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SPM

PHYSICS
MODULE : 10 FORM 5

2.3 ELECTRICITY

TOPIC: ELECTRICITY CONTENT: 2.3: ANALYSING SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS CHAPTER HIGHLIGHT: The are two types of electric circuit: series and parallel.

1. To identify series and parallel circuits we can see like that.


Series circuit Consider a circuit which has two lamps connecting to a cell.

All the electrons that go through one lamp must also go through the other. We say that the lamps are connected in series. Parallel Circuits Connect a battery to two lamps in the way shown below.

We say these two lamps are connected in parallel. There is more than one path in which the electrons can flow in the circuit.

Comparison between series and parallel circuits Series Parallel

6 6
Arrangement

ITotal = I1 = I2 = I3 I The current should be the same at all points VTotal = V1 + V2 + V3 V The sum of the voltage across the individual component is equal to that of power supply RTotal = R1 + R2 + R3 The total resistance RT of the resistors connected in series circuit is equal to the sum of the separate resistance

IT otal = I1 + I2 + 13 At the junctions, the current splits, but then rejoin at the final junctions. VTotal = V1 = V2 = V3 Voltage across each component stays the same

1 RTotal

1 1 1 + + R1 R 2 R 3

The reciprocal of the total resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocal of individual resistances

ACTIVITY : 1. Figure 1 shows a circuit consisting of a battery of e.m.f 6.0V and two pairs of 3.0 resistors in series, these pairs of resistors being connected in parallel.

Figure 1

a) (i) What is the total resistance of the path KLM ?


(ii) What is the total resistance of the path KNM ? (iii) What is the resistance of the circuit between K and M ? b) Calculate the current through the battery. Solution: (ii) Total resistance KNM = 3.0 + 3.0 = 6.0 (iii) Resistance between K and M =

6.0 x 6.0 = 3.0 6.0 + 6.0

Or

KM( 1/R) = 1/6 + 1/6 = 2/6 = 1/3 Therefore R = 3.0

(b) Current through battery =

V 6.0 = = 2.0 A R 3.0

2. Figure 2 shows three combinations of resistors, connected between points X and Y. All the resistors have resistance 6.0

Figure 2 (a) Calculate the total resistance between the points X and Y of each combination. (i) combination A (ii) combination B (iii) combination C

(b) Points X and Y in combination B are connected to a battery that provides a potential difference of 1.35V across XY, as shown in Figure 3. Calculate the currents I1, I2 and I3 in each resistor of the combination.

Figure 3 Solution:

(a) (i) R = 6.0 + 6.0 + 6.0 = 18.0

6.0 x 6.0 = 9.0 6.0 + 6.0 1 1 1 -1 (iii) R = ( + + ) = 2.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
(ii) R = 6.0 + (b) I1 = current flowing through battery = I2 = I3 =

V 1.35 = = 0.15A R 9.0

I1 = 0.075 A 2

ASSESTMENT: 1. In the circuit shown, at which point is the current the smallest?

2. Why can birds stand on an overhead transmission line without suffering any harm? A. Their bodies have a very high resistance B. Their feet are very good insulators. C. There is no potential difference between their feet. D. The spaces between their feathers act as insulators. 3. A circuit consists of a battery connected in series with resistors R1 and R2 and a pair of resistors, R3 and R4 connected in parallel. The p.d.s across the resistors are V1, V2, V3, and V4. Find the total potential difference. A. V1 + V2 B. V1 + V2 + V3 C. V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 D. V1 + V2 +

1 1 + V3 V4

4. A circuit is set up as shown. Which switch setting lights all three lamps? Switch 1 Switch 2 Switch 3

A B C D

Closed Closed Open Open

Closed Open Closed Closed

Open Closed Closed Open

5. A student has a set of 20 festive lights. The lights are wired in series and connected to the mains. One bulb burns out and all the lights go out. The student's parents ask her to find the faulty bulb and replace it. Where should the student begin? A. Anywhere, because the current will have been the same everywhere. B. At the live end, because the current will have been greatest there. C. At the middle, because the current will have been greatest there. D. At the neutral end, because the current will have been greatest there. 6. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show photographs of two circuit. Each circuit contains four electrical bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells.

a) Draw a circuit diagram from each photograph b) Observes the photographs in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Compare the brightness of the bulb. Related the brightness of the bulbs between Figure 1 and Figure 2 to deduce a concept in physics in regard to the potential difference and the current flow for the bulbs in series and parallel circuits.

Answers: 1. B 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6.

Figure 1 Series ITotal = I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 VTotal = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 RTotal = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4

Figure 2 parallel IT otal = I1 + I2 + 13 + I4 VTotal = V1 = V2 = V3 =V4

1 RTotal

1 1 1 1 + + + R1 R 2 R 3 R4

From the table above we know, in series the potential difference is less compare in parallel circuit and effective resistance more in series circuit compare in parallel circuit. So, from that statement we know bulb in parallel circuit more brightness compare bul in series circuit. TOPIC: ELECTRICITY CONTENT: 2.4: ANALYSING ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE

CHAPTER HIGHLIGHT: Definition of electromotive force (e.m.f) : i) The work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit. ii) a measurement of the rate at which energy ( joule) is transferred per electric charge (coulomb) from an energy source such as a battery or a dynamo, in the kinetic energy of the moving charge. e.m.f = Electric energy provided by the source Charge that flow from the source The unit of e.m.f is JC-1 or volt, V. 1 V = 1JC-1

The reading of voltmeter is the e.m.f of the battery Note: The positive terminal of the cell is connected to the positive terminal of the voltmeter and the negative terminal of the cell is connected to the negative terminal of the voltmeter.

Comparison between e.m.f and potential difference E.m.f Potential difference

The energy supplied by the source per unit charge In electricity source such as battery, generator The positive terminal of the cell is connected to the positive terminal of the voltmeter and the negative terminal of the cell is connected to the negative terminal of the voltmeter.

The energy used to move charge flow through the component In electrical component such as bulb, rheostat, resistor To measure the potential difference between two points ( or across the component ) separated by a load, the voltmeter is connected in parallel to the load ( component)

Internal resistance (r)

* Resistance caused by the difficulty of ion movement in electrolyte

Explaination:

Figure 1 In circuit (a) of Fig 1, the switch is open and there is no current through the bulb, but the reading on the voltmeter is 12.1 V. In circuit (b), the switch is closed and there is a current through the bulb. The voltmeter shows the p.d. across the bulb and across the battery. The reading on the voltmeter is now slightly less, at 11.8V. In the first case, the only current is a few microamperes through the voltmeter. This current is negligible compared with the current in the bulb in the second circuit. Why does the voltage decrease? The difference in voltage can be explained by considering the internal resistance of the battery.

Relationship between e.m.f and internal resistance

= e.mf ( elektromotive force ) V = potential difference I = current R = resistor r = internal resistance Graph shown Relationship between e.m.f and internal resistance

ACTIVITY: 1. State what is meant by internal resistance 2. A torch light lighted for 20 minutes and the result shows that a dry cell in torch light become hot. Why? 3. Figure below shows graph of potential difference, V across the terminal of a battery against current, I that flows through the battery.

From the graph, find the value of (a) electromotive force and

(b) internal resistance for the battery 4.

Figure above shows an electric circuit that consist a cell, switch and resistor. A voltmeter connected across the cell reads 5.0V when the switch is open and 4.2V when the switch is close. Find (a) electromotive force of cell (b) current that flows in circuit (c) internal resistance of cell (d) potential difference across resistor when the switch is close 5. A 9.0 V battery whose internal resistance r is 0.50 is connected in the circuit as shown below. (a) How much current is drawn from the battery? (b) What is the terminal voltage of the battery?

Solution: 1. Opposite the current flow when the current through the chemical material in cell. 2. Internal resistance 3. (a) 6 V (b) 6 - 1 04 4. (a) 5.0 V (b) 4.2 V 20 (c) (d) 5.0V = 4.2 V +0.21A x r r = 3.81 4.2 V 5,

ASSESTMENT 1. Define (a) e.m.f (b) internal resistance 2. Give two comparison between e.m.f and p.d 3. Write down the relationship between e.m.f and internal resistance. State the meaning of each symbol used. 4. The figure shows a battery of e.m.f 6.0V in series with resistors of resistance 4.0 and 8.0

For the circuit shown in the figure, (i) explain what is meant by an e.m.f of 6.0V (ii) calculate the current through the battery (iii) calculate the voltage across the 4.0 resistor and that across the 8.0 resistor

5. The graph V agains I below shows the results of the experiment to determine the electromotive force, E, and the internal resistance, r, of a dry cell.

Figure 2 Based on the graph in Figure 2, (a) (i) what happen when I increases? (ii) determine the value of the potential difference, V when the current, I = 0.01A Show on the graph, how you determine V. (iii) name the physical quantity that represents the value in (a)(ii). (b) The internal resistance, r, of the dry cell is given by r=-m where m is the gradient of the graph. Calculate the value of r.

Answers: 1. (a) e.m.f = Electric energy provided by the source

Charge that flow from the source (b) Opposite the current flow when the current through the chemical material in cell. 2. e.m.f The energy supplied by the source per unit charge In electricity source such as battery, generator The positive terminal of the cell is connected to the positive terminal of the voltmeter and the negative terminal of the cell is connected to the negative terminal of the voltmeter. p.d The energy used to move charge flow through the component In electrical component such as bulb, rheostat, resistor To measure the potential difference between two points ( or across the component ) separated by a load, the voltmeter is connected in parallel to the load ( component)

3.

= e.mf ( elektromotive force ) V = potential difference I = current

R = resistance r = internal resistance

4. (i) 6 Joule energy is used for supplied to each coulomb of charge within it. (ii) 6V = 0.5A 12 (iii) voltage across: 4: 0.5A x 4.0 = 2V 8: 0.5A x 8.0 =4V 5. (a) (i) potential difference decrease (ii) 1.49 V (iii) volt (b) m = 1.25 1.00 = -5 ; r = 5 0.5 1.0