx1

n4

n3

n2

n1

+
+
+
+

py2

-K-

py1

-K-

Abs

Abs

px2

-K-

px1

-K-

. 4.45. -

0.5s+35
0.000011s2+0.008s+1

Py

0.1s+35

Pz

0.00011s 2+0.01s+1

-K-

0.5s+35
0.000011s2+0.008s+1

+
S3

+
S5

+
dpy

pz

-K-

+
dpx

pX, pY, pZ

iy

ix

Dpy

Dpz

Dpx

px, py, pz
x1, x2, y1, y2
Z. n1 n4 Abs Z.
Y privodX, privodY
dpx dpy ,

Y Z, .
ix iy.
.

. 4.46 ( ) . 4.47 ( ), ,
. t1 = 0,24 Y, t2 = 0,58 X. t = 1,1 .
F (s). ;
,
.

245

PZ, 10-1
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

0.5

T,c

T,c

PX,PY 10-1
200
150
100
50
0
PY

50

PX

-100
-150
-200
-250

0.5

. 4.46. .

246

X,Y Z,
c c
2.0 10.0
Y
1.5 7.5
Z
1.0 5.0
X
0.5 2.5

0
0

0.5

T,c

Y, c

1.5

0.5

-0.5
-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

2.5 X, c

. 4.47. .

247

5.
-
5.1.

: , , .
:
- ;
- , ;
- ;
-
.
,
, , ().
.
, (. 5.1). , .
(
) : X .
. Z .
, ,
.
248


,
() .
Ki, .
() () .

. 5.1.

,

:
.
,
, ..
249

,
. . 5.2. ,
, () . .
.

. 5.2.

. 5.3 , .
250

, , ,
. , , ( ). ,
.

. 5.3.

.
()
.


.
,
251

-
,
(
, , /,
, ..).
, . 5.4.
,
, .
, [68].
,
( ,
, , ..) .
. .
(
) , .
, , ,
. . , ,
,
. ,

(. 5.5).
252

II

III

Z
Z

gZ
Gz(p),Vz(p)
Pz(p)

Z
Z

Z
gX
Gx(p),Vx(p)
Px(p)

X
X

X
gY
Gy(p),Vy(p)
Py(p)

X1
X

M[S]

X2

f[P]

g
G(p)

Y1

Y2

. 5.4.

253

()

)
. 5.5.

254

(. 5.5, ).
, .
(
). - . , , . ,
.
(. 5.5, , ).
. 5.5, , ,
, . ,
-. ,
. 5.5, . ,

, , , (.
5.5, ). , [67].
: ; .

, , 255

.
, .
( ) . [23] , 5 ,
5 % ,
16, 4 ,
4 . .

IBM PC.
, ,
, .
Advantech Octagon Systems. IBM,
DOS- Windows- ,
.
, CAMBASIC,
, -, , .
,
. .
.
Intel.


(. 5.6). . 5.6, . 256

, . , .
,
. (. 5.6, ) , .
(. 5.6, ).

. )
)

(. 5.6, )


)
)

(. 5.6, ),

)
)


. 5.6.
:
; ;
,
257

. (. 5.6, ) .
, .. . 5.6,
. 5.6, .
.
, ,
0,01 0,1 .
: ,

( ), , . , , . . :
( BITBUS). ,
, .

.
(. 5.7).

(), . - , .

258

M1

M2

Mi


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260

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. 5.9.

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,
[4, 49, 65].
:
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2) ;
3) .

-.
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n

U i [nT ] = K [nT ] + K [ jT ] + K ([nT ] [(n 1)T ]) ;


j =1

i [nT ] = U i [nT ] K x[nT ] ,


Ui, Ui ;
x ; 261

; , , ; .

:
K = T ; K =

T
T


2[nT ] = [nT ] [(n 1)T ] ,

K
k
[nT ] = 1[nT ] 1[(n 1)T ] = (1) r [(n + k r )T ],
r
i =1

k
= Ckr = k ! (k r )! .
r!
r
N [49]
n

NUi = ent( K N i + K N i + K ( N i N (i 1) )) ;
i =1

N i = NU i K N xi ,
N , .
, , , , .
, (ROM) (RAM) .
262

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; wi i-
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263

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265

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. 5.11.

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;
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. 5.12.

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. 5.12. -

268

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;
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269

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.
: 600000, . , . , 87, ,
.

270

1. , . . : . /
. . [ .]. . : , 1991. 357 .
2.
/ . . [ .] ; . . . .
. : , 1990. 332 .
3. / . . . . , . . . . : , 1990. 544 .
4. : I . (XII .)
. : . . . : , 1995. 155 .
5. - / . . [
.] ; . . . . . : , 1975. 264 C.
6. / . . . . . : , 1988. 306 .
7. / . . //
. . 1980. 5. . 21 27.
8. , . . / . . [ .]. : , 1987. 165 .
9. . / . . // - ; . . . . . . 16. . :
, 1989. 132 .
10.
- / . . [ .].
. : . 1. 1990. 52 .
11. , . .
/ . . , . . . . : ,
1986. 106 .
12. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 1990. 512 .
13. , . . / . .
[ .]. . : , 1994. 400 . ISBN 5-85959-030-.
14. , . .
/ . . . . : , 1991. 160 . ISBN
5-283-01521-1.
271

15. , . .
/ . . , . . . . : ,
1992. 288 . ISBN 5-283-04544-7.
16. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 1986. 168 .
17. :
. . (1985 1993 .) / . . . ,
. . . : , 1995. 230 .
ISBN 5-7623-0815-4 ..
18. / . . , . . , . . ,
. . . . : , 1988. 184 .
19. , . . -
/ . . , . . , . . . . : , 1988. 240 .
20. , . . : . / . . ; . . . ,
. . . . : - . . . , 2005. 384 .
ISBN 5-7038-2207-6.
21. , . :
. / . , . . . : H, 1985. 384 .
22. , . / . , . , . . . :
, 1989. . 376.
23. , . .
/ . . , . . // : . . . . : , 1996.
. 91 97.
24. , . .
/ . . , . . , . . ; . . . , . . . . :
, 1994. 368 . ISBN 5-02-014589-0.
25. /
. . . . . : , 1975. 224 .
26. / . . [ .]. . : , 1971. 624 .
27. / . . [ .] ; . . . . . . : , 1986.
328 .
272

28. , . . - / . . // ,
. 2003. 10 . 15 20.
29. , . .
/ . . [ .] ; . . . . . : , 1980. 302 .
30. / . . , .. ,
.. // . 1981. 5. . 35 37.
31. / . . , . . // , . 2004. 4. . 28 33.
32.
- / . . , . . // ,
. 2004. 11 . 28 33.
33. , . . : . /
. . . . : , 1985. 560 .
34. , . .
/ . . // . .
1991. 12. . 73 79.
35. . / . . // . . 1992. 3 4. . 15 20.
36. . / . . // .
33. 1991. . 77 84. ( ).
37. , . . : . / . . .
. : , 1988. 392 .
38. , . . / . . ,
. . , . . . . : , 1990. 352 .
39. , . . .
.: , 1991. 332 . ISBN 5-02-014592-0.
40. , . . / . . , . . , . . ,
. . . : , 1993. 245 . ISBN 5-335-01088-6.
41. , . . / . . , . . ,
. . . : , 1990. 208 .
273

42. , . :
[. .] / . . . : , 1986. 447 .
43. , . . /
. . , . . , . . . . : , 1988.
222 .
44. , . . /
. . , . . , . . . . : ,
1985. 316 .
45. , . .
/ . . , . . // , 1979. 5. . 14 17.
46. / . . [ .];
. . . . . . : , 1989. 472 .
47. , - /
. . . . . : . . . , 2002. 744 .
ISBN 5-7038-2030-8.
48. : . /
. . . , . . . .1. /
. . , . . , . . . . : . ., 1988. 304 .
49.
/ . . [ .]. . : , 1990. 320 .
50. , . .
. . : , 1990. 304 .
51. , . . /
. . . . : , 1975. 304 .
52. / . . . . . : , 1971.
466 .
53. , . .
/ . . . . : , 1972. 199 .
54. . . : ,
2004. 333 . ISBN 5-02-032787-5.
55. , . .
/ . . //
, 1986. 5. . 59 62.
56. , . . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1990 96 .
274

57. / . . [ .] // , 1994. 3. . 44 48.


58. , . . : . / . . . . : , 1989. 304 .
59. , . . . /
. . , . . , . . . . : , 1978. 398 .
60. /
. . [ .]. : , 1996. 232 .
61. , . . /
. . . . : , 1990. 176 .
62.

/
. . , . . , . . ; . . . . . :
, 1978. 416 .
63.
/ . . [ .]. . : , 1986. 254 .
64. , . . /
. . . . : , 1988. 332 .
65. , . . / . . , . . . . :
, 1986. 240 .
66. , . . / . . . . : , 1973. 344 .
67. . . .
/ . . . . : , 1993. 256 . ISBN 5256-00973-7.
68. , . . / . . , . . ,
. . . . : , 1987. 239 .
69.
: . / . . . , 1990. 96 .
70. , . . / . . . . : , 1982. 192 .
71. Egorov I.N., Tarasenko V.I., Umnov V.P. Radiation transporting system of technological laser robots in position-and-force uncertainty conditions of
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302.
275









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..
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020275. 22.12.05.
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. . . . 16,04. .-. . 17,13. 150 .

.
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