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Appendix A: Glossary of Acronyms

ABNP Alaskan Basic Neuroscience BLM Bureau of Land Management


Program BRD Biological Resources Division
ACAP Arctic Council Action Plan to Elim- (USGS)
inate Pollution in the Arctic CAFF Conservation of Arctic Flora and
ACIA Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Fauna
ACMAP Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling CAREER Faculty Early Career Development
and Analysis Program program (NSF)
ACSYS Arctic Climate System Study CDC Centers for Disease Control and
ADCC ARCSS Data Coordination Center Prevention
ADEOS Advanced Earth Observation System CFC Chloroflourocarbon
ADRO Applications Development Research CIRES Cooperative Institute for Research in
Opportunity Environmental Sciences
AEDD Arctic Environmental Data Directory CISET Committee on International Science
AEPS Arctic Environmental Protection Engineering and Technology
Strategy CLIC Climate and Cryosphere program
AFB Air Force Base CLIVAR Climate Variability and Predict-
AFSC Alaska Fisheries Science Center ability program
AGES Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibil- CMDL Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic
ity study Laboratory (NOAA)
AHDRN Arctic Health Disparities Research COGA Collaborative Study of the Genetics
Dissemination Network of Alcoholism
AICC Arctic Icebreaker Coordination CRREL Cold Regions Research and Engi-
Committee neering Laboratory
AIP Arctic Investigations Program CRSTIAC Cold Regions Science and Technolo-
AMAP Arctic Monitoring and Assessment gy Information Analysis Center
Program CT Computerized tomography
AMEC Arctic Military Environmental DAAC Distributed Active Archive Center
Cooperation DHHS Department of Health and Human
AMMTAP Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Services
Archival Project DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite
AMSR Advanced microwave radiometer Program
sensor DOC Department of Commerce
ANTR Alaska Native Tumor Registry DOD Department of Defense
AO Arctic Oscillation DOE Department of Energy
ARC Arctic Research Commission DOI Department of the Interior
ARCSS Arctic System Science DOS Department of State
ARCUS Arctic Research Consortium of the DOT Department of Transportation
United States EDF Environmental Diplomacy Funds
ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measure- EO Environmental Observatory
ment program (DOE) EOS Earth Observing System
ARPA Arctic Research and Policy Act EOSDIS Earth Observation System Data and
ASF Alaska SAR Facility Information System
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and EPA Environmental Protection Agency
Disease Registry EPPR Emergency Prevention, Preparedness
AUV Autonomous underwater vehicles and Response
AVHRR Advanced very high resolution ERS European Remote-sensing Satellite
radiometer EWG Environmental Working Group
AWS Automatic weather station FAA Federal Aviation Administration
BASC Barrow Arctic Science Consortium FERF Frost Effects Research Facility

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FOCI Fisheries–Oceanography Coopera- MMS Minerals Management Service
tive Investigations MOA Memorandum of agreement
FSU Former Soviet Union MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging
FUDS Formerly used defense sites Spectroradiometer
FWS Fish and Wildlife Service MRI Magnetic resonance imaging
FY Fiscal year NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection
GCM General circulation model Act
GC-Net Greenland Climate Network NASA National Aeronautics and Space
GEF Global Environment Facility Administration
GIS Geographic information system NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies NAVICE Naval Ice Center
GLAS Geoscience laser altimeter system NCCOS National Centers for Coastal Ocean
GLIMS Global Land Ice Measurements from Science
Space NCDC National Climate Data Center
GOCADAN Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease NCEH National Center for Environmental
in Alaska Natives study Health
GODAR Global Oceanographic Data Archaeol- NCI National Cancer Institute
ogy and Rescue Project NCID National Center for Infectious
GPS Global positioning system Diseases
HAARP High Frequency Active Auroral NDSC Network for Detection of Strato-
Research Program spheric Change
HARC Human Dimensions of the Arctic NEI National Eye Institute
System (NSF) NEP Needle exchange program
HBV Hepatitis B virus NESDD NOAA’s Environmental Services
HCH Hexachlorocyclohexane Data Directory
HCV Hepatitis C virus NESDIS National Environmental Satellite
HDGC Human Dimensions of Global Data and Information Service
Change program NEWNET Neighborhood Environmental Watch
HF High frequency Network
HIRS High-resolution infrared radiation NGDC National Geophysical Data Center
sounder NGO Non-governmental organization
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus NIA National Institute on Aging
HRSA Health Resources Services Adminis- NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse
tration and Alcoholism
HVS Heavy vehicle simulator NIC National Ice Center
IARPC Interagency Arctic Research Policy NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse
Committee NIH National Institutes of Health
IASC International Arctic Science NIOSH National Institute for Occupational
Committee Safety and Health
IASSA International Arctic Social Sciences NISC National Information Services
Association Corporation
ICS International Circumpolar Surveil- NISE Near Real Time Ice and Snow in
lance EASE grid
IOC Intergovernmental Oceanographic NIST National Institute of Standards and
Commission Technology
IPA Intergovernmental Personnel Act NLM National Library of Medicine
IUCH International Union for Circumpolar NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service
Health NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric
IWG Interagency Working Group Administration
JCCEM Joint Coordinating Committee for NODC National Oceanographic Data Center
Environmental Management NPR–A National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska
LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory NPS National Park Service
LTER Long-Term Ecological Research NSF National Science Foundation
MAB Man and the Biosphere NSIDC National Snow and Ice Data Center

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NSR Northern Sea Route SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End
NTS Nevada Test Site Results program (NCI)
NTSB National Transportation Safety SGER Small Grants for Exploratory
Board Research (NSF)
NURP National Undersea Research SHEBA Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic
Program (NOAA) Ocean program
NWR National Wildlife Refuge SI Smithsonian Institution
NWS National Weather Service (NOAA) SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome
OAS Office of Aircraft Services SMMR Scanning multichannel microwave
OLS Operational linescan system radiometer
OMAO Office of Marine and Aviation SPAWAR Space and Naval Warfare Systems
Operations (NOAA) Command
OMB Office of Management and Budget SSC Scientific steering committee
ONR Office of Naval Research SSM/I Special sensor microwave/imager
OPP Office of Polar Programs (NSF) SUSV Small unit support vehicle
OSRI Oil Spill Recovery Institute TEA Teachers Experiencing the Arctic
PAME Protection of the Arctic Marine program (NSF)
Environment THC Thermhaline circulation
PARCA Program for Arctic Regional Climate TIAC Technical Information Analysis
Assessment Center
PCB Polychlorinated biphenyls UAA University of Alaska Anchorage
PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation UAF University of Alaska Fairbanks
PMEL Pacific Marine Environmental UNEP United Nations Environmental
Laboratory (NOAA) Program
POLES Polar Exchange at the Sea Surface UNOLS University National Oceanographic
POP Persistent organic pollutants Laboratory System
PROBES Processes and Resources of the USACE United States Army Corps of
Bering Sea Shelf Engineers
RAIPON Russian Indigenous Peoples of the USCG United States Coast Guard
North USDA United States Department of
RAPS Resource Apprenticeship Program Agriculture
(DOI) USFS United States Forest Service
REU Research Experience for Under- USGCRP United States Global Change
graduates program Research Program
RGI Regional Geographic Initiative USGS United States Geological Survey
(EPA) USIABP United States Interagency Arctic
RGPS Radarsat Geophysical Processor Buoy Program
System UV Ultraviolet
ROV Remotely operated vehicle VPR VECO Polar Resources
SAR Synthetic aperture radar WC&P West Coast and Polar Center
SBI Western Arctic Shelf Basin (NOAA)
Interaction program (NSF) WCRP World Climate Research Program
SDWG Sustainable Development Working WDC World Data Center
Group WHO World Health Organization
SEARCH Study of Environmental Arctic
Change

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Appendix B: Eighth Biennial Report of the Interagency
Arctic Research Policy Committee to the Congress
February 1, 1998, to January 31, 2000

Background sion on policy and program matters described


Section 108(b) of Public Law 98-373, as in Section 108(a)(3), was represented at
amended by Public Law 101-609, the Arctic meetings of the Commission, and responded
Research and Policy Act, directs the Interagency to Commission reports and Recommendations
Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) to (Appendix A).
submit to Congress, through the President, a bien- • Continued the processes of interagency coop-
nial report containing a statement of the activities eration required under Section 108(a)(6), (7),
and accomplishments of the IARPC. The IARPC (8), and (9).
was authorized by the Act and was established by • Provided input to an integrated budget analy-
Executive Order 12501, dated January 28, 1985. sis for Arctic research, which estimated
Section 108(b)(2) of Public Law 98-373, as $185.7 million in Federal support for FY 98
amended by Public Law 101-609, directs the and $221.5 million in FY 99.
IARPC to submit to Congress, through the Presi- • Arranged for public participation in the
dent, as part of its biennial report, a statement development of the fifth biennial revision to
“detailing with particularity the recommendations the U.S. Arctic Research Plan as required in
of the Arctic Research Commission with respect Section 108(a)(10).
to Federal interagency activities in Arctic research • Continued to maintain the Arctic Environ-
and the disposition and responses to those recom- mental Data Directory (AEDD), which now
mendations.” In response to this requirement, the contains information on over 400 Arctic data
IARPC has examined all recommendations of the sets. AEDD is available on the World Wide
Arctic Research Commission since February Web.
1998. The required statement appears in Appen- • Continued the activities of an Interagency
dix A. Social Sciences Task Force. Of special con-
cern is research on the health of indigenous
Activities and peoples and research on the Arctic as a
Accomplishments unique environment for studying human envi-
During the period February 1, 1998, to January ronmental adaptation and sociocultural
31, 2000, the IARPC has: change.
• Prepared and published the fifth biennial revi- • Continued to support an Alaska regional
sion to the United States Arctic Research office of the Smithsonian’s Arctic Studies
Plan, as required by Section 108(a)(4) of the Center in cooperation with the Anchorage
Act. The Plan was sent to the President on Historical Museum to facilitate education and
July 7, 1999. cultural access programs for Alaska residents.
• Published and distributed four issues of the • Supported continued U.S. participation in the
journal Arctic Research of the United States. non-governmental International Arctic Sci-
These issues reviewed all Federal agency ence Committee, via the National Research
Arctic research accomplishments for FY 96 Council.
and 97 and included summaries of the IARPC • Participated in the continuing National Secu-
and Arctic Research Commission meetings rity Council/U.S. Department of State imple-
and activities. The Fall/Winter 1999 issue mentation of U.S. policy for the Arctic. U.S.
contained the full text of the sixth biennial policy for the Arctic now includes an expand-
revision of the U.S. Arctic Research Plan. ed focus on science and environmental
• Consulted with the Arctic Research Commis- protection and on the valued input of Arctic

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residents in research and environmental man- Assessment of Risks to Environments and
agement issues. People in the Arctic, and Marine Science in
• Participated in policy formulation for the the Arctic. These initiatives are designed to
ongoing development of the Arctic Council. augment individual agency mission-related
This Council incorporates a set of principles programs and expertise and to promote the
and objectives for the protection of the Arctic resolution of key unanswered questions in
environment and for promoting sustainable Arctic research and environmental protection.
development. IARPC supports the contri- The initiatives are intended to help guide
butions being made to projects under the internal agency research planning and priority
Council’s Arctic Monitoring and Assessment setting. It is expected that funding for the ini-
Program (AMAP) by a number of Federal tiatives will be included in agency budget
and State of Alaska agencies. IARPC’s Arctic submissions, as the objectives and potential
Monitoring Working Group serves as a U.S. value are of high relevance to the mission and
focal point for AMAP. responsibilities of IARPC agencies.
• Approved four coordinated Federal agency • Convened formal meetings of the Committee
research initiatives on Arctic Environmental and its working groups, staff committees, and
Change, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment, task forces to accomplish the above.

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Appendix C: Arctic Research Budgets of
Federal Agencies

Budget (dollars in thousands)


FY 00 FY 01 FY 02
Dept/Bureau Program name actual planned proposed
DOD Arctic Engineering 2,583 2,670 2,750
DOD Permafrost/Frozen Ground 350 350 430
DOD Snow and Ice Hydrology 1,385 1,455 1,485
DOD Oceanography 3,000 3,000 3,030
DOD Lower Atmosphere 140 100 100
DOD Upper Atmosphere 0 0 0
DOD High-Freq Active Auroral Prog 15,000 12,000 0
DOD Medical and Human Engr 901 850 863
DOD TOTAL 23,359 20,425 8,658

DOI/MMS Technology Assessment/Research 3,200 3,200 3,200


DOI/MMS Environmental Studies 3,800 3,800 3,800

DOI/USGS Energy and Minerals 3,500 3,500 3,500


DOI/USGS Natural Hazards 3,500 3,500 3,500
DOI/USGS Global Change 1,000 1,000 1,000
DOI/USGS Marine and Coastal Geology 250 250 250
DOI/USGS Geomagnetism 250 250 250
DOI/USGS Ice and Climate 250 250 250
DOI/USGS Hydrology 130 130 130
DOI/USGS Mapping 750 750 750

DOI/USGS/BRD Marine Mammals 1,660 1,660 1,660


DOI/USGS/BRD Migratory Birds 2,390 2,390 2,390
DOI/USGS/BRD Fisheries Research 360 360 360
DOI/USGS/BRD Cooperative Research 330 330 330
DOI/USGS/BRD Terrestrial Ecology 1,130 1,130 1,130
DOI/USGS/BRD Park Research 1,140 1,140 1,140

DOI/BLM Natural Ecology 2,900 2,900 2,000


DOI/BLM Minerals Research 115 115 115
DOI/BLM Cultural Resources 200 200 200
DOI/BLM Pipeline Monitoring 550 550 550
DOI/BLM Fire Control 380 380 380
DOI/BLM Mining Administration 300 300 350

DOI/NPS Cultural Resources 1,400 1,400 1,400


DOI/NPS Natural Ecology 2,486 2,486 2,486

DOI/BIA Cultural Resources 600 600 600


DOI/BIA Subsistence Studies 1,250 1,250 1,250

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Budget (dollars in thousands)
FY 00 FY 01 FY 02
Dept/Bureau Program name actual planned proposed
DOI/FWS Migratory Birds 3,884 3,884 3,884
DOI/FWS Fisheries 4,068 4,068 4,068
DOI/FWS Marine Mammals 1,768 1,768 1,768
DOI/FWS Conservation of Flora and Fauna (CAFF) 200 200 200
DOI/FWS U.S. Russia Environmental Agreement 150 150 150
DOI TOTAL 43,891 43,891 43,041

NSF/OPP Arctic Natural Science 9,988 11,187 11,589


NSF/OPP Arctic System Science Prog 14,351 15,930 16,503
NSF/OPP Arctic Social Sciences Prog 1,459 1,619 1,684
NSF/OPP Arctic Education research 225 250 260
NSF/OPP Arctic Research Support 151 168 174
NSF/OPP Arctic Data/Info/Coord 88 98 102
NSF/OPP Arctic Research Commission 700 1,000 1,028
NSF/OPP Arctic Logistics/Instrumentation 23,230 25,785 26,765
NSF/OPP Sub-total OPP 50,192 56,036 58,105
NSF Other NSF Science Programs 17,295 18,160 18,523
NSF TOTAL 67,487 74,196 76,628

NASA Polar Ice Interactions 4,000 4,000 4,000


NASA Ecology 2,371 619 535
NASA Solid Earth Science 1,300 2,000 5,000
NASA Arctic Ozone 12,700 6,440 6,500
NASA Clouds and Radiation 1,500 750 750
NASA Sub-orbital Science 3,300 900 2,500
NASA Iono/Thermo/Mesospheric 1,502 1,500 1,500
NASA Magnetospheric SR&T 400 292 200
NASA Geospace Sciences 2,065 2,100 2,100
NASA FAST Auroral Snapshot 1,500 1,500 1,300
NASA Solar Terrestrial Theory 400 400 400
NASA Arctic Data Systems 13,908 12,100 12,600
NASA Research Balloon Program 750 750 0
NASA Sounding Rocket Program 950 800 1,100
NASA TOTAL 46,646 34,151 38,485

DOC/NOAA Atmos Trace Constituents 40 250 800


DOC/NOAA Fisheries Assessment/Management 18,100 16,600 18,900
DOC/NOAA Marine Mammal Assessment 2,600 3,900 3,900
DOC/NOAA Ocean Assessment 15 30 15
DOC/NOAA Stratospheric Ozone 205 250 250
DOC/NOAA Satellites/Data Management 418 325 325
DOC/NOAA Remote Sensing 465 456 300
DOC/NOAA Aircraft/Vessels 1,946 1,976 2,053
DOC/NOAA Climate and Global Change 268 90 90
DOC/NOAA Weather Research 40 125 125
DOC/NOAA Western Arctic/Bering Sea Ecosystem 2,997 3,845 2,782
DOC/NOAA Barrow Observatory 790 1,200 1,600
DOC/NOAA Undersea Research 205 30 0
DOC/NOAA Arctic Research Initiative 1,650 1,650 1,650
DOC/NOAA TOTAL 29,739 30,727 32,790

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Budget (dollars in thousands)
FY 00 FY 01 FY 02
Dept/Bureau Program name actual planned proposed
DOE/SC Nat Inst Global Env Change 186 186 186
DOE/SC Atmos Radiation/Planning 3,200 3,200 3,200
DOE/FE Alaska Hydrate Characterization 70 N.A. N.A.
DOE/FE Hydrate Test Well Participation 339 N.A. N.A.
DOE/EE Wind Activities in Alaska 380 270 75
DOE/EM JCCEM/Arctic Transport Studies 550 570 570
DOE TOTAL 4,725 4,226 4,031

DHHS National Institutes of Health 9,844 10,702 11,164


DHHS Centers for Disease Control/Prevent. 3,990 5,151 4,787
DHHS TOTAL 13,834 15,853 15,951

SMITHSONIAN Anthropology 400 400 400


SMITHSONIAN Arctic Biology 50 50 50
SMITHSONIAN TOTAL 450 450 450

DOT/USCG Test and Evaluation 3,750 500 0


DOT/USCG Arctic Science Support 2,530 10,330 7,870
DOT/USCG Extramural Science Support 30 30 30
DOT Total 6,310 10,860 7,900

EPA Research and Development 365 360 200


EPA Regional Activities 250 220 100
EPA International Activities 93 75 100
EPA TOTAL 708 655 400

USDA/FS Forest Service - Environment 700 700 700


USDA/CSRE&ES Cooperative State Res - Environ 725 725 725
USDA/CSRE&ES Cooperative State Res - Food/Saf 793 964 964
USDA/NRCS Natural Resources Cons Svc S - Global 560 560 560
USDA/ARS Agricultural Research Service 2,000 2,000 2,000
USDA TOTAL 4,778 4,949 4,949

STATE MAB: Arctic Directorate 20 20 20


STATE TOTAL 20 20 20

GRAND TOTALS 241,947 240,403 233,303

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Appendix D: Federal Arctic Research
Program Descriptions

Department of Defense U.S. Geological Survey


• Arctic Engineering: The study and develop- • Energy and Minerals: Research to assess the
ment of technologies for construction and distribution, quantity, and quality of energy and
maintenance of facilities and equipment in mineral resources with an increasing emphasis
Arctic environments. on characterizing the environmental impact of
• Permafrost/Frozen Ground: The study of the resource occurrence and use. This informa-
formation, structure, characteristics, and tion assists the Nation in managing its land,
dynamics of permafrost and frozen ground. formulating environmental policies, and en-
• Snow and Ice Hydrology: The study of the suring stable and safe supplies of resources.
snowpack and river, lake, and sea ice, their • Natural Hazards: Research to forecast and
formation, structure, and dynamics. delineate hazards from earthquakes, volca-
• Oceanography: The study of Arctic Ocean fea- noes, landslides, and related phenomena.
tures and processes including sea ice dynamics. Losses from future natural hazard events can
• Lower Atmosphere: The study of Arctic be significantly reduced through studies of
weather with an emphasis on heat budget. past and potential events applied to disaster
• Upper Atmosphere: The study of physical pro- mitigation and response planning.
cesses in the thermosphere, ionosphere and • Global Change: Research to investigate the im-
magnetosphere. Studies also include applied pact that potential global change, such as global
research to investigate, predict, and assess the warming, would have on our planet. This is part
impacts from the thermosphere, ionosphere, of the U.S. Global Change research program,
and magnetosphere to communication, navi- which provides the scientific basis for develop-
gation, surveillance, and satellite systems. ing policy relating to natural and human-
• High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Pro- induced changes in the global earth system.
gram (HAARP): The use of radiowave energy • Marine and Coastal: Research to address issues
to study basic physical response and composi- of national, regional, and local concern that
tion of the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. involve marine and coastal geology. These
• Medical and Human Engineering: The study issues involve natural hazards, natural resourc-
of human response to cold climates and meth- es, and environmental quality and restoration;
ods to mitigate those effects. they span the full continuum from coastal wet-
lands and seashores to the deep ocean.
Department of the Interior • Geomagnetism: Research to measure, map, and
model the earth’s magnetic field within various
Minerals Management Service time scales and to publish and disseminate this
• Technology Assessment and Research Pro- information for use in navigation and orienta-
gram: Research to support Minerals Manage- tion by Federal, state, local, and international
ment Service offshore operations. Studies groups. Eleven magnetic observatories are
address operational needs for permitting of operated, and repeat magnetic field surveys
drilling and production operations, safety and are performed to determine how and how fast
pollution inspections, enforcement action, the earth’s magnetic field is changing.
accident investigations, and well control • Ice and Climate: Research to understand the
training requirements. causes, characteristics, and effects of changes
• Environmental Studies Program: Research to in glacier conditions over annual to decadal
provide information needed for prediction, time scales, as well as of changes in snow
assessment, and management of impacts from conditions in mountainous areas over monthly
offshore natural gas and oil and mineral to seasonal time scales.
development activities on human, marine, and • Hydrology: Research to monitor and assess the
coastal environments of Alaska. sensitivity of surface water and wetland hydrol-

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ogy to variations and changes in climate. mining on public lands in Arctic Alaska. The
• Mapping: Program to develop geologic and goal is to assure compliance with the approved
environmental maps of Arctic Alaska. plan of operations and minimize the impact of
mining on the riparian wetland resource.
U.S. Geological Survey–Biological
Resources Division National Park Service
• Marine Mammals: Research on marine • Cultural Resources: Research and investigation
mammals to provide information needed for of cultural resources as they pertain to historic
USGS to fulfill its stewardship responsibilities places in National Parks. The Shared Beringian
under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Heritage Program promotes international coop-
• Migratory Birds: Research on migratory birds eration in multidisciplinary studies of Beringia.
to provide basic biological information • Natural Ecology: Research to monitor and
needed for responsible implementation of the understand natural resources in National Parks.
Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
• Fisheries: Research related to land manage- Bureau of Indian Affairs
ment responsibilities on National Wildlife • Cultural: Research and investigation of
Refuges and National Parks or focusing on learned and shared behaviors as they pertain
treaty issues involving the U.S. and Canada. to historic places and cemetery sites applied
• Cooperative Research: Research addressing for under the provisions of the Alaska Native
issues relating to short-term or site-specific Claims Settlement Act (P.L. 92-203).
resource management issues. • Subsistence: Research on the customary and tra-
• Terrestrial Ecology: Research related to land ditional uses of fish, game, and plant resources.
management, emphasizing potential effects of
resource development on National Wildlife National Science Foundation
Refuges. • Arctic Natural Sciences: Research in atmo-
• Park Research: Research related to land spheric, space, ocean, biological, earth
management, emphasizing issues specific to sciences, and glaciology that is primarily
National Parks. investigator-initiated; this is basic research
that is concerned with processes and phenom-
Bureau of Land Management ena in the entire Arctic region, including
• Natural Ecology: Inventorying and monitor- Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Svalbard, Russia,
ing of the quantity and status of waters, soils, the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, and the
vegetation, fish and wildlife populations, and upper atmosphere and near space.
habitats in Arctic Alaska. This is a major • Arctic System Science (ARCSS): An inter-
effort to support lands and resources manage- disciplinary program that examines the interac-
ment in this unique area. tions within and between the climatic, geologic,
• Cultural Resources: Studies of man’s prehis- biologic, and socioeconomic subsystems of the
toric activities in the Arctic. Recent findings Arctic. ARCSS is a regional component within
in northern Alaska have helped in understand- the U.S. Global Change Research Program.
ing man’s migration into North America. • Arctic Social Science: A multidisciplinary
• Pipeline Monitoring: Program to ascertain and interdisciplinary program focused on
that permittees are in compliance with the issues of human–environment interactions,
agreement and grant right-of-way for the rapid social change, and community viability.
Trans-Alaska Pipeline in Arctic Alaska. • Arctic Science Support: Support for Intergov-
There is constant monitoring of pipeline ernmental Personnel Act (IPA) personnel
integrity and the status of the natural resources assigned to the Arctic Sciences Section of the
in and adjacent to the right-of-way. Office of Polar Programs (OPP), and scien-
• Fire Control: Studies of fuels, ignition, burning, tific meeting, panel, and publication support.
fire spreading, and methods of control of wild • Arctic Data and Information, and Advisory
fires in the Arctic. A network of remote auto- and Coordination: Support for a program of
matic weather stations has been established. The Arctic data and information research and
primary purpose of this network is to help un- advisory services, including support for the
derstand the influence of weather on wildfires. Interagency Arctic Research Policy Commit-
• Mining Administration: Monitoring of placer tee, and conferences, workshops, and studies

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to further develop and implement Arctic National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in
research planning and policy. Boulder, Colorado, and one at the Alaska SAR
• Arctic Research Commission: Support for the Facility (ASF) in Fairbanks, Alaska. The ASF is
Commission staff and members. Funding for the responsible for acquiring, processing, archiving,
Arctic Research Commission is included in the and distributing synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
NSF budget for administrative convenience. data from several non-U.S. spacecraft, and the
• Other Sciences: Research supported in divi- NSIDC handles most other satellite data over
sions and programs outside the OPP in atmo- the high latitudes. In addition, NASA supports
spheric, ocean, biological, earth sciences, and the development of several high-latitude “Path-
glaciology that is primarily investigator- finder” data sets, comprising higher-level infor-
initiated basic research. mation derived from various satellite data.
• Engineering: Engineering research that is • Clouds and Radiation: NASA supports compre-
related to the Arctic. hensive studies of the impact of Arctic clouds
• Education: Education research that is related and aerosols on the the Arctic radiation balance
to the Arctic. and its impact on the global radiative balance.
Studies supported include modeling and analy-
National Aeronautics and sis of satellite cloud and aerosol data obtained
Space Administration over the polar regions. In addition, NASA sup-
• Cryosphere: This program is focused on the ports missions to the Arctic (e.g. FIRE-ACE)
Arctic ice cover and its interactions with the that include ground, ship, and airborne sensors
oceans and atmosphere. The long-range goals coordinated with satellite observations to
are to significantly improve our ability to rep- study the processes that contribute to the evo-
resent high-latitude processes in models of lution of cloud and aerosol distributions.
global climate and climate change and to • Geospace Physics: NASA provides support
understand the current and likely impact of for a vigorous program of experimental and
changes in ice mass on sea level. theoretical studies of geospace phenomena
• Ecology: This program is focused on the func- originating in or affecting Arctic regions,
tion of high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems and including the mesosphere, thermosphere, ion-
their interactions with the atmosphere and osphere, and magnetosphere. It includes these
hydrosphere, with particular emphasis on car- programs listed in the NASA budget table:
bon cycling and land–atmosphere interactions. Sun-Earth Connection Theory Program, Fast
• Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Science: This Auroral SnapshoT Explorer spacecraft,
program is focused on improving our under- Geospace Low Cost Access to Space (sub-
standing of the earth’s gravity field, oscillations orbital) program, and the Geospace Sciences
in the length of day and tilting of the axis of Supporting Research and Technology program.
rotation, geodesy to determine the rate of past-
glacial rebound of the lithosphere for ice mass Department of Commerce
and structuralstudies, the earth’s magnetic field
to determine crustal structure, and topography National Oceanic and
and topographic change of the Arctic and Atmospheric Administration
Antarctic regions. The program also contrib- • Atmospheric Trace Constituents: Continuous
utes to other polar studies by providing a and discreet measurements of atmospheric
frame of reference with which to monitor trace constituents (for example, greenhouse
changes such as the volume of the ice sheets. gases) that are important to understanding
• Arctic Ozone Studies: This program is sup- global change.
porting a number of tasks related to chemical • Marine Fisheries Assessment: Assessment by
and dynamical processes in the Arctic strato- the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
sphere, with the aim of measuring and under- of U.S. living marine resources in Arctic waters.
standing changes in Arctic stratospheric • Marine Fisheries Research: NOAA’s Pacific
ozone in an atmosphere with increasing abun- Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) and
dances of greenhouse gases. Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) con-
• Arctic Data Systems: NASA provides support duct the Fisheries Oceanography Coordinated
for two Distributed Active Archive Systems Investigations (FOCI) program in the Bering
(DAACs) for high-latitude data: one at the Sea and North Pacific. FOCI is concerned with

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understanding and predicting the impacts of Office of Marine and Aviation Operations
interannual variability and decade-scale climate (OMAO) to conduct the research and obser-
change on commercially valuable fish species. vations associated with NOAA’s Arctic
• Marine Mammal Assessment: Long-term research program.
research by NMFS’s National Marine Mam- • Climate and Global Change: Studies that are
mal Laboratory on the population biology and assessing Arctic processes as forcing func-
ecology of Arctic marine mammals. NMFS tions of climate and global change and as
also participates in the Marine Mammal “barometers” of global change. NOAA’s Arc-
Health and Stranding Response Program, tic Research Office chairs the Interagency
which oversees the Arctic Marine Mammal Working Group on the Study of Environmen-
Tissue Archival Program (AMMTAP) in col- tal Arctic Change (SEARCH).
laboration with Department of Interior (FWS, • Arctic Ice: The National Ice Center, jointly
BRD, and MMS) and the National Institute of operated by NOAA, the U.S. Navy, and the
Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. Coast Guard, provides analyses and
AMMTAP collects, analyzes, and archives forecasts of ice conditions in all seas of the
tissues for contaminants and health indices to polar regions, the Great Lakes, and Chesa-
provide a database on contaminants and health peake Bay. The National Snow and Ice Data
in marine mammal populations in the Arctic. Center (NSIDC), affiliated with NOAA’s
• Coastal Hazards: Activities directed towards National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC),
developing a better understanding of the archives many new and rescued ice data sets.
effects of tsunami propagation and run-up. • Arctic Weather: Research primarily address-
• Ocean Assessment: A wide range of pro- ing two forecast problems: detection of the
grams and activities directed toward NOAA’s Arctic front and the effect of the Arctic front
environmental stewardship responsibilities, on local weather.
including environmental monitoring and • Boreal Forest Fires and the Arctic: Modeling,
assessment, technology transfer, and educa- research, and observations to understand the
tion and outreach. Ocean assessment includes influence of Northern Hemisphere boreal for-
the National Status and Trends Program, the est fires on atmospheric chemistry in the Arc-
Coastal Ocean Program, and other pertinent tic, especially focusing on the production of
activities of the recently formed National surface-level ozone and other pollutants and
Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), the atmospheric and climate effects of the
National Ocean Service. input of soot.
• Stratospheric Ozone: A program that is devel- • Arctic Research Initiative: Program supporting
oping an understanding of the dynamics and research, monitoring, and assessment projects to
chemistry of the potential for Arctic ozone study natural variability and anthropogenic
depletion, as part of activities directed to influences on Western Arctic/Bering Sea eco-
understanding the global depletion of strato- systems. These activities are a U.S. contribution
spheric ozone. to the Arctic Council’s Arctic Monitoring and
• Satellites/Data Management: Research Assessment Program. Projects supported by this
addressing NOAA’s responsibilities for col- program are expected to lead to better under-
lecting, archiving, processing, and dissemi- standing of Arctic contaminants and their path-
nating environmental data and providing ways, the effects of climate change including
specialized data analyses and interpretations. increased ultraviolet radiation, and the com-
• Remote Sensing: A substantial program (jointly bined effects of stresses from climate change
with NSF and DOE) for developing, testing, and various contaminants.
and using ground-based remote sensors for Arc-
tic meteorological research. The emphasis is on Department of Energy
prototypes for future operational systems that • Climate-Related Atmospheric Radiation
can operate in the Arctic with minimal attention. Research: Continued operation of an Atmo-
The scientific issues include boundary layer tur- spheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)
bulence and structure, cloud macro- and micro- research (“testbed”) site on the North Slope
physical properties, and cloud-radiative cou- of Alaska to improve mathematical simula-
pling relevant to Arctic climate. tions of cloud and radiative transfer processes
• Aircraft/Vessels: Platform support from the in general circulation models (GCMs).

75
• Environmental Measurements of Radioactivity Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
in the Atmosphere: Continuous measurements • A research program designed to evaluate
of long-term levels and trends of anthro- infectious disease prevention and control
pogenic and natural radionuclides in the Arc- strategies in the Arctic and sub-Arctic, with a
tic atmosphere. Sites include Alaska, Green- special focus on diseases of high incidence
land, and northernmost Canada and Norway. and concern among the indigenous peoples of
• Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network the circumpolar region.
(NEWNET): Continued operation of an Alas- • An occupational injury research program
kan network (Fairbanks, Kotzebue, Nome, focusing on the Nation’s geographic area with
Point Hope, and Seward) of public-accessible the highest risk of occupational-related injury.
environmental gamma-radioactivity monitoring • Research on human exposure to environmen-
stations and data storage/processing systems, tal persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic.
based on concepts developed by the DOE for
the Community Monitoring Program at the Ne- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
vada Test Site (NTS) Nuclear Testing Facility. • A research program to identify and reduce
• Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmen- risks from exposure to environmental contam-
tal Management (JCCEM) Contaminant Trans- inants while maintaining the benefits of the
port Studies: Continuing assessment of the subsistence lifestyle.
hydro-geologic framework and radioactivity
contamination status of the West Siberian Basin Smithsonian Institution
from past and ongoing releases of commercial • Anthropology: Research and interpretation of
and defense-related nuclear and hazardous Arctic cultures and natural history. Training of
waste disposal operations at the former Soviet Arctic residents and Natives in museum studies,
Union Mayak, Tomsk, and Krasnoyarsk sites. collections care, conservation, and cultural
• North Slope of Alaska Methane Hydrate heritage programs. Studies of the origin and his-
Resource Assessment: DOE continues to assist tory of northern cultures and their interactions
the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in an with their environment and with European cul-
assessment of the recoverability and produc- tures are central features of this research.
tion characteristics of permafrost-associated • Arctic Biology: Basic research on biological
methane hydrates and related free-gas accu- and evolutionary studies in botany, zoology,
mulations in the Prudhoe Bay–Kuparuk River and other natural history fields. Interactions
area of the North Slope of Alaska. of Arctic flora and fauna with human cultures
• Wind Electricity Generation Activities in are emphasized.
Alaska: To better understand the role that
wind energy can play, the DOE’s Wind Ener- Department of Transportation
gy Program continues to be engaged in col-
laborative efforts with Alaskan organizations U.S. Coast Guard
at the state and local levels to explore ways in • Arctic Science/Logistics Support: The costs
which wind can make a greater contribution of providing and maintaining polar icebreak-
in the production of electric power. Efforts ers for use in the Arctic.
are particularly focused on smaller rural com- • Test and Evaluation: The cost of tests
munities, where the cost of diesel-generated designed to evaluate polar icebreakers in the
electricity is very high. Current Alaskan loca- performance of Arctic missions. (Previously,
tions include Kotzebue, Wales, Nome, Night- unreimbursed Arctic science mission costs
mute, Nunapitchuk, Selawik, and Unalakleet. were included in this category.)
• Extramural Science Support: Funding pro-
Department of Health and vided to other agencies for Arctic science
Human Services studies, research, or vessel availability studies.

National Institutes of Health Environmental Protection Agency


• Basic and applied research that relates prima- • Research and Development: Intramural and
rily in the areas of rheumatic diseases, cancer, extramural basic and applied research founded
drug and alcohol abuse, and coronary heart on the risk assessment and risk management
disease that affect Arctic residents. paradigm. EPA research interests in the Arctic

76
include water quality, watershed cumulative Natural Resources Conservation Service
effects, air quality, land use, bioremediation and • Research in support of the National Coopera-
the combined impact of contaminants, climate tive Soil Survey program addressing perma-
change, and resource use on freshwater and frost, soil cryogenic processes, soil reduction
marine ecosystems. Research efforts address and oxidation properties, temperature, water
issues of long-range transport and transforma- status and gas flux in wetlands, reindeer and
tion of contaminants to the Arctic and the status caribou grazing needs, and vegetation trends.
and trends of contaminants such as persistent • Research on vegetation, landform, and carbon
organic pollutants and heavy metals within the sequestration relationships in support of the
Arctic environment. Research and Development Global Change Research Program.
is working closely in partnership with Region • Research in support of the snow survey program.
10 on forwarding an integrated assessment of Snowfall measurement techniques are being
human health and ecological risks in subsistence studied to support the snow survey, which is
communities with the Bering Sea watershed. used to predict snowmelt, water availability,
• Regional Activities: Activities of EPA’s Region river breakup timing, and wildlife movements.
10 (Pacific Northwest and Alaska office) are
conducted in partnership with tribes, the state, Agricultural Research Service
and local communities to resolve key issues in • Research on plant sciences emphasizing germ-
rural sanitation, clean drinking water, clean- plasm preservation to protect native and Rus-
up of formerly used defense sites, regulation sian plant species with emphasis on medicinal
of local industry, and other issues key to pro- value and utility for erosion control.
tecting human health and the unique Arctic • Research in animal sciences to investigate
and sub-Arctic environments. Alaska fisheries byproduct use (especially for
feed stocks), integrated pest management for
Department of Agriculture grasshopper control in Alaska’s central basin,
and the biosystematics of Holarctic ruminant
Forest Service parasites to assess pathogen distribution in
• Research directed toward improving the food resources of northern communities.
understanding, use, and management of Alas-
ka’s natural resources, especially the northern Department of State
boreal forest. Research centers on the dynam- • Coordination of U.S. involvement in the Arctic
ics of mixed stands and the cumulative effects Council and its working groups, including the
of management activities on hydrology, soils, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program;
vegetation, wildlife, carbon reserves, insects, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, of
and fire in boreal ecosystems. which the U.S. is the vice-chair; Emergency Pre-
• Important portions of the boreal ecosystems vention, Preparedness, and Response; Protection
research are conducted at the Bonanza Creek of the Arctic Marine Environment, which the
Long-Term Ecological Research Site near U.S. chairs; Sustainable Development; and the
Fairbanks, AK. Arctic Council Action Plan to Eliminate Pollu-
tion of the Arctic.
Cooperative State Research, Education • Chairmanship of regular meetings of the
and Extension Service interagency Arctic Policy Group and overall
• Research in plant sciences emphasizing prop- responsibility for the coordination and formu-
agating and cultivating Alaskan native plants lation of U.S. policy in the Arctic.
and domestic crops. • Direction of Environmental Diplomacy Funds
• Research in animal sciences investigating gene- (EDF) to international pollution assessment
tic parameters for growth and reproduction of projects. The State Department has contributed
pink salmon and the chemical composition, nu- to the project on Persistent Toxic Substances,
tritional value, and utilization of animal feeds. Food Security, and Indigenous Peoples of the
• Research in natural resources and forestry Russian Far North. The project will monitor both
addressing forest floor organic matter reserves, air quality in the Russian Arctic and toxics in the
ecosystem sustainability, soil classification, traditional foods of Natives in Russia. State EDF
wildlife habitat, quantification of timber produc- support is also planned for the Evaluation of
tivity, and disturbance revegetation in wetlands. Dioxins and Furans in the Russian Federation.

77
Appendix E: Arctic Research and Policy Act,
As Amended

PUBLIC LAW 98-373 - July 31,1984; amended as (9) the United States has important security, economic,
PUBLIC LAW 101-609 - November 16, 1990 and environmental interests in developing and maintain-
ing a fleet of icebreaking vessels capable of operating
An Act effectively in the heavy ice regions of the Arctic;
(10) most Arctic-rim countries, particularly the Soviet
To provide for a comprehensive national policy dealing
Union, possess Arctic technologies far more advanced
with national research needs and objectives in the
than those currently available in the United States;
Arctic, for a National Critical Materials Council, for
(11) Federal Arctic research is fragmented and uncoor-
development of a continuing and comprehensive
dinated at the present time, leading to the neglect of cer-
national materials policy, for programs necessary to
tain areas of research and to unnecessary duplication of
carry out that policy, including Federal programs of
effort in other areas of research;
advanced materials research and technology, and for
(12) improved logistical coordination and support for
innovation in basic materials industries, and for
Arctic research and better dissemination of research data
other purposes.
and information is necessary to increase the efficiency
and utility of national Arctic research efforts;
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of
(13) a comprehensive national policy and program plan
the United States of America in Congress assembled:
to organize and fund currently neglected scientific re-
search with respect to the Arctic is necessary to fulfill
TITLE 1-ARCTIC RESEARCH AND POLICY
national objectives in Arctic research;
SHORT TITLE (14) the Federal Government, in cooperation with State
and local governments, should focus its efforts on the
SEC. 101. This title may be cited as the “Arctic Research
collection and characterization of basic data related to
and Policy Act of 1984, as amended”.
biological, materials, geophysical, social, and behavior-
al phenomena in the Arctic;
FINDINGS AND PURPOSES
(15) research into the long-range health, environmental,
SEC. 102.(a) The Congress finds and declares that— and social effects of development in the Arctic is neces-
(1) the Arctic, onshore and offshore, contains vital energy sary to mitigate the adverse consequences of that devel-
resources that can reduce the Nation’s dependence on for- opment to the land and its residents;
eign oil and improve the national balance of payments; (16) Arctic research expands knowledge of the Arctic,
(2) as the Nation’s only common border with the Soviet which can enhance the lives of Arctic residents, increase
Union, the Arctic is critical to national defense; opportunities for international cooperation among Arc-
(3) the renewable resources of the Arctic, specifically tic-rim countries, and facilitate the formulation of na-
fish and other seafood, represent one of the Nation’s tional policy for the Arctic; and
greatest commercial assets; (17) the Alaskan Arctic provides an essential habitat for
(4) Arctic conditions directly affect global weather pat- marine mammals, migratory waterfowl, and other forms
terns and must be understood in order to promote better of wildlife which are important to the Nation and which
agricultural management throughout the United States; are essential to Arctic residents.
(5) industrial pollution not originating in the Arctic re- (b) The purposes of this title are—
gion collects in the polar air mass, has the potential to (1) to establish national policy, priorities, and goals and
disrupt global weather patterns, and must be controlled to provide a Federal program plan for basic and applied
through international cooperation and consultation; scientific research with respect to the Arctic, including
(6) the Arctic is a natural laboratory for research into natural resources and materials, physical, biological and
human health and adaptation, physical and psychologi- health sciences, and social and behavioral sciences;
cal, to climates of extreme cold and isolation and may (2) to establish an Arctic Research Commission to pro-
provide information crucial for future defense needs; mote Arctic research and to recommend Arctic research
(7) atmospheric conditions peculiar to the Arctic make policy,
the Arctic a unique testing ground for research into high (3) to designate the National Science Foundation as the
latitude communications, which is likely to be crucial lead agency responsible for implementing Arctic research
for future defense needs; policy, and
(8) Arctic marine technology is critical to cost-effective (4) to establish an Interagency Arctic Research Policy
recovery, and transportation of energy resources and to Committee to develop a national Arctic research policy
the national defense; and a five year plan to implement that policy.

78
ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION considered an employee of the United States for any
purpose.
SEC. 103. (a) The President shall establish an Arctic (2) The Commission shall meet at the call of its Chair-
Research Commission (hereinafter referred to as the man or a majority of its members.
“Commission”). (3) Each Federal agency referred to in section 107(b)
(b)(1) The Commission shall be composed of seven may designate a representative to participate as an ob-
members appointed by the President, with the Director of server with the Commission. These representatives shall
the National Science Foundation serving as a nonvoting, report to and advise the Commission on the activities
ex officio member. The members appointed by the Presi- relating to Arctic research of their agencies.
dent shall include— (4) The Commission shall conduct at least one public
(A) four members appointed from among individ- meeting in the State of Alaska annually.
uals from academic or other research institutions
with expertise in areas of research relating to the DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION
Arctic, including the physical, biological, health,
environmental, social and behavioral sciences; SEC. 104. (a) The Commission shall—
(B) one member appointed from among indigenous (1) develop and recommend an integrated national Arc-
residents of the Arctic who are representative of tic research policy;
the needs and interests of Arctic residents and who (2) in cooperation with the Interagency Arctic Research
live in areas directly affected by Arctic resource Policy Committee established under section 107, assist
development; and in establishing a national Arctic research program plan
(C) two members appointed from among individu- to implement the Arctic research policy;
als familiar with the Arctic and representative of (3) facilitate cooperation between the Federal Govern-
the needs and interests of private industry under- ment and State and local governments with respect to
taking resource development in the Arctic. Arctic research;
(2) The President shall designate one of the appointed (4) review Federal research programs in the Arctic and
members of the Commission to be chairperson of the recommend improvements in coordination among pro-
Commission. grams;
(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this sub- (5) recommend methods to improve logistical planning
section, the term of office of each member of the Com- and support for Arctic research as may be appropriate
mission appointed under subsection (b)(1) shall be four and in accordance with the findings and purposes of this
years. title;
(2) Of the members of the Commission originally ap- (6) recommend methods for improving efficient sharing
pointed under subsection (b)(1)— and dissemination of data and information on the Arctic
(A) one shall be appointed for a term of two years; among interested public and private institutions;
(B) two shall be appointed for a term of three years; (7) offer other recommendations and advice to the In-
and teragency Committee established under section 107 as
(C) two shall be appointed for a term of four years. it may find appropriate;
(3) Any vacancy occurring in the membership of the (8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska
Commission shall be filled, after notice of the vacancy and with agencies and organizations of that State which
is published in the Federal Register, in the manner pro- the Governor may designate with respect to the formu-
vided by the preceding provisions of this section, for the lation of Arctic research policy;
remainder of the unexpired term. (9) recommend to the Interagency Committee the means
(4) A member may serve after the expiration of the for developing international scientific cooperation in the
member’s term of office until the President appoints a Arctic; and
successor. (10) not later than January 31,1991, and every 2 years
(5) A member may serve consecutive terms beyond the thereafter, publish a statement of goals and objectives
member’s original appointment. with respect to Arctic research to guide the Interagency
(d)(1) Members of the Commission may be allowed Committee established under section 107 in the perfor-
travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, mance of its duties.
as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code. (b) Not later than January 31 of each year, the Commis-
A member of the Commission not presently employed for sion shall submit to the President and to the Congress a
compensation shall be compensated at a rate equal to the report describing the activities and accomplishments of
daily equivalent of the rate for GS-18 of the General the Commission during the immediately preceding fiscal
Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code, year.
for each day the member is engaged in the actual
performance of his duties as a member of the Commission, COOPERATION WITH THE COMMISSION
not to exceed 90 days of service each year. Except for the
purposes of chapter 81 of title 5 (relating to compensation SEC. 105. (a)(1) The Commission may acquire from the
for work injuries) and chapter 171 of title 28 (relating to head of any Federal agency unclassified data, reports, and
tort claims), a member of the Commission shall not be other nonproprietary information with respect to Arctic

79
research in the possession of the agency which the Com- (2) The Interagency Committee shall be composed of
mission considers useful in the discharge of its duties. representatives of the following Federal agencies or
(2) Each agency shall cooperate with the Commission offices:
and furnish all data, reports, and other information re- (A) the National Science Foundation;
quested by the Commission to the extent permitted by (B) the Department of Commerce;
law; except that no agency need furnish any informa- (C) the Department of Defense;
tion which it is permitted to withhold under section (D) the Department of Energy;
522 of title 5, United States Code. (E) the Department of the Interior;
(b) With the consent of the appropriate agency head, (F) the Department of State;
the Commission may utilize the facilities and services of (G) the Department of Transportation;
any Federal agency to the extent that the facilities and (H) the Department of Health and Human Services;
services are needed for the establishment and develop- (I) the National Aeronautics and Space Administra-
ment of an Arctic research policy, upon reimbursement to tion;
be agreed upon by the Commission and the agency head (J) the Environmental Protection Agency; and
and taking every feasible step to avoid duplication of effort. (K) any other agency or office deemed appropriate.
(c) All Federal agencies shall consult with the Com- (3) The representative of the National Science Founda-
mission before undertaking major Federal actions relat- tion shall serve as the Chairperson of the Interagency
ing to Arctic research. Committee.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMISSION DUTIES OF THE INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE


SEC. 106. The Commission may—
SEC. 108. (a) The Interagency Committee shall—
(1) in accordance with the civil service laws and sub-
(1) survey Arctic research conducted by Federal, State,
chapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code,
and local agencies, universities, and other public and
appoint and fix the compensation of an Executive Di-
private institutions to help determine priorities for fu-
rector and necessary additional staff personnel, but not
ture Arctic research, including natural resources and
to exceed a total of seven compensated personnel;
materials, physical and biological sciences, and social
(2) procure temporary and intermittent services as au-
and behavioral sciences;
thorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code;
(2) work with the Commission to develop and establish
(3) enter into contracts and procure supplies, services
an integrated national Arctic research policy that will
and personal property;
guide Federal agencies in developing and implementing
(4) enter into agreements with the General Services
their research programs in the Arctic;
Administration for the procurement of necessary finan-
(3) consult with the Commission on—
cial and administrative services, for which payment shall
(A) the development of the national Arctic research
be made by reimbursement from funds of the Commis-
policy and the 5-year plan implementing the policy;
sion in amounts to be agreed upon by the Commission
(B) Arctic research programs of Federal agencies;
and the Administrator of the General Services Adminis-
(C) recommendations of the Commission on future
tration; and
Arctic research; and
(5) appoint, and accept without compensation the ser-
(D) guidelines for Federal agencies for awarding
vices of, scientists and engineering specialists to be ad-
and administering Arctic research grants;
visors to the Commission. Each advisor may be allowed
(4) develop a 5-year plan to implement the national pol-
travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsis-
icy, as provided in section 109;
tence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United
(5) provide the necessary coordination, data, and assis-
States Code. Except for the purposes of chapter 81 of
tance for the preparation of a single integrated, coher-
title 5 (relating to compensation for work injuries) and
ent, and multiagency budget request for Arctic research
chapter 171 of title 28 (relating to tort claims) of the
as provided for in section 110;
United States Code, an advisor appointed under this
(6) facilitate cooperation between the Federal Govern-
paragraph shall not be considered an employee of the
ment and State and local governments in Arctic research,
United States for any purpose.
and recommend the undertaking of neglected areas of
research in accordance with the findings and purposes
LEAD AGENCY AND INTERAGENCY ARCTIC
of this title;
RESEARCH POLICY COMMITTEE
(7) coordinate and promote cooperative Arctic scientif-
SEC. 107. (a) The National Science Foundation is des- ic research programs with other nations, subject to the
ignated as the lead agency responsible for implementing foreign policy guidance of the Secretary of State;
Arctic research policy, and the Director of the National (8) cooperate with the Governor of the State of Alaska
Science Foundation shall insure that the requirements of in fulfilling its responsibilities under this title;
section 108 are fulfilled. (9) promote Federal interagency coordination of all Arc-
(b)(1) The President shall establish an Interagency Arc- tic research activities, including-
tic Research Policy Committee (hereinafter referred to as (A) logistical planning and coordination; and
the “Interagency Committee”). (B) the sharing of data and information associated

80
with Arctic research, subject to section 552 of title COORDINATION AND REVIEW OF BUDGET
5, United States Code; and REQUESTS
(10) provide public notice of its meetings and an oppor-
tunity for the public to participate in the development SEC. 110. (a) The Office of Science and Technology Pol-
and implementation of national Arctic research policy. icy shall—
(b) Not later than January 31, 1986, and biennially there- (1) review all agency and department budget requests
after, the Interagency Committee shall submit to the Con- related to the Arctic transmitted pursuant to section
gress through the President, a brief, concise report con- 108(a)(5), in accordance with the national Arctic research
taining- policy and the 5-year program under section 108(a)(2)
(1) a statement of the activities and accomplishments of and section 109, respectively; and
the Interagency Committee since its last report; and (2) consult closely with the Interagency Committee and
(2) a statement detailing with particularity the recom- the Commission to guide the Office of Technology Pol-
mendations of the Commission with respect to Federal icy’s efforts.
interagency activities in Arctic research and the disposi- (b)(1) The Office of Management and Budget shall con-
tion and responses to those recommendations. sider all Federal agency requests for research related to
the Arctic as one integrated, coherent, and multiagency
5-YEAR ARCTIC RESEARCH PLAN request, which shall be reviewed by the Office of Man-
agement and Budget prior to submission of the President’s
SEC. 109. (a) The Interagency Committee, in consulta- annual budget request for its adherence to the Plan. The
tion with the Commission, the Governor of the State of Commission shall, after submission of the President’s
Alaska, the residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and annual budget request, review the request and report to
public interest groups, shall prepare a comprehensive 5- Congress on adherence to the Plan.
year program plan (hereinafter referred to as the “Plan”) (2) The Office of Management and Budget shall seek
for the overall Federal effort in Arctic research. The Plan to facilitate planning for the design, procurement,
shall be prepared and submitted to the President for trans- maintenance, deployment and operations of icebreakers
mittal to the Congress within one year after the enactment needed to provide a platform for Arctic research by
of this Act and shall be revised biennially thereafter. allocating all funds necessary to support icebreaking
(b) The Plan shall contain but need not be limited to the operations, except for recurring incremental costs
following elements: associated with specific projects, to the Coast Guard.
(1) an assessment of national needs and problems re-
garding the Arctic and the research necessary to address AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS;
those needs or problems; NEW SPENDING AUTHORITY
(2) a statement of the goals and objectives of the Inter-
agency Committee for national Arctic research; SEC. 111. (a) There are authorized to be appropriated such
(3) a detailed listing of all existing Federal programs sums as may be necessary for carrying out this title.
relating to Arctic research, including the existing goals, (b) Any new spending authority (within the meaning
funding levels for each of the 5 following fiscal years, of section 401 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974)
and the funds currently being expended to conduct the which is provided under this title shall be effective for
programs; any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as
(4) recommendations for necessary program changes and may be provided in appropriation Acts.
other proposals to meet the requirements of the policy
and goals as set forth by the Commission and in the Plan DEFINITION
as currently in effect; and
(5) a description of the actions taken by the Interagency SEC. 112. As used in this title, the term “Arctic” means
Committee to coordinate the budget review process in all United States and foreign territory north of the Arctic
order to ensure interagency coordination and coopera- Circle and all United States territory north and west of the
tion in (A) carrying out Federal Arctic research programs, boundary formed by the Porcupine, Yukon, and Kuskok-
and (B) eliminating unnecessary duplication of effort wim Rivers; all contiguous seas, including the Arctic
among these programs. Ocean and the Beaufort, Bering and Chukchi Seas; and
the Aleutian chain.

81
Appendix F: Principles for the Conduct
of Research in the Arctic
Introduction pied by them. Research directly involving
All researchers working in the North have an northern people or communities should not
ethical responsibility toward the people of the proceed without their clear and informed
North, their cultures, and the environment. The consent. When informing the community
following principles have been formulated to pro- and/or obtaining informed consent, the
vide guidance for researchers in the physical, bio- researcher should identify—
logical, behavioral, health, economic, political, a. all sponsors and sources of financial
and social sciences and in the humanities. These support;
principles are to be observed when carrying out or b. the person in charge and all investigators
sponsoring research in Arctic and northern regions involved in the research, as well as any
or when applying the results of this research. anticipated need for consultants, guides,
This statement addresses the need to promote or interpreters;
mutual respect and communication between scien- c. the purposes, goals, and time frame of
tists and northern residents. Cooperation is needed the research;
at all stages of research planning and implementa- d. data-gathering techniques (tape and
tion in projects that directly affect northern people. video recordings, photographs, physio-
Cooperation will contribute to a better under- logical measurements, and so on) and the
standing of the potential benefits of Arctic research uses to which they will be put; and
for northern residents and will contribute to the e. foreseeable positive and negative impli-
development of northern science through tradi- cations and impacts of the research.
tional knowledge and experience. 2. The duty of researchers to inform communi-
These “Principles for the Conduct of Research ties continues after approval has been
in the Arctic” were prepared by the Interagency obtained. Ongoing projects should be
Social Science Task Force in response to a recom- explained in terms understandable to the
mendation by the Polar Research Board of the local community.
National Academy of Sciences and at the direc- 3. Researchers should consult with and, where
tion of the Interagency Arctic Research Policy applicable, include northern communities in
Committee. This statement is not intended to replace project planning and implementation. Rea-
other existing Federal, State, or professional sonable opportunities should be provided
guidelines, but rather to emphasize their relevance for the communities to express their inter-
for the whole scientific community. Examples of ests and to participate in the research.
similar guidelines used by professional organiza- 4. Research results should be explained in
tions and agencies in the United States and in nontechnical terms and, where feasible,
other countries are listed in the publications. should be communicated by means of study
materials that can be used by local teachers
Implementation or displays that can be shown in local com-
All scientific investigations in the Arctic should munity centers or museums.
be assessed in terms of potential human impact 5. Copies of research reports, data descrip-
and interest. Social science research, particularly tions, and other relevant materials should be
studies of human subjects, requires special consid- provided to the local community. Special
eration, as do studies of resources of economic, efforts must be made to communicate results
cultural, and social value to Native people. In all that are responsive to local concerns.
instances, it is the responsibility of the principal 6. Subject to the requirements for anonymity,
investigator on each project to implement the fol- publications should always refer to the
lowing recommendations: informed consent of participants and give
1. The researcher should inform appropriate credit to those contributing to the research
community authorities of planned research project.
on lands, waters, or territories used or occu- 7. The researcher must respect local cultural

82
traditions, languages, and values. The 13. Sacred sites, cultural materials, and cultural
researcher should, where practicable, incor- property cannot be disturbed or removed
porate the following elements in the without community and/or individual con-
research design: sent and in accordance with Federal and
a. Use of local and traditional knowledge State laws and regulations.
and experience. In implementing these principles, researchers
b. Use of the languages of the local people. may find additional guidance in the publications
c. Translation of research results, particu- listed below. In addition, a number of Alaska
larly those of local concern, into the Native and municipal organizations can be con-
languages of the people affected by the tacted for general information, obtaining informed
research. consent, and matters relating to research proposals
8. When possible, research projects should and coordination with Native and local interests.
anticipate and provide meaningful experi- A separate list is available from NSF’s Office of
ence and training for young people. Polar Programs.
9. In cases where individuals or groups pro-
vide information of a confidential nature, Publications
their anonymity must be guaranteed in both Arctic Social Science: An Agenda for Action.
the original use of data and in its deposition National Academy of Sciences, Washington,
for future use. D.C., 1989.
10. Research on humans should only be under- Draft Principles for an Arctic Policy. Inuit Cir-
taken in a manner that respects their privacy cumpolar Conference, Kotzebue, 1986.
and dignity: Ethics. Social Sciences and Humanities Research
a. Research subjects must remain anony- Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1977.
mous unless they have agreed to be iden- Nordic Statement of Principles and Priorities in
tified. If anonymity cannot be guaran- Arctic Research. Center for Arctic Cultural
teed, the subjects must be informed of Research, Umea, Sweden, 1989.
the possible consequences of becoming Policy on Research Ethics. Alaska Department of
involved in the research. Fish and Game, Juneau, 1984.
b. In cases where individuals or groups pro- Principles of Professional Responsibility. Council
vide information of a confidential or per- of the American Anthropological Association,
sonal nature, this confidentiality must be Washington, D.C., 1971, rev. 1989.
guaranteed in both the original use of The Ethical Principles for the Conduct of
data and in its deposition for future use. Research in the North. The Canadian Universi-
c. The rights of children must be respected. ties for Northern Studies, Ottawa, 1982.
All research involving children must be The National Arctic Health Science Policy. Amer-
fully justified in terms of goals and ican Public Health Association, Washington,
objectives and never undertaken without D.C., 1984.
the consent of the children and their par- Protocol for Centers for Disease Control/Indian
ents or legal guardians. Health Service Serum Bank. Prepared by Arc-
d. Participation of subjects, including the tic Investigations Program (CDC) and Alaska
use of photography in research, should Area Native Health Service, 1990. (Available
always be based on informed consent. through Alaska Area Native Health Service,
e. The use and disposition of human tissue 255 Gambell Street, Anchorage, AK 99501.)
samples should always be based on the Indian Health Manual. Indian Health Service,
informed consent of the subjects or next U.S. Public Health Service, Rockville, Mary-
of kin. land, 1987.
11. The researcher is accountable for all project Human Experimentation. Code of Ethics of the
decisions that affect the community, includ- World Medical Association (Declaration of
ing decisions made by subordinates. Helsinki). Published in British Medical Jour-
12. All relevant Federal, State, and local regula- nal, 2:177, 1964.
tions and policies pertaining to cultural, Protection of Human Subjects. Code of Federal
environmental, and health protection must Regulations 45 CFR 46, 1974, rev. 1983.
be strictly observed.

83
Appendix G: Acknowledgments

The following acknowledges the principal indi- vine, U.S. Geological Survey; John Calder and
viduals responsible for this revision of the U. S. Tom Murray, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Arctic Research Plan. Administration; Merrill Heit, Department of
The principal Federal agency contributors to Energy; Waleed Abdalati, National Aeronautics
this revision of the U.S. Arctic Research Plan and Space Administration; Suzanne Marcy, Envi-
were Charles E. Myers, Head, Interagency Arctic ronmental Protection Agency; Jon Berkson and
Staff, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Cdr. George Dupree, U.S. Coast Guard; Philip S.
Foundation; Sarah Brandel and Hale VanKough- Chen, Jr., National Institutes of Health, and Alan
nett, Department of State; CAPT Frank Garcia, Parkinson, Centers for Disease Control and
Jr., Steven King, and David Cate, Department of Prevention, Department of Health and Human
Defense; Richard Cline, U.S. Forest Service; Wil- Services; and John Haugh, Bureau of Land Man-
liam Fitzhugh, Smithsonian Institution; James De- agement, Department of the Interior.

84
Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee Staff
The following individuals are the principal staff representatives for the Interagency Arctic Research
Policy Committee. Additional staff support is provided by the Federal agencies for specific activities
through working groups, as necessary.

Richard Cline James Devine


U.S. Forest Service U.S. Geological Survey
Department of Agriculture Department of Interior
Washington, DC 20090 Reston, Virginia 22092
dcline/wo@fs.fed.us jdevine@usgs.gov
John Calder Waleed Abdalati
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Department of Commerce Washington, DC 20546
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 wabdalat@hq.nasa.gov
john.calder@noaa.gov
Charles E. Myers
Captain Frank W. Garcia, Jr. National Science Foundation
Department of Defense Arlington, Virginia 22230
Washington, DC 20301 cmyers@nsf.gov
frank.garcia@osd.mil
William Fitzhugh
Merrill Heit Smithsonian Institution
Department of Energy Washington, DC 20560
Washington, DC 20545 fitzhugh.william@nmnh.si.edu
merrill.heit@oer.doe.gov
Sarah K. Brandel
Suzanne K.M. Marcy Department of State
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20520
Anchorage, AK 99513 brandelsk@state.gov
marcy.suzanne@epamail.epa.gov
Commander Joseph Bodenstedt
Philip S. Chen, Jr. U.S. Coast Guard
National Institutes of Health Department of Transportation
Department of Health and Human Services Washington, DC 20593
Bethesda, Maryland 20892 jbodenstedt@comdt.uscg.mil
pc17w@nih.gov