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Abstract No.

Name: Nicole Angela R. Cadorniga Schedule: Tuesdays & Thursdays, 9:00-10:30 a.m. Title of the Article: Fish dishes may catch on among smokers Author: T. Adler Source: Science News, July 30, 1994, Vol. 146, No.5, P. 71

Summary:
The article talks about researchers suggesting that eating fish regularly may be beneficial for smokers. On a study conducted among 4, 928 smokers and 4,032 smokers, ages 45-64, it appeared that the higher consumption of fish gives them lower chances of having lung diseases. When compared to the participants who ate fish rarely, the volunteers who consume fish about four times a week had half the occurrence of Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), according to Eyal Shahar a co-author from the University Of Minnesota School Of Public Health in Minneapolis. He also says that though the study does not prove that eating fish gives smokers protection from lung diseases, this study gives a great start for more research on the correlation of fish consumption and COPD. According to Shahar, other researches raise the argument that fish can aid protection against the damage inflicted by cigarette smoking. For example, scientists are aware that smoking can cause chronic inflammation of the lungs which characterizes COPD, and through studies, it has been known that large doses of n-3 fatty acids [, protective acids contained in Dark-meat fish, such as Salmon and bluefish,] interfere with the bodys inflammatory response. But non-smokers do not need to increase their intake of fish since it has no implications to them.

Critique:
For my opinion, knowing that eating sea food or fish, specifically, diminishes the chance of those who smoke from lung diseases is good news. However, I strongly agree to the coauthor of the study when he emphasized that eating fish does not necessarily give an exception those who smoke from the hazards brought about by smoking.

Supposing that consuming fish on a regular basis may help protect smokers from having lung diseases, we still cannot deny the fact that smoking has the ability to harm the environment and is insalubrious to non-smokers consequently. Every puff of smoke produced by cigarettes adds up to the already polluted air emitted by cars, factories and the like which every individual must inhale every day. At the same time, smokers are putting those surrounding them at risk of being more prone to lung diseases than themselves mainly because second hand smoke has doubled the danger of firsthand smoke. Also, women who smoke are candidates for crucial pregnancy and the danger of causing abnormalities to their offspring since the toxins they acquire from smoking is within their body systems which may hinder the natural growth and development of the child within their womb. And so for me, smokers must not be complacent about the findings which the study featured in this article has presented. Even people who live a healthy lifestyle but do smoke still encounter illnesses related to the harmful effects brought about by smoking. Therefore, even if eating fish enriched with protective acids more often were discovered to have a potential relation towards having to be less prone to lung diseases, it does not give smokers the license to smoke all they want and expect to live healthily. Not to smoke is still the best treatment. Through this, we do not only help restore the environment, but also acquire a reliable protection against lung illnesses.

Components of an Ecosystem Organisation or Structural aspect of an ecosystem) An ecosystem comprises of two basic components i) Abiotic components and ii) Biotic components The relationship between the biotic components and abiotic components of an ecosystem is called 'holocoenosis'.

Abiotic Components These include the non-living, physico - chemical factors such as air, water, soil and the basic elements and compounds of the environment. Abiotic factors are broadly classified under three categories. Climatic factors which include the climatic regime and physical factors of the environment like light, humidity, atmospheric temperature, wind, etc. Edaphic factors which are related to the structure and composition of soil including its physical and chemical properties, like soil and its types, soil profile, minerals, organic matter, soil water, soil organisms. Inorganic substances like water, carbon, sulphur, nitrogen, phosphorus and so on. Organic substances like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, humic substances etc. Biotic Components It comprises the living part of the environment, which includes the association of a number of interrelated populations belonging to different species in a common environment. The populations are that of animal community, plant community and microbial community. Biotic community is distinguished into autotrophs, heterotrophs and saprotrophs.

Autotrophs (Gr: auto - self, trophos - feeder) are also called producers, convertors or transducers. These are photosynthetic plants, generally chlorophyll bearing, which synthesize high-energy complex organic compounds (food) from inorganic raw materials with the help of sunlight, and the process is referred as photosynthesis. Autortophs form the basis of any biotic system. In terrestrial ecosystems, the autotrophs are mainly the rooted plants. In aquatic ecosystems, floating plants called phytoplankton and shallow water rooted plants called macrophytes are the dominant producers. Heterotrophs (Gr: heteros - other; trophs - feeder) are called consumers, which are generally animals feeding on other organisms. Consumer's also referred as phagotrophs (phago - to ingest or swallow) or macroconsumers are mainly herbivores and carnivores. Herbivores are referred as First order consumers or primary consumers, as they feed directly on plants. For e.g., Terrestrial ecosystem consumers like cattle, deer, rabbit, grass hopper, etc. Aquatic ecosystem consumers like protozoans, crustaceans, etc. Carnivores are animals, which feed or prey upon other animals. Primary carnivores or Second order consumers include the animals which feed on the herbivorous animals.

For e.g., fox, frog, predatory birds, smaller fishes, snakes, etc. Secondary carnivores or Third order consumers include the animals, which feed on the primary carnivores. For e.g., wolf, peacock, owl, etc. Secondary carnivores are preyed upon by some larger carnivores. Tertiary carnivores or Quaternary consumers include the animals, which feed on the secondary carnivores. For e.g., lion, tiger, etc. These are not eaten by any other animals. The larger carnivores, which cannot be preyed upon further are called top carnivores.

Saprotrophs (Gr: sapros - rotten; trophos - feeder) are also called decomposers or reducers. They break down the complex organic compounds of dead matter (of plants and animals). Decomposers do not ingest their food. Instead they secrete digestive enzymes into the dead and decaying plant and animal remains to digest the organic material. Enzymes act upon the complex organic compounds of the dead matter. Decomposers absorb a part of the decomposition products for their own nourishment. The remaining substances are added as minerals to the substratum (mineralisation). Released minerals are reused (utilised) as nutrients by the plants (producers).