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NAME : NARESH A/L K S BARAMA SIVAM TITLE : HOW TO MAKE A MODEL SUBMARINE FORM : 1 CEKAL- SMK SULAIMAN BAND

: B6D3EI TEACHER S NAME : MISS LEE YUET LAI

NO TITLE PAGE 1 Acknowledgement 3 2 Introduction 4-7 : What is a submarine ? : How a submarine works ? 3 Thing needed to built a 8 model submarine 4 Instructions to make model 9-11 submarine 5 Conclusion 12

First of all, I would like to express my appreciation to everyone who had assisted me with my submarine model project by wishing thank you. I am also like to thanks to my Science Teacher, Miss Lee for her guidance in explaining how to do the submarine model. My thanks are also given to my parents for their efforts in helping me for my finance and moral support. Without their support and guidance, this project work will not be able to meet it success.

A submarine is a special kind of boat that is able to go underwater!.While most other boats are made to float, a submarine is made to do both: Travel on top of the water or beneath it. Because they go underwater, a submarine is closed up on all sides so that the people inside dont get drenched! In order to move down below the surface, submarines are built with special sealed compartments that open up and fill with water. This weighs the boat down so that it sinks. When a submarine is ready to come back up to the surface, its crew releases the water in these compartments so the boat is lighter again and floats back up! Submarines are useful because they allow militaries to move around in the oceans without being seen. Theyre also used a lot by scientists. By bringing them down under the water, researchers can study marine life that theyd never otherwise be able to see!

A submarine is basically a water tight bubble. It is propelled by diesel motors that spin a propeller. They also have air tanks that then can fill and release with air to help the boat dive and ascend in the water. When the submarine dives, it is supported with a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. This means that a larger submarine have greater buoyant forces acting on it because it displaces more water. When the submarine is diving, weight, in the form of sea water, is added to the total weight of the boat. This works to counteract the buoyant force and the submarine dives. The sub can then surface by exchanging the sea water with compressed air, reducing its weight. The buoyant force will then push the submarine upward toward the surface.

The water and air used in surfacing and diving is stored in ballast tanks. Ballast tanks are generally located between the outer hull and the pressure hull. Typically submarines are equipped with multiple ballast tanks. The first is the main tank that is used for surfacing and diving. Other smaller tanks, called trimming tanks, are located in the rear and front of the submarine and are used to reorient the submarine underwater. Adjusting the level of the water in either of the trimming tanks can tip the ship slightly, or level it out.

After a week studying how the submarines work, I gained some great ideas to make my model submarine. I decided to use the density method, water and air. This is because submarine sinks or floats as desired by using water and air density method.

aquarium tube

marbles

The above diagram is my model submarines draft. I decided to use cheap materials some used materials around the house to build my submarine.
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cutting plier

screw

plastic bottle marbles

aquarium tube

silicone glue
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First, heat up the screw to make holes in empty plastic bottle.

Make six equally spaced holes into the bottle's side.

Make also a hole in the cap.

Apply silicone glue to stick the marbles accordingly.

Stack the marbles one by one.

Arrange the marbles in straight line. It will make the bottle to sink vertically.

Stack the tube into the hole in the cap.

Gently put the submarine into a pail of water, making sure that the long end of the tube does not completely submerge and take on water. The submarine should sink a bit. And later will sink completely.

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The submarine is sinking slowly.

Once it sink, slowly blow through the tube to give a air space.

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A strong blow can raise up the submarine and make it float.

We can repeat the steps as many times as we can. The submarine will sink and float.

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As a conclusion I understood that, a submarine can descend or rise by changing its overall density relative to the water around it. It does this by filling its ballast tanks either with water (increasing its density) or with air (decreasing its density). Decreasing the amount of water in its ballast tanks by replacing it with air lowers the total mass of the submarine; this decreases its density. When the density of the submarine is greater than the surrounding water, it begins to sink. This is called negative buoyancy. A moveable set of wings, called hydroplanes, helps control the angle of the dive. Understanding the same method, I have made my model submarine. The experience was superb. I learn a lot about submarine. This is why I am crazy about science. I LOVE SCIENCE.

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