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Q. 1 Explain the concept of a service and service oriented architecture as you understand.

[Marks 5] Ans: A Service is a way of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve. It can be a single or a set of related functionalities which can be reused by multiple customers multiple times; depending on functional and governance policies of the service. Service Oriented Architecture is a business-centric IT architectural approach that supports integrating your business as linked, repeatable business tasks, or services. It is basically an architectural style and generally implemented using single or many software design patterns. So, it is a set of principal and methodologies for designing and developing services which are interoperable. Q.2 Explain how Web Services technology facilitates SOA implementation. [Marks 4] Ans: Web services is supposedly the best choice for SOA implementation due to it's characteristic mentioned below. Web Service is a method of communication between two devices over the internet (HTTP Protocol). So locations of service provider and consumer do not remain a constraint for SOA as it can be provided and consumed from any corner of the world. They can be published, found, and accessed from anywhere (based on policies). It uses XML as a medium to interchange data across. XML is W3C standard and recognized by all technologies. So technology is not a constraint for service provider or consumer as both can understand XML. Also, XML can transport across firewalls easily in contrast to binary, which can not Web services offer independent pieces of functionality which can be used/reused by many application simultaneously and also in along-with with other web services. SOAP and WS-* standards can be used in web services; which provides security, reliability, session management (if required), and transactions in services which are crucial for certain business requirements. Q. 3 In what respects is SOA governance is similar and different to IT Governance. [Marks 6] Ans: IT Governance is whole framework for the leadership, organizational structures and business processes, standards and compliance to these standards; which ensure that the organizations IT supports and enables the achievement of its strategies and objectives. SOA Governance can be seen as subset of IT Governance. It is related to exercising control over services and service delivery/consumption mechanisms in SOA. Core IT Governance is more focused on managing technology, IT security, Infrastructure etc. So it is related to pure IT related tasks and just a facilitator for business needs. SOA governance is more like enterprise governance. It controls services, which are capabilities offered by one business entity to be used in other business entities. SOA Governance is a paradigm for organizing and utilizing distributed capabilities that may be under the control of different ownership domain. Q. 4 Differentiate between: [Marks 6]

1. Service and a web service Service is more generalized entity compared to web services. Web Service is a type of service. Service is a way of delivering value to customers by providing them abilities, which are provided by providers. Service can be any functionality/activity. Such as getting out clothes ironed is a service. Web service is more of technical component of service. It is related to Business services in IT area. Web services are services developed by any capable technology which can be accesses over internet. Here customers are service consumers, providers are service host, and services are capabilities. 2. Business services and application services Business services are services offered by providers to facilitate consumers run and manage their business. A business service again, is a broad term. It covers all business services such as consulting, advertising, IT Audit services, financial services etc. Application service is again technical term for business service. Business services which are to be provided as software functionalities are called application services. Application service can be utilization of whole application as a service or utilizing chunks of functionality in an application as service. It is similar to web services. 3. Course grained and fine grained service These concepts are related to granularity. Granularity is extent to which a larger entity is divided in smaller entities. It is basically number of service operations in a service to perform a single logical activity. When a service has many operations, each having narrow functionality scope, to address requirements; it is called fine grained service. It has short-atomic service operations. Number of calls is high and complexity is less in this. When number of services operations need to be called to perform a single logical activity are less, it is called coarse grained service. It has more complex service operations and less number of service calls. To decide on granularity level for a service, Service Granularity design principal is used. It provides optimal scope of business functionality as service operation