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DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF ROTATING MACHINERY USING


COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN APPROACH

Essam Al-Bahkali
Department of Mechanical Engineering
King Saud University
ebahkali@ksu.edu.sa

Mohamed ElMadany
Department of Mechanical Engineering
King Saud University
mmadany@ksu.edu.sa

Abstract
Current computer programs do not fulfill the demand
for interactively combined the designers experience
with an automated design process that includes
graphical input, output, sensitivity analysis and
redesign in an optimal sense. Taking advantage of
increased speed and computational efficiency of
modern computers, it is now possible to automate the
design interactive process.
This paper is undertaken as a first step towards
automation of the design process of rotor-bearing
systems. Specifically, the study utilizes the transfer
matrix approach and the Graphic User Interface (GUI)
of MATLAB to develop an interactive code that can be
used to obtain the eigenvalues and the steady state
response of multi-bearing rotor systems. This software
may be used by industry, and rotor-bearing system
designers. In addition, the code has been verified by
experimental data. In order to accomplish this, a test rig
has been assembled, set up and run to collect the
required experimental data. The experimental setup
consists of a fault simulator, a front end together with
PULSE software for data collection, reduction and
analysis, sensors to pick up the required signal, and a
laptop computer.

1. Introduction
Reliability of rotating machinery depends heavily upon
decisions made during the different stages of design.
Units that are designed using the appropriate appli-
cation of sophisticated computer-aided engineering
methods will be less problematic than units designed
without the benefit of such analysis. Even with
performance of mechanical acceptance tests prior to
delivery and installation, the discovery of design-
related problems during these tests may compromise
the planned cost of the unit. Therefore, rotor dynamic
analysis tools have been developed and are continuing
to evolve. Today, very comprehensive analyses may be
performed on the desk top and analysts are continuing
to develop finer and more accurate modeling and
analysis techniques. The analysis tools and procedures
have become a standard fundamental design tool for a
class of turbomachinery that includes centrifugal and
axial compressors, centrifugal pumps, steam turbines,
gas turbines, electric motors, and gears. In addition,
improved measurement capabilities are providing the
opportunity to prove and improve the analytical work.


Critical speeds and vibration caused by mass imbalance
are common problems in rotating machinery.
One of the most fundamental considerations, in the
design of large rotating machinery, is the set of values
of the critical speeds relative to the intended operating
speed range of the machine. Before the availability of
reliable calculation procedures and computational
hardware on which to execute them, there was a strong
tendency to design rigid rotor machines which would
have no critical speeds below the highest speed of
interest in the operating range. This tendency imposed
severe limitations on the maximum size of plant.
With the arrival of multi-element models of rotor-stator
systems and powerful computers, machine designers
are now confidently designing machines to have several
critical speeds below the maximum operating speed.
Imbalance occurs if the principal axis of inertia of the
rotor is not coincident with its geometric axis. The
current trend of rotating equipment toward higher
power density clearly leads to higher operational
speeds, which cause much greater centrifugal
imbalance forces. Therefore, vibration control is
essential in improving machining surface finish;
achieving longer bearing, spindle, and tool life in high-
speed machining; and reducing the number of
unscheduled shutdowns. A great cost savings for high-
speed turbines, compressors, and other turbomachinery
used in petrochemical and power generation industries
can be realized using vibration control technology.
The computer codes in use today vary widely in their
modeling capabilities. Some are limited to the
determination of undamped critical whirl speeds in
axially symmetric single-rotor systems while others can
handle free and forced vibrations, and some instability
mechanisms. Many codes have required main-frame or
mini-computers but recently PC-version of some codes
have become available.
Software developed at University of Virginia is
available to a consortium of supporting industries [1].
Electric utilities associated with the Electric Power
Research Institute have access to FEATURE, a general
purpose rotor dynamic code specifically designed for
power plant equipment [2]. ROTOR-E is lateral
rotordynamics analysis software, [3] which allows the
user to visualize and understand the complex vibrations
of rotating machinery. ARMD (Advanced Rotating
Machinery Dynamics) is finite element based software
for machinery design, analysis, and trouble shooting
2
[4].ARMD for Windows incorporates user interface
features to simplify modeling, analysis, presentation
and interpretation of results.
A widely used structural analysis program has recently
added rotor dynamic capabilities [5]. All of the codes
just mentioned utilize finite element analysis.
A flexible transfer matrix code is commercially
available for main-frame and mini-computers
(CADENSE), [6]. A transfer matrix code for the critical
speed analysis of undamped isotropic systems
(RODYN) [7] may be licensed. ROTECH is lateral
rotordynamic analysis software based on transfer
matrix method, [8]. DYNAMICS R3.1 is a new
generation of software package for turbomachinery
rotordynamics problems, [9]. The software package
was developed in 2000-2001 year for operating systems
Windows 95/98/2000/NT.
Nevertheless, there are opportunities for improvements
of rotor dynamic software at the level of effective pre-
and post processors and efficient algorithms.
This work is undertaken as a first step towards
automation of the design process of rotor- bearing
systems. Specifically, the study utilizes the transfer
matrix approach and the Graphic User Interface (GUI)
of MATLAB to develop an interactive code that will be
used to obtain the eigenvalues (critical speeds) and the
steady state response due to unbalance of multi-bearing
rotor systems. This software may be used by industry,
and rotor-bearing system designers and operators.

2. Transfer Matrix Approach
The transfer matrix approach was first introduced in an
elementary form by Holzer, in the 1920s, for torsional
vibration of rotating shafts. It makes use of the fact that
in a large class of design problems, some structural
member is designed along a line and the behavior at
every point of the system is influenced by the behavior
at the neighboring points only. Typical examples are
beams, shafts, piping systems, etc. Myklestad [10] and
Prohl [11] developed highly successful methods of
computing the bending critical speeds of rotors. Lund
and Orcutt [12] and Lund [13, 14] presented procedures
that use this method for rotor dynamics analysis.
In the transfer matrix method, the state of a section
along the length of each rotor is characterized by linear
and angular displacements and by shear forces and
bending moments. Given the state at one station, the
state of a neighboring station is obtained by multiplying
by a transfer matrix which depends on the dynamic
properties of the intervening rotor segments. Free
vibration modes and unbalance response are obtained
by repeatedly applying transfer matrix to march from
one end of the rotor to the other, thereby obtaining a
small set of equations for the specified boundary state
variables. Unbalance requires essentially one march
across the system to fix the boundary states plus a
second march to fill in the amplitudes of the internal
stations. Free vibration modes require repeated marches
with a sequence of trial eigenvalues guided by a root-
finding procedure to converge to the true eigenvalue.
2.1 General Formulation of the Transfer
Matrix Method for Analysis of Free Vibration
In the application of the transfer matrix approach,
points (nodes) are designated all points where some
change takes place, such as changing sections, point
forces, point moments, supports, springs, dampers, etc.
For multi-supported shafts and beams, it is easy to
account for intermediate supports, treating them as
linear springs with large spring constant k
i
, two orders
of magnitude higher than some representative spring
constant of the shaft, k = 48 EI / L
3
,

at the nearest span
using the maximum cross-section encountered within
the span. Shafts with continuously variable cross-
section can be treated by taking enough nodes along the
member and treating the in-between elements of
constant section.
Consider an n+1 station (mass or point) system, each
station presenting either a gear, a disk, a flywheel, a
support or just a change shaft cross section, Figure 1.


Figure 1: Division of stepped shaft into nodes (points)
and fields

All the masses are taken as lumped with their
gyroscopic inertia neglected. A typical station of a shaft
consists of a massless span (called field) and a point
station (mass), Figure 2. The flexural properties of the
field are described by the field transfer matrix of the
span; the inertia effect of the station is described by the
point transfer matrix of the mass.

Figure 2: Free body diagrams of point and field

Station equation
Continuity:

i
r
i
y y (1)

i
r
i
(2)
Mi
l
Mi
r

Vi
l

ki
mi,Ji
kti
Vi
r

x
y
a-Free-body sketch of point b-Free-body sketch of field
x
y
Mi
r

Vi
r

yi
r

yi+1
l

Mi+1
l

l
Vi+1
l

i
r

i+1
l

3
1
1
2
2 3
n
n-1 n-2
n-1
3
Planar equations of motion:


i i i
r
i
r
i i
y k V V y m + (3)

i ti i
r
i
r
i i
y k M M J + (4)

Assume periodic solution

t M M t M M
t V V t V V
t t y y
i i
r
i
r
i
i i
r
i
r
i
i i i i



cos , cos
cos , cos
cos , cos





(5)

This will give

i i i i i
r
i
V y k y m V + +
2
(6)

i i ti i i
r
i
M y k J M + +
2
(7)

Station Equation

i i
r
i
V
M
y
k m
kt J
V
M
y
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

+
+

1
1
1
1
]
1

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
2
2
(8)

State vector
( )
i i i i
T
i
V M y S , , , (9)

Station i equation

i si
r
i
S T S (10)

Field equation
Equilibrium:

i
r
i
r
i
i
L V M M
+

1
(11)
r
i
i
V V
+

1
(12)

Beam-elastic solution
For a cantilever beam:


EI
VL
EI
ML
EI
VL
EI
ML
y
2
,
3 2
2 3 2
+ + (13)

Therefore,



1
3
1
2
1
3 2
+ + +
+ + +
i
i
i
i
i
i r
i i
r
i
i
V
EI
L
M
EI
L
L y y (14)

1
2
1 1
2
+ + +
+ +
i
i
i
i
i r
i
i
V
EI
L
M
EI
L
(15)

Substituting from (11) and (12) into (14) and (15), then

r
i
i
i
i
i r
i
i
i r
i i
r
i
i
V
EI
L
EI
L
M
EI
L
L y y

,
_

+ + +
+
2 3 2
3 3
1

(16)
( )
r
i
i
i
i
i r
i
i
i r
i
i
V
EI
L
EI
L
M
EI
L
2 2
1
2
+ +
+

(17)

Field transfer matrix


r
i
i
l
i
V
M
y
L
hL h
hL hL L
V
M
y
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

+

1 0 0 0
1 0 0
2 / 1 0
6 / 2 / 1
2
1
(18)
where h
i
= L
i
/EI
i


Field transfer matrix

r
i fi
i
S T S
+

1
(19)

Combining field and station transfer matrix


i i i si fi
i
S T S T T S
+1
(20)

Moving from the left hand side of station 1 to left hand
side of station n +1


1
1 1
1
.... S T T T S
n n
n

+
(21)

The right hand side of station n+1

1
1
1 1 ) 1 (
1
) 1 ( 1
....
TS
S T T T T
S T S
n n n s
n
n s
r
n

+
+
+ +
(22)
or

1
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

+
V
M
y
T T T T
T T T T
T T T T
T T T T
V
M
y
r
n

(23)

It is apparent that all inertial forces and moments are
functions of the displacements and slopes and therefore
no constant forces exist in the transfer matrix.
The natural frequencies and the corresponding mode
shapes are obtained after applying the boundary
conditions. Of the four boundary conditions at each
end, two are generally known. For example, consider
the case of a simply supported shaft.
4
mi,Ji
Mi
l
Mi
r

Vi
r

kti
ki
Vi
l

ci
cti
Moi
Foi
x
y
Boundary conditions:
0 , 0
1 1 1 1

+ +
r
n
r
n
M y M y

(24)
Transfer matrix result

1
44 43 42 41
34 33 32 31
24 23 22 21
14 13 12 11
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

+
V T T T T
T T T T
T T T T
T T T T
V
r
n

(25)

1
34 32
14 12
0
0
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

V T T
T T
(26)
The frequency-equation is
( ) 0
32 14 34 12
34 32
14 12
D T T T T
T T
T T
(27)
The values of which satisfy the above equation are
the shaft natural frequencies. The simpler way to
determine them is to plot the function det[D( )]. The
points of intersection of this function with the -axis
are the natural frequencies.
What we call critical speeds might be sometimes a little
different but for present purposes it will suffice to say
that for low-speed machinery applications they are
practically the same with the shaft natural frequencies.
Computation of the critical speeds with the transfer
matrix method involves the computation of the
determinant d()=det[D( )] for successive values of
the frequency ,
+
, +

2 ,, where is a
small increment. If the values of the determinant in two
successive steps change sign that means that the critical
speed is in this interval. To implement this, at every
step, the product d( ) d( +

) is formed. If this
product is positive, the algorithm proceeds to the next
step. If it is negative, that is there is a change in sign,
the critical speed has been located and the algorithm
proceeds for the next critical speed. The accuracy of the
determination of the value of the critical speed is ,
which can be enhanced with a variety of methods. The
most simple is to search with a smaller step and a linear
interpolation
= + d()/[ d() + d( +

)]
In this work, the coefficients of the characteristic
polynomial for the rotor-bearing system are calculated
using symbolic in MATLAB. The system natural
frequencies (critical speeds) are the roots of this
polynomial. The real part of the root provides the
criteria for establishing system stability. With the
polynomial known, these roots can be found and
divided out in a more straightforward and efficient
manner.



Eigenvector solution
Having obtained , the i
th
natural frequency (critical
speed), return to
( ) ( ) 0
1 14 1 12
+

V T T (28)
( ) ( ) 0
1 34 1 32
+

V T T (29)
Set
1
1

V (30)
Then

( ) ( )
( ) ( )

12 14
12 1 14 1
/
/
T T
T V T



(31)
Initial state vector

( ) 1 , 0 , / , 0
12 14
1
T T S

(32)
March from left to right to calculate remaining state
vectors. Normalize as desired.
2.2 Out-of-Balance Response of Rotors
The major cause of excessive vibration in rotating
machinery is the residual unbalance. The unbalance in
the rotor may arise from material inhomogeneities,
manufacturing processes, keyways, slot etc. In addition,
during the operation, the rotor deteriorates in its
balance condition, due to wear, thermal bending,
process dirt collection etc., and gradually develops
more vibratory response due to this unbalance.
Therefore, it is important to determine the response of a
rotor due to a specified unbalance, to study its dynamic
behavior so as to determine, whether a rebalance is
necessary during the rotor life.



Figure 3: Free-body diagram of point with out-of-
balance force and moment



5
Point matrix
Consider Figure 3.

i
r
i
y y (33)

i
r
i
(34)
2

i i i i ti i ti i
r
i
r
i i
r e m c k M M J + + +


(35)
2

i i i i i i i
r
i
r
i i
e m y c y k V V y m + + + + +

(36)

For the purpose of calculations, we add the identity 1 =
1, to the 4 equations of the state vector. m
i
e
i
is the
unbalance mass, and m
i
e
i
r
i
is the unbalance moment.
Assume periodic solution, the solution equation in
matrix form is given by:

i i
t t
r
i
V
M
y
c i k m
c i k J
V
M
y
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+ +
+ +
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 1
1
2
2

(37)

The state vector

T
i
S (y
i
,
i
, M
i
, V
i
, 1) (38)

The station i equation is given by:

i si
r
i
S T S (39)
Field matrix
The field transfer matrix is given by:
r
i
i
i
V
M
y
L
hL h
hL hL L
V
M
y
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
1
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 6 / 1 0
0 6 / 2 / 1
1
2
1

(40)
with h
i
= L
i
/EI
i


and
r
i fi
i
S T S
+

1
(41)

Combining field and point transfer matrix

r
i i
r
i si fi
i
S T S T T S
+

1
(42)

Moving from the left hand side of point 1 to the left
hand side of point n+1, we obtain


1
1 1
1
.... S T T T S
n n
n

+
(43)

For the right hand side of point n+1.

1
1 1 ) 1 ( 1
S T T T T S
n n n s
r
n + +
(44)
or

1
45 44 43 42 41
35 34 33 32 31
25 24 23 22 21
15 14 13 12 11
1
1 1 0 0 0 0 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

+
V
M
y
T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T
T T T T T
V
M
y
r
n

(45)

The above equation can be written as:

y
n+1
= T
11
y
1
+ T
12

1
+ T
13
M
1
+ T
14
V
1
+ T
15

n+1
= T
21
y
1
+ T
22

1
+ T
23
M
1
+ T
24
V
1
+ T
25

M
n+1
= T
31
y
1
+ T
32

1
+ T
33
M
1
+ T
34
V
1
+ T
35
(46)
V
n+1
= T
41
y
1
+ T
42

1
+ T
43
M
1
+ T
44
V
1
+ T
45

1 = 1

This gives four equations with eight unknowns:

y
1
,
1
, M
1
, V
1
, y
n+1
,
n+1
, M
n+1
, V
n+1

However, because of the boundary conditions, four of
these quantities are known.
For example, for a simply-supported shaft it is known
that y
1
= y
n+1
= 0 and M
1
= M
n+1
= 0. Therefore the
above equations have four unknowns:
1
,
n+1
, V
1
, V
n+1
.
After the computation of these unknowns, we can
obtain the state vectors at the nodes, and thus the
deflection of the beam, applied successively, from left
to right.

3. Computer Aided Design Program
3.1 Graphical User Interface
GUI (sometimes pronounced goo-ee) stands for
graphical user interface. The classic definition of user
interface is the hardware and software through which a
human and computer interact.
Over the years this concept has evolved, incorporating
more aspects of the human-computer experience and
applying to varied contexts. The definition has also
changed to reflect technological advances, moving
from a command-line oriented interface to one that
includes graphic features. Over time, graphical
interfaces have grown in popularity, resulting in widely
accepted conventions for the use of the components of
these interfaces.
GUI is made up of graphical objects, such as menus,
buttons, lists, and fields. These objects have meanings;
when the user chooses an object, there is an expectation
that a certain kind of action will take place. Rudiments
of a GUI include such things as windows, pull-down
menus, text components, buttons, scroll bars, and
iconic images. A system's GUI, along with its input
devices, is sometimes referred to as look and feel".
By providing an interface between the user and the
application's underlying code, GUIs enable the user to
operate the application without knowing the commands
that would be required by a command line interface.
6
For this reason, applications that provide GUIs are
easier to learn and use than those that are run from the
command line.
There are many ways of programming to develop the
GUI. Visual Basic (VB) provides a quick graphical
interface design. VB is prototyping tool with which
Windows programs can be easily created, but the
software is very limiting in the processing of matrices
and numerical data. Visual C++ has, also the same
draw back in numerical analysis
MATLAB offers a GUI design tool and useful
functional for controlling data. MATLAB, as software,
is an excellent processing of matrices and numerical
data. User interface in MATLAB has been used
recently as a tool to enter the data and obtain the results
without the need for the user to understand the
mechanism for solving the problem.

3.2 Program Highlight
The program can easily be executed simply by loading
the program into MATLAB directly and typing on the
command word master. By typing master, Figure4
will appear on the screen. Then the user can use the
mouse or the key board to move and select from the
icons on the screen. The various capabilities of the
program are shown in Figure 4. The program which
deals with the Dynamic Analysis of Rotating
Machinery has two major modules:

Bending Vibration lateral vibration of rotating
shafts and non-rotating beams
Torsional Vibration



Figure 4: Main menu

Torsional vibration is out of the scope of this paper.
Bending vibrations of rotating shafts and non-rotating
beams are covered in this paper and the program is set
up to deal with both free and forced vibrations of the
line-member systems. There are two types of dynamic
analysis that can be performed by the program:
Free Vibration- Natural Frequencies (Critical
Speeds) and Mode shapes.
Forced Vibration- Steady-State Response to
Unbalance and to Sinusoidal Excitations.

By selecting to analyze the free vibration of a system,
Figure 5 will take place as an active screen, while
Figure 4 becomes inactive. The user has the option to
go back to the main screen by clicking the Exit icon.



Figure 5: Second active screen

At this stage of GUI, the user has to input the required
data. The data include the followings:

1. Number of fields (stations or sections)
2. Modulus of elasticity of the material of the
shaft (beam)
3. mass of each point or station (m)
4. Moment of inertia of each point or station (J)
5. Linear spring constant at each point (k)
6. Bending spring constant at each point ( kt )
7. Linear damping constant at each point ( c )
8. Bending damping constant at each point (ct

)

Boundary Conditions
A pop-up menu will appear as shown in Figure 6,
where multiple are available to the user choices. The
pop-up menu gives the following set of choices:

1. Free-free
2. Simply supported
3. Fixed-fixed
4. Fixed-free
5. Free-fixed
6. Fixed-simply supported
7. Simply supported-fixed
8. Free-simply supported
9. Simply supported-free
7


Figure 6: Third active screen-pop-up menus

Shaft Cross Section
A pop-up menu gives the types of the shaft cross
section that could be selected, (see Figure 7).



Figure 7: pop-up menu for the types of cross section of
the shaft (beam)

These include the following:

1. Circular
2. General
3. Given second moment of area

Intermediate Support
For multi-supported shafts and beams, it is easy to
account for intermediate supports, treating them as
linear springs with large spring constant k
i
, two orders
of magnitude higher than some representative spring
constant of the shaft (k = 48 EI / L
3
) at the nearest span
using the maximum cross-section encountered within
the span.
Field (Station) Data
If the circular type cross section of the shaft is selected,
a screen will appear as shown in Figure 8.

1. length of the field (station, or section) (L)
2. Diameter of the cross section of that station of
the shaft (D)



Figure8: Fourth active screen for circular cross section

The user at any stage can go back to the previous
menus to check the input data or to change them and
then proceed.
For a general cross section selection, the input data
includes; Figure 9:

1. Length of the field (station or section) (L)
2. Width of the cross section (a)
3. Depth of the cross section (b)



Figure 9: Fifth active screen for general cross section

8
131 131 200 200 200 200
40 mm dia.
3 Disks 13.47 kg each
mm
The program may be executed by pushing the button
Run.

4. Results and Discussions
Consider Kikuchis rotor [15] given in Figure 10. The
shaft is made of steel with modulus of elasticity of
2.0682x10 N/m. The total mass of the rotor including
the shaft is 51.8 kg.


Figure 10: Kikuchis rotor on rigid bearings

We can lump the shaft mass equally at the three disk
locations and apply Dunkerleys formula to obtain the
lower bound for the fundamental frequency, which is


Dunkerley =
40.9 Hz

By using Rayleighs formula, the upper bound is found
to be

Rayleigh
= 43.5 Hz


The natural frequencies and mode shapes can be
obtained from the Matlab computer program (see
Figures 11 through 14).



Figure 11: Input point (station) data for Kikuchis rotor



Figure 12: Input field for Kikuchis rotor

Program output

Natural frequencies (rad/s)
[ -269.27360]
[ 269.27360]
[ -1069.6019]
[ 1069.6019]
[ -2270.9968]
[ 2270.9968]

Natural frequencies (Hz)

[ 42.8780]
[ 170.319]
[ 361.624]



Figure 13: First mode shape

9


Figure 14: Second mode shape

The fundamental frequency obtained from the program
is 42.87 Hz, which lies between 40.9 Hz obtained using
Dunkerley formula (giving lower bound) and 43.5 Hz
obtained from Rayleigh formula (giving upper bound to
the fundamental frequency).

5. Experimental Setup and Results


Figure 15: Experimental setup

In this section, the experimental setup that is used to
obtain the natural frequencies of a shaft carrying two
disks is described. The experimental setup consists of:
A laptop, a machinery fault simulator, a front end
(Pulse), a shaft carrying two disks, and an accelero-
meter; see Figures 15.

5.1 Machinery Fault Simulator
Machinery fault simulator is a tool that can be used to
study the signature of common machinery faults. The
bench-top system has a modular design featuring
operational simplicity and robustness. The simulator
offers a wide range of benefits in developing the
understanding of predictive maintenance and learning
to recognize the signatures of various machine faults.
The simulator can be used for studying balancing,
obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes,
resonance and critical speed, etc.

5.2 Front End and PULSE Software platform
Front End and PULSE Software platform is advanced
data acquisition hardware, analysis, and educational
software designed for machinery vibration diagnostics.
This is a unique integrated hardware/software system
developed for machinery fault diagnosis. It includes
multi-channel data acquisition system with high
resolution, high speed, and simultaneous sampling; and
analysis software featuring dynamic signal data
reduction, time domain analysis and frequency domain
analysis.

5.3 Experimental Results
The dimensions of the shaft are shown in Figure 16.
The shaft carries two disks with equal masses of 2.34
kg each. The shaft is supported on two rolling element
bearings (simply supported) and runs at a low speed
(100 rpm). An accelerometer is used to pick up the
signal from one of the bearings. The two natural
frequencies obtained after reduction of the signal in the
frequency domain are 53.5 Hz and 124.5 Hz. The
corresponding output results from the program are
52.07 and 122.99 Hz, respectively, which are closed
enough to the experimental data.

Figure 16: Dimensions of the simply supported shaft
carrying two disks


6. Concluding Remarks
The developed program is transfer matrix based
software for performing damped and undamped critical
speeds, undamped mode shapes, unbalance response
and response to constant forces and moments. The
program consists of two sub-modules: free and forced
vibration modules integrated by program module
messenger. The messenger controls the sub-modules to
provide a complete lateral vibration analysis environ-
ment. The program modeling capabilities include any
type of shaft (beam) cross section, flexible coupling,
foundation flexibility, external damping in the shaft and
foundation, and multi bearing rotor. Analytical results
include:
Natural frequencies and mode shapes, bearing reaction
forces. Unbalance response: synchronous response of
multiple unbalance forces and moments, dynamic
Laptop
Front end
Accelerometer
Shaft with
two disks
Machinery
fault
simulator
1 4
16.4 mm dia.
116.4 mm 136.5 mm 108 mm
2 3
10
forces and moments, vibratory amplitudes, forces and
moments transmitted to bearings and foundation.
The program is a powerful and sophisticated software
tool for rotor dynamics. It provides the engineer with
the tool to analyze a rotor bearing system without the
expense of extensive trials. The engineer can modify
the design and investigate the sensitivity of the
dynamics of the rotor to geometry, unbalance, and low
frequency excitation. This Windows-based software is
very user friendly and easy to use. The operation is
entirely consistent with the industry standard for the
Windows environment.

Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank the Research Center,
King Saud University for supporting this research work
through the grant number 9/424.

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