You are on page 1of 50

UNIT 4 Cargo handling units Introduction Used to secure cargo while handling by the ships gear.

It also moves cargo to and from its stowage position in the ship. Important to select and use the proper cargo handling gears for safe and efficient cargo operations

Ship cargo gear

Common cargo gear

General purpose gear is used with many types of cargo. Endless slings - are length of fiber rope or wire with the ends spliced together. These slings are commonly used in different ways to lift load due to its simplicity in handling. The endless sling is most commonly used as a choker hitch (cow hitch). W When the endless sling is used as a choker, pass it around the load or cargo forming a loop on top of the load, the other end is passed through this loop, pulled tight and attached to the cargo hook. To balance the load, spread apart the two parts of the sling on the bottom of the load.`

Single sling Single slings - made of fiber or wire rope. Each end have an eye, a hood, a ring, thimble depending on the intended use of the sling. May be used as a vertical sling, basket slings, choker sling with a choker hitch. Single slings made of fiber rope are used for light loads and for cargo that might be damaged by wire slings. Slings made of wire rope have a variety of uses. Wire rope slings may be used to hoist loads of lumber dunnage iron pipe, building steel, strong boxes and large cases. Use the sling by wrapping it around the load, attaching one eye to the sliding hook, and putting the other eye on the cargo hook. Combination slings - combine two or four slings to form a bridle, basket or choker sling. Combination slings can lift virtually any type of load. When several slings are passed under large crates or boxes to form a basket sling, cargo handlers should use spreader - bars to prevent crushing

Combination sling

Chain sling

Chain slings - are used mainly for handling steel rails, pipes, beams and angles. used in bridles or single legs. Dunnage to be used between the chain and the draft to prevent slipping. If necessary between individual pieces in the draft. Should make a round turn with the chain around the draft. Also can use chain choker slings. Warning signs of breakage as stretching links, fracturing and stretching hooks. Canvas slings - a rope sling with a section of canvas sewn between the ropes. The main type of canvas sling in use is the dirt sling. General used for handling nitrate

Heavy duty canvas sling Special purpose gears

Cargo nets

Cargo nets made of manila rope, but nets of wire rope are used for special cargoes. the standard cargo net is 14*14 feet with 7-7/8" square mesh. The mesh is of 2.5" manila rope. used for handling loose packages of different sizes. The package should be able to withstand pressure. When making a draft in a cargo net, should stack the cargo so that the crushing effect of the net is kept to a minimum. Pie pallets - the crushing effect of a cargo net may be reduced by using a round "pie pellets. Made of 2 dunnage layers and placed in the center of the net and tack the cargo so that all the weight is on the pie plate. If no pie pallet we can use cargo boards to reduce crushing pressure.

Stevedore Pallet Pallets - 4 basic types of pallets used in cargo handling are the stevedore, general purpose, sled and ware house pallets Stevedore pallet - used to handle loose cargo. 4x6 ' wide and 8" high. The stringers are made of lumber 2" thick. The deck boards are made of lumber 2" thick. The outside boards may be random widths. The outside stringers are set in 4x6". The arrangement of stringers are arranged to permit easy entrance of forks for movement of forklift trucks.
4

A general purpose pallet is a 4 way entry wood pallet 48" long and approx 5.5" high. Used mainly for palletized cargo. Sled pallet - is a heavy timbered platform with runners. The cargo is normally banded to the pallet

Sled Pallet

Ware House Pallet

Warehouse pallet is used to handle cargo in ware houses. Much lighter than the stevedore pallet. Common size is 48"x48". the ware house pallet can be open end type moved by forklift or hoisted by a pallet bridle or closed end type that is moved by forklift only. Bridle are lifting devices designed to hoist special types of cargo. they may be used in conjunction with spreaders.

Pallet bridles are used for quick, efficient handling of palletised cargo. Cargo handlers should insert the lifting bars at the bottom of the nets into the end of the pallets to use the bridle. sling nets are spread around the cargo and slip the eyes over the cargo hook. the bars at the top serve as spreaders.
5

Beam bridles are used to remove hatch beams. Hooks on opposite sides of the beam are placed in the lightening holes or rings as provided. The beam will then ride level and straight up and down. tag lines are attached to steady the beams.

Vehicle bridles are used for efficient handling of various types of vehicles. vehicle spreaders used wheel nets for light vehicles. Heavy duty bridles are used to reduce side pressure on heavy lifts. Use a combination of wire rope, shackles, hooks, rings or chain. SWL to be complied. Plate handling clamps are designed exclusively for handling steel plated. Used to lift the plates into position to be properly slung with wire rope slings. they are safe for use only when the steel plate is not lifted to a great height. they are not used to hoist steel plates into or out of a hold. if the plates touch any where then the tension will be released and the clamps will drop the plates. Most common clamps have serrated jaws Single lever grip clamp to lift in horizontal position.it has a tapered jaw opening, toothed clamping arm, and an oval ring. it picks up the plate resting in a horizontal plane and keeps it horizontal while being lifted. The double toothed cam grip clamp is chain operated with a sling link for lifting steel plates in a vertical position. it can only lift one plate at a time. it lifts from a horizontal plane to vertical position. Attaching a load. - the most common way is to put a sling around the load and hang the sling on the hook. sling made of line, wire, wire rope with an eye in each end or an endless sling. when a sling is passed through its own bight or eye or shackled or hooked to its own standing part so that it tightens around the load like a lasso
6

when the load is lifted, the sling is said to be choked. a 2 legged sling that support the load at 2 points is called a bridle Safe working practice -Person in charge of hooking must know the SWL of the rig and weight of every load -Should not exceed the SWL of the rig -Cylindrical objects should be given a round turn around the load before it is hooked or shackled to its own part or have a spreader bar placed between the legs to prevent the legs will not slide together along the load, which can result in cargo falling down. -the point of strain on a hook must never be at or near the point of the hook while lifting ensure that the load is well balanced evenly in the sling. -The lead of the whip or falls is vertical else load will swing as it leaves the deck or ground. -Watch carefully for kinked or fouled falls or slings. if any stop the operation and the same rectified -Tag lines must be used to guide and steady a load else the load may swing out of control -inspect load carefully before lifting for any loose parts or objects that might drop as the load goes up -All personnel well clear of the load while lifting -Never walk under a suspended load -Loads on the shore should be put only in authorised places (not obstructing vehicle movement) -Materials placed in work or storage areas proper dunnage or shoring must be provided to prevent tipping of the load or shifting of the materials when slings are being heaved out from under a load all personnel to stand clear to avoid a backlash and also to avoid a toppling or a tip of the load which might be caused by fouling of a sling. Cargo securing arrangements Lashing - rope, wire, webbing, banding, strapping or chain tightened with bottle screws or other patent tensioning devices. Generally referred to all securing arrangements

Tomming - constructing a framework of square section soft wood, to chock off the cargo against ships structure or other cargo. Filling - use of air bags, empty pallets, old tyres etc to fill the voids between cargo and the ship or container Anti skid - flat boards used to increase friction Structural alterations - very heavy and or awkwardly shaped cargo may be secured by welding the unit directly to the ships structure. or by fabricating a steel frame work or other support or chock with is permanently attached to the ships structure. LASHING AS A MEANS OF SECURING Lashing materials selected based on their availability/ SWL and type of cargo 16mm wire rope mostly used for heavy cargo 18mm chain mostly used for lumber and extremely heavy objects. Wire rope may also be used for this type of cargo. Steel or wrought iron bars are good for securing boxed or rectangular cargo Steel strapping is also used for lashing Turnbuckles or other tightening devices are used with all types of lashing to permit tightening en route Storage Store lashing materials in the port dunnage yard along with dunnage. Inventory control procedures are set up for these materials so they are always on hand when a vessel is ready for loading Basic lashing procedures for General Cargo. Various cargoes have different methods used to lash cargo. - lash one or more lashings over the top of the item. this method is the least desirable because it is most ineffective as the cargo simply slides back and forth under the lashing
8

- pass two or more lashings completely around the item. it prevents the cargo from moving without exerting strain on the lashing. - combine one of the above methods with dunnage or saddles at each corner. this prevents lashings from cutting into the cargo. - do not use lashing unless the following facts are taken into consideration * All lashing materials are of equal strength. tensioning are dependent on the weakest part. * lashing may cut into the cargo and hence need to use dunnage * lashing exerts compression on the cargo it secures, extra bracing is necessary to prevent crushing * winding a continuous length of wire rope around an item several times is a poor method because a break at any point will make the entire lashing useless. use 2 or more lashings. For all types of lashing - wooden capping, angle iron or similar materials should be used to prevent wire ropes or chains from cutting through the edge of a case. CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE FOR DRY CARGO SHIP All cargoes should be stowed and secured in a manner that will avoid exposing the ship and persons on board to unnecessary risk. The safe stowage and securing of cargo depends upon proper planning, execution and supervision by properly qualified and experienced personnel. The planned procedures for the handling of cargo should be agreed with berth or terminal operators in advance of loading or unloading. In the case of dry bulk cargo (excluding grain), procedures should follow the IMO Code of Practice for the Safe Loading and Unloading of Bulk Carriers, with the associated IMO Ship/Shore Safety Check List. For grain there is more detailed guidance in the International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain in Bulk Loading, stowage and securing of cargo other than bulk cargo is to be carried out in accordance with the ship's approved Cargo Securing Manual. Handling and safety instructions for securing devices are contained in sections 3.1 and/or 4.1 of the manual.

Further guidance is contained in the IMO Code of Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing. Cargo securing should be completed before the ship proceeds to sea. All cargo should be stowed having due regard to the order of discharge. When planning the position of cargo and the order of loading and unloading, the effects that these operations will have upon access and the safety of personnel should be considered. The following points should be taken into account: cargo information, including gross mass of the cargo or cargo units and any special properties detailed on board or in the shipping documents, should be recorded and used in planning; wherever practicable, where more than one port is involved for loading or unloading, cargo should be loaded in layers rather than in tiers, so as to avoid the development of high vertical walls of cargo; Care should be taken not to overstow lighter cargoes with heavier cargoes which may lead to a collapse of the stow; wherever practicable, cargo should be stowed so as to leave safe clearance behind the rungs of hold ladders and to allow safe access as may be necessary at sea: The need to walk across or climb onto deck cargo, where this may involve an approach to an unprotected edge with risk of falling, should be minimized. Care should be taken to avoid large gaps next to cargo where it is stacked against corrugated bulkheads. Deck cargo should be stowed in accordance with the statutory regulations, and kept clear of hatch coamings to allow safe access. Access to safety equipment, fire fighting equipment (particularly fire hydrants) and sounding pipes should also be kept free. Any obstructions in the access way such as lashings or securing points should be painted white to make them more easily visible.
10

Where this is impracticable and cargo is stowed against ship's rails or hatch coamings to such a height that the rails or coamings do not give effective protection to personnel from falling overboard or into the open hold, temporary fencing should be provided Suitable safety nets or temporary fencing should be rigged where personnel have to walk or climb across built-up cargo, and are therefore at risk of falling. When deck cargo is stowed against and above ship's rails or bulwarks, a wire rope pendant or a chain, extending from the ring bolts or other anchorage on the decks to the full height of the deck cargo, should be provided and used to save personnel having to go overside to attach derrick guys and preventers directly to the anchorages on the deck. Where beams and hatch covers have to be removed at intermediate ports before surrounding deck cargo is unloaded, an access space at least one metre wide should be left adjacent to any part of the hatch or hatchway that is to be opened. If on deck this is impracticable, fencing or lifelines should be used to enable seamen to remove and replace beams and hatch coverings in safety In the tween decks, guidelines should be painted around tween deck hatchways at a distance of one meter from the coamings.

Dangerous goods and substances


Merchant Shipping Regulations lay down requirements for carriage of dangerous substances and the provisions of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code together with those contained in relevant merchant shipping notices should be observed. The IMDG Code contains details of classification, documentation, packaging etc and advice on such (Dangerous Goods and Marine Pollutants) application as will meet the requirements of the regulations. In particular it lists and gives details of many dangerous substances. The general introduction and the introductions to individual classes of the IMDG Code contain many provisions to ensure the safe handling and carriage of dangerous goods including requirements for electrical equipment and wiring, fire fighting equipment, ventilation, smoking, repair work, provision and availability
11

of special equipment etc, some of which are general for all classes and others particular to certain classes only. It is important that reference should be made to this information before handling dangerous goods. Some of the requirements are highlighted in subsequent paragraphs. Where any doubts exist, advice should be sought from the Maritime and Coastguard Agency or other competent authority. Dangerous substances should be loaded or unloaded only under the supervision of a competent responsible officer. Suitable precautions, such as the provision of special lifting gear as appropriate, should be taken to prevent damage to receptacles containing dangerous substances. Dangerous substances should not be loaded other than in accordance with the regulations - i.e. in accordance with the IMDG Code, and if applicable the ship's document of compliance for the carriage of dangerous goods. In the case of certain solid dangerous substances shipped in bulk, loading should be carried out in accordance with Appendix B of the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). In addition, the Emergency Procedures for Ships Carrying Dangerous Goods, published by the IMO, should be consulted to ensure that appropriate emergency equipment is carried. In compartments containing cargo which has an explosion or fire risk (e.g. explosives or flammable liquids), all electrical circuits and equipment (including any portable equipment) should meet the recommendations of the IMDG Code. Smoking and naked flames should be prohibited while cargo handling is in progress, except in authorized places, which should be clearly marked. Emergency response procedures should be established. The application of such measures is under the control of the master of the ship and will depend on the circumstances of the incident and location of the ship.
12

The equipment necessary for the execution of the emergency response should be immediately available and the crew trained and practiced in its use. These procedures should include: Cases of accidental exposure The possibility of fire. Personnel, who are required to handle consignments containing dangerous substances, should be able to identify dangerous goods from the labeling and placarding and should promptly report any leakage, spillage or any other incident which occurs involving exposure to dangerous substances. Those required to handle dangerous substances, should be provided with and wear personal protective equipment (including breathing apparatus, where necessary) appropriate to the hazard involved. In the event of accidental exposure to dangerous substances, reference should be made to the Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods Appropriate measures should be taken promptly to render harmless any spillage of dangerous substances. Particular care should be taken when dangerous substances are carried in refrigerated spaces where any spillage may be absorbed by the insulating material. Insulation affected in this way should be inspected and renewed if necessary. Where there is leakage or escape of dangerous gases or vapours from the cargo, personnel should leave the danger area and the area should be treated as an enclosed or confined space. Personnel required to deal with spillages or to remove defective packages should be provided with and wear suitable breathing apparatus and protective clothing as the circumstances dictate. Suitable rescue and resuscitation equipment should be readily available in case of an emergency. Assessment and control of risks from substances hazardous to health is should be made.

13

Guidance on the handling and stowage of dangerous goods is contained in the Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas published by IMO. Code of Safe Working during cargo operation Safety arrangements prior to working cargo should ensure that adequate and suitable lifting plant is available, in accordance with the register of lifting appliances and cargo gear, and that all plant and equipment. and any special gear necessary is available and used. Cargo gear should be checked regularly throughout the cargo operation for damage or malfunction. Repair or maintenance work, such as chipping, spray painting, shot-blasting or welding, should not be undertaken in a space where cargo operations are in progress, if such work could create a hazard to personnel working in the space. Loads being lowered or hoisted should not pass or remain over any person engaged in any work in the cargo space area, or over means of access. Personnel should take care when using access ladders in hatch squares whilst cargo operations are in progress. Cargo information for goods should always provide the gross mass of the cargo or of the cargo units. Where loads of significant gross mass are not marked with their weight, the loads should be check-weighed unless accurate information is available as provided by the shipper or packer of the goods. A signaler should always be employed at a hatchway when cargo is being worked unless the crane driver or winchman has a complete unrestricted view of the load or total working area. The signaler should be in a position where he has a total view of the operation, where this is not possible then additional signaler should be used to assist. Before giving a signal to hoist, the signaler should receive clearance from the person making up the load that it is secure, and should ascertain that no one else would be endangered by the hoist.
14

Before giving the signal to lower, he should warn personnel in the way and ensure all are clear.

Loads should be raised and lowered smoothly, avoiding sudden jerks or 'snatching'. When a load does not ride properly after being hoisted, the signaler should immediately give warning of danger and the load should be lowered and adjusted as necessary. Hooks, slings and other gear should not be loaded beyond their safe working loads. Strops and slings should be of sufficient size and length to enable them to be used safely and be so applied and pulled sufficiently tight to prevent the load or any part of the load from slipping and falling. Loads (sets) should be properly put together and properly slung before they are hoisted or lowered.

15

SHIPS CARGO HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Single derrick are welded structure consisting of sections of tubular steel pipes. A single or double flange is welded at the heel of the derrick for the attachment to gooseneck arrangement by a bolt passing through both gooseneck and flange of the derrick. This bolt is secured with washer and split pin.

At the head of the derrick a spider band is fitted to permit the attachments of topping lift guys, side guys and lifting purchases. This band should be a forged one piece and the lugs are not welded. The derrick boom is attached at the heel by a pivot arrangement known as gooseneck which allows the derrick to be plumbed by means of topping lift.
16

This lift may be a single span or purchase. This span led through a mast head block to the winch which also accommodates either bull rope or chain preventer. Two slewing guys are attached on either side of the spider band to allow the derrick to slew side ways from port to starboard or vice versa. it comes in two parts namely rope tackle and a wire pendent attached to it at the derrick head. A cargo purchase or a whip is attached at the head of the derrick by block and the running part reeved through a heel block at the heel of the derrick and secured to the appropriate winch. Many derricks are fitted with Dolly winch for the purpose of topping and lowering purpose. This winch is fitted with safety bar so as to leave the main winch only for the runner operation. There are other types of dolly winch which will be operated only by the main winch. in such case cargo operation and topping and lowering of the derrick can not be carried ut simultaneously. When the derrick is rigged to single swinging mode the topping lift is secure to the required height and can not be changed. hence the cargo will be loaded or discharged from only one area. each time during the cargo work the cargo operation is to be stopped to facilitate the loading or discharge operation from other part of the cargo hold. UNION PURCHASE SYSTEM

17

The runner wires of both derricks are coupled or married through swivels to a union hook and worked in conjunction with each other. the preventer side guys are rigged so as not to obstruct the movement of cargo between the hatch and quay. Some time the inner side guys are replaced by schooner guy who always remains clear of the cargo working area. PRECAUTIONS WHEN WORKING ON UNION PURCHASE SYSTEM - the SWL of a union purchase rig must be calculated in accordance with classification society or dock labour regulations. in the absence of the same COSWP for merchant seamen to be complied with. SWL not exceed 1/3 SWL of the weakest derrick. - the operating angle of the derrick should preferably be not less than 30 deg to the horizontal and in no case should it be less than 15 deg - the maximum included angle between the cargo wire should not exceed 120 deg so that forces in the rig are kept to a minimum. To ensure this unduly long slings must not be used and winch man must not lift the load above guard rails and hatch coamings beyond minimum required for safety. - runners should not be allowed to rub against the hatch coamings and guard rails or bulwarks as this will result in their damage. - the slewing guy should be set up in conjunction with the preventer guy but allowing the preventer guy to take the weight. - the preventer guy and the slewing guy should be secured independently at the derrick head and to individual deck or superstructure attachments of sufficient strength and suitable placement.
18

- narrow angles between derricks and the outboard guys and between outboard guys and the vertical should be avoided as this materially increases the loading on the guys. - the angle between the outboard derrick and its outboard guy and preventer should not be too large as this may cause the outboard derrick to jack knife. - in general the inboard derrick guy and preventer should be secured as nearly as possible at an angle of 90 deg to the derrick - winch man should be experienced and should co-ordinate well. HALLEN DERRICK The Hallen-swinging derrick employs the twin topping principle which allows good control of a single derrick. This derrick was originally designed for loads of 5-8 tons but some Hallen derricks are around 100 MT. They can be mounted on all types of mast or derrick post and can make a traverse from port to stbd of 160-180 degrees.

Fixed frame outrigger was fitted to the mast, commonly known as D frame. This kept the topping lifts at a sufficiently wide angle to one another to ensure the derrick remaining steady even when swung out over the ships side to an angle of 80 deg from the fore and aft line. it also keep the derrick stable in all position even when the vessel had a list. Disadvantages - when the derrick was swung outboard the sharp angle created by the contact of the topping lift guy pennant with the frame caused excessive strain in the topping lift - there was a tendency for the single wire pennant on the topping lift to slip above or below the frame when working at different angles, once again putting excessive strain on the topping lift - the contact with the frame caused chafing. This was reduced by fitting rollers to the frame or by protective wire.
19

The D frame has been replaced now a days by out rigger rods, which are pivoted and are stayed on the outboard side only so that the rod nearest the discharging side can swing towards the ships side, thus ensuring a wide separation angle of the topping lifts. Advantages of Hallen Derrick - simplicity in components - single man operation controlling luffing, slewing and hoisting - used with 15 deg list and lift full capacity with 15 deg angle to the horizontal - comparatively clear deck. No guy ropes or preventers - upto 200 MT capacity derrick operates with speed appropriate to the light loads. only cargo hoist rigging required to be changed depending up on the load requirements. VELLE DERRICK Uses 3 winches, standard type winch but the topping lifts are arranged so that one of the other 2 winches controls the luffing while the third winch is used solely for slewing operate the cargo purchase. each of the topping lift winches has a split or divided barrel on to which the ends of falls are secured. On the luffing winch the falls are laid on to the split barrels in the same direction. thus both falls will hoist or lower the derrick simultaneously. on the slewing winch the falls are laid on to the split barrels in opposite directions. thus when the barrels rotate, one fall pays out while the other heaves in and the derricks slews to port or starboard. the topping lift luffing and slewing winches are operated by a multi position control lever which is positioned adjacent to the cargo purchase control lever. the operator stands between the levers and operates the cargo purchase with his left hand and controls the derrick movements with his right hand. Bridle bar was used to spread the topping lift spans at the derrick head. the bridle bar evolved into the T shaped derrick head presently. both arrangements make very wide slewing angles possible due to the good lateral stability achieved by the spread of the spans at the derrick head. the derrick can be swung outboard until it is almost perpendicular to the ships side even with an adverse list. pendulous swinging of the load has been a major problem with derricks in which the load hangs from a single point. good load stabilisation is achieved with the T
20

shaped derrick head as the spread of the cargo runner reduces pendulous swinging and load rotation. The Velle derrick is noted for its comparatively simple design reliability and versatility. the standard designs operate upto a capacity of approximately 35 tons but heavy duty designs are capable of lifting approx 100 MT ADVANTAGES OF VELLE DERRICK - simple components in comparison with crane. same like Hallon derrick - single man operation - arrangement restricts pendulation/ load rotation - comparatively clear decks. no guy ropes or preventers STUELKEN DERRICKS It is fork type, twin V shaped masts which enable the derrick to be swung through the masts and work hatches on the fore and aft of the derrick. Mainly 5 types 1. Rotary type .the cargo tackles is brought forward from fwd to aft and vice versa by rotating the book through 180 deg when in vertical position without any re- rigging. swivel at the top of the boom, below the topping and slewing blocks and above the gin blocks and a pivot at the bottom to rotate the derrick. 2. Pendulum Type - tackle is arranged on one side of the boom and swings from forward to aft position or vice versa when the boom swung on either side. 3. Double pendulum type - In this type the cargo tackle is suspended on both sides of the boom and attached to the cross bar. To swing from forward to aft or vice versa, the lower blocks on the cargo tackle are disconnected from the cross bar, one is taken around the boom and attached at the opposite ends of the cross bar. The tackles is now ready to be operated on the other side of the derrick. 4. High speed version - a second drum can be attached to the topping or to the gin fall, thus the speed of reeving the tackle or the span is doubled 5. log or container type - for simultaneous operation on both side this type is equipped with 2 cargo booms.
21

ADVANTAGES OF STUELKEN DERRICKS - absence of all guys and preventers for slewing the derrick - no manual tackle work even when swinging the derrick through the post or when changing to smaller loads. - facility of swinging the derrick through the post permits hatches fore and aft of the mast - one man can operate all controls. remote control operation is also possible - derrick required minimal maintenance by equipping it with sealed anti friction bearings - speed of cargo handling can be substantially increased by using suitable powered winches - built to handle extremely heavy lifts up to 500MT PRECAUTIONS WHEN HANDLING HEAVY LIFTS - all parts of the gears to be carefully checked - all blocks and tackles have no defect, ensure sheaves are rotating freely. if necessary replace defective parts - all wire in good condition, if 10% of wires are broken at the 8 times the dia length of the rope then the wire to be replaced. - all parts of the gears should have adequate safe working load - when considering safe working load, allowance should also be made for the weight of the purchase along with weight. - end links, rings, shackles, blocks to ride freely from which ever point they hang - strops, wire slings, eye bolts etc to be examined that they are of adequate strength. - use dunnage or saddles to prevent the sling cutting into cargo while slinging and any sharp edges of the cargo part the sling - avoid shocks due to load slipping or sudden jerks. - winch man should be experienced, co-ordinate well and operate smoothly - ship must have adequate GM because when the load is lifted the G of the cargo raised to derrick head. Hence the G of the ship rises reducing GM substantially. Free surface effect should be minimised. - the vessel should be initially upright with moorings taut and manned as the vessel will acquire a list when the load is swung out board. - gangway must be clear of the jetty - barges that are not in immediate use must be cast off - preventer stays may have to be rigged onto the mast - winched must be put in double gear
22

- steadying lines must be secured if possible to the corners of the load - remove guard rails if possible DECK CRANE Electro hydraulic single deck cranes range generally, over hoisting capacities 3 to 40 MT. Twin cranes are designed to have hoisting capacities of 2x12, 2x20, 2x25 MT, but they can operate either singly or in concert. Heavier hoisting capacities are also available for up to 150 MT or more. Suitable for fast moving general, bulk and container cargoes. Positioning of the deck cranes is a matter of importance. Mid transverse position between double hatch openings greatly assist both speed and radius of operation. where the crane fittings are mobile, flexibility of operation is available. the mobile crane is locked stationery during actual operation.

Benefits height visibility well above the hatch openings. Effective hoisting, slewing and luffing are the 3 essentials of good crane work and are the activities needful of attention. Should not accelerate or retard, sudden and rapid restriction increases the normal stresses provided by a load upon the cargo gear. SINGLE GIRDER GANTRY CRANE
23

Comprises of spaced gantry legs which ride along the deck of the ship on travelling carriages or trucks. A single main girder extends transversely of the ship between the legs to span the cargo hatches and folding outboard cantilevers or jibs are located on opposite side of the main girder to extend the reach of the crane over dock when the ship is in port. the out board cantilevers or jibs are each moveable independently between a downwards extending folded position.

Cranes having single girder. Where the trolley travels on the girder. The operator operates the crane remotely. Overhead cranes have a bridge and a wheeled trolley that travels across the bridge horizontally. Overhead cranes include gantry, semi-gantry, cantilever gantry, storage bridge and wall cranes. SAFETY FEATURES OF THE SHIPBOARD GANTRY CRANE - hoist limit switch - overload limit switch - trolley bumpers - bridge bumpers - deck/crane bumpers
24

- outrigger stops - foot guards - emergency stop switch on deck - controller safety switch - gantry movement audio visual alarm - wind indicators - rail clamps ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CRANES AND DERRICKS - single man operation for luffing, slewing and cargo hoist - adequate SWL during straight lift - ability to bring the derrick over a lifting point - can be slewed to all 360 deg hence a single crane can work fwd and aft hatch - maintenance is less since the winches are inside the mounting - can be fixed or mobile on gantry platform - provision can be provided to prevent pendulation - does not require luffing and slewing winch hence cost saving - can be modified to increase the radius of operation and clearance from jib to load - in Gemini cranes one controller can operate both crane - the operator has good visibility of the area of operation due to the height of operators cabin - can be mounted on the center line or side of the ship - the operator is not exposed to the dangers of breaking wire Disadvantages - complex operation and congested areas required lengthy maintenance - SWL decreases as the jib radius increases - the operator required to climb to reach the cabin ADVANTAGES OF DERRICKS - components are very easy to maintain - rigging can be changed as per the requirements - maintenance is easy as all the equipment are spread over the place
25

Disadvantages - wires and winches are exposed to weather, hence corrosion damages are high - deck is cluttered with ropes, guys and blocks - visibility of the area of operation is less - delay for changing rigging - cannot be slewed 360 deg - always fixed and not mobile - winch man is exposed to the dangers of breaking wires CARGO HANDLING GEAR SAFETY The approval, maintenance and safe use of cargo handling equipments Register requirements - register of all materials handling equipment that form part of the equipment of the ship to be maintained - all shore based handling equipment must maintain a register where it is normally stored - details of all tests, thorough examination, inspection, heat treatment and any maintenance, repair and replacement of materials handling equipment by a responsible or competent person - a register of materials handling equipment may be kept in any form is legible and is authenticated by the responsible person - equipment should be surveyed and inspected by classification society - evidence of prototype tests of fittings maintained - attachment to the rope is > 95% of the breaking load of the rope 50mm dia or 90% of the breaking load of the rope for ropes exceeding 50mm dia CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENTS - test certificate of materials handling equipment manufacture must be in accordance with the appropriate form for that equipment - certificate of test in respect of materials handling equipment manufactured in a country and tested or thoroughly examined by a responsible person is acceptable - all cert of test and other relevant certificates are current in respect of equipment made available with the register of materials handling equipment
26

certified copy of the above is also acceptable if used chain or wire is only a part of the greater manufacture length, a certified copy of the original certificate issued for the manufacturer is acceptable MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS General Materials handling equipment, mechanical ventilation equipment, lighting and other equipment used in loading and unloading, must at all times be: (a) properly maintained; and (b) used only for its intended purpose. Ship machinery Whenever ship machinery is supplying power to materials handling equipment or other equipment being used in or in relation to loading or unloading, the master must ensure that a qualified person experienced in the operation and maintenance of the ship machinery is present on the ship. Safety arrangements If maintenance or repair work is carried out during loading or unloading, the person in charge must ensure that all persons are reasonably protected against accidental injury arising from the maintenance or repair work. For the purpose of above paragraph, the person in charge must assess. The danger in the maintenance or repair work and must take into account the presence or likely presence of noxious gases , fumes, dust, radiation, excessive noise or other nuisance that could obstruct, interfere with or distract a person engaged in the loading or unloading. Repairs A person must not carry out repair work on materials handling equipment unless that person is: (a) competent in the repair of that type of equipment; and (b) equipped to perform that repair.
27

Heat treatment A chain, ring, hook, shackle, swivel, connecting plate or overhauling weight that is subject to stress must not be used in loading or unloading after repair unless it has, if necessary, been subjected under the supervision of a responsible person to a process of heat treatment appropriate to its design and material to restore the mechanical properties of the material or to relieve any stress . Verification Repaired materials handling equipment must be tested or thoroughly examined in accordance with relevant regulations before being put to use, unless the repair is: (a) the normal periodic replacement of an individual component by a component having the same technical specification; or (b) a minor repair to a non load bearing component. Repaired materials handling equipment must not be put to use, until: (a) the equipment is certified safe to use, in accordance with relevant regulations; or (b) in the case of a repair, the repair is recorded in the register of materials handling equipment. Protective fencing Upper decks Loading or unloading must not be carried out unless all upper decks to which persons have access for the purpose of loading or unloading are securely fenced on each outer edge with a bulwark or guardrails to a height of at least one metre above the deck and are so designed, constructed and placed as to prevent a person from accidentally falling overboard. Bulwarks or guardrails for the purpose of above paragraph must be continuous except that sections may be removed for the purpose of a loading or unloading operation to the minimum extent necessary for that purpose. An open hatchway
28

on the uppermost deck must, unless entirely surrounded by coamings to a height of 750 mm, be securely fenced on all sides. except that: (a) an intermediate rail is not required where the hatch coaming is between 400 mm and 750 mm in height; and (b) fencing is not required for the side of a hatchway where suitable fencing is fitted between the hatchway corners and the side of the ship. Except as specified elsewhere in this Part, access to a cargo working area on a ship, including hold accesses, crane or winch operating positions, hatchman's position or any other location required to be occupied by persons engaged in loading or unloading, must afford a minimum passageway width of 550 mm. Initial Inspection The lifting appliances are inspected and tested prior to being put into operation, and their maximum load capacity is confirmed with a Certificate of Suitability of Lifting Appliances and Elevators for Passenger Ship or an Inspection Booklet for Cargo Ship Lifting Appliances, or certificate of suitability of Lifting Appliances (for Non Cargo Handling) and Elevators for Cargo ship.

Periodical 5 yearly and yearly Inspections Ship's lifting appliances, irrespective of their categories are inspected periodically as follows: (I) Loaders, bearings, mast band of king posts and loaders, as well as all permanently fitted appliances and parts which cannot be dismantled, are inspected every 12 months (Annual Inspection) and examined in detail every five years (Five year Inspection) with particular emphasis on non-visible parts taking the total load and which should be examined after dismantling. (2) Cranes, winches, tackle, iron hooks as well as any other part not covered in other paragraph are examined visually and in detail every twelve months (Annual and periodical Inspection). (3) The standards for the examination of elevators are more particularly described in following paragraph.
29

( 4) Further, a periodical inspection to be carried out by the crew every three months and the results to be recorded in the Official Log Book. Where a crane or derrick is tested, the proof load must not be less than the applicable load specified in Table 1, except that where a hydraulic crane is tested and it is not practical for the crane to raise the full test load, a reduced test load may be accepted but in no case is this to be less than the SWL x 1.1. Table 1 SWL of derrick gear or crane (tonnes) Not more than 20 More than 20 but not more than 50 More than 50 Proof Load SWL x 1.25 SWL + 5 tonnes SWL X 1.1

Where derricks in union purchase are tested, the proof load specified in Table 1 must be based on the SWL of the derricks when rigged in union purchase For the purpose of a test of a crane or derrick, the load imposed on any accessory block, topping lift, shackle, preventer, guy or other accessory part must not exceed the SWL of that part by more than the proportion by which the proof load exceeds the SWL of the crane or derrick

Application of proof load The proof load for a test of a crane (including a derrick crane), derricks in union purchase, and the initial test of a derrick, must be applied by hoisting movable weights. The proof load for a test of a derrick or derrick crane, following renewal of a part or repair, must be applied by hoisting movable weights, or by means of a spring or hydraulic balance or similar appliance. The proof load must be applied:

30

(a) with the derrick boom or crane jib at its minimum working angle, measured from the horizontal plane. The minimum working angle (or load radius in the case of a crane or derrick crane) must be stated in the certificate of test; (b) in the case of a variable length jib crane, with the jib at its maximum and minimum, and at a length approximately midway between maximum and minimum. The maximum and minimum operating lengths must be stated in the certificate of test. Structural test with movable weights Where a crane or derrick is tested with movable weights, after the movable weights are hoisted: (a) the crane or derrick must be swung at slow speed to the extremities of its slewing arc; (b) in the case of a jib crane with a travelling capability, the crane must be moved the entire length of its travelling track at slow speed with the jib extended to the maximum working outreach perpendicular to its direction of travel on one side of its travelling track, and again, with the jib similarly extended to the other side; (c) in the case of a bridge or gantry crane with a travelling capability the crane must be moved the entire length of its travelling track with the hoist at one extremity of the traversing span, and again, with the hoist at the other extremity; (d) in the case of a bridge or gantry crane without a travelling capability, the crane must be made to move the weights from one extremity of its traversing span to the other; and (e) in the case of a derrick crane, in addition to (a), the derrick crane is to be luffed at slow speed to its maximum operating angle measured from the horizontal plane, then returned at slow speed to its minimum operating angle . Structural test with spring or hydraulic balance Where a derrick is tested with a spring or hydraulic balance, or similar appliance, the proof load must be applied, for a period of not less than five minutes, at the
31

minimum working angle at each extremity of its working arc and in its midship position. Operational test of crane A crane must undergo an operational test, including testing of its limit switches, by hoisting a load at least equal to the SWL while carrying out all motions occurring in normal operations, such as hoisting, luffing, slewing and travelling, using its full range of speeds. All brakes must be tested in accordance with relevant regulations. Structural test of derrick gear in union purchase For the purpose of testing derrick gear in union purchase, the proof load must be manoeuvred throughout the working range of the gear, rigged over one side of the ship and hoisted to a level that: (a) makes the angle between the runners close to, but not in excess of, 120, or (b) such lesser angle as is specified in the drawing or drawings specified m relevant appendix. and again, with the gear rigged over the opposite side of the ship. Thorough examination Following testing of a crane or derrick, the crane or derrick and all accessory gear must be thoroughly examined for damage or permanent deformity, and overload limit switches reset. Winches Span gear winches If a derrick is fitted with a span gear winch, the winch must be tested while the derrick is supporting the proof load at its lowest working angle by in turn subjecting each sprocket to the resultant load . Topping and main winches Upon completion of the tests with the proof load, each winch must be tested with the SWL suspended from the derrick head, and the derrick placed in various
32

positions such that each winch serving the derrick is subjected to loading whilst having the maximum working length of rope layers upon its drum. Brake test of winches After completion of the proof load tests of a derrick, a load equal to the SWL for that derrick is to be hoisted then, with the derrick slewed outboard to each side of the ship and with the derrick amidships, lowered at the normal lowering speed of the winch for a distance of approximately 3 meters. The winch is then to be braked sharply and the load brought to a halt. It is then to be demonstrated that a load equal to the SWL of the derrick can be held stationary by the winch brake when the winch drive is switched off. Cargo lifts and mechanical ramps Proof load Where a cargo lift or mechanical ramp is tested, the proof load must be not less than the applicable load specified in Table 2. Table 2 SWL of lift or ramp (tonnes) Not more than 20 More than 20 but not more than 50 More than 50- Proof load SWL x 1. 25 SWL + 5 tonnes SWL x 1. 1

Application of proof load For the purpose of testing, a cargo lift or mechanical ramp must be hoisted and lowered through its full range of travel with the proof load consisting of movable weights distributed in accordance with the designed operating requirements. Thorough examination Following testing, a cargo lift or mechanical ramp and its accessory g ear must be thoroughly examined for damage or permanent defects. Blocks, chains, rings, hooks, shackles, swivels, connecting plates
33

Proof load for single sheave block The proof load for a single sheave block is four times the block 's SWL. Method of application of proof load for single sheave block . The block is to be suspended head down by a wire (or chain in the case of a chain block) passing around its sheave. A mass equal to four times the SWL is to be secured to the block's head fitting, and lifted from the ground . Approval Requirements for derricks 1. Drawings The drawing or drawings of derrick gear required by this Part must: (a) illustrate the general arrangement of the ship and location of each derrick and each winch; (b) state the dimensions of each derrick, showing the safe working load of the derrick and of each article of cargo gear connected to it and the least angle from the horizontal at which the derrick may be used; (c) identify derricks that can be used in union purchase rig, specify the limits of the sectors in the horizontal plane within which the derricks are to be placed, the maximum limit of outreach for each such derrick, the positions of the preventer guys , the safe working load of the rig when used within the specified limits, the safe working load of each article of cargo gear connected in the rig and include the force diagrams used to estimate the load on each article of equipment; (d) identify the derricks that can be used with a lower cargo block or other multiple purchase arrangements either as a single derrick or in union purchase rig, specify the limits of the sectors in the horizontal plane within which the derricks are to be used or placed, the maximum limit of outreach of each derrick, the positions of the preventer guy or guys, the safe working load of the derrick or derrick rig when used within the specified limits, the safe working load of each article of cargo gear connected in the rig and include the force diagrams used to estimate the load on each article of equipment; and

34

(e) specify the dimensions of each mast, post or other piece of structure to which derricks are attached, with details of any supporting stays. Derricks must not be used in loading or unloading unless the information specified above is readily available to the person in charge. 2. Use of stays Derricks must not be used in loading or unloading unless all necessary stays, including backstays and preventer stays, to counteract loads on masts and derrick posts, other than stays such as shoulder stays necessarily disconnected to enable loading or unloading operations to proceed, are correctly fitted and kept taut and secure during loading and unloading. 3. Securing of guys in way of deck cargo When deck cargo is stowed against and above a ship's rails or bulwarks, a wire rope pendant or a chain extending from a ring bolt or other anchorage on the ship must be provided: (a) of sufficient length to enable derrick guys and preventers to be attached without the need for a person engaged in loading or unloading to go overside; and (b) having a safe working load not less than the safe working load of the derrick guy or preventer with which it is to be associated. 4. Permanent attachments to a derrick - A derrick must not be used in loading or unloading unless all permanent attachments to the derrick, such as a ring bolt, eyebolt, padeye, lug, band or heel connection or fitting: (a) are of suitable material and construction ; and (b) have strength appropriate to the maximum load which may be imposed on that attachment in accordance with the information specified above. 5. Securing of guys to a derrick For the purpose of loading or unloading, each guy, guy block, preventer guy or similar rope must be individually secured to a derrick at a permanent attachment
35

complying with paragraph 4, no more than one connection being made to each such attachment except that, in the case of a preventer guy, an eye that has been formed in one end by splicing may be placed around the derrick head in such manner that the eye is unlikely to be dislodged during loading or unloading. 6. Restriction of movement of heel blocks Where a derrick heel block is subject to movement in the vertical plane between load and no-load positions, the derrick must not be used unless the block is fitted with a device constraining that movement consistent with safe operation . 7. Securing of runner A runner must not be used in loading or unloading unless the end of the runner attached to the winch drum: (a) is effectively secured to the drum in a manner that will not damage any part of the runner; and (b) is secured otherwise than by means of fibre rope. Note: The method used to secure a runner to a winch should be by shackle or clamp type socket or similar, any of which should provide a strength equivalent to 50% of that of the runner. The number of complete turns remaining on the drum of the winch when the complete working length of rope has been paid out should not be less than: (a) in the case of an ungrooved drum three; and (b) in the case of a grooved drum two. 8. Markings required A derrick for use in loading or unloading must be marked with: (a) its safe working load for each operating condition in accordance with above paragraph and (b) the lowest angle to the horizontal at which the derrick may safely be used, in accordance with above.
36

The marking of the safe working load or loads of a derrick must be: (a) where the derrick is to be used as a single derrick: (i) the letters 'SWL' followed by numerals indicating the safe working load and letters identifying the units of mass in which the safe working load is expressed; and (ii) where there is more than one operating condition, an oblique stroke separating the units of mass for each such condition. (b) where the derrick is to be used in union purchase rig: (i) the letters 'SWL(u)' followed by numerals indicating the safe working load and letters identifying the units of mass in which the safe working load is expressed; and (ii) where there is more than one operating condition in union purchase rig, an oblique stroke separating the units of mass for each such condition. Markings must be placed on the derrick or on a plate near the heel of the derrick and the letters and numerals must be not less than 77 mm in height, of proportional breadth and must be of a light colour on a dark background or a dark colour on a light background. 9. Union purchase rig Derricks must not be used in union purchase rig unless: (a) they are rigged in accordance with the drawings specified above (b) each derrick is fitted with a preventer guy of wire rope, or wire rope coupled to a length of chain, having a safe working load commensurate with the stresses imposed on the derrick during loading and unloading; and (c) the guys used to position the derricks are kept taut during loading or unloading. 10. Angle between runners of union purchase rig

37

When loading or unloading by derricks in union purchase rig, the angle included by the ends of runners at the hook assembly measured in the plane of the runners must not be permitted to exceed 120 . Approval Requirements for cranes 1. Drawings 1.1 The drawing or drawings of cranes required by this Part, must: (a) illustrate the general arrangement of the ship and location of each crane; (b) include instructions for operating and maintaining: (i) each type of crane on board; and (ii) combination arrangements, if any, stating the safe working load of each crane and of each article of cargo gear attached to each crane; (c) define the operating limits within which the safe working load of each crane applies; and (d) indicate the stowage position of each crane. Crane must not be used in loading or unloading unless the information specified in 1.1 is readily available to the person in charge

2. . Limiting devices 2.1 A crane used in loading or unloading must be provided with effective motionlimiting devices to prevent movement of the crane, and of a load being handled, beyond the designed range of operations of the crane. A motion-limiting device must be so designed as to: (a) be automatic in operation; and (b) in the case of a crane other than a derrick crane, take effect by interrupting the operating power so that the crane and its load are held stationary.
38

Note: A power-interrupting arrangement is acceptable on a derrick crane, but is not mandatory. If a motion limiting device in accordance with 2.1 is not provided on a derrick crane, the derrick crane must, where possible, be provided with other devices, which may include a visual or audible alarm, to warn the operator that the crane or load is approaching a limit of the designed range of operations of the crane or its load. 3. Markings required 3.1 A crane for use in loading or unloading must be marked with: (a) its safe working load (b) where the safe working load varies with the outreach of the crane, the safe working load for each specified outreach. 3.2 The marking of the safe working load or loads and outreach of a crane or derrick crane must be: (a) numerals indicating the safe working load and letters identifying the units of mass in which the safe working load is expressed; and (b) where 3.1(b) applies: (i) numerals indicating the number of meters of outreach, followed by the letter 'm', and (ii) an oblique stroke separating the information relating to each specified outreach. 3.3 Markings must, as appropriate, be placed conspicuously: (a) On: (i) an external part of the structure of the crane; or (ii) on the derrick crane or on a plate near the heel of the derrick crane; and (b) in the driver's cabin within easy view of the driver.
39

External markings must be not less than 77 mm in height and of proportional breadth, and must be of a light colour if on a dark background, and of a dark colour if on a light background. Where the safe working load varies with the outreach of the crane. means must be provided to enable the driver to ascertain the outreach of the crane at any time, and the corresponding safe working load.

PORT CARGO HANDLING MOBILE EQUIPMENTS

Portainers Container crane (also known as a portainer, container handling gantry crane, quay crane, ship-to-shore crane, ship-to-shore gantry crane or a STS crane) is a large dockside crane in the form of a specialised type of gantry crane used to load and unload container ships, and only seen at container terminals. Container cranes have a special lifting device called a spreader (also known as Expandable Spreader) for loading and discharging of containers. The spreader has four or eight (for twin 20 foot container lift) twist locks which lock and unlock into the corner castings of the containers and can be used in 20', 40', or 45' positions depending on the size of the containers. Horizontal gantry rails and their supporting structure are cantilevered out from between the frame uprights which are spaced to allow containers to pass length wise between them. The gantry rails project over the quayside and also over the width of an adjacent ship allowing the hoist to lift containers from the quay and move out along the gantry rails on its trolley to place the containers on the ship. The whole crane runs on two rails so that it can traverse along the wharf (or the dock) to position the containers at any point on the length of the ship. Types There are two common types of container handling gantry crane: high profile where the boom is hinged at the waterside of the crane structure and lifted up in the air to clear the ships for navigation; the second type is the low profile (goose neck) type where the boom is shuttled/pulled towards and over the ship to allow
40

the trolley to load and discharge containers. Low profile cranes are used where they may be in the flight path of aircraft such as where a container terminal is located close to an airport. Operations: The crane is driven by an operator that sits in a cabin suspend from the trolley. The trolley runs along rails that are located on top or sides of the boom and girder. The operator runs the trolley over the ship to lift the cargo which generally are containers. Once the spreader latches (locks) on to the container with the Spreader, the container is lifted and moved over the dock and placed (discharged) on a truck chassis (trailer) to then be taken to the storage yard. The crane will also lift containers from the chassis to store (load) them on to the ship. Lorries, Automatic Guided Vehicles ( AGV's ) and straddle-carriers, can manoeuvre underneath the base of the portainer crane, and collect the 'boxes'. They are designed to allow rapid cargo operations between the dock and storage yard.

Fork Lift Trucks (a) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, forklift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached overhead guards. Guards shall be constructed to protect the operator from falling boxes, cartons, packages, or similar objects. (ii) Overhead guards shall not obstruct the operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches (15 .24 mm) in one of the two directions, width or length. Larger openings are permitted if no opening allows the smallest unit of cargo being handled to fall through the guard. (iii) Overhead guards shall be built so that failure of the vehicle's mast tilting mechanism will not displace the guard .

41

(iv) An overhead guard, otherwise required by this paragraph, may be removed only when it would prevent a truck from entering a work space and if the operator is not exposed to low overhead obstructions in the work space. (v) Overhead guards shall be large enough to extend over the operator during all truck operations, including forward tilt. (b) Supplies to ship's rail. Cargo or supplies shall not be hoisted to or from ship's rail with a forklift. This does not apply to ramp or side port loading. (c) Position of forks. When standing, lift forklift forks shall be lowered to floor. When moving, lift forklift forks shall be kept as low as possible. (d) Forklift use in gangplank moving. Not less than two forklifts shall be used to place or remove gangplanks unless fork width prevents tipping and manufacturer's rated lifting capacity of the forklift is not exceeded. (e) Forklift seat covers. Seats on forklifts shall be provided with a removable waterproof cover when they are exposed to the weather. (f) Raised equipment to be blocked. Workers shall not work below the raised bed of a dump truck, raised buckets of front end loaders, raised blades of tractors or in similar positions without blocking the equipment in a manner that will prevent it from falling. When working under equipment suspended by use of jacks, safety stands or blocking shall be used in conjunction with the jack.

(g) Maximum speed. The maximum speed for forklifts on all docks shall not exceed eight miles per hour. The speed limit shall be prominently posted on such docks. (h) Load backrest extensions. Where necessary to protect the operator, forklift trucks shall be fitted with a vertical load backrest extension to prevent the load from hitting the mast when the mast is positioned at maximum backward tilt. For this purpose, a "load backrest extension" means a device extending vertically from the fork carriage frame to prevent raised loads from falling backward.

42

(i) Forks, fork extensions and other attachments shall be secured so that they cannot be accidentally dislodged, and shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. (j) Counterweights. Counterweights shall be so affixed that they cannot be accidentally dislodged. (k) Capacities and weights. (i) Forklift truck rated capacities, with and without removable counterweights, shall not be exceeded. Rated capacities shall be marked on the vehicle and shall be visible to the operator. The vehicle weight, with and without counterweight, shall be similarly marked. (ii) If loads are lifted by two or more trucks working in unison, the total weight of the load shall not exceed the combined rated lifting capacity of all trucks involved. (l) Lifting of employees. Forklift trucks may elevate employees only when a platform is secured to the lifting carriage or forks. The platform shall meet the following requirements: (i) The platform shall have a railing complying with relevant regulations (ii) The platform shall have toe boards complying with relevant regulations if tools or other objects could fall on employees below . (iii) When the truck has controls, which are elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle. (iv) Employees on the platform shall be protected from exposure to moving truck parts . (v) The platform fioor shall be skid resistant. (vi) A truck operator shall be at the truck's controls when employees are elevated unless the truck's controls are elevated with the lifting carriage . (vii) When the truck has controls elevated with the lifting carriage, means shall be provided for employees on the platform to shut off power to the vehicle .
43

(viii) While employees are elevated, the truck may be moved only to make minor placement adjustments. Straddle trucks. (a) Accessibility. Straddle trucks shall have a permanent means of access to the operator's station, including any handholds necessary for safe ascent and descent. (b) Guarding. (i) Main sprockets and chains to the wheels shall be guarded as follows: (A) The upper sprocket shall be fully enclosed; (B) The upper half of the lower sprocket shall be enclosed; and (C) The drive chain shall be enclosed to a height of eight feet (2.44m) except for that portion at the lower half of the lower sprocket. (ii) Gears shall be fully enclosed and revolving parts which may be contacted by the operator shall be guarded. (iii) When straddle trucks are used in the vicinity of employees, personnel deflecting guards shall be provided around leading edges of front and rear wheels. (c) Visibility. Operator visibility shall be provided in all directions of movement.

Trailer -spotting tractors. (a) Trailer-spotting tractors (fifth wheels) shall be fitted with any hand grabs and footing necessary for safe access to the fifth wheel. (b) Rear cab windows shall be of safety glass or equivalent materials (a) "Approved power operated industrial truck" means one listed or approved for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. b) Approved trucks acquired and used after February 15, 1972, shall bear a label or other identification indicating testing laboratory approval.
44

(c) When the atmosphere in an area is hazardous, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. Duties of operator. (a) A power-driven vehicle operator's special duties are: (i) To operate the vehicle in a safe manner. (ii) To test brakes, steering gear, lights, horns, or other warning devices, clutches, etc., before starting work. (iii) To have the vehicle at all times under control so that it can be brought to an emergency stop in the clear space in front of the vehicle. (iv) To back down any incline of two percent or more when travelling with a load on the fork lift. (b) Unobstructed view. When travelling, power-propelled vehicles shall at all times be operated in a manner giving the operator a reasonably unobstructed view in the direction of travel. Where this is impractical, the operator shall be directed in travel, by a person designated to do so. (c) Employee riding safety. Operators and authorized passengers shall not be permitted to ride with legs or arms extending outside any vehicle nor shall they be permitted to ride while standing unless the vehicle is designed to be operated from a standing position. (d) Moving vehicles. Vehicles shall be controlled manually while being pushed or towed except when a tow bar is used. Special precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles where view is obstructed. Vehicles shall not be pushed with blades of a forklift. (e) Moving highway trailers. In all cargo operations involving the use of highway trailers) trailers shall be moved in such a manner that the moving trailer is completely under control at all times. Special caution shall be exercised when such trailers are moving on inclines. Trailers shall be loaded in a manner, which will prevent the cargo from shifting, and the load in the trailer shall be evenly distributed so as not to cause the trailer to tip to one side.

45

(f) Prohibited forms of riding. Riding on tongue or handles of trailers or forks of power-propelled vehicles is prohibited. (g) Regular seats for riders. No one except the operator shall ride on power driven vehicles unless regular seats are provided to accommodate passengers. (h) Jumping on or off moving vehicles. Employees shall not jump on or off moving vehicles. (i) Reporting defects. If a power-driven vehicle is at any time found to be in any way unsafe, the operator shall report same immediately to the person in charge and such vehicle shall not be used for production work until it has been made safe. (j) Flat bed trucks or container chassis used to move intermodal containers shall be equipped with pins, flanges, or other means to prevent the container from shifting. (k) Flat bed, low body trailers, and other similar equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be overloaded. (1) Brake. Each tractor shall have all brake air lines connected when pulling trailers equipped with air brakes and shall have the brakes tested before commencing operations. Reach Stacker A Reach Stacker is one of the most flexible handling solutions weather to operate a small terminal or a medium sized port. Reach stackers are able to transport a container in short distances very quickly and pile them in various rows depending on its access.

46

Reach stackers have gained ground in container handling in most markets because of their flexibility and higher stacking and storage capacity when compared to lift trucks. Using reach stackers, container blocks can be kept 4deep due to the second row access.

There are also empty stackers that are used only for handling empty containers. Unit handling conveyors Unit handling conveyors are designed to handle packages, pallets, or any other unit format. They are used to transport large, discrete items that can be handled independently. There are many types of unit handling conveyors. Examples include air transfer tables, ball transfer tables, belt conveyors, bucket conveyors, cart-on-track conveyors, chain conveyors, chute conveyors, drag conveyors, monorails, and two-line conveyers.
47

Air transfer tables and ball transfer tables are unit handling conveyors used in applications which require the manual rotation or positioning of products. For example, an air transfer table or ball transfer table may be used at a workstation where an operator needs to quickly process packages for shipment. Air transfer tables and ball transfer tables can also be used when more than two unit handling conveyor lines converge and packages must be transferred from one line to another. Chute Conveyor Unit/Bulk Inexpensive

Used to link two handling devices Used to provide accumulation in shipping areas Used to convey items between floors
48

Difficult to control position of the items Forward position of belt Return position of belt Chute conveyors and drag conveyors are the least expensive types of unit handling conveyors. Typically, chute conveyors are used to link two powered conveyors together, and for accumulation in shipping areas. Spiral chutes are used to convey items from floor to floor without using much space. The main limitation of chute unit handling conveyors is the lack of control over the items being conveyed. Drag conveyors or drag chain conveyors pull or drag material through a tube or U -shaped trough. Sub-categories for drag unit handling conveyors include tubular, round bottom, flat bottom, and V-groove drag conveyors. When loaded, the belt conforms to the shape of the trough rollers and idlers. Bulk handling conveyors carry materials such as grain, coal, pellets or any other powder, granular or bulk media. Performance specifications include maximum load, load capacity, speed, volume transported, and mass flow of material. There are many different types of bulk handling conveyors. Major categories include belt conveyors, bucket conveyors, chute conveyors, diverters, drag conveyors, screw conveyors, slat conveyors, vertical continuous conveyors, and vibrating conveyors. Belt, bucket, and chute conveyors are common types of bulk handling conveyors. Belt conveyors include flat belt, magnetic belt and trough belt conveyors. They are the most commonly used type of bulk handling conveyor because of their reliability, versatility, and range of capacities. Bulk handling conveyors include diverters, drag conveyors, and screw conveyors. Diverters are used to move products off the main conveyor by either pulling or pushing. Sidemounted diverters move a product in one direction. Overhead diverters can shift a carton to either side. Drag conveyors (drag chain conveyors) pull or drag material through a tube or U-shaped trough. Sub-types include tubular, round bottom, flat bottom, and V -groove drag conveyors. Screw conveyors or auger conveyors are of simple, relatively low cost construction. A screw conveyor consists of a helical flight fastened around a rigid pipe or solid shaft, mounted within a tubular or U -shaped trough. As the screw rotates, material heaps up in
49

front of the advancing flight and is pushed through the trough. Particles in the heap, adjacent to the flight surface, are carried part way up the flight surface and then flow down on the forward-moving side of the heap.

Bucket Conveyor Used to move bulk materials in a vertical or inclined path Bucket conveyors consist of a bucket elevator and an endless belt or chain with a series of attached buckets. The buckets are filled, lifted vertically to a head pulley or sprocket, and dumped. Chute conveyors are the least expensive way to move materials with a conveyor. Typically, chute conveyors are used to link two powered conveyors together, and for accumulation in shipping areas. Spiral chutes are used to convey items from floor to floor without using much space. The main limitation of chute conveyors is the lack of control over the items being conveyed. Items can become wedged in the conveyor and cause blockage.

50