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CONTENTS

1. PLC GENERAL

2. ALLEN BRADLEY PLC

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3. WONDERWARE INTOUCH SCADA

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4. SIEMENS S7 200 PLC

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5. SIEMENS S7 300 PLC

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6. MODICON PLC

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7. AC DRIVES

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PLC GENERAL

Automation
Industrial automation is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. In the scope of industrialization, it is a step beyond mechanization. Automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements.

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)


NEMA (National Electrical Manufactures Association) defines PLCs as Programmable logic Controller is a digital electronic device which uses a programmable memory to store instructions and data and implements specific functions such as timing, counting, logics etc to control various machines or process.

A PLC is a device that was invented to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control. The PLC works by looking at its input and depending upon their state, turning ON / OFF its inputs. The user enters a program, usually through software, that gives the desired result. A PLC can be defined as a solid state device. It is capable of storing instructions to implement control functions such as sequencing, timing, counting, arithmetic, data manipulation and communication to control industrial machines and processes.

Architecture of PLC

Inputs

Input Interface CPU

Output Interface

Outputs

Memory

Processor

Power supply

CPU
A PLC is composed of two basic sections namely CPU (Central Processing Unit) and I/O (Input / Output) section. The CPU section is formed by three components namely Processor, Memory and Power supply. The CPU controls all arithmetic and logical operations, control signals to various outputs etc. During operation the CPU reads or accepts the input data or status of the field devices through the input interfaces; executes the control program stored in memory and writes or updates the output devices through output interfaces.

The I/O system forms the interface by which field devices are connected to the controller. The main purpose of interface is to condition the various signals received from or sent to external field devices. Incoming signals from sensors such as push buttons, limit switches analog sensors etc are wired to the terminals on the input interfaces. Devices that will be controlled like motors, starters, solenoid valves etc are connected to the terminals on the output devices. The system power supply provides all necessary voltages required for the proper operation of the various CPU sections.

Advantages of PLC

1. Reduced Space
PLCs are fully solid state devices and hence extremely compact compared to hard-wired controller which uses electromechanical devices.

2. Energy Saving
The power consumption is very less compared to other controllers. The average power consumption is just 1/10th of power consumed by an equivalent Relay Logic Control.

3. Ease of Maintenance
We can easily replace the different modules of PLCs. Trouble shooting and error diagnostics with programmer are also very easy in PLCs.

4. Economical
Considering one time investment PLC is most economical system. Cost of PLCs recovers with in a short period.

5. Greater Life and Reliability


PLC is a solid state device and they have greater life than any other devices. It is also a static device; hence lesser number of moving parts reduces wear and tear. In case of hard wired logic control , hardwire is either electromechanical or pneumatic and therefore it is more prone to faults due to wear and tear and tear of moving parts results in lesser ON time of system.

6. Tremendous Flexibility
To implement changes in control logic no wiring is required so considerable time is saved.

7. Advanced Computation Supported


PLC can carry out complex functions such as generation of time delays, counting, comparing, arithmetic operations etc.

8. Speed and Flexibility


It gives high processing speed and great flexibility in the processing of both analog and digital signals.

9. Closed Loop Control Supported


PLCs are suitable for closed loop control and also it can handle several closed loop tasks.

10. Shorter Project Time


The hard-wired control system can be constructed only after the task is fully defined. In the PLC, however, the construction of controller and wiring are independent of control program definition. This means that the total hardwire is standard and desired control is achieved through program.

Programming Languages in PLC


Different programming languages are there in PLC. Some of the main programming languages are

1. Ladder Logic (LAD) 2. Structured Text (ST) 3. Instruction List (IL) 4. Sequential Function Chart (SFC) 5. Functional Block Diagram (FBD)

Main Symbols Used in Ladder Logic


Basic Electrical Symbols Normally open (NO) Normally Closed (NC) Output

PLC Symbols

Normally open (NO)

Normally Closed (NC)

Output

Structure of Ladder Logic


Rung 0 S1 Positive Rail S2 O2 O1 Negative Rail

Rung 1

Figure shows an example for a ladder diagram. Positive and negative logic rails are there in the ladder diagram. Current flow is from positive to negative and from top to bottom. Each positive to negative section are known as rungs. The outputs connected becomes ON when the positive to negative path completes.

Scan Time
A PLC works by continually scanning a program. The scan cycle consists of three important steps.

Check Input Status

Execute Program

Update Output Status

1. Check Input Status


PLC first checks all input status that are connected in it. That means it checks whether the input is ON / OFF. PLC records all data that into its memory.

2. Execute Program
After checking all input status PLC executes the program according to the various input data that are collected. It will store the execution result for use in the later step.

3. Update Output Status


Finally PLC updates the status of outputs. It updates the outputs based on which were on during the first step and the results of executing the program during the second step. After the whole process the PLC goes back to the step 1 and repeats the steps continuously. These three steps are known as Scan Cycle. The time taken to complete one scan cycle is known as Scan Time.

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Sinking and Sourcing


Normally two types of sensors are used in industries. They are

1. Sourcing Type 2. Sinking Type

The difference between two types is whether the load is switched to ground or positive voltage. An NPN type sensor has the load switched to ground whereas a PNP device has the load switched to positive voltage.

NPN Sinking Sensor


To PLC Input Sensor Output Circuit Ground (0 V) On the NPN sensor we connect one output to the PLCs input and the other output to the power supply ground.

PNP Sourcing Sensor


To Positive (V+) Sensor Output Circuit To PLC Input On the PNP sensor we connect one output to the Positive voltage and the other output to the PLCs input.

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Basic Gates
1. AND Gate
Symbol Truth Table Input A A Y B 0 0 1 1 Input B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 0 0 1

Ladder Diagram

2. OR Gate
Symbol Truth Table Input A A Y B 0 0 1 1 Input B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 1 1 1

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Ladder Diagram

3. NAND Gate

Symbol

Truth Table Input A Input B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 1 1 1 0

A Y B

0 0 1 1

Ladder Diagram

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4. NOR Gate

Symbol

Truth Table Input A Input B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 1 0 0 0

A Y B

0 0 1 1

Ladder Diagram

5. NOT Gate

Symbol

Truth Table

Input A Y A 0 1

Output Y 1 0

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Ladder Diagram

5. Ex-OR Gate
Symbol Truth Table Input A A Y B 0 0 1 1 Input B 0 1 0 1 Output Y 0 1 1 0

Ladder Diagram

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Example
Draw a PLC program to latch an output when START switch is pressed. The output should remain in latch condition until STOP switch is being pressed?

Ladder Diagram

START

STOP

OUTPUT

OUTPUT

General Classification of PLC


PLCs are generally classified into two types 1. Modular Type PLC 2. Integrated type PLC

1. Modular Type PLC


0 Power Supply CPU 1 Digital Input 2 Digital Output 3 Analog Input 4 Analog Output

In modular type PLC each modules means Digital Input module, Digital Output module, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module are placed in each separate racks or modules. The addressing of these PLCs comes with the slot number. We can place the different modules according to our needs. We can also increase the number of inputs according to our needs in these types of PLCs. So it is called as Modular Type PLC.

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2. Integrated Type PLC

Field Inputs

PLC

Field Outputs

In Integrated Type PLC the inputs and outputs are fixed. All the inputs are comes in single module. We cannot increase the number of inputs and outputs in these types of PLCs.

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ALLEN BRADLEY PLC

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ALLEN BRADLEY PLC


Allen-Bradley is the brand-name of a line of Factory Automation Equipment manufactured by Rockwell Automation. The company manufactures programmable logic controllers (PLC), human-machine interfaces, sensors, safety components and systems, software, drives and drive systems, contactors, motor control centers, and systems made of these and similar products. Rockwell Automation also provides asset management services including repair and consulting. Allen Bradley PLCs are mainly classified into three types according to the number of inputs and outputs. They are

Plc Types

No: of Digital I/O

No: of Analog I/O

Memory

Pico Low end Micrologix

24

8K

256

8K

Medium end

SLC-500

4096

8K

PLC

10000

16

16 K

High end

Flexlogix > 20000 Controllogix 256 256 K

Here we use Micrologix and SLC-500 PLCs. Micrologix PLC is an integrated type PLC. Micrologix PLCs are mainly classified into three types. They are

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Micrologix PLC

1000

1200

1500

Series A

Series A

Series A

Series B

Series B

Series B

Series C

Series C

Series C

SLC-500 is a modular type PLC. It is mainly classified into five different CPU versions. They are

SLC-500 PLC

5/01

5/02

CPU Types

5/03

5/04

5/05

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Memory

Program Files

Data Files

File No: SYS-0 SYS-1 LAD-2 LAD-3 Main Program Reserved Files 0 1 2 3 4 Sub Routines 5 6 LAD-255 7 8

File Name Output Input Status Binary Timer Counter Control Register Integer Floating

File Type O I S B T C R N F

Memory is mainly classified into two types.

1. Program Files

Program file consists of SYS-0, SYS-1, Ladder-2, Ladder-3 etc up to Ladder255. SYS-0 and SYS-1 are reserved files. They are used for the initial start up of the Plc. Ladder-2 is the main program. Ladder-3, Ladder-4 ------ Ladder-255 are

subroutines.

2. Data Files

Data Files consists of inputs, outputs, status, timer, counter etc. Inputs and outputs are used for input and output addressing. Status register is used for monitor any error status, also setting of real time clock etc. Timers are used for setting time

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delay functions. Counters are used for counting number of pulses given to it. Control register is used for controlling and taking some outputs which are used in some instructions. Integer register is used for storing integer values used in arithmetic or logical operations. Floating register is used for storing floating point values.

Addressing syntax
Addressing syntax for SLC-500 SLC-500 is a Modular Type PLC.

0 Power Supply CPU

1 Digital Input

2 Digital Output

3 Analog Input & Output

Syntax is File Type : Slot Number . Word / Bit

Digital Input

Digital Output

I:1.0/0 I:1.0/1 I:1.0/2

O:2.0/0 O:2.0/1 O:2.0/2

I:1.0/15 I:1.1/0 I:1.1/1

O:2.0/15 O:2.1/0 O:2.1/1

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Addressing syntax for Micrologix Micrologix is an Integrated Type PLC. Syntax is File Type : Slot Number . Word / Bit

Digital Input

Digital Output

I:0.0/0 I:0.0/1 I:0.0/2

O:0.0/0 O:0.0/1 O:0.0/2

I:0.0/15 I:0.1/0 I:0.1/1

O:0.0/15 O:0.1/0 O:0.1/1

Analog Addressing
If we are using digital signal we can store it in a single bit. But if we are using analog signals we cannot store the values in a bit so it should be stored in a word. The analog signals used in industries are normally 0-10 V and 4-20 mA.

0000 0000 0000 0000

10V

20mA

0111 1111 1111 1111

32767 Combinations

Parity Bit

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Parity bit can be zero or one. Parity bit becomes zero when the analog value is positive and it becomes one when the analog value is negative. If we give one analog signal the PLC converts it into 0 to 32767 combinations. We get the corresponding digital signal and it should be stored in memory locations. We can use this value for controlling analog signals.

Analog Addressing Syntax is File Type : Slot Number . Word

Analog Input

Analog Output

I:3.0 I:3.1 I:3.2

O:3.0 O:3.1 O:3.2

Addressing Syntax For Others Except Binary


Syntax is File Type File Number : Element

Status Timer Counter Control Register Integer Floating Point

S2:0, S2:1, S2:2, --------- S2:255 T4:0, T4:1, T4:2, --------- T4:255 C5:0, C5:1, C5:2, --------- C5:255 R6:0, R6:1, R6:2, --------- R6:255 N7:0, N7:1, N7:2, -------- N7:255 F8:0, F8:1, F8:2, --------- F8:255

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Addressing Syntax For Binary


Syntax is File Type File Number : Word / Bit

B3:0/0 B3:0/1 B3:0/2

B3:0/15 B3:1/0 B3:1/1

Binary bits are used in programs for certain applications. In some programs we have to take some intermediate outputs which are not used as field outputs. In such outputs if we use normal output address then these outputs are wasted. So in those cases we use Binary outputs and thus we can save the outputs.

Driver Software
Driver Software is used for interfacing personal computer with PLC. The driver software used for Allen Bradley PLC is RS Linx.

Personal Computer RS-232

Direct Connection 19.2 Kb/Sec

Allen Bradley PLC RS-232

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Personal computer supports only RS-232 Protocol. Allen Bradley PLC also supports RS-232 Protocol. So we can directly connect Allen Bradley PLC to personal computer. If the PLC didnt support RS-232 protocol then a converter is also used. The Baud rate for Allen Bradley PLC is 19200 Bits/second.

Programming Software
The programming softwares used in Allen Bradley PLCs are For Medium end PLCs and Low end PLCs For High end PLCs RS Logix 500 English

RS Logix 5000 English

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WONDERWARE INTOUCH SCADA

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WONDERWARE

Wonderware is a supplier of industrial automation and information software solutions, having sold more than 500,000 software licenses in over 100,000 plants worldwide. Wonderware has customers in virtually every industry including utilities, mining, oil & gas, food & beverage, pharmaceuticals, transportation, pulp & paper, semiconductors and metals. Wonderware is a business unit of Invensys. Wonderware has been an industrial software leader since 1987, when the company introduced InTouch software, the first human-machine interface (HMI) based on the Microsoft Windows operating system. Wonderware is a market leader in real-time operations management industrial software which includes: Supervisory HMI, GeoSCADA, Production Management, Performance Management etc. Wonderware delivers significant cost reductions associated with designing, building, deploying and maintaining secure and standardized applications for manufacturing and industrial operations. Wonderware software solutions enable companies to synchronize their production operations with business objectives, obtaining the speed and flexibility to attain sustained profitability.

SCADA
SCADA means Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Software. SCADA software is used for controlling the process in industries. SCADA software is also used for monitoring the process parameters. Through SCADA software we can control the whole process or whole plants in industries.

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Block Diagram of SCADA SCADA Software

RTU

PLC

PLC

PLC

I/P

O/P

I/P

O/P

I/P

O/P

The above figure shows the block diagram of SCADA. In industries normally number of PLCs are there for controlling various plants. Each plant is controlled by one or more than one PLCs. The input and outputs of each PLCs are connected to SCADA through RTUs. RTU means Remote Terminal Unit. The RTU act as an interlink between PLCs and SCADA. The RTUs can be a Junction Box or a Master PLC for controlling auxiliary PLCs. SCADA software is being used in the control room. Through SCADA software we can control the entire plants.

Types Of Communications
The different types of communications are

1. Landline Communication 2. Optical Communication 3. Satellite Communication

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Landline Communication
In landline communication the communication is achieved through normal wires or cables. Different protocols are used in these types of communication. The different communication protocols are RS-232, RS-485, DH-485, DH+.

RS-232
Maximum communication length = 15 Meters Baud rate = 19200 bits/second Maximum number of nodes supported = 1

RS-485
Maximum communication length = 1.3 KMs Baud rate = 9600 18700 bits/second Maximum number of nodes supported = 32

DH-485
Maximum communication length = 1.2 KMs Baud rate = 9600, 19200 bits/second Maximum number of nodes supported = 31

DH+
Maximum communication length = 18 - 25 KMs Baud rate = 19200 bits/second Maximum number of nodes supported = 255

Optical Communication
In optical communication optical fibers are used. In optical communication we can communicate to a longer distance than normal cables. The main advantages are low noise, greater life, high data transfer speed, etc.

Satellite Communication
Normally satellite communication is used in remote places. In satellite communication transmitter, receiver, encoders, decoders etc are used.

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Different SCADA Software

Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Company Name Wonderware Rockwell Automation Siemens Intellution GE Fanuc Merz Kpit

SCADA Software Intouch RSview Win CC iFix Cimplicity Aspic Astra

SCADA To PLC Communication Software


For communicating with PLC to SCADA we need communication software. The different communication softwares used are

Allen Bradley PLC

ABKF2 S7200 PPI (For Low End PLC)

SCADA

Siemens PLC ATS DDE (For Medium End PLC) Modicon PLC Modbus Communication

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Different Packages in InTouch


The InTouch software package consists of Tags (Memory + I/O). The package is available in 64, 256, 1000 and 64,000 Tags with the two options 1. Development + Runtime + Network (DRN) 2. Runtime + network (RN).

With DRN package you can develop as well as run the application but in case of RN you cannot develop or modify the application. The application can be developed by using DRN package and can be installed on RN package.

Features of SCADA

1. Real Time Trend


We can monitor the real time values by using Real time trend. Real-time trends are dynamic. They are updated continuously during runtime. The real time trend is plotted graphically. We can give many parameters in this Real time trend. Different parameter variations are plotted by different colours. They plot the changes of up to four local Tag Names or expressions as they occur.

2. Historical Trend
By using historical trend we can store the previous values. By giving correct date, time etc we can easily get the parameter variations at that time. They plot the changes of up to eight local Tag Names or expressions.

3. Alarms
Any hazardous conditions are monitored in industries by using these alarms. Human safety is the most important factor in all industries. Usually the alarms give the variations in any parameters as sound information or any light indication. The alarms becomes off when the change in variation goes into normal conditions. In SCADA, 1-999 alarms are there and they are mainly classified into four groups. They are 35

Alarm Number 1- 249 250-499 500- 749 750-999

Alarm Type Hazardous Alarms Major Alarms Minor Alarms Advisory Alarms

4. Security
Security on an application is an optional feature. If implemented, it provides the ability to control specific operators to perform specific functions or changing specific parameters. Normally passwords are used for locking SCADA. By giving passwords only the user can enter into the SCADA programs. 1 9999 access levels are there in SCADA. One access level is given to each person. The access level of administrator is always greater than 9000. The person who has access level greater than 9000 can change any thing in SCADA. The administrators also have their own user name and password. He can also enter into the programs by giving their user name and passwords.

5. Report Generation
By using Report generation we can generate the parameter variations as report in excel sheet automatically. We can create the parameter variations for each scan cycle.

6. Recipe Management
Recipe management is an important feature in SCADA. By using recipe management we can set the values for different ingredients. For example in medicine manufacturing industries the ingredients are same for different medicines but their ratio will vary. So in those cases we can set the ratio of different ingredients by using SCADA. When we select the medicine the values are automatically loaded and we get the correct medicine. The recipe functions are done by using Recipe Manager in SCADA.

7. Scripts for Program Development


Normally the Programs are called as scripts.

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Tag Name
Tag name is the user defined address for a particular variable. For example if we are using some objects in SCADA we have to give some names for indicating that objects and also for using it in programs. These names are known as Tag Names. Tag Names are mainly classified into four types. They are

1. Discrete 2. Integer 3. Real 4. Message

If we give any Tag Name we have to define or save it according to its conditions. Discrete conditions mean 0/1 or ON/OFF. That means if we are using Tag Names for switches, lamps etc then we have to define it into Discrete. If the Tag Name is varying values like tanks, temperatures etc, then we have to define it into Integer. If there are some floating values then Tag Name should be defined as Real. The string values are stored as Message.

Each Tag Name is again classified into two types. They are 1. Memory 2. I/O

If we are using only SCADA programming then the Tag Names are saved in Memory. If PLC to SCADA or PLC to excel communication is there, then the Tag Names are saved in I/O.

Script
Script is the Programming language used to link two or more Tag Names. Generally the programs are called as Scripts.

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Types of Scripts
Scripts are mainly classified into six. They are 1. Application scripts 2. Window scripts 3. Key scripts 4. Conditional scripts 5. Data change scripts 6. Quick function scripts

1. Application scripts
The script which is applicable for the entire project is known as Application scripts. We can use application scripts to start other applications, create process simulations, calculate variables etc. Three options are there in Application Scripts.

On Startup While running On shutdown

Executes one time when the application is initially started up Executes continuously at the specified frequency while the application is running. Executes one time when the application is exited

2. Window scripts
The script which is applicable for a particular project is known as Window scripts. Three options are there in Window Scripts.

On Show While showing On Hide

Executes one time when the window is initially shown Executes continuously at the specified frequency while the window is showing. Executes one time when the window is hidden.

The initial conditions of Tag names are given in On Show. The On show conditions are applicable during starting of run time. For example if we want one switch becomes OFF during starting run time then we have to give it as zero in On

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Show. The main program is known as While show. On hide means the conditions of objects that we have to give when return back from run time. Normally in SCADA we avoid On Hide because we dont need the conditions during return back from run time.

3. Key scripts
The programs which are assigned to a particular key is known as Key Script. They are executed when the operator presses the correct key. Three options are there in Key Scripts. On Key Down While Down On Key Up Executes one time when the key is initially pushed Executes continuously at the specified frequency while the key is held down Executes one time when the key is released.

4. Conditional scripts
The program which is executed when satisfying a particular condition given to it is called as Conditional scripts. Four options are there in Conditional Scripts. On True On False While True While False Executes one time when the condition transitions to true. Executes one time when the condition transitions to false. Executes continuously while the condition is true. Executes continuously while the condition is false.

5. Data change scripts


The program which is used for data transfer purpose is called as Data change scripts.

6. Quick function scripts


Sub routines or sub programs are called as Quick function scripts. 39

Window Properties
Replace
Automatically closes any window(s) it intersects when it appears on the screen including popup other replace type windows. You can change a window's type whenever it is open in Window Maker by using the Window Properties command.

Overlay
Appears on top of currently displayed window(s) and can be larger than the window(s) it is overlaying. When an overlay window is closed, any window(s) that were hidden behind it will reappear. Clicking on any visible portion of a window behind an overlay window will bring that window to the foreground as the active window.

Popup
Similar to an overlay window except, it always stays on top of all other open windows (even if another window is clicked). Popup windows usually require a response from the user in order to be removed.

Programming Syntax
The programming syntax is IF CONDITION THEN ASSIGNMENT; ENDIF; In conditions the symbols used are = =, > =, < =, >, <, ><. In assignment only symbol used is =.

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Sample program
Write a program to ON/OFF a lamp when we press the switch?

For doing the program first select one switch and lamp from SCADA. After selecting the objects first give the tag names for each object. After that the tag names must be defined according to their properties.

Tag name=S1

Tag name=L1

Save as both tag name as Memory discrete. Then write the program in window scripts.

Window Scripts
On Show S1=0; L1=0;

While Show

IF S1= =1 THEN L1=1;ENDIF; IF S1= =0 THEN L1=0;ENDIF;

We can write the above program in single line by using ELSE. IF S1= =1 THEN L1=1;ELSE L1=0;ENDIF;

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SIEMENS S7 200 PLC

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SIEMENS PLC

Siemens is the Europe's largest engineering conglomerate and the largest electronics company in the world. Siemens international headquarters are located in Berlin and Munich, Germany. The company is a conglomerate of three main business sectors namely Industry, Energy and Healthcare. Siemens six operational business areas were Automation & Control (Automation & Drives, Industrial Solutions & Services, Siemens Building Technologies), Power (Power Generation, Power Transmission & Distribution), Transportation (Transportation Systems, Siemens VDO), Medical (Siemens Medical Solutions), Information & Communication (Siemens Communications, Siemens IT Solutions and Services), and Lighting (OSRAM GmbH, OSRAM Sylvania).

Siemens PLCs are generally classified into two types.

Siemens PLC

S5 Series

S7 Series

S5 series is DOS based version and S7 series is windows based version. The different S5 series versions PLCs are 100u, 110u, 115u etc. S5 series is the old version PLC. Almost all of the S5 series PLCs are replaced in all industries. Handheld programming can also do in this type of PLCs. S7 Series PLCs are again classified into three types according to the number of inputs and outputs.

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Plc Types

No: of Digital I/O

No: of Analog I/O

Low End

S7 200

256

32

Medium End

S7 300

1024

256 1500

S7 400

16384

High End

C7 > 20000 M7 256

Here we use S7 200 low end PLC. The different CPU versions of S7 200 PLCs are

S7 200 Plc

21 X Series

22 X Series

210 211 212 213 214 215 216

221 222 223 224 225 226

Here we use S7 200 PLC with CPU version 216. It has 24 digital inputs and 16 digital outputs.

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Programming Software
The programming software used for S7 200 PLC is STEP 7 MICROWIN 32 Personal Computer RS-232 PPI RS-485 Siemens PLC

Siemens PLC supports only RS-485 protocol. So a converter is used for connecting with personal computer. The converter is called as PPI (Point to Point Interface). The baud rate for Siemens PLC is 9600 bits/sec.

Addressing syntax
Siemens PLC addressing is basically Byte oriented. One byte means eight bits.

Addressing syntax for Digital Input And Output

Syntax is File Type Byte . Bit

Digital Input I0.0 I0.1 I0.2

Digital Output Q0.0 Q0.1 Q0.2

I0.7 I1.0 I1.1

Q0.7 Q1.0 Q1.1

I2.7

Q1.7

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Addressing syntax for Analog Input And Output

Syntax is A File Type W Word Analog Input Analog Output

AIW0 AIW2 AIW4

AQW0 AQW2 AQW4

Memory
Memory is mainly classified into four types. They are 1. Special Memory (SM) 2. Memory (M) 3. Variable Memory (V) 4. Local Memory (L)

1. Special Memory (SM)


In special memory each bit is having its own predefined function. These bits can be used in programs. For example

SM0.0- Always ON SM0.1- ON for the first scan cycle only. SM0.2- ON for one scan cycle if retentive data is lost. SM0.3- ON for 1 scan cycle when RUN mode is entered from a power-up condition. SM0.4- Clock pulse that is ON for 30 s, OFF for 30 s, for a duty cycle time of 1 min. SM0.5- Clock pulse that is ON for 0.5 s, OFF for 0.5 s, for a duty cycle time of 1 s. Pot0 Value Pot1 Value SMB28- This byte stores the value entered with analog adjustment 0. SMB29- This byte stores the value entered with analog adjustment 1.

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2. Memory (M)
Memory is used for storing integer or floating values. Mathematical and logical operations are done in these Memory locations.

3. Variable Memory (V)


Variable memory is used in FIFO and LIFO applications.

4. Local Memory (L)


Local Memory is used as addressing memory.

Memory Addressing

1. Special Memory Addressing


Bit Byte Word Double word

SM0.0 SM0.1 SM0.2 SM0.3

SMB0 SMB1 SMB2 SMB3

SMW0 SMW2 SMW4 SMW6

SMD0 SMD4 SMD8 SMD12

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2. Memory Addressing
Bit Byte Word Double word

M0.0 M0.1 M0.2 M0.3

MB0 MB1 MB2 MB3

MW0 MW2 MW4 MW6

MD0 MD4 MD8 MD12

3. Variable Memory Addressing

Bit

Byte

Word

Double word

V0.0 V0.1 V0.2 V0.3

VB0 VB1 VB2 VB3

VW0 VW2 VW4 VW6

VD0 VD4 VD8 VD12

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4. Local Memory Addressing

Bit

Byte

Word

Double word

L0.0 L0.1 L0.2 L0.3

LB0 LB1 LB2 LB3

LW0 LW2 LW4 LW6

LD0 LD4 LD8 LD12

In all these memory addressing, in the word wise classification next memory location of MW0 is MW2 and also in double word wise classification the next memory location of MD0 is MD4 . The reason is that Siemens PLC addressing is byte oriented. The memory locations MW0 and MD0 consists of

MW0 = MB0 + MB1 MW1 = MB1 + MB2 MW2 = MB2 + MB3

So in MW0 and MW1, the MB1 location is common. So if we use MW0 and MW1 then memory clash will occurs. So to avoid this MW2 is used after MW0. Like that in double word also next three locations are not used.

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Timers
Timer Type TONR Resolution 1 ms 10 ms 100 ms TON, TOF 1 ms 10 ms 100 ms Maximum Value 32.767 s 327.67 s 3276.7 s 32.767 s 327.67 s 3276.7 s Timer Number T0, T64 T1-T4, T65-T68 T5-T31, T69-T95 T32, T96 T33-T36, T97-T100 T37-T63, T101-T255

In Siemens PLC normally 255 numbers of timers are there. The types of timers are TON, TOF and TONR. In siemens PLC we cannot use any timer number for different types of timers. The timer number is predefined. We have to give the correct timer number for different types that means TON, TOF and TONR. Also in Siemens PLC the highest time base is 100ms. So we have to calculate correct preset value for giving a time. For calculating time delay one formula is there. Time delay = Preset value * Time Base For example if we are using T37 timer and we need 10s time delay. So T37 is a 100ms timer. Formula is Time delay = Preset value * Time Base 10s = Preset value *100 10 *1000ms = Preset value *100 Preset value = 100

So for giving 10s time delay by using T37 timer we have to give preset value as 100. Like that we can calculate the time delay according to our need. The On-Delay Timer (TON) instruction counts time when the enabling input is ON. When the current value (Txxx) is greater than or equal to the preset time (PT), the timer bit is ON. The On-Delay timer current value is cleared when the enabling input is OFF. This timer continues counting after the Preset is reached, and it stops counting at the maximum value of 32767.

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SIEMENS S7 300 PLC

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SIEMENS PLC

Siemens is the Europe's largest engineering conglomerate and the largest electronics company in the world. Siemens international headquarters are located in Berlin and Munich, Germany. The company is a conglomerate of three main business sectors namely Industry, Energy and Healthcare. Siemens six operational business areas were Automation & Control (Automation & Drives, Industrial Solutions & Services, Siemens Building Technologies), Power (Power Generation, Power Transmission & Distribution), Transportation (Transportation Systems, Siemens VDO), Medical (Siemens Medical Solutions), Information & Communication (Siemens Communications, Siemens IT Solutions and Services), and Lighting (OSRAM GmbH, OSRAM Sylvania).

Siemens PLCs are generally classified into two types.

Siemens PLC

S5 Series

S7 Series

S5 series is DOS based version and S7 series is Windows based version. The different S5 series versions PLCs are 100u, 110u, 115u etc. S5 series is the old version PLC. Almost all of the S5 series PLCs are replaced in all industries. Handheld programming can also do in this type of PLCs. S7 Series PLCs are again classified into three types according to the number of inputs and outputs.

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Plc Types

No: of Digital I/O

No: of Analog I/O

Low End

S7 200

256

32

Medium End

S7 300

1024

256 1500

S7 400

16384

High End

C7 > 20000 M7 256

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Architecture of S7 300 PLC

Rails/ Slots

Rack 0 1 2 3 4 11

Power Supply

CPU

IM

DI / DO

Rack 1 1 2 3 4 11

IM

Rack 2 1 2 3 4 11

IM

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The above figure shows the architecture of Siemens S7 300 PLC. Siemens S 7 300 PLC is Modular type PLC. The architecture is based on Rack and Rail configuration. The above figure each full block is known as Rack. Eleven slotted Rails are there in each Rack. In Rack 0 the first Rail (Rail 1) is allotted for Power Supply, Rail 2 is allotted for CPU, Rail 3 for Interfacing Module (IM) and in other Rails we can add Digital Input Module, Digital Output Module, Analog Input Module, Analog Output Module etc according to our needs.

In Siemens S7 300 PLC one CPU can supports four Racks. So for communicating with other Racks, each Rack contains one Interfacing Module (IM). So in Rack 1, Rack 2 and Rack 3 the first Rail is allotted for Interfacing Module (IM). The connection from CPU of Rack 0 is given to the Interfacing Modules of others. The CPU and Power Supply are common for all four Racks.

Here we use S7 300 Medium end PLC. The different CPU versions of S7 300 PLCs are CPU 312 ---------318. Here we use S7 300 CPU 312 C. In CPU 312 C, C indicates Compact. SIMATIC S7-300 is optimized for high performance machines and factory automation. The SIMATIC S7-300 saves space, and it is compact and modular.

Features of S7 300
Built-in functions (eg: high-speed counting, closed-loop control, motion control, etc.). Extensive selection of CPUs and modules for almost every application. Compact design reduces control cabinet size. Integrated system diagnostics assure high degrees of controller availability. Innovative Micro Memory Card provides maintenance- free (no battery required) program backup plus the ability to store production and project information. Fail-safe version provides machine safety and standard automation in a single controller.

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Programming Software
The programming software used for S7 300 PLC is SIMATIC MANAGER 5.1 5.5

Personal Computer RS-232

PPI RS-485

Siemens PLC

Siemens PLC supports only RS-485 protocol. So a PPI (Point to Point Interface) converter is used for connecting with personal computer. The baud rate used is 9600 bits/sec.

CPU Memory Concept


CPU Memory

Load Memory 1. Load Memory

System Memory

Work Memory

The Load memory is located on the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card (MMC). The size of the load memory corresponds exactly to the size of the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card. It is used to store code blocks, data blocks and system data (configuration, connections, module parameters, etc). Blocks that are identified as non runtime related are stored exclusively in load memory. You can also store all the configuration data for your project on the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card.

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2. System memory
The System memory is integrated in the CPU and cannot be expanded. It contains the address areas for address area memory bits, timers and counters, the process image of the I/Os, local data.

3. Work Memory
The Work Memory is integrated in the CPU and cannot be extended. It is used to run the code and process user program data. Programs only run in RAM and system memory.

Retentivity of Load Memory, System Memory and Work Memory


CPU is equipped with a service-free retentive memory, i.e. its operation does not require a buffer battery. Data is kept in retentive memory across Power OFF and Restart.

1. Retentive data in load memory:


Program in load memory is always retentive. It is stored on the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card, where it is protected against Power Failure or CPU memory Restart.

2. Retentive data in system memory:


The diagnostic buffer, MPI address and operating hour counter data and generally written to Retentive Memory area on the CPU. Retentivity of the MPI address and baud rate ensures that the CPU can continue to communicate, even after a power loss, memory reset or loss of communication parameters (e.g. due to removal of the SIMATIC Micro Memory Card or deletion of communication parameters).

3. Retentive data in Work Memory:


The contents of retentive DBs are always retentive at Restart and Power ON/OFF. CPUs V2.1.0 or higher also support volatile DBs (the volatile DBs are initialized at restart of Power OFF-ON with the in initial values from load memory).

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Figure: Compact PLC S7-300 (CPU xxx C)

(1) Status and Error Displays (2) Micro Memory Card (MMC) (3) Connection of Integrated I/O (4) Power Supply Connection (5) 2 connected X2(PtP nebo DP) (6) 1 connected X1( MPI) (7) Mode Selector Switch

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Status and Error Indicators: CPU 31xC

LED designation
SF BF ( for CPUs with interface only s DP) DC5V FRCE RUN STOP

Colour
Red Red Green Yellow Green Yellow

Meaning
Hardware or Software error Bus error 5-V power for CPU and S7-300 which indicates bus is Ok Force is active CPU in RUN CPU in STOP and HOLD or STARTUP

Features of S7 300 312-C


Work Memory: 32 Kb Number of timers/counters: 128/128 Digital Channels: 256 Analog Channels: 64 Networking: MPI (Multi Point Interface)

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Addressing syntax
Siemens PLC addressing is basically Byte oriented. One byte means eight bits. In Siemens PLC for Digital I/O they allocate 4 Bytes for each slot and for Analog they allocate 16 Bytes for each slot.

Addressing syntax for Digital Input And Output

Syntax is File Type Byte . Bit

Digital Input I0.0 I0.1 I0.2

Digital Output Q0.0 Q0.1 Q0.2

I0.7 I1.0 I1.1

Q0.7 Q1.0 Q1.1

I3.7

Q3.7

Addressing syntax for Analog Input And Output

Syntax is A File Type W Word Analog Input Analog Output

AIW0 AIW2 AIW4

or or or

PIW0 PIW2 PIW4

AQW0 AQW2 AQW4

or PQW0 or PQW2 or PQW4

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Memory Addressing
Bit Byte Word Double word

M0.0 M0.1 M0.2

MB0 MB1 MB2

MW0 MW2 MW4

MD0 MD4 MD8

M255.7

MB255

MW254

MD252

In all these memory addressing, in the word wise classification next memory location of MW0 is MW2 and also in double word wise classification the next memory location of MD0 is MD4 . The reason is that Siemens PLC addressing is byte oriented. The memory locations MW0 and MD0 consists of

MW0 = MB0 + MB1 MW1 = MB1 + MB2 MW2 = MB2 + MB3

So in MW0 and MW1, the MB1 location is common. So if we use MW0 and MW1 then memory clash will occurs. So to avoid this MW2 is used after MW0. Like that in Double word also next three locations are not used.

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MODICON PLC

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MODICON PLC
Schneider Electric is a French global company. It was founded in 1836 by two brothers, Eugene I and Adolphe Schneider. Different brand names are there for Schneider electric such as Merlin Gerin, Telemecanique and Square D. Today, the company has grown into a world leader in Power and Control solutions. Schneider electric also has a number of R&D centers like

Global Technology Center India in Bangalore Global Technology Center Mexico at Monterrey City. CRDC in Shanghai, China

which mainly focus on Electromechanical, Electronic and software developments to meet the global product requirements. Modicon PLCs are mainly classified into three types they are

Plc Types

No: of Digital I/O

No: of Analog I/O 0

Software

Zelio Low End Nano Twido Medium End Micro Premium High End Quantum

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Zelio Soft

48 144

2 2

PL7 Junior Twido Soft

248 5000

8 16

PL7 Pro ver:3.1-3.4 PL7 Pro ver:4.1-4.4

20000

256

Modsoft

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Analog Port

1 Display 16 Digital Input 2 12 Digital Output

3 4 Analog Input 4 2 Analog Output

CPU
UP

TER

+Ve
H S C

AUX

P -Ve C Down M 230 C V I A

HSC High speed counter. It is used for counting high speed pulses from Tachometers. PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. It is used as extra memory cards for Modicon PLCs.

Driver Software
Driver Software is used for interfacing personal computer with PLC. The driver software used for Modicon PLC is X Way Driver Manager.

Programming Software
The programming softwares used in Modicon PLCs are. For Micro PLCs For Premium PLCs PL7 Pro Ver 3.4 PL7 Pro Ver 4.3

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Processor Types
For Micro PLCs For Premium PLCs TSX 3722 V 3.3 and TSX 3721 V1.0 TSX 57203 V 5.1

Addressing syntax
Addressing syntax for Digital Signals

Syntax is % Type Slot Number . Element

Digital Input %I1.0 %I1.1 %I1.2

Digital Output %Q2.0 %Q2.1 %Q2.2

%I1.15

%Q2.11

Addressing syntax for Analog Signals

Syntax is % Type W Slot Number . Word

Analog Input %IW3.0 %IW3.1 %IW3.2 %IW3.3

Analog Output %QW4.0 %QW4.1

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Memory
Memory is used for storing integer and floating point values. It is also used in arithmetic and logical operations.

Memory Addressing
Bit Byte Word Double word

%M0 %M1 %M2 %M3

%MB0 %MB1 %MB2 %MB3

%MW0 %MW1 %MW2 %MW3

%MD0 %MD2 %MD4 %MD6

%MW0 = %MB0 + %MB1 %MW1 = %MB2 + %MB3 %MW2 = %MB4 + %MB5

In word wise classification the values are stored in two bytes. But the memory locations are different. So in Modicon PLC we can take all the Word Memory locations. That means we can take %MW0, %MW1, %MW2 etc. The storing byte location can be calculated using the formula

%MWi = %MBj + %MB(j+1) , Where j = 2i

For example if we want to calculate the storing locations for the word %MW10. Then first calculate the value of j.

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ie

j = 2i j = 2 * 10 j = 20

Then

%MWi = %MBj + %MB(j+1) %MW10 = %MB(20) + %MB(20 + 1) %MW10 = %MB20 + %MB21 Thus we can calculate the memory locations in word wise

classification. But in double word wise classification the values are stored in two Words. So if we use one double word location then the next location is not used. In %MD0 and %MD1, the %MW1 location is common. So if we use %MD0 and %MD1 then memory clash will occurs. So to avoid this %MD2 is used after %MD0. %MD0 = %MW0 + %MW1 %MD1 = %MW1 + %MW2 %MD2 = %MW2 + %MW3

Timers
Timers are mainly classified into three categories. They are

1. Timer (TON / TOF /TP)


TON AND TOF is like that of normal ON Delay and OFF Delay timers. Another timer is there TP (Pulse Timer). In TP we get constant output for a single input pulse. We get constant output for a predetermined preset value. For example consider the preset value as five and time base as one second then we get constant output for five seconds for an input pulse. The input and output waveforms are shown below. The addressing of these three timers is %TM0, %TM1, %TM2 ---------- %TM63

Input

Output 5 Sec 5 Sec 71

2. Series 7 Timer
Series 7 Timers are Retentive timers, means the accumulator values are retained in these timers even if the input is OFF. In Modicon PLCs initially the number of timers is zero. So if we want Series 7 Timer we have to decrease the number of normal timers and increase the Series 7 Timer as required numbers. After that we have to save it and thus we can use Series 7 Timer. Addressing of Series 7 Timer is %T0, %T1 .

3. Monostable Timer
Monostable Timer is almost same as that of Pulse Timer. In Monostable Timers when an input pulse is given we get constant output as that of Pulse Timer. But if we give a second input pulse at the time of working then the timer starts from that time and the ON time duration is thus increased. For example consider the preset value as five and Time Base as one second, then the input and output waveforms are shown below. Addressing of Monostable Timers is %MN0, %MN1 ----------- %MN7

Input

2 Sec Output

5 Sec

2 Sec

5 Sec 7 Sec

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4. Counters
In Modicon PLC Up and Down Counter block is used. The addressing of Counters is %C0, %C1, %C2 ----------- %C31

5. Registers
Registers are used in FIFO and LIFO operations. The addressing of Registers is %R0 ----------- %R3

6. Drums
Drums are used as sequencer output function. Addressing is %DR0, %DR1 ----------- %DR7

Operator Block
Operator Block is used for performing Move, Shift and Mathematical operations.

Move Function
Example: %MW0 := 100 %MW0 := %MW1

In first example the value 100 is moved to the location %MW0. The destination is %MW0. In second example the value stored in memory location %MW1 is moved to %MW0.

Math function
Example: %MW0 := %MW1 + %MW2 %MW0 := %MW1 - %MW2 %MW0 := %MW1 * %MW2 %MW0 := %MW1 / %MW2 %MW0 := SQRT(%MW1)

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Shift function

%MW0 := SHL(%MW1,4) %MW0 := SHR(%MW1,4) %MW0 := ROL(%MW1,4) %MW0 := ROR(%MW1,4)

Comparison Block
Two types of comparison blocks are there in Modicon PLC. They are

1. Horizontal Comparison Block 2. Vertical Comparison Block

1. Horizontal Comparison Block

%TM0.V > 10

We can compare timer values using Horizontal comparison block. For example consider one Timer %TM0. For comparing accumulator value of Timer give %TM0.V then comparison symbol and value.

For calling Accumulator value of Timer For changing Preset value of Timer

%TM0.V %TM0.P

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2. Vertical Comparison Block

Compare C EN

%TM0.V

In Vertical comparison block we get four outputs corresponding to one compare value.

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AC DRIVES

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AC Drives
AC motor
An AC motor is an electric motor that is driven by an alternating current. It consists of two basic parts, an outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and an inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field.

STATOR AC 1 SHAFT ROTOR

There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used. The first is the synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either generated by current delivered through slip rings or by a permanent magnet.

The second type is the induction motor, which turns slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current.

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Specifications of Motor
1. Voltage rating (V) 2. Current rating (A) 3. Phase (1 or 3) 4. AC or DC 5. RPM 6. Power Rating (HP) 7. Casing

Block Diagram of Drives

AC to DC Converter (Rectifier)

DC to AC Converter (Inverter)

AC Motor

Pulse Generator

PWM

Ac supply is given to the input of Drives. Then the AC supply is converted into DC supply. In low power applications diodes are used. But in high power applications Thyristors (SCRs) are used. Then the DC supply is again converted into AC. In this also in high power applications IGBTs are used. Then the output signal is then given to AC Motor.

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Drives Connection Diagram in Industries

MCB

Choke Coil

Drives

Motor

In industries the main power supply is given through MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker). Then one Choke coil is used to avoid voltage fluctuations. Then AC Drives is connected and last section is the Load or Motor.

Classification of Drives
Drives

AC Drives

DC Drives

VVD
VVD VFD

VFD
Variable Voltage Drive Variable Frequency Drive

Drives are mainly classified into two types, AC Drives and DC Drives. AC Drives are again classified into two types VVD and VFD. VFDs are commonly used in industries because we can easily change the frequency. But in VVD some voltage drop occurs and we dont get the desired output.

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Here we use Altivar 28 AC Drive. The company name of Altivar 28 is Schneider Electric. Altivar 28 has four Digital inputs namely LI1, LI2, LI3 and LI4. It also has three analog inputs namely AI1, AI2 and AIC. AI1 and AI2 are voltage inputs and AIC is current input. We can assign either AI2 or AIC at one time but not both. One Analog output is also there named as AO. One Common (GND) terminal is also there for both analog and digital inputs.

Digital Inputs Analog Inputs Analog Output Common (Ground)

LI1, LI2, LI3 and LI4 AI1, AI2 and AIC AO Both for Analog and Digital

General formula for calculating Motor speed is Speed (Ns) = 120 f P Where f = Frequency P = Number of Poles

In our Motor Number of Poles (P) = 2. Then the formula becomes Speed (Ns) = 120 f P = 120 f 2 = 60 f

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Modes of Operation
Altivar 28 AC Drive can be mainly operated in two modes

Modes of Operation

2C (2 Wire Configuration)

3C (3WireConfiguration)

2C 4 Speed

2C 8 Speed

In 2C configuration the main control inputs are Forward and Reverse and hence it is known as 2C configuration. In 3C configuration the main control inputs are Forward, Reverse and Stop.

2C Configuration
2C 4 Speed Configuration

In 2C 4 Speed Configuration the four digital inputs are used for controlling different speeds.

LI1 LI2

Forward Direction Reverse Direction

LI3 and LI4 inputs are used for adjusting different speeds.

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LI4 0 0 1 1

LI3 0 1 0 1

Speed LSP SP2 SP3 HSP

2C 4 Speed Configuration Settings

Up

Down

Enter

Esc

For setting 2C 4 Speed Configuration first press Enter. IO Mode setting

Press Enter SET DRC IO SUP

Select IO by using Up and Down Switch.

IO

Tcc = 2C LI2 = Rrs LI3 = PS2 LI4 = PS4 (2 Preset Speeds) (4 Preset Speeds)

Set Mode setting


After setting IO mode then go to SET Mode and set different frequency for LSP, HSP, SP2 and SP3.

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2C 8 Speed Configuration
In 2C 8 Speed configuration LI2, LI3 and LI4 inputs are used for controlling different speeds. Remaining is one input; LI1 is used for forward direction. So only forward direction option is there in 2C 8 Speed Configuration. For setting 2C 8 Speed configuration change LI2 as PS8.

LI2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

LI4 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

LI3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

Speed LSP SP2 SP3 SP4 SP5 SP6 SP7 HSP

IO Mode setting

Press Enter Select IO by using Up and Down Switch.

IO

Tcc = 2C LI2 = PS8 LI3 = PS2 LI4 = PS4

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Set Mode setting


After setting IO mode then go to SET Mode and set different frequency for LSP, HSP, SP2, SP3, SP7.

Analog Control of Motor Using Drives


For controlling the motor using analog voltage, connect the voltage inputs (AI1 or AI2) to 0-10 V. Also for controlling with Analog current connect the Current input (AIC) to 4-20 mA. By varying the current or voltage we can vary the motor speed. Using Analog Output AO we get Analog Output Voltage corresponding to motor speed. This Analog Output can be used for controlling other devices.

3C Configuration
In 3C configuration the main control inputs are Forward, Reverse and Stop. In 3C Configuration one normal speed and jog speed occurs. The normal speed can be set only in LSP.

LI1 LI2 LI3 LI4

Stop Forward Direction Reverse Direction Jog Speed

IO Mode setting Press Enter Select IO by using Up and Down Switch.

IO

Tcc = 3C LI2 = For LI3 = Rrs LI4 = Jog

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Set Mode setting


After setting IO mode then go to SET Mode and set different frequency for LSP and JOG.

DC Injection Breaking
An important feature in this AC Drive is DC Injection Breaking. Normally if we press the stop button of a high speed motor then it stops only slowly. By applying DC Injection Breaking we can suddenly stops the motor. The general principle is that if we give DC Injection Breaking then the drives cuts the AC input applied to the motor and continuous DC is injected to it. Thus the motor cannot able to rotate and it suddenly stops. Thus we can suddenly stop a high speed running motor. For setting DC Injection Breaking in 3C Configuration change the value of LI3 as DCI. So if we use DC Injection Breaking feature in 3C Configuration then the reverse option is not there because we change the reverse input to DCI function.

For DC Injection Breaking

LI3 = DCI

Advantages of Drives
1. Energy Saving. 2. We can run the motor at Constant Speed. 3. We can run the motor at Variable Speed. 4. We can run the motor in both directions (Forward and Reverse). 5. We can run the motor at Jog Speed. 6. We can suddenly stop the motor by using DC Injection Breaking.

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