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INTRODUCTION A CNC milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials.

Millimg machines can perform a vast number of operations, from simple. Example, slot and keyway cutting, planning, drilling to complex. Example, die sinking and contouring. Mill orientation is the primary classification for milling machines. The two basic configurations are vertical and horizontal. However, there are alternate classifications according to method of control, size, purpose and power source. Various milling machine components are being replaced rapidly with CNC machines. These machine tools are versatile and are capable of milling, drilling, boring and taping with repetitive accuracy. The CNC system is widely abbreviated as Computer Numerical Control System. Most of the present day CNC systems are designed around advanced computers. The use of computer improves reliability and enables the introduction of the stored program concepts and software control. The control system thus became extremely flexible. The present generation of CNC machine tool is designed to meet the requirement of high productivity, flexibility and high reliability to produce components of consistently high quality and accuracy combined with reduction in manufacturing cost.
ACTUATING DEVICES
(SPINDLE MOTOR, SERVOMOTOR AND CONTROLLERS)

CNC CONTROLLER

MACHINE TOOL

FEEDBACK TRANSDUCER
(RESOLVER, ENCODER, LINEAR SCALE OR TACHO ABSTRACT GENERATOR)

Figure.1: General Block Diagram of CNC System

LITERATURE SURVEY

Basic design details for the manufacturing process are well explained by R.S.Khurmi in his book on machine design. He has given the steps for the manufacturing of various parts required in the fixture like the worm, worm wheel, bearings etc in detail in this book. The assumptions were made according to the rules given in the PSG design data book. All the formulas used in our project are taken directly from this book. Detailed description of the history of machine tools and their working is explained by Rolt in his book A Short History of Machine Tools. Design of fixtures from journals. Production Technology describes, theory of metal cutting, tool standards and full details about machine tools.

ABSTRACT The main aim of our project is to achieve high productivity to reduce unit cost. The necessity of the project is to increase the production rate there by increasing the rate of loading and unloading. It is based on the design of a multiple components holding fixtures to increase high productivity there by reducing the unit cost. It is mainly concentrated to improve the actual machining time in CNC as well as conventional machines.

A fixture is a means through which a part is securely fastened to the machine tool table to accurately locate, support and hold the part during the machining operation. Fixtures are widely used in large batch production to ensure the easy setup and achieving the desired accuracy.

It can be used in a variety of machine tools such as lathe, milling, grinding , etc. through the milling fixtures are most widely used in view of the complex requirements for the milling operations.

Earlier the CNC milling machine consisted of a fixture holding a single component and single manufacturing operation was performed on the same. Now we have designed a fixture in such a way that it can hold multiple components of same dimension also various machining operations is performed on that loaded multiple components.

At earlier process, the production rate was very low but the machining time was high. But after our design, we have considerably increased the production rate with very less machining time.

ABSTRACT This project deals with the design and analysis of implementing a Centralized Lubrication System on a 5 m3 Capacity Excavator based on manufacturers complaint received from HEC, Ranchi. This system is being developed in order to prevent excessive wear and tear of mechanical parts and to ensure high workability. This Centralized Lubrication System includes the application of a Dual Pipeline System which contains separate headers for supply and return. This is then transferable to the upper and lower parts of the excavator through a hydraulic circuit. The lubricant flow circuitry is designed in accordance with design parameters of the working parts of an excavator. The quantity of flow will be regulated by metering units situated on the various lubrication points. Analysis will include the selection of lubricant for various parts and comparison with various other systems. The Centralized system ensures measured and automatic flow of lubricant to various parts, thus ensuring proper lubrication. This system can be controlled easily and can be used in various environments with high efficiency.
ix TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT viii LIST OF TABLES xii LIST OF FIGURES xiii LIST OF SYMBOLS xiv

ABSTRACT
Spray characteristics of diesel fuel injection is one of the most important factors in diesel combustion and pollutant emissions especially in HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines where the interval between the onset of combustion and the evaporation of atomized fuel is relatively short. In the injector the Nozzle (VCO) is the main component which performs the atomization operation, in order to achieve fine atomization the overall dimensions of the Nozzle should be perfect. In the existing production process, the components (VCO Nozzle) gets rejected due to deviation from standard dimensions. In our project we are aimed at devising a corrected procedure for achieving the standards.

ABSTRACT In concern with production of elevator, the major parts to be produced are car body assembly, door assembly, winding gear unit motor and Over Speed Governor (OSG) assembly. In this assembly, Over Speed Governor is used for safety purpose and we found it new for us to work. In Over Speed Governor assembly there is less machine work, and manual operation is more. So that the operation takes more time, drastically less output is delivered. We found the major drawback is the workspace and the process flow. So, we analyzed the current process flow where the improvement is needed and how the manual operation can be reduced, at the same time the operation should be in less time. So, we suggested a new workspace and new process flow by which the production time can be reduced. The process flow includes punching machine, riveting machine, drilling machine, many fixtures and good working environment. Thus the new process flow makes the worker to work with less physical work and less stress by which ultimately the cycle time decreased from 25.725min to 19.9 min production gets increased. The new process flow is more concerned with the safety of the worker.

ABSTRACT
The Quick Release Valve (QRV) is one of the major components in Air brakes. It is used for rapid exhaustion of the air used to apply the brake. The failure of the Quick Release Valve would lead to insufficient supply of air to the brake chambers, resulting in the failure of air brake system. The project deals with negating the Joint leak occurring between the valve body and exhaust cover of the QRV, during its assembly. Pareto analysis and cause and effect diagrams were adapted for analysis and the root cause was identified as sealing rings nonconformance to specification. The sealing ring manufactured by cryogenic sandblasting, contained faults of mismatch, pin holes and cut mark. The immediate action of segregating the proper and faulty sealing rings was done. Then various solutions were developed, among which reduction in groove depth of the valve body by 0.1 mm was chosen as the suitable solution. Strain tests, flow analysis and stress analysis of the Quick Release Valve assembly model were done through Solid works 2011. It is observed that flow velocity and stress values are within the specified standards. The modified Valve body with reduced Groove depth from 3 mm to 2.9 mm is implemented in the QRV assembly line and the joint leak data showed a decrease in rejections by about 90%.

ABSTRACT This project aims to increase the tool life in finish grooving operation for piston production. Piston grooves are used for inserting piston rings; the grooves are measured with accuracy such as width, surface finish and waviness. Finish grooving is one of the operations of piston production in which Poly Crystal Diamond and Cubic Boron Nitride tools are used. The observation is that the tool life is reduced. The tool life varies according to the cutting parameters and coolant concentration. The cutting parameters and coolant concentration are changed by which tool life is increased and also tool cost is reduced.

ABSTRACT In the indirect fuel injection process, it is necessary that the shape, penetration force, and atomization of the fuel spray injected by the nozzle should be perfect. Bosch Design Nozzle (BDN) is the best suited for the indirect fuel injection. In the prevailing production process of the BDN nozzle, many of the nozzles get rejected due to formation of burr which leads dribbling action. In this project an attempt was made to modify the process sequence, to minimize the dribbling action in the nozzle. The change in the shape of delrin during the electrochemical machining process to reduces the amount of burr. So there is no dribbling action in the nozzle. It was observed that the burr was reduces in maximum amount of 48% in the modified process. Thus the effective spray will be achieved in the nozzle.

ABSTRACT
The project Design Of Rotary Punch In Upright Line is focused on roll forming. In which the rotary punch is designed for pre-punching in the upright line .The project is done in GODREJ and BOYCE storage solutions (Ambattur) plant. Aim of the project is to implement rotary punch instead of mechanical press to minimize the errors occurred in upright .The main disadvantage of mechanical press is the engaging of pilot pin. This proposed design of rotary punch has an advantage over the existing punching method . By implementing the proposed design of this rotary punch can reduce the error occurred in assembling ,shear, noise , also damages can be avoided in the punching and so the time taken for the punching can be reduced and even the productivity cost will also be decreased. This process is highly efficient in time and space as well as good accuracy in design.

ABSTRACT
The Cam shaft, Crank shaft and Axle shafts are some of the products produced by forging process. The products which are produced by forging process are heated to the temperature of 1180- 1240C followed by pressing with the help of heavy blow hammers. For heating the billets to the required temperature, oil fired furnaces are used. The consumption of oil in the furnaces are more than the desired level, which is needed to be reduced to a considerable amount. For reducing the over consumption of oil, a high emissive coating material is introduced on the inside walls of the furnace. The coating of high emissive material will prevent the heat liberating out of the furnace. This prevention of heat loss by high emissive coating material will reduce the oil consumption in the furnace. By reducing the oil consumption the cost spent for the fuel will be highly reduced.

MODERN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


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ABSTRACT:
Modern construction technique of roads such as plastic roads and bitumen roads and also road raw mat. Benefits on construction of modern technique of roads. Modern bridge construction. long span bridges. Cable-stayed Bridges. Short and medium span bridges..Modern method of construction of bridges. Modeling of the information of building. Connecting The Dots In Bridge Construction. Various difficulties while constructin bridges and roads. Some old method review. Advantages of arch and suspension bridges.

Design and Development of Composite cutting-off wheel


,

S. Muthu Kumara ,H.Mohit ,Dr. G. Hemath Kumarc


muthukumar738@gmail.com

a b

, Asst. Professor, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai

Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Avadi, Chennai c Principal, Vel Tech Hi Tech., Avadi, Chennai

Abstract-The

abrasive cut-off wheel prematurely fails during the routine sectioning of work piece, which may sometimes cause injury to the operator. One of the major reasons of this type of failure is the improper mixing of the abrasive mixture. Another factor is Cutting Zone Temperature becomes high during the cutting operation, which may cause thermal damage to the work piece and deboning of abrasive from the wheel. Through- wheel coolant technique is a better way of supplying the cutting fluid to the cutting zone. Among the reported benefits derived from the use of through-wheel coolant application are reduction of work piece burn out, reduction of work piece distortion and cracking tendency, and increase in the wheel life. An incidental advantage of through wheel cooling system is cleaning action of the fluid. It is very difficult to supply the cutting fluid to the cutting zone in order to reduce the temperature. Performance of the fabricated wheel and the mechanical strength of the wheel material were tested. Keywords: Abrasive cut-off wheel, Thermal damage, cutting ratio, Cutting Zone Temperature

Performance Analysis of Exhaust Gas Potential of an Internal ,Combustion Engine S Ravi shankar M.Edwin , D.Vijayakumar
1 2 3 1`

Student,2A.P, 2AUT,Thiruneveli,3A.P,Vel Tech Multi Tech, Chennai

AbstractPerformance test has been carried out on an single cylinder IC engine and the amount of heat recoverable from the exhaust gas when the engine operates under various loading conditions. Such heat is enough to feed an absorption cooling system of an automobile air conditioning system. Data for the design of an heat recovery system are reported and discussed Key words: Internal combustion engines, engine exhaust system, automotive air conditioning, absorption system

Converting Technology from Die Casting to Thermoforming


a

D. Vijaya Kumar a H.Mohit b, Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engg. College, a Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr. Sakunthala Engg. College, Avadi, Chennai-62 Avadi, Chennai-62 vijiaji@gmail.com

Abstract- Vacuum forming process is a low cost manufacturing process for making three dimensional products from a two dimensional sheet of thermo plastics or even composite materials. Products with features like deep under cuts and holes at thin sections are considered most difficult to be made by vacuum forming process. The present work attempts to develop a method to produce holes during vacuum forming process. The Poly carbide sheet has been used for the experimentation. The different process variables have been studied. The vacuum forming of Polycarbide sheets was done and the process parameters having significant influence in holes formation such as draw ratio, sheet thickness, X/D ratio, mould material, type and shape of cavities were investigated. Holes formation was studied on the basis of puncture resistance of the material. The holes were formed using three methods: drilling on mould, drilling on sheet and punch & die methods (using plug assist) to make holes by forming process. It was found that holes formation is possible in a simple vacuum forming set up. Keywords- Puncture resistance, Draw ratio, and Plug assist

ABSTRACT This paper is all about indigenous cryogenic engine from the field cryogenics and the future scope of cryogenics. Cryogenic engines are 200%-300% efficient than ordinary engines. In the first part of this paper I have explained about what cryogenics means, continued by some other application, latter details about cryogenic engine and parts of it and different cooling apparatus used in it continued by scope and ends with Indias cryogenic engine I am still searching for the failure of Indias cryogenic engine

ABSTRACT Hydraulic press brakes normally have three operations such as


advance, pressing and return. The Pressing velocity of piston is 5 mm/s. In this press brake these three operations takes place at same velocity. Hence if we increase the velocity of advance and return in a suitable way, we can save the cycle time. In order to attain this, a pre fill valve can be introduced to speed up the advance and return operation. A design modification is need for improving the performance in hydraulic cylinder. So we designed a cylinder and its accessories. We made a 3D model based on design calculations using solidworks software. We discuss the environmental behavior of the components by analyzing the modeled components such as cylinder head, packing box and ram clamp using floxpress and simulationxpress. And we compare the results with the standards.

ABSTRACT
A centrifugal pump basically consist of an impeller , casing , shaft , and high pressure fluid in between the impeller and the casing . Due to the high pressure fluid , Radial and Axial hydraulic thrusts are experienced mainly by the impeller of the centrifugal pump . These hydraulic forces also acts over various static and dynamic parts of the centrifugal pump , the result of which is decrease in durability of the same . The specificity of axial thrust amongst the hydraulic forces is unknown unlike radial thrust .Three theories with three different approaches were previously proposed on calculating the axial thrust in the impeller of centrifugal pumps . Hence we are calculating the possible axial thrust values for centrifugal pumps based on the theories proposed , which will be of great use for the experimental phase of the project .

ABSTRACT Air-operated systems are always cleaner than hydraulic systems because atmospheric air is the force transmitter. Leaks in an air circuit do not cause any housekeeping problems. In this project, compressed air is used as a working fluid to attain a specified work. The main purpose of doing this project is to reduce the electricity power and hydraulic oil consumed by the hydraulic press which is used to remove the quenched synchro ring from the bung after taken out from the quenching chamber which is heated earlier in Rotary Hearth furnace for hardening process. This synchro ring is used as a part of synchromesh gearbox assembly. The hydraulic press can work up to the maximum force of 400KN. It is run by 10 H.P motor with the motor capacity of 7.5 KW and the usage of hydraulic oil of grade servo 68. This hydraulic press removes the bung from the synchro ring by pressing operation . According to our suggestion, this much huge setup is not needed for the removal of synchro ring from the bung. So, a pneumatic press, working with double acting pneumatic cylinder arrangement is enough to give expected work force which is more than enough for the removal process.

ABSTRACT The aim of the project is to improve surface finish and to give Uniformity through out the process in CNC turning centre Stallion 100S with the help of quality control and calibration using IT7 standards. The work piece, which is centered between the headstock and tailstock is clamped with a carrier attached to a mandrel. It rotates when the operation begins as the chuck starts to rotate. So the work piece continuously rotates to give uniform surface finish. The growth of CNC systems was characterized by the forward and backward integration of technology and product diversification. Thus the company that started with manufacturing and selling lathes expanded its machine tools product range to evolve as the ultimate solution in metal cutting Here IT7 standards are used. The specification of IT7 are high precision with limited tolerance of surface finish.

ABSTRACT Water jet cutting machine is an advanced technology that has been adopted in India for the past few years. This machine uses pure water under high pressure and velocity that could even cut the hardest materials with higher accuracy and surface finish. One of the main components in water jet cutting machine is intensifier which act as a pressure amplifier. The primary objective of our project is to design and develop an intensifier of 6000 bar assembly used for water jet cutting machine. For effective cutting of different materials, (metals, ceramics, non-metals etc.) water jet velocity of mach 2 or 3 can be used by varying the diameter of the orifice at outlet. A hydraulic power pack is associated with the intensifier which produces pressurized hydraulic oil of about 207 bar is feed into the hydraulic cylinder of the intensifier and by virtue of the intensification principle water gets pressurizes in the inverse ratio of the area of piston and plunger. We have Design and drawn the basic dimensions of the intensifier using AUTOCAD software by analyzing it and finding factor of safety as 4. Based upon this we have selected material for HP cylinder as 15-5 PH SS ASTM A900. In addition to this, it also deals with the power loss between the actual power pack used and total power produced mechanically. This paper provides more information that can be interpreted in various chars.