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Salalah Methanol Company LLC c/o Oman Oil Company S.A.O.C. P.O.

Box 261, PC 118, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Environmental Impact Assessment for Salalah Methanol Project

Project No. HMR/2064 April 2006

HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants P.O. Box: 1295, CPO Seeb Postal Code: 111 Sultanate of Oman

Tel: (968) 24497506 Fax: (968) 24492616 email: hmrenv@omantel.net.om www.hmrenv.com

Environmental Impact Assessment Salalah Methanol Project

Salalah Methanol Company LLC

Environmental Impact Assessment for Salalah Methanol Project


Project No. HMR/2064 April 2006

Issue and Revision


Revision R1 R2 R3 Date 12.03.2006 27.03.2006 04.04.2006 HMR Checked BK BK BK SMC Approved Remarks Draft EMP (Ch 9) Draft report (Ch 1-3) Final draft report

Prepared KRS KRS KRS

Approved SK SK SK

R4

30.04.2006

KRS

BK

SK

Final report

This document has been prepared for the above titled project and it should not be relied upon or used for any other project without the prior written authority of HMR Consultants. HMR Consultants accepts no responsibility or liability for this document to any party other than the client for whom it was commissioned

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Environmental Impact Assessment Salalah Methanol Project C g m S ALARP ASME ASTM bar BOD CH3OH CO CO2 COD Cr Cu dB DGEA DO DPC EC EH&S EIA EMP EMS EPC ESD ETP GDP h H2 H2O HMR Consultants HSE ISO kg kVA kW L Leq m m2 m
3

Salalah Methanol Company LLC

Degrees Centigrade micro-gram micro-meter micro-siemens As Low As Reasonably Practicable American Society of Mechanical Engineering American Society for Testing and Materials Pressure unit equivalent to 101.3 kPascal Biochemical oxygen demand Methanol Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Chemical oxygen demand Chromium Copper Decibel Directorate General of Environmental Affairs Dissolved oxygen Dofar Power Company Electrical conductivity Environment, Health and Safety Environmental impact assessment Environmental management plan Environmental Management System Engineering, procurement and construction Emergency Shut Down effluent treatment plant Gross Domestic Product hour Hydrogen Water HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants, Oman Health, safety and env ironment International Organization for Standardization kilo-gram kilo-volt-ampere kilo-Watt litre Equivalent noise level meter square meter cubic meter Maximum Ministerial decision milli-gram milli-litre milli-meter Ministry of National Heritage and Culture Ministry of Oil & Gas Ministry of Regional municipalities, Environment and Water Resources

max MD mg mL mm MNHC MOG MRME&WR

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Environmental Impact Assessment Salalah Methanol Project MSDS MTPD MW NAAQS NHWMC Nm3 NO NO2 NOx O&G O&M O3 OGC PM PM 10 PM 2.5 ppm ppmv ppt RCC RD RO ROP SFZ SFZC SMC SO 2 SPS SS STP TDS tpd UPS USEPA UTM

Salalah Methanol Company LLC

Material safety data sheet Metric Tons Per Day mega-Watt National ambient air quality standards National Hazardous Waste Management Center cubic meter at normal conditions (0oC and 1 atm pressure) Nitrogen oxide Nitrogen dioxide Oxides of nitrogen Oil and grease Operation and maintenance Ozone Oman Gas Company Particulate matter Particulate matter less than 10 m size Particulate matter less than 2.5 m size Parts per million Parts per million, volume based Parts per thousand Raysut Cement Company Royal Decree Reverse Osmosis Royal Oman Police Salalah Free Zone Salalah Free Zone Company Salalah Methanol Company Sulphur dioxide Salalah Port Services Suspended solids Sewage treatment plant Total dissolved solids Tonnes per day Uninterruptible Power supply United States (of America) Environmental Protection Agency Universal transverse merkator

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT .................................................. 4-1 Overview....................................................................................................... 4-1 Site characteristics ....................................................................................... 4-1 Topography .................................................................................................. 4-6 Geological setting ......................................................................................... 4-6 Regional soil conditions ............................................................................... 4-8 Hydrogeology and groundwater................................................................. 4-9 Climate ........................................................................................................ 4-14

4.8 Ambient air quality.................................................................................... 4-15 4.8.1 Background...........................................................................................4-15 4.8.2 Measurement of gaseous pollutants ......................................................4-15 4.8.3 Measurement of dust concentrations .....................................................4-18 4.9 Noise ............................................................................................................ 4-19

4.10 Terrestrial Flora......................................................................................... 4-19 4.10.1 Regional................................................................................................4-19 4.10.2 Site specific ...........................................................................................4-20 4.11 Terrestrial Fauna....................................................................................... 4-21

4.12 Marine Environment ................................................................................. 4-26 4.12.1 Overview...............................................................................................4-26 4.12.2 Methodology .........................................................................................4-26 4.12.3 Seawater temperature............................................................................4-27 4.12.4 Salinity ..................................................................................................4-28 4.12.5 Marine habitats......................................................................................4-28 4.12.6 Intake .....................................................................................................4-30 4.12.7 Shallow water community ....................................................................4-31 4.12.8 Intertidal environment...........................................................................4-36 4.12.9 Outfall ...................................................................................................4-39 4.12.10 Seawater Quality...............................................................................4-42 4.12.11 Sediment quality ...............................................................................4-42 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Demography ............................................................................................... 4-43 Occupation and employment .................................................................... 4-44 Industrial environment.............................................................................. 4-44 Archaeological, cultural and recreational resources.............................. 4-45

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4.17 Land use...................................................................................................... 4-46 4.17.1 Current land use ....................................................................................4-46 4.17.2 Future land use ......................................................................................4-46

List of Tables Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table 4-1: Regional stratigraphy.................................................................................4-8 4-2: Analysis of soil samples ............................................................................4-9 4-3: Groundwater quality at the proposed site ................................................4-13 4-4: Ambient air quality monitoring locations ...............................................4-17 4-5: Ambient air quality results (SO2 , NOx O3 and benzene).........................4-17 4-6: Ambient dust concentration.....................................................................4-18 4-7: Ambient noise levels ...............................................................................4-19 4-8: Scleractinian corals found in the shallow community.............................4-32 4-9: Seawater sampling locations ...................................................................4-41 4-10: Seabed sediments sampling locations ...................................................4-41 4-11: Seawater analysis ...................................................................................4-42 4-12: Sediment analysis ..................................................................................4-43 4-13: Distribution of economic activity in the Wilayat of Salalah .................4-44 4-14: Current land use pattern at Salalah........................................................4-46

List of Figures Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 4-1: Electrical conductivity of pumped groundwater in Salalah...................4-11 4-2: Environmental survey locations .............................................................4-12 4-3: Windrose for Mina Salalah (2003) .........................................................4-16 4-4: SST estimates from the Hadley Database in offshore Salalah. ..............4-27 4-5: Future land use at Wilayat of Salalah....................................................4-47

List of Plates Plate 4-1: Intersection point of minor wadi with Wadi Adawnib ...............................4-2 Plate 4-2: Lagoon formed at the intersection of wadis to the west of port .................4-2 Plate 4-3: Remains of a building structure..................................................................4-3 Plate 4-4: Excavated pit used as collection tank for sewage .......................................4-4 Plate 4-5: Trucks transporting quarried material to port.............................................4-4 Plate 4-6: Dumping of quarried material on site.........................................................4-5 Plate 4-7: Abandoned fishing boat..............................................................................4-5 Plate 4-8: Caralluma flava found near the north western boundary of the site ........4-22 Plate 4-9: Acacia tortilis ...........................................................................................4-22 Plate 4-10: Calotropis procera .................................................................................4-23 Plate 4-11: Aerva javanica........................................................................................4-23 Plate 4-12: Polypogon monspeliensis .......................................................................4-24 Plate 4-13: Vernonia arabica....................................................................................4-24 Plate 4-14: Salsola spp ..............................................................................................4-25 Plate 4-15: Heliotropium fartakense.........................................................................4-25 Plate 4-16: Deep sandy habitat (22m) about 350m from shore. ...............................4-28 Plate 4-17: Coral (Coscinarea sp.) from the observed community between 3 to15m depth at the proposed intake area. .....................................................................4-29
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Plate 4-18: Intertidal rocky community located near the planned intake .................4-29 Plate 4-19: Degraded sandy intertidal area at the proposed outfal location ............4-30 l Plate 4-20: Two species of anemone (Edwardsia spp.)............................................4-31 Plate 4-21: Head of a burrowing moray eel (possibly Gymnothorax megaspilus)...4-31 Plate 4-22: A few of the coral species observed on site. A: Favites pentagona, B:Goniastrea pectinata , C: Hydnophora sp ., D: Leptoria phrygia , E: Stylophora danae, F: Turbinaria peltata .............................................................................4-33 Plate 4-23: A rich and diverse algal turf covers most of the shallow water hard substrate. At least 6 species are visible on this 5x7 cm frame. .........................4-34 Plate 4-24: Some macrophytes (here probably Nizmodinia sp.) were still visible in January suggesting that in the summer, most of the site must be covered with luxuriant macro algae communities. This cohabitation between algal communities and coral communities is nearly unique in the world. .................4-35 Plate 4-25: Unidentified sponge species. Many more were observed ......................4-36 Plate 4-26: Typical colors of the sea urchin Asthenosoma varium...........................4-36 Plate 4-27: Conical reproductive mounds of Ocypode rotundata ............................4-37 Plate 4-28: Even a low swell on a very calm day, because of the rapid decrease of the depth near shore, result in strong rolling waves on the exposed rocky platform. .438 Plate 4-29: Left: Upper intertidal zone dominated by Tetraclita sp. barnacles. Right. Slightly lower level in the intertidal zone dominated by the oyster Saccostrea sp. ...........................................................................................................................4-38 Plate 4-30: Left: Cellana rota. Right: Siphonaria sp. Both species are specialized in shallow (intertidal) environments where they graze on small incrusting algae. ...439 Plate 4-31: Left: Chiton (Acanthopleura vaillantii) common in the lower intertidal. Right. Small colony of Perna viridis (green mussel). ......................................4-39 Plate 4-32: South shore of the wadi showing the retaining wall...............................4-40 Plate 4-33: General view of the development activity near the proposed outfall .....4-41

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4.
4.1

DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT


Overview

This chapter describes the current status of environment in and around the project site. A number of environmental studies have been conducted in the past for Salalah Port and the surrounding area. Consequently, a good amount of environmental baseline data is available with regard to physical, b iological and social environment in the area. These include the Environmental Impact Assessment for Salalah Port conducted by Consulting Engineering Services (CES), April 2005 and Environmental Impact Assessment for Salalah Power System Privatisation Project for Dhofar Power Company S.A.O.C (DPC) by HMR, April 2001. For the present EIA study, the secondary data obtained from these sources were validated and augmented by site specific surveys during February-March 2006. The site surveys included accessing the existing ambient air quality, noise levels, groundwater and soil quality. A brief terrestrial ecological survey at the plant and offsite areas was also conducted. In addition, a marine survey was conducted at locations of the proposed seawater intake and marine outfall to assess the marine environmental sensitivities of these locations. The above studies formed the basis of identifying and assessing potential impacts to the environment due to the project development and determining control measures for mitigating significant environmental impacts. 4.2 Site characteristics

The proposed SMC site is located west of Salalah Port facilities and to the northeast of existing cattle feed factory and is approximately 15km southwest of Salalah. The methanol production plant will be developed in a site of area 481155.1 m2 adjacent to the port authority office. The site is accessible by a 12m asphalted road, which runs from Raysut to the port accommodation area. The geographical (UTM) coordinates of the site corner points are presented in Chapter 3. A plot plan of the complex is presented in Appendix C. The site is situated adjacent to the alluvial plains of a Wadi Adawnib. The project site is gently sloping towards the north east and is bisected by a minor wadi with an irregular bed profile. This minor wadi joins Wadi Adawnib at a point adjacent to the port facilities forming a sma ll lagoon (Plate 4-1 and Plate 4-2). The surface materials at the site are mixed and comprise mostly gravels, with sand, cobbles and boulder size rocks. There are two access roads adjacent to the eastern and southern boundaries of the project site.

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Plate 4-1: Intersection point of minor wadi with Wadi Adawnib

Plate 4-2: Lagoon formed at the intersection of wadis to the west of port

The general elevation of the site is about 22m above the mean sea level. The nearest dwellings to the site are the port accommodation area at about 1.5 km south-east from the site boundary and Al Mughsayl village located 2.4 km from the site. Evidence of human activity was found during the brief site reconnaissance and successive field surveys. It is likely that the site terrain has been modified by historic
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workings. The structural remains at the site, as observed during the site walkthrough, indicate that previous building works have been undertaken on this site (Plate 4-3 and Plate 4-4). Reportedly, this may have been in association with the port development. The nature of any remaining foundations is unknown. No evidence was observed on site to suspect any significant contamination of the site. Soil and groundwater samples were collected as a part of this EIA study for evaluating any contamination due to previous land use. A temporary access road has been constructed across the site to facilitate transport of quarried material to the port. Further, dumping of material at the site was also observed during the site visit (Plate 4-5 and Plate 4-6). A few old boats were noticed abandoned on the site (Plate 4-7). The origin or owners of these boats, which are assumed to be fishing boats, are not known. These do not however show any archaeological or cultural importance.

Plate 4-3: Remains of a building structure

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Plate 4-4: Excavated pit used as collection tank for sewage

Plate 4-5: Trucks transporting quarried material to port

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Plate 4-6: Dumping of quarried material on site

Plate 4-7: Abandoned fishing boat

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The Wadi tributary passing through the centre o the site supports considerable scrub f vegetation. The general direction of water flow is towards the east across the site and then turning north till it joins the larger Wadi Adawnib located north of the port. There is no recorded flow data for the both the minor wadi and wadi Adawnib. However, a discharge measurement from wadi Adawnib was conducted on 14th April 1980 following a storm event. Information regarding this survey from the Ministry of Water Resources indicated a surveyed discharge rate of 729m3 /s. The bed of this site Wadi features rounded gravel and cobbles but does not indicate any clear canalized flow route. A gravel mound was observed towards the south west of the site. No evidence was noted on site to support this being a natural feature. The site margins are generally at the same level as that of the surrounding land. A 6m wide haul road runs along the south of the proposed project site and currently serves the Dhofar Cattle Feed Company and a quarry. The east and north of the site is bounded by a curving road connecting the port area and main road leading to Salalah. To the west and northwest the site boundary is less well defined as the plot is continuous with the remainder of the Salalah Free Zone area. 4.3 Topography

The site is an undeveloped open area with a slope towards northeast. The port authority office building delimits the plot on the eastern corner, while smaller rock out crops and relief borders the plot on the south-western side. The general ground elevation increases toward the north-western direction, reaching up to 800-1000m elevation above the mean sea level at 20 km distance of the project site. Most of the land area within 10 km distance from the project site is classified as stony plain. The site is divided into two parts by a Wadi flowing in the east-west direction and diverting towards north at the western end of the site. Due to presence of the Wadi, a depression (elevation varying from 2.75 m to 6.0 m MSL) is formed along the route sloping gently towards western side of the site. There are several heaps of gravel dumped on the banks of the Wadi. In the south-western part of the site, there is a gravel hill (possibly made ground), covering approximately 200 square meters. 4.4 Geological setting

The study area is situated in alluvial plains belonging to the Nar Formation (Fars Group), which is Miocene to Pliocene in age and characterised by wadi alluvium deposits, underlain with cemented sands and conglomerate. The Nar Formation is underlain by shallow marine limestone and conglomerate (Adawnib Formation). This is further underlain by Mughsail Formation.

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The Fars Group is followed by the Dhofar Group which consists of the Zalumah, Ashwaq and the lower part of Mughsail Formations. The Dhofar Group is underlain by Hadhramaut Gr oup, which is subdivided into four Formations. These include (from older to younger) Umm er Radhuma (UeR), Rus, Dammam, and Aydim Formations. Aydim Formation is made of limestone and is underlain by Dammam Formation, which is made up of limestone, shale and marl rocks. Rus Formation is made of shale, limestone/dolomite and evaporates. The Rus formation is underlain by limestone and dolomite belonging to UeR formation. Hadhramaut is Eocene in age and is underlain by the Cretaceous/Tertiary unconformity. The stratigraphy of the area is summarised in Table 4-1 below. The lithological units in the site area can be divided into four main units from youngest to the oldest. Recent to present alluvial deposits - comprises unconsolidated sandy gravel formation with fluvial cobbles and boulders. These deposits are observed to fill the wadi in the central part of the site. Khabra deposits - fine-grained deposits consisting of sandy silt and clay located just inland from recent shore bar, north-eastern part of the site. Coastal deposits - consists of coarse, white bioclastic calcarenite (beach rock) containing abundant marine fossils with pebble bands. The Tertiary deposits - the Tertiary deposits, which blanket most of the Dhofar region, were predominantly laid down during the Palaeocene to mid-Eocene periods. However, more recent Oligocene and Miocene deposits occupy some isolated areas within coastal regions, where deposition occurred locally within coastal embayment. Published geological references suggest that the Ras Raysut area is underlain by carbonate deposits of the Shihr Group. The major Tertiary formations of the region are defined as follows: Shihr Group (Oligocene to Miocene) - predominantly limestone, locally dolomitise: with thick series of clastic, conglomerate, calcirudite, sandstones, marl and gypsum. Habshiya Formation (Mid Eocene) - yellow and variegated shale and marl with interbedded chalky, fossiliferous and dolomitic limestone.

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Rus and Jeza Formations (Lower Eocene) - chalky to crystalline limestone, with occasional silicified chert beds and nodules; some gypsiferous and massive gypsum beds, particularly within the Rus. UeR formation (Palaeocena) - massive, hard, re-crystalline limestone, locally dolomitise with scattered chert nodules.
Table 4-1: Regional stratigraphy
Period Quaternary Epoch Recent Pliocene Miocene Group Nar Fars Adawnib Mugsail Oligocene Dhofar Ashwaq Zalumah Aydim Dammam Rus Umm Er Radhuma Aruma Shammar Formation Formations Rock Types Recent wadi alluvium Conglomerate Limestone and conglomerate White turbiditic rocks Limestone Laccusstrine limestone Limestone and Dolomite Limestone, yellow marl and clastics Chalky Limestone with shale, marls and evaporites Marl and Limestone Shale

Tertiary

Neogene

Eocene

Paleocene Cretaceous Upper Cretaceous

4.5

Regional soil conditions

The soil within the region varies considerably, with the undulating topography of the area. The soils surrounding the project site are typically calcareous (calcium-rich) and are described as gravely loams. The gravel content in the soil increases with increasing topographical slope and general elevation of the area. Regional soil salinity varies between non-saline and saline, however soils found closer to the coast are expected to have increased salt content. These coastal soils can extend from coastal dunes and marine flats some considerable distance inland influencing soil quality around the project site. The soils surrounding the site are generally designated as unsuitable for irrigated farming due to high gravel content, shallow depth to bedrock and topographical slopes. Soil samples were collected as a part of this EIA study in order to obtain a baseline of the soil quality within the project site. Samples were collected from within the proposed site at a depth of 1m with the help of hand held augers. The collected
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Hadhramut

Paleogene

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samples were placed in polythene bags, labelled and submitted to laboratory for analysis. The sampling locations are presented in Figure 4-2. In lieu of absence of applicable Omani standards and limits for soil quality, the results of laboratory analysis of soil were compared with the Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG) listed in the USEPA Site Notification Standards for Industrial Soil. The comparison is presented in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2: Analysis of soil samples
Parameter Coordinates Depth Cadmium Chromium Copper Nickel Lead Manganese Barium Zinc Mercury Arsenic Cobalt Molybdenum Antimony Vanadium Gasoline range hydrocarbons (C5-C10) Diesel range hydrocarbons (C11-C28) Heavy fraction (C 29-C 40) Unit m mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg g/L USEPA Standards 810 450 7.6 104 4.1 104 750 3.2 10 1.0 105 1.0 105 610 2.7
4

SS 01 E 818113 N 1875078 1.0 m 0.364 72.6 9.43 37.8 2.38 310 21.1 2.82 45.6 -

SS 02 E 818171 N 1874982 1.0 m 0.303 60.3 11.1 39.2 1.66 257 20.2 3.31 43.7 -

SS 03 E 817937 N 1874873 1.0 m 0.501 80.6 12.0 39.8 7.92 305 58.3 2.49 42.9 -

SS 04 E 818386 N 1874821 1.0 m 0.52 30.1 14.2 23.7 11.4 1628 68.3 <0.1 1.02 4.2 0.21 <0.7 23.7 <10

1.0 105 1.0 104 820 1.4 104 -

mg/L

<0.05

mg/L

<0.05

The results presented above indicate that the background concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons in the soil within the proposed site are well within comparable limits. 4.6 Hydrogeology and groundwater

The main source of water in the project area is the ground water aquifer lying underneath the Salalah plain between the UeR limestone and alluvial deposits. The ground water for the entire Salalah region is extracted mainly from two well fields namely Salalah Well Field and Sa'ada Well Field. The Salalah Well Field consists of
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eleven wells and is located north of Salalah Airport. The Sa'ada Well Field comprises three wells and is located east of Thumrait road, at the base of the jebels. In addition, there are many private wells extracting water for agricultural/institutional uses. The Directorate General of Water Supply & Transport (DGWST) has estimated (1995) the total aquifer reserves at 50.3 million m3. The annual recharge is estimated at 40 million cubic meters1. About 94% of this comes from the mountains. The rest is primarily due to infiltration of rain water directly falling over the Salalah plain and infiltration of surface water from natural springs. Average annual discharge is 3 estimated at 44 million m . Agriculture consumes about 87% of the total extraction. From these estimates, it can be noted that the area faces a deficit in aquifer recharge and it is required to implement appropriate management plans in order to ensure sustainability of groundwater resources in the area. Over abstraction from the aquifers has resulted in saline water intrusion in addition to decline of groundwater resources. Several studies have been conducted in the past to assess the availability and quality of groundwater in the area. Such studies indicate an increasing trend of salinity in groundwater as presented in Figure 4-1. The figure graphically presents the Electrical Conductivity (EC) of pumped groundwater in 1983 and 1991 (Dames and Moore, 1992). However, the saline water intrusion does not appear to have significant effect on the EC profile in the main freshwater zone, which has an EC of about 1900 4500 S/cm (based on data obtained from Ministry during the EIA study for DPC). The water supply wells located near the project site are shown in Figure 4-2. The analysis of water samples conducted during the EIA study for DPC indicated TDS in the range of 2200-2500 mg/L, hardness in the range of 600-700 mg/L, nitrate in the range of 9-18 mg/L and iron in the range of 0.1-0.2 mg/L.

Mahad Baawain and Jamal Abu Ashour, 2002-anakkale. Sustainability of Groundwater in Salalah Catchment Area, Department of Civil Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants Sultanate of Oman

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Figure 4-1: Electrical conductivity of pumped groundwater in Salalah

Bore wells have been drilled at the site as a part of the geotechnical survey for SMC project. Piezometers were installed in four of these bore wells and cased for the use of groundwater monitoring. The monitoring wells are located in such a way as to obtain representative samples from up-gradient, down-gradient and cross-gradient locations of the proposed site. A control point has also been located outside the fence line of the proposed site. Samples were collected on 12th March 2006 and analysed in order to determine the present groundwater quality and to provide a baseline against which future monitoring results may be compared so as to identify any change in groundwater quality. The locations of the sampled boreholes are presented in Figure 4-2. Samples were analyzed for various parameters to assess compliance with Omani standards. The results are presented in Table 4-3.

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AAQS-5

AAQS-3

AAQS-8

AAQS-2 AAQS-7 AAQS-1 AAQS-6 AAQS-4


BH-06 BH-18 BH-01 SS-01 SS-03 SS-02 SS-04 BH-14

Figure 4-2: Environmental survey locations

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Table 4-3: Groundwater quality at the proposed site


Omani drinking water standards (OS 8/1998) Levels of Maximum Quality 2 Levels 6.5-8.0 9.0 250 250 <800 <200 <30 1503 <3 <1.0 <0.3 <200 75* 1.5 400 600 1500 50 500 0.001 0.01 5 0.003 0.05 1.5 0.02 0.7 1.0 0.01 0.07 400 200* Measured Concentrations BH-01 7.1 31360 2.78 1776 11786 22408 10 4061 798 <0.001 0.006 <0.003 <0.02 <0.01 0.006 <0.002 0.162 0.084
-

Parameter

Unit

BH-06 7.58 22140 4.42 1238 8143 15546 22.9 2874 578 <0.001 0.005 <0.003 <0.02 <0.01 0.004 0.003 0.102 0.014 0.015 5098 175.7 195 0.042 3.9

BH-14 7.14 13190 3.08 618 4144 7981 13.2 1735 315 <0.001 0.001 <0.003 <0.02 <0.01 0.006 <0.002 0.038 0.015 0.006 2520 79.1 174 0.106 11.5

BH-18 7.5 1431 <2 0.11 167 792 1524 767 <0.001 <0.001 0.029 <0.0003 <0.004 <0.013 <0.005 0.027 0.008 0.083 0.008 0.03 0.006 3937 146 <10 <0.05 <0.05 Absent 9.0

pH Salinity EC BOD Ammonia Sulphate (SO 4) Chloride TDS NO 3 Total hardness as CaCO3 Magnesium Mercury Arsenic Zinc Cadmium Chromium Copper Nickel Barium Cobalt Iron Lead Molybdenum Vanadium Sodium Potassium Calcium TPH GRH (C5 C 10 ) DRH (C11 C28 ) Heavy fraction (C 29C40) Faecal Coliforms Depth to groundwater

S/cm mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L g/L mg/L mg/L Counts /100ml m

0.013 7372 249.9 307 0.136 4.4

The levels of quality indicate the desirable limits and the maximum levels indicate the maximum acceptable limits if no alternative source for drinking water exists 3 Note more than 30 mg/L if the amount of sulphates is equal to or greater than 250 mg/L. Less than 150 mg/L if the amo of sulphates is less than 250 mg/L unt * WHO Standards HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants Sultanate of Oman

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The depth to groundwater was measured using interface meter in all of the above boreholes as presented in the above table. No floating hydrocarbon was detected in the above boreholes. It can be noted from the above results that the levels of sulphates, chlorides, TDS, sodium, lead, magnesium and total hardness in the groundwater samples are above the limits applicable for drinking water. However, the hydrocarbon levels are relatively low. The above exceedances are most likely due to saline water intrusion at the coastal area. Based on the results of analysis, it can be noted that the groundwater quality in the project area is not in full compliance with Omani drinking water standards / WHO standards. However, it is to be noted that the groundwater in the project area will not be potentially used directly for drinking water requirements and will be treated prior to any industrial or domestic usage. To further assess the groundwater quality in the area, periodic sampling and analysis of groundwater needs to be conducted from various monitoring bore holes in the area. 4.7 Climate

Unlike in the rest of Oman, the Dhofar region experiences three climatic seasons, winter (October - February), summer (March - June) and monsoon (Khareef, July September). The mean maximum temperature of 33C occurs throughout the summer months whilst the lowest temperature occurs in December and January, with a mean minimum of 16 to 17C. A strong southwest monsoon brings some heavy rainfall to the area during the months of July-September, with a mean temperature of about 24C. The humidity ranges from 96 98%. The maximum air temperature reported at Salalah is 44.7C (in year 1994) and the minimum air temperature reported is 10.8C (in year 1983). The average barometric pressure encountered is recorded as 97.7 to 98.9 kPa (a). The average annual rainfall varies from as low as 50 mm in the plains to 300 mm in the mountains. The mean wind speed ranges from 5 to 13 km/h. High wind speeds are mostly encountered during the winter months. The prevailing wind direction in the interior and at the coast is variable throughout the year, but winds from the north-east are minimal. During the monsoon season, the prevailing wind direction is from the south and south-west in Salalah area. A windrose developed based on the meteorological data for Mina Salalah for the year 2003 is presented in Figure 4-3. A summary of Salalah monthly maximum, mean & minimum air temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall during year 1983 to 2003

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obtained from Ministry of Communications, Directorate General of Civil Aviation and Meteorology, Department of Meteorology is summarised in Appendix E. 4.8
4.8.1

Ambient air quality


Background

The ambient air quality in the area can be potentially affected by gaseous emissions from the industrial activities in the area such as port operations, storage and handling of oil products by BP, DPC and industries located near the port area such as the Dofar Cattle Feed Factory (DCF). As part of the present EIA study, an assessment of ambient air quality was conducted during February-March, 2006. The survey included the following components: Measurement of gaseous pollutants viz. SO2 , NOX, O 3 and Hydrocarbons ( Volatile Organic Compounds - VOCs); and Measurement of ambient dust concentrations.

The above measurements were conducted as explained below:


4.8.2 Measurement of gaseous pollutants

Eight locations around the project area were selected based on predominant wind direction, locations of sensitive receptor and potential emission sources at the proposed fac ility. Monitoring stations were established at each of the locations for measuring the concentrations of SO2, NOX, O3 and VOC using passive diffusion tubes. For each parameter, the tubes were exposed for a period of about 3 weeks (between 14th February and 7th March 2006) for diffusion of respective pollutants.

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Figure 4-3: Windrose for Mina Salalah (2003)

After exposure, the concentrations were determined by analysis in the laboratory. At each location, the diffusion tubes for each parameter were fixed in duplicate. That is, a total of 8 tubes were fixed at each monitoring location (for four parameters x 2 tubes each). The tubes were fixed at each location using fixtures and expose d to ambient air for diffusion of the pollutants. Diffusion tubes for SO2 NOX and O 3 are acrylic tubes of approximately 10 cm long and about 15 mm diameter and the VOC tubes are metallic tubes of approximately 10 cm long and 5 mm diameter. The tubes contain chemicals for absorption of respective pollutants. The sensitivity of the tubes is about 4-16

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0.1g/m3. The tubes are used one time only and do not require any calibration. Sampling locations are presented in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4: Ambient air quality monitoring locations
Location Code AQ1 AQ2 AQ3 AQ4 Location UTM Coordinates E 818454 N 1874968 E 818474 N 1876017 E 180495 N 1878444 E 819256 N 1874367 E 821728 N 1881293 E 817169 N 1874571 E 817591 N 1875339 E 816111 N 1876378 Distance and Direction from Project Site Site centre 1.2 Km northeast of proposed site 3.6 km northeast of site 1.4 km southeast of proposed site 7.2 km northeast of site 1.1 km southwest of proposed site 0.5 km northwest of proposed site 2.4 km northwest of proposed site Location Significance At the site Receptor location, downwind Receptor location, downwind Receptor location, crosswind Receptor location, downwind Upwind location Near cattle feed factory Nearest residential area towards northwest

Site centre Nea r MOD facility Nearest residential area towards northeast Royal court affairs and Royal Yatch Squadron officers accommodation Auqad village Near Cattle Feed Factory Near GTO Al Mughsayl village

AQ5 AQ6 AQ7 AQ8

These locations are marked on the site map in Figure 4-2. The concentrations of pollutants obtained are presented in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5: Ambient air quality results (SO 2, NO x O3 and benzene)
Location AQ1 AQ2 AQ3 AQ4 AQ5 AQ6 AQ7 AQ8 S O 2 (g/m 3) NO X(g/m3 ) 4 Measured Limit Measured Limit5 4.29 5.48 3.22 5.24 7.29 4.32 1.91 1.91 9.82 13 14.87 10.78 12 6.35 8.13 6.3 O 3 ( g/m3) Measured Limit6 48.66 49.16 38.47 50.30 40.82 54.59 52.62 51.35 Benzene (ppb) Measured7 Limit8 0.305 0.09 0.22 0.095 0.13 0.1 0.115 0.085

80

100

157

1.54

4 5

USEPA NAAQ Standards, Annual arithmetic mean USEPA NAAQ Standards, Annual arithmetic mean 6 USEPA NAAQ Standards, 8 hour average 7 Measurements are conducted for top 10VOCs. However, comparable standards are available only for benzene. 8 UK Ambient Air Quality Standards, Annual mean HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants Sultanate of Oman

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The results are compared with annual average limits, as the sampling periods are more than 24-hours. It is appropriate to compare the results with annual average limits as these limits are for a longer averaging period than the measurement period and will be more stringent limits. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants are within applicable limits and there is no considerable deterioration of the ambient air quality of the area with regard to the critical pollutants monitored.
4.8.3 Measurement of dust concentrations

The ambient dust levels were measured at the same locations where measurements of gaseous pollutants were conducted, as listed in Table 4-4. Ambient dust measurements were conducted using direct reading particulate matter (PM10) monitor, Personnel Data Ram (pDR) 1000-AN manufactured by Monitoring Instruments for the Environment (MIE) Inc., USA. The instrument is a handheld dust monitor and draws air passively through the sensor, which works on the relationship between the particulate concentration and attenuation of light transmittance. The instrument covers a measurement range of 0.001 mg/m3 to 400 mg/m3.
th Measurements were conducted on 7 of March 2006, for about 15 minutes at each location. Weather conditions were normal and there was no excess wind / dust storms during the measurements. The measured values were logged into the instrument memory, which was subsequently downloaded. Dust concentrations measured at each location are presented in Table 4-6.

Table 4-6: Ambient dust concentration


Location AQ1 AQ2 AQ3 AQ4 AQ5 AQ6 AQ7 AQ8 PM 10 concentration ( g/m 3) Measured NAAQS (annual arithmetic mean) 22 16 9 12 150 11 18 7 7

The dust concentrations presented above show that the ambient dust levels are within the applicable standards.

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4.9

Noise

The ambient noise levels at the surroundings of the proposed project site were recorded as a part of the field studies on 13th February.2006. The noise level measurements were conducted using Integrating and Logging Sound Level Meter (SLM), Quest Model 2900 UL (intrinsically safe). The Quest 2900 UL is a Type 2 Integrating Data logging Sound Level Meter, which enables measurement of 'A', 'C', or linear weighted sound levels. The instrument has capabilities to measure equivalent continuous noise levels (Leq) with standard measurement settings conforming to regulatory requirements. Noise levels were measured on 13th February.2006, at the same locations as that of the ambient air quality measurements, for about 10-15 minutes at each location, during daytime. Weather conditions were normal and there was no excess wind during the measurements. Wind speeds were measured using a hand-held anemometer simultaneously with noise measurements to ensure that the wind speeds were less than 3 m/s, as high wind speeds would lead to errors in the measured noise levels. The ambient noise levels are presented in Table 4-7.
Table 4-7: Ambient noise levels
Location Omani Standard (MD 79/94) Leq dB(A) 50.2 51.5 48.8 709 49.7 51.5 54.5 45.8 51.6 L5 dB(A) 52.7 L10 dB(A) 52.0 L50 dB(A) 49.9 L90 dB(A) 47.6 Wind speed (m/s) 1-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

54.1 53.1 55.5 54.5 58.9 49.1 54.4

53.3 50.5 53.2 53.2 57.8 46.4 53.7

51.1 47.6 46.2 49.9 52.7 42.8 51.2

49.6 44.0 43.5 48.4 49.2 40.9 49.1

1-2 0-1 1-2 1-2 0-1 0-1 0-1

The results show that the ambient noise levels are within applicable limits. 4.10
4.10.1

Terrestrial Flora
Regional

The vegetation of Dhofar is largely tropical African. Endemism is high with Dhofar being classified as one of the centres of endemism and biological diversity in the Arabian Peninsula. The dominant vegetation of the coastal plains consists of scattered trees of Acacia tortilis. On rocky outcrops xerophytic sh rubs such as Cadaba spp. Caesalpinia erianthera and Commiphora spp. are present in association with
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Adenium obesum, Caralluma flava, Sansevieria ehrengergii, Kleinia odora, Euphorbia cactus and Aloe spp. On the soft coastal soils, species of Salsola, Suaeda, Euphorbia hardamautica, Vernonia arabica, Heliotropium fartakense, Limoniun axillare and the creeper Ipomoea pes-caprae occur. Much of the vegetation of coastal plains has been destroyed by anthropogenic influences and over-grazing. However, after rains , a cover of ephemeral herbs and grasses cover the plains, providing feed to grazing livestock. At the foot of the escarpment mountains, species of Commipohor, Jatropha dhofarica, Croton confertus, and the common succulent creeper Cissus quadrangularis are present.
4.10.2 Site specific

Site specific flora survey was conducted on 23 nd March 2006, the findings of which are presented bellow. There are three distinct habitats on the proposed site. Open land with well compacted sand, Rocky outcrops and Wadi channels and edges.

The dominant vegetation of the open lands consists of sparsely distributed trees of Acacia tortilis and a few young Acacia ehrenbergiana. Trees are the main characteristic of a vegetation type. In addition, all of Acacia species which belongs to Acacia genus are naturally grown in Oman. These plants are in association with Calotropis procera, Aerva javanica , Rumex vesicarius, Heliotropium fartakense, Euphorbia hadramautica , Sida urens, Vernonia arabica , Polypogon monspeliensis, Cynodon dactylon, Chloris virgata , Aristidia adscensionis, Ipomoe pes-caprae, Solanum incanum, Solanum nigrum, Senra incana, Salsola , Suadea , Fagonia spp ., and Caralluma flava . Much of the vegetation of the open land has been destroyed by ongoing activities such as construction of a temporary road across the site and dumping of quarried material on site (Section 4.2) and over-grazing. Rocky outrcrops have very sparse vegetation with only a few species as was observed at the proposed seawater intake pipeline route. These are Acacia tortilis, Aerva javanica , Polypogon monspeliensis, Capparis spinosa and Capparis cartilaginea. On the wadi channel and edges, that traverses through the site and along the proposed seawater outfall route, Acacia tortilis is the dominant species and is in association with Calotropis procera, Aerva javanica , Heliotropium fartakense, Vernonia arabica , Fagonia spp , Polypogon monspeliensis, Cynodon dactylon , Chloris virgata , Salsola spp ., and Vitis spp.

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Even though the propose d site is relatively disturbed, a regionally endemic species, Caralluma flava (Plate 4-8), is observed within the proposed site. Among the Caralluma species, Caralluma flava is commonly found in Dhofar and is listed under IUCN Wor ld Red Data List category as LR(nt) [LR (nt) is not a category of threat] as well as under Oman Red Data List Category. Caralluma flava was observed at the western border of the proposed site. Construction activities and vehicle movements on this part of the proposed site should be minimized in order to avoid the impacts on this species. The species which are found on the proposed site are Acacia tortilis (Plate 4-9) Calotropis procera (Plate 4-10), Aerva javanica (Plate 4-11), Polypogon monspeliensis (Plate 4-12), Vernonia arabica (Plate 4-13), Salsola spp. (Plate 4-14), Heliotropium fartakense (Plate 4-15) and Cynodon dactylon. The detailed list of floral species that are found on the proposed site is presented in Appendix F. 4.11 Terrestrial Fauna

A large number of bird species are present in Dhofar and many breed in the region. Most of the species are migratory and pass regularly through Oman during the spring and autumn months. A large number of birds occur over the cool up welling areas off Dhofar and most breed from late June to September. A variety of small mammals and reptilian species are expected to be present in the vicinity of the project area. There are no mammals in the project area that are listed in the IUCN Red List of threatened animals or in the Oman Red List, which qualify for protection.

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Plate 4-8: Caralluma flava found near the north western boundary of the site

Plate 4-9: Acacia tortilis

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Plate 4-10: Calotropis procera

Plate 4-11: Aerva javanica

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Plate 4-12: Polypogon monspeliensis

Plate 4-13: Vernonia arabica

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Plate 4-14: Salsola spp

Plate 4-15: Heliotropium fartakense

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4.12
4.12.1

Marine Environment
Overview

The coast of Oman can be divided into three zones: the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. The coastline of Salalah under the Arabian Sea is directly under the influence of a yearly shift in wind direction and strength driven by climatic changes at the basin level. During the southwest monsoon (June-September), strong southwesterly winds blow along the coastline of Dhofar, generating a rapid polar-wise water combined with a coastal up-welling. During the northeast monsoon, the water mass of the Northern Indian Ocean cools down and experiences a dramatic increase of the mixed layer depth. The proposed project site is located in the middle of this monsoon driven area and is affected by changes in water temperature, primary production and wave regime. The proposed intake faces east and is located in a short and narrow pocket beach limited by carbonate cliffs on both north and south border and a shallow rocky platform on the sea side. The outfall is proposed to be located in a small Khwar at the mouth of a wadi (Wadi Adawnib), near the northern wall of Salalah Harbour (Plate 4-2). As part of the present EIA study a marine survey was conducted, which included an assessment of marine ecology at the proposed intake and outfall locations and sampling and analysis of seawater and sediments from the above locations for assessment of contaminant levels. The following sections present the details and findings of the marine survey.
4.12.2 Methodology

Intertidal surveys

Intertidal surveys were conducted at the proposed intake and outfall locations. Two survey quadrats (7 m x 10 m) were laid on either side of the planned outfall path. A series of 3 quadrats (5 m x 10 m) were laid along the bottom of the wadi at depths of approximately 1.5 m 70 cm, and 30 cm at low tide. All encountered organisms were identified and population density estimated from digital images.
Subtidal surveys

Three stations located at 8 m, 14 m and 22 m in depth were surveyed along the path of 2 the proposed intake location. An approximate area of 200 m was sampled at each station and all encountered organisms were identified. Density was estimated from number of observations in 200 m2.

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Oceanography and water quality

Secondary historical data were used to evaluate the oceanography and water quality of the site. In addition, as mentioned above, seawater and sediment samples were collected from both intake and outfall locations for analysis of potential contaminants.
4.12.3 Seawater temperature

No direct long-term measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) are available for this region. However, records from the Hadley database show a clear annual pattern with maximum temperature reached before summer (May -June: 29-30C) and minimum SST recorded in summer (July -August 23-24C). A SST profile sourced from Hadley database for the Arabian Sea in offshore Salalah is presented in Figure 4-4. It is to be noted that these values were measured by remote sensing about 20 km offshore to avoid land generated errors. Temperature near shore can be several degrees lower.

Figure 4-4: SST estimates from the Hadley Database in offshore Salalah.

The maximum peaks in the above figure indicate the temperatures during summer (May-June). The temperatures subsequently reduce to the minimum during monsoon (July-August) and then increase to the subsequent peaks in winter months (November-December). The minimum summer average temperature is strongly under the influence of the monsoon up-welling (Khareef). Satellite images show clearly the extent and amplitude of this temperature drop. Deeper water (5-20 m), or water located closer to shore, would have even lower temperatures of approximately 17C.

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4.12.4

Salinity

Salinity (as measured by conductivity) does not fluctuate very much. Although Dohfar is under the influence of significant rain, the area affected by the monsoon rain in Oman is quite small in comparison to the large flow of water generated by the southwesterly winds and global changes in salinity are thus small. Previous studies conducted for the expansion project of container terminal of Salalah port (April 2005) indicate the salinity levels in the area to be in the range of 36.1 to 36.7 ppt.
4.12.5 Marine habitats

Four distinct habitats were observed near the project sites, three in front of the intake and one at the proposed outfall location as listed below: A large sandy/silty area located below 15 m in depth in front of the intake (Plate 4-16). A shallow water coral community dominated in the winter by corals and likely abundant seaweed in the summer situated between 3-15 m in depth in front of the intake (Plate 4-17). A intertidal carbonate community located in front of the intake (Plate 4-18). An extensive degraded sandy area located in front of the proposed outfall location in a wadi bed (Plate 4-19).

Plate 4-16: Deep sandy habitat (22m) about 350m from shore.

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Plate 4-17: Coral (Coscinarea sp.) from the observed community between 3 to15m depth at the proposed intake area.

Plate 4-18: Intertidal rocky community located near the planned intake

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Plate 4-19: Degraded sandy intertidal area at the proposed outfall location

4.12.6

Intake

The proposed intake (Options 1 and 2) is located in the northern end of a large bay fringed by high cliffs with a small pocket beach in the northern section. The central part of the bay is filled with fine sediment (mixture of find sand and silt). As the depth decreases, at around 13m in depth, the sandy bottom is progressively replaced by a mixture of sandy trenches filled with rough sands surrounded by rounded, eroded boulders from 50 cm to several meters in diameter. In shallower water, the rocky substrate become dominant with only narrow trenches filled with sediment and distinct ripple-marks suggesting strong currents. In even shallower water, all permanent sediments disappear but in small deep pockets between large boulders. The deepest part of the bay is covered with a sandy bottom (fine sands with silt) and a rich endofauna. Several species of polychaetes worm were observed as well as two species of unusual Edwardsia sea anemone (two of each species, Plate 4-20 photographed at the bay at 22 m depth). Several small gastropods were als o observed. The benthic ichtyofauna is relatively typical of sandy bottom, flat fish near the bottom but also a very unusual burrowing eel, possibly the rare Omani eel Gymnothorax megaspilus, Bhlke and Randall 1995 (refer Plate 4-21. In the small window, a typical polychaete burrow with the tentacles of the worm extended).
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Plate 4-20: Two species of anemone (Edwardsia spp.)

Plate 4-21: Head of a burrowing moray eel (possibly Gymnothorax megaspilus)

4.12.7

Shallow water community

The shallow water community is dominated (in the winter) by a diverse coral community. Corals here do not form reefs and the shape of the colonies (mostly

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massive, flattened or with very sturdy branches) suggests a community under the influence of both strong wave action and sedimentation. Coral covers observed on an average do not exceed 20% but reaches nearly 70% on some particularly rich boulders between 7-10m in depth. Several species were observed and although none appear rare, some are endemic and unusual. The list of coral species observed during the survey are presented in Table 4-8. A few photographs of the coral species observed during the survey are presented in P late 4-22.
Table 4-8: Scleractinian corals found in the shallow community
Scleractinian coral Acropora sp.1 Montipora sp1 Montipora cf danae Favites sinensis Favites pentagona Favites micropentagona Favites sp.1 Plesiastrea versipora Goniastrea cf. pectinata Platygyra cf. lamellosa Leptoria phrygia Anomastrea irregularis Coscinarea Pseudosiderastrea tayami Acanthastrea maxima Acanthastrea echinata Micromussa amakuensis Stylophora danae Turbinaria peltata Turbinaria reniformis Hydnophora cf. pilosa Porites cf. harissoni Goniopora sp Porites lutea Relative abundance Acroporidae Rare, only 2-3 colonies observed Unusual. Possibly a new species. Also observed in Bar Al-Hikman Small colonies only, encrusting Faviidae Common Common Unusual Common. Large calices, very angular Unusual Rare, first record for Oman Unusual Rare, limited to Dhofar in Oman Siderastreidae Common Common Common Mussidae Regional endemic, rare Common Rare. Second record in Oman Pocilloporidae Second record out of the Red Sea Dendrophylliidae Common elsewhere Common elsewhere Merulinidae This is possibly a new species with long valleys and extended polyps Poritidae Unusual here. Common elsewhere Probably G. columna Only small colonies

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Plate 4-22: A few of the coral species observed on site. A: Favites pentagona, B:Goniastrea pectinata, C: Hydnophora sp., D: Leptoria phrygia, E: Stylophora danae, F: Turbinaria peltata .

Most of the hard substrate not covered with corals was covered with a very dense algal turf (Plate 4-23) and support abundances of grazing fishes (Parrot fishes: and Surgeon fish in the shallowest sections). Remnants of a few large macrophytes suggest that during the summer, the site is rich in algae growing under the influence of the nutrient rich up-welled water (Plate 4-24). The existence of seaweed communities (usually associated with temperate or cold water environment) and coral
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communities (usually associated with tropical water) is very unusual. It is only known from a few places in South Africa and Western Australia. The rest of the fauna consist of organisms typical of shallow hard substrate communities. In comparison to northern Oman, sponges were particularly abundant and sea cucumber particularly under represented (Plate 4-25). This might be explained by the extreme dynamic environment these organisms have to withstand during the summer with waves often exceeding several meters and thus very strong surge currents. Slow moving organisms (such as sea cucumber) which requires calm sediment to feed on are thus absent whereas water filter ing organisms such as sponges and other filter feeders (bivalves, feather stars) are abundant. Among the echinoderms, usually abundant in coral communities, only one species of echinoid (sea urchin: Asthenosoma varium, Plate 4-26) and one species of Crinoids (Decametra mollis) were observed.

Plate 4-23: A rich and diverse algal turf covers most of the shallow water hard substrate. At least 6 species are visible on this 5x7 cm frame.

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Plate 4-24: Some macrophytes (here probably Nizmodinia sp.) were still visible in January suggesting that in the summer, most of the site must be covered with luxuriant macro algae communities. This cohabitation between algal communities and coral communities is nearly unique in the world.

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Plate 4-25: Unidentified sponge species. Many more were observed

Plate 4-26: Typical colors of the sea urchin Asthenosoma varium.

During the two-day marine survey, numerous fishing boats were observed operating in the area and the presence of several fishing buoys suggests that the bay is the area of regular fishing activities (both with nets and lines).
4.12.8 Intertidal environment

The intertidal area surrounding the proposed intake pipeline route consists of two ecosystems - a small pocket beach with ghost crabs (species unidentified, probably
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Ocypode rotundata) that build conical mound, and a relatively wide, exposed rocky outcrop (P late 4-27). Even during the survey in February, although the sea was exceptionally calm, the swell crashed on this area with great force (Plate 4-28).The relative abundance of ghost crabs (20 per 100 m of beach) suggests a beach subjected to few human disturbances and could provide a good indicator of future impact. The hard substrate is made of limestone and sandstone. The upper level is typical of intertidal tropical areas dominated by barnacles (Tetraclita sp.) and oysters (Saccostrea sp.). Numerous gastropods (Nerita spp., Siphonaria spp., Cellana rota ) and Polyplacophoran (Chitons: Acanthopleura vaillantii) were also abundant in the rocky intertidal zone (Plate 4-29, Plate 4-30 and Plate 4-31). The lower part of the intertidal area is dominated by Perna viridis (green mussel). The bivalve is very abundant and probably the main diet of many predators given their abundance as empty shells on the beach. Since the survey was carried out in March, the abundant seaweed growth triggered by the southwest monsoon was not visible. Most of the hard substrate appeared barren. In July-August, the site would reveal a very different picture with all of the intertidal rocks covered with abundances of kelp (mostly Nizmodinia). Other traces of green algae (intertidal) were visible but however were too small to be identified.

Plate 4-27: Conical reproductive mounds of Ocypode rotundata

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Plate 4-28: Even a low swell on a very calm day, because of the rapid decrease of the depth near shore, result in strong rolling waves on the exposed rocky platform.

Plate 4-29: Left: Upper intertidal zone dominated by Tetraclita sp. barnacles. Right. Slightly lower level in the intertidal zone dominated by the oyster Saccostrea sp.

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Plate 4-30: Left: Cellana rota. Right: Siphonaria sp. Both species are specialized in shallow (intertidal) environments where they graze on small incrusting algae.

Plate 4-31: Left: Chiton (Acanthopleura vaillantii) common in the lower intertidal. Right. Small colony of Perna viridis (green mussel).

4.12.9

Outfall

The proposed outfall is located in a partially inundated wadi under the influence of tidal movement. The south shore of the wadi is completely transformed by the north retaining wall of Salalah Port facility (Plate 4-32). Construction of additional facilities (dredging, additional retaining walls) is continuing considerably modifying the environment (Plate 4-33). The habitat appeared strongly disturbed and had no visibility for any photographic documentation. The wadi mouth consists of a triangular expense of fine sand and clay with little living organisms in it. There were numerous fish in the water (Mullets mostly) and a small stingray in the very shallow water of the upper bay was observed. The sediment was layered with a fine layer of silt over a large gravel-rubble layer above a very fine silt-clay layer. The anoxic layer (black clay) was only about 1 to 2
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cm from the surface of the sediment. The only organisms found were crabs of the genus Uca sp. (fiddler crabs) at densities varying from 20-150 animals m-2. Along the upper wadi, upstream of the retaining wall, the substrate consists of fine sediment mixed with large pebbles and small rubble of eroded stones. The sediment is anoxic at very shallow depth and smells strongly of sulphur dioxide. Beside numerous birds (counted - 14 large Grey heron and 6 small white egrets), the fauna consist mostly of mud crabs (Uca. sp). The bank of the wadi consists of a mixture of rounded stones and concrete suggesting either artificial embankment or disposal of construction concrete during the construction phase of the harbour. Little was found in terms of biodiversity. There were no mangrove trees or freshwater vegetation as in other khawrs of the region.

Plate 4-32: South shore of the wadi showing the retaining wall

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Plate 4-33: General view of the development activity near the proposed outfall

As mentioned in Section 4.12.1, seawater and subtidal/intertidal sediment samples were collected from the proposed intake and outfall locations for determining the current marine quality. The locations were selected considering the potential sensitive areas within the bay, corridor of impact around the intake and outfall locations. The sampling locations are listed in Table 4-10 and Table 4-9 and presented in Figure 4-2.
Table 4-9: Seawater sampling locations
Location # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Seawater from proposed intake Seawater from proposed intake Seawater from proposed intake Seawater from proposed outfall Seawater from proposed outfall Seawater from proposed outfall Easting 818968 818835 818821 819178 819482 810589 Northing 1873379 1873866 1874011 1875711 1876175 1876673

Table 4-10: Seabed sediments sampling locations


Location # 1 2 3 4 5 Description Subtidal sediment at proposed intake Subtidal sediment at proposed intake Subtidal sediment at proposed intake Subtidal sediment at proposed outfall Subtidal sediment at proposed outfall Easting 818968 818835 818821 819178 819475 Northing 1873379 1873866 1874011 1875711 1876122

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Environmental Impact Assessment Salalah Methanol Project Location # 6 7 Description Intertidal sediment at proposed outfall Intertidal sediment at proposed outfall

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Easting 818859 818753

Northing 1875577 1875599

4.12.10 Seawater Quality

The samples were analysed for physical parameters such as pH , salinity, etc., heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The results are presented in Table 4-11.
Table 4-11: Seawater analysis
Parameters Depth (m) Electrical conductivity (EC) TDS Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) Chlorides Iron (Fe) Cadmium (Cd) Manganese (Mn) Copper (Cu) Nickel (Ni) Lead (Pb) TPH11 GRH (C 5 C10 ) DRH (C 11 C 28) Heavy fraction (C 29 C 40) Unit m S/m ppt mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L g/L mg/L mg/L Locations 3 4 1 2 53600 29.5 136 55300 30.4 136 UK EQS Limit10 1,000 2.5 5 30 25 -

1 20 59700 29.6 69.5 0.023 <0.003 <0.001 0.017 0.154 0.004 0.015 -

2 11 53600 29.5 139 0.016 <0.003 <0.001 0.013 0.068 <0.001 0.016 -

5 2 55300 39.84 <1

6 0.4 54100 29.8 77

21546 0.046 0.042 0.009 0.186 <0.003 <0.003 <0.0003 <0.003 0.006 0.008 0.0019 0.002 0.016 0.011 0.0049 <0.01 0.037 0.017 <0.001 0.009 <0.001 <0.001 <0.007 <0.001 0.010 0.008 0.010 <10 <0.05 <0.05 -

In the absence of applicable Omani standards for seawater quality, the results have been compared with UK EQS standards for seawater. The results presented above indicate that there is no contamination of seawater in the area.
4.12.11 Sediment quality

Marine sediments function as a sink for pollution and will potentially entrap large amounts of contaminants. Sediment metal concentrations may often exceed those in overlying water layers. Subtidal/intertidal sediment samples were collected from 7 locations presented in Table 4-10 in order to assess the contamination level within the bay. Usually the contaminant concentrations in marine sediments are thought to increase with decreasing sediment grain size due to higher surface area available for
10 11

As contained in UK Environmental Quality St andards (EQS) Samples from all locations barring location 5 have been analysed for TPH. Location 5 has been analysed to obtain the hydrocarbon fractional range. HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants Sultanate of Oman

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adsorption. The Regional Organisation for Protection of Marine Environment (ROPME)12 recommends a standardised procedure of sieving the sediment sample and the <63 mm fraction be analysed for contaminants. However, due to insufficient quantity of the recommended fraction, a larger grain size was used i.e. 125 mm. The sediment samples collected were sent to MRME&WR laboratory for sieving and analysis. Samples were first freeze dried and sieved to obtain a grain size of <125 mm prior to being analysed for heavy metals and hydrocarbon contamination. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the heavy metal concentrations and gas chromatography method was used to analyse hydrocarbons in the samples. The results of analysis are presented in Table 4-12.
Table 4-12: Sediment analysis
Parameters Zinc (Zn) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu) Nickel (Ni) Lead (Pb) Arsenic (As) GRH (C5 C10 ) DRH (C11 C28 ) Heavy fraction (C29 C 40) Unit mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg mg/kg g/L mg/L mg/L Locations 3 4 4.1 14.5 21.4 30.5 47.3 3.3 15.1 17.5 40.8 41.9 UK Action levels 13 40 40 Canadian limits 14 271 160 108 42.8 112 41.6 -

1 2.0 12.1 19.0 37.3 40.2 -

2 2.6 16.0 17.4 40.1 44.1 -

5 5.3 12.8 2.1 4.0 <0.6 0.2 <10 <0.05 <0.05

6 3.1 11.6 27.2 52.0 55.5 -

Analytical results presented in the table above indicate that all the metals and hydrocarbon concentrations are well below comparable limits, except nickel in the intertidal sediment at the proposed outfall location, which is typically naturally present due to leaching from rocks. 4.13 Demography

The proposed site lies within the Wilayat of Salalah in the Dhofar Governorate. The total population in the Wilayat is 156,53015, out of which the male population is 92,489 and the female population is 64,401. According to 2003 census results, 72.5%
12

Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment, 1989, Manual of Oceanographic Observations and Pollutant Analysis Methods, ROPME, Kuwait, 2nd Edition. 13 UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food action levels are considered as the comparison standards for heavy metal in marine sediments 14 Based on Sediment Quality Guidelines, developed by Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). The limits represent the probable effect level (PEL) and Interim Marine Sediment QualityGuidelines (ISQG), above which adverse biological effects are usually observed 15 Based on the 2003 census report published by the Ministry of National Economy HMR Environmental Engineering Consultants Sultanate of Oman

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of the total population in Dofar region is from the Wilayat of Salalah. There are a total of 21,258 households in 29,188 housing units within the Wilayat. According to previous census data, there are 64 schools within the Wilayat of Salalah with a total enrollment of 29734 students. There are 31 health institutions (hospitals, health centers and private c linics) with 538 beds in the Dhofar Governorate. 4.14 Occupation and employment

According to 1993 census data, public administration accounts for 27% of the total employment in the Salalah town. This is followed by construction (16%), trading (16%), manufacturing (9%) and agriculture (4%). Fisheries account for less than 0.3% of total employment. The details are presented in Table 4-13.
Table 4-13: Distribution of economic activity in the Wilayat of Salalah
Economic Activity Agriculture Fishing Mining & Quarrying Manufacturing Electricity, Gas & Water supply Construction Whole sale and retail trade etc. Hotels, Restaurants Transport, Storage & Communications Financial Institutions Real Estate, renting, etc. Public Administration Education Health & Social Work Other Total Number of Employees 1,897 158 60 4,323 373 8,061 7,834 1,241 2,022 375 918 13,661 2,120 854 6,389 50,286 % of Total 3.8 0.3 0.1 8.6 0.7 16.0 15.6 2.5 4.0 0.7 1.8 27.2 4.2 1.7 12.8 100.0

4.15

Industrial environment

The proposed site is located in a designated industrial area, which includes the Salalah Port facilities, the Raysut Industrial Area, and the new industrial area proposed in the Salalah Free Zone. The area around the port has also been reserved for future industrial and commercial developments. The port is located adjacent to the proposed project site and is separated by an asphalted road. The Raysut Industrial Estate is the biggest industrial area in the Dhofar Governorate and is located about 4.5 km to the north of the project area. The industries within the industrial area include food processing plants, tanneries and engineering units.

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4.16

Archaeological, cultural and recreational resources

Salalah, being a historical town, possesses many archaeologically important structures scattered around the region. Some of these include remains of the coastal city of Al Baleed, ancient buildings at Raysut, remains of fort at Ayn Hamraan, and several old mud houses in Awqdayn, Salalah, and Al Haffa. The Dhofar Governorate has number of archaeological sites, which shed light upon the cultural and socio-economic development and the patterns of land-use. Some of these areas have regional and national significance such as remains of the ancient city of Dhofar at Khawr Baleed, which was a flourishing city during the 13th century and served as a port for the export of frankincense. Remains of buildings cover the tip of Ras Raysut (Raysut headland). Megalithic Bronze Age remains of stone circles and houses have been preserved albeit heavily reused in the Iron Age. These remains are more observed on the lagoons, the lower terraces, the higher upland terraces, and the foothills. Earlier archaeological surveys have briefly cove red this area and interpreted the findings as Iron Age homestead sites. Religious and cultural resources refer to mosques, graveyards, prayer grounds and Sharia Court. In Salalah, there are 42 Juma mosques and 83 local mosques. Their spatial distribution is considered fairly wide serving the whole community adequately. There is a Sharia (Islamic law) Court located in Salalah. For religious education, there is a Quran School and the Sultan Qaboos Institute for Islamic Studies in Salalah. There are many old graveyards spread throughout Salalah, several areas within the region are thought to be significant culturally. The Ministry of National Heritage and Culture (MNHC) is responsible for the maintenance of museums and other cultural facilities. There is curren one museum located in New Salalah attached to the tly regional office of MNHC covering regional and national history. There is also a concert hall within the complex. Dhofar is a unique region in the Sultanate of Oman. It is a land of majestic mountains with lavish green landscape and serene coastline. This region has a unique temperate climate, which is markedly different from that of the rest of Oman. The culture of Dhofar is also somewhat different from that of northern Oman. Salalah is a popular tourist destination in Oman as well as in the Gulf Region. It is estimated that more than 75% of the tourists arrive during the Khareef season (July September), and during that time, more than 50% of the tourists arrive from outside Oman. The Al Khareef Festival is an annual event, held during the month of July August. Unique in nature, the festival attracts visitors, musicians, folk art performers and traders. The products unique to Dhofar region include frankincense, incense
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burners, gold and silverware and traditional Dhofari dress of velvet with glittering beads and sequins. The site surveys conducted as a part of this EIA study indicated that there are no archaeological, cultural or historical sensitivities within the proposed project site. 4.17
4.17.1

Land use
Current land use

The data on current land use was obtained from the Ministry of Housing, Dhofar Governorate. The total developed area is reported as 14,215ha and the vacant land found to be 48,885ha, which relates to 22.5% currently in use. Out of the total developed area, it was found that 27% is being used by transportation, 28% for special uses, and 18% for agriculture. The details are presented below:
Table 4-14: Current land use pattern at Salalah
Land Use Category Residential Commercial Industrial Public and semi-public facilities Transportation Open spaces Special Uses Agriculture Wadi, khawrs, environmental and historical sites Vacant Land Total area Land Area (ha) 1,180.3 67.9 810.3 979.5 3,784.8 128.5 3,917.7 2,513.7 831. 0 48,885.3 63,100.7

4.17.2

Future land use

The Department of Town Planning, under the Ministry of Housing is responsible for the utilization of the land that is presently not put to agricultural use. The proposed futureland use composit ion (2015) as given by the department shows that the total developed area is expected to be 33,865 ha and the vacant land is expected to be 26,243.1 ha, i.e 57.8 % is expected to be in use or reserved. Out of the total planned area, it is expected that 20% will be used by transportation, 18% for residential and only 6 % for agriculture. The future land use plan for the Dhofar Governorate is shown in Figure 4-5.

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Figure 4-5: Future land use at Wilayat of Salalah

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