You are on page 1of 40

Introduction to Contaminant Hydrogeology

Environmental Biotechnology Lab Jihoon Yang

16.1 Sources of Ground Water Contaminant

Distinguish of Contamination
Degree of Localiztion - Point source : Identifiable, Small-scale source Make a reasonably well-defined plume - Non Point source : Larger-scale source, Mixing of poorly defined many smaller source Loading History - Pulse Loading : Fixed concentration Short time - Continuous source Loading : Constant concentration Over long time

Fig 16.1

Distinguish of Contamination
Kinds of Contaminants emanating - Volatiles - Base-neutral - Extractable - Acid extractable - Pesticides

By using this grouping is economical to screening water samples.

Grouping of Contamination
Radionuclides : Nuclear industry, During mining of raw material Neutron activation ex) U238 U239 + e: Cancer, Genetic defects Trace elements(metals) : Effluents from mining, industrial waste water Runoff/solid waste/waste water of urban area Agricultural waste/fertilizer, fossil fuels : Accumulate in the body

Distinguish of Contamination
Nutrients : Nitrogen, Phosphorus (Especial ly Nitrate) : Fertilizer, cattle feeding operation, cultivation, sewage : Causing methemoglobinemia/cancer Other inorganic species : Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Ci-, F: Problem with Salinity Organic contaminants : Soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (ex. BTEX) (From petroleum fuel, lubricant) : Very harmful for human

Distinguish of Contamination
Biological contaminants : Human/animal sewage or wastewater : Pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites

16.1 SourcesPlumes as a Manifestation of Process 16.2 Solute of Ground Water Contaminant

Spread of Contaminants
Starting of Spread : Large extent to Small extent High Concentration to Low Concentration Magnitude and Direction of Advective Transport : Hydraulic conductivity distribution Configuration of the water table Presence of sources or sink Shape of the flow domain This parameters affect groundwater velocity

Spread of Contaminants
Steady State No dispersion or Reaction Only Hydraulic Conductivity affect shape of spread Plume spreading to Low hydraulic conductivity layer

Spread of Contaminants
Steady State Adding dispersion Plume size increases The maximum concentration decrease Where L : Longitudinal dispersivity T : Transverse dispersivity

Spread of Contaminants
Steady State Adding Radioactive decay (1st order decay) Smallest plume is made by Smallest half time Where t1/2 : half life constant

Spread of Contaminants
Steady State Adding Ion exchange Ion exchange is related with Sorption Where Ks :Changing selectivity Coefficient

Spread of Contaminants
Non constant loading Inflow concentration is different, but inflow time is same The final concentration is equal but the plume size is different

Spread of Contaminants
Fractured and Karst system Plumes form is made by The pattern of flow Ground water flow is typically convergent toward major conduits

16.1 Sources of Ground Water Contaminant 16.3 Multifluid Contaminant Problem

Property of Fluid
Saturation : Relative abundance of fluid in a porous media as the volume of the ith fluid per unit void volume for fluid where Vi : volume of the ith fluid Vvoids : volume of the void : Sum of all the components saturation is equal to 1 : Wettability : Tendency for one fluid to be attracted to a surface in preference to another : Only direct measure of wetting is The Contact Angle : Tangent < 90 : Test liquid is Wetting Tangent > 90 : Test liquid is Non-Wetting

Property of Fluid
Imbibition : Displacement of the nonwetting fluid by the wetting fluid Drainage : Displacement of the wetting fluid by the nonwetting fluid Water being added to a dry soil Water : imbibition Nonwetting organic liquid : drainage

Property of Fluid
Relative Permeability : Explain the tendency for fluid to interfere with one another as they flow Darcys eq written in terms of pressure gradient

where qi : flow of the ith fluid per unit area of the medium ki : effective permeability of the medium to ith fluid : viscosity, P : pressure

In here, relative permeability of ith fluid is

Where ki : effective permeability of the medium to ith fluid k : the intrinsic permeability

Property of Fluid
: Finally, general form of Darcys eq for multifluid flow is

kkri range between zero and one If two or more liquid are present in the system, kkri value is decrease

: The relative permeability curve 1) both fluids are present, the relative permeabilities rerely sum to one 2) Some quantity of either wetting or nonwetting fluid in the pore system cannot move below some saturation threshold 3) krn > krw : Because wetting fluid occupies the smaller pores, the flow is slow
Where Sw : Saturation of wetting fluid

This Point is the Residual Saturation

Property of Fluid
Residual Saturation : Of wetting fluid Pendular saturation held by Capillary force in the narrowest part of the pore size

Of nonwetting fluid Insular saturation isolated blob in the center of the pore

Nonaqueous Contaminant Spreading


Downward migration of liquid occurred by potential gradient Because NAPL is wetting phase, when the NAPL spill into wetted soil, the NAPL moves from pore to pore once saturation exceeds the residual saturation Main threat to a ground water is opportunity for continuing dissolution or volatilization as the spill remains

Nonaqueous Contaminant Spreading


When NAPL reach at layer of unsaturated zone, NAPL has a tendency to spread horizontally as it moves downward If that layer uncontinuous the NAPL will eventually spill over and continue to move downward toward the water table

Nonaqueous Contaminant Spreading


Large volume of contaminants over a relatively short time causes rapid downward and lateral migration Slow leakage over a long time, the contaminant moves along the most permeable pathways More mobile liquid will reach the water table from slow leakage When the NAPL reachs the capillary fringe, because water saturates a large proportion of pores, free product accumulates near the top of the capillary fringe

Nonaqueous Contaminant Spreading


Large volume of fluid reaching over a relatively short time, collapses the fringe and depresses the water table Slow rate of supply has little affect on the capillary fringe or the configuration of water table

Nonaqueous Contaminant Spreading


Case of DNAPL, the quantity of concentration within pore exceeds the residual saturation, downward percolation continues Driving force of DNAPL is difference of density between the DNAPL and ground water Direction of flow is different than the ground water Heterogeneity within the saturated zone cause to spread laterally

16.116.4 Design and Quality Assurance Issues Sources of Ground Water Contaminant in Water Sampling

Design of Sampling Networks


Considerations in design 1) Close interval point sampling 2) Sample location Determine the character and complexity of flow Using the piezometer sampling, hydraulic head is the same in either case, but concentration of contaminant is different according to sampling point

Impact on Chemical Data


Contamination of samples with fluids because of drilling : Reuse the drill(Using where contaminated difference material) : The solution is development well Changing in water quality caused by the presence of the well : Well made by cement : Cement contaminated water has high pH(above 9) Sample deterioration : By changing temperature, pressure, gas content , sample will change(ex. Addition of oxygen, Loss of CO2) : Solution is using the specialized sampling equipment and use of flow cell at the well head

Impact on Chemical Data


Sloppy field and laboratory practices : Sample contamination caused by improper bottle washing, filtering, or the use of impure preservatives : Solution is prudent to check before sampling Submitting the known concentration, duplicate samples, replicate samples

16.1 Sources 16.5 Sampling Methods of Ground Water Contaminant

Solutes in the Zone of Saturation


Nests of conventional standpipe piezometer 1) Property : Provide vertically spaced water sample 2) Advantage : - Less difficulty in installing seals - Easy to measuring water levels - Extremely durable with little possibility of failure 3) Disadvantage : - Higher cost of drilling additional boreholes

Solutes in the Zone of Saturation


Various multilevel devices installed in a single borehole 1) Property : Involves placing several samplers at various depths in a single borehole 2) Advantage : - Large number of discrete samping points - Relatively low cost - Most economical for near surface investigation 3) Disadvantage : - difficult to develop the screen - Hard to design a water level mesurement equipment

Solutes in the Zone of Saturation


Packer arrangement that can be moved to various positions in an uncased borehole in rock or cohesive sediments 1) Property : Sample continuously in an uncased borehole 2) Advantage : - Cost is low 3) Disadvantage : - Possibility for fluid communication within the borehole

Nonaqueous Phase Liquids in the Zone Saturation


Characterizing the distribution of LNAPLs Specially designed sounder measures the thickness of LNAPL floating on the water column in a water table observation well Provides the apparent thickness of spilled product, which is often larger than the true product thickness

Dissolved Contaminants and NAPLs in the Unsaturated Zone

Pulling the fluid under vacuum through a porous ceramic cup into a container Sample is removed by suction or by gas displacement Useful for sampling when the state of saturation change freequently Fluid composition to change from reaction with the ceramic cup or from the loss of gases as the sample is collected under vacuum

Solid and Fluid Sampling


Drilling and coring Fluids squeezed out of the sample can be analyzed in the normal manner Determine contaminant concentrations in the dried solid and report contaminant concentration as mass of contaminant per unit mass of solid Advantage 1) Spatial control in being able to relate specific concentration of contaminant to specific lithologies 2) Ability to minimize contamination due to the sampling method Disadvantage Expansive of rig back, too much drilling occur contamination

16.1 Sources Methods for Detection Contamination 16.6 Indirect of Ground Water Contaminant

Soil-gas characterization & Geophysical Methods


Rapid & Inexpensive method Successful when contamination is manifested in a secondary way Soil-gas characterization Hollow metal probe, Activated charcoal Advantage : sampling at a much larger number, economical Caution : 1) Low permeability layer 2) How the contaminant occurs 3) Contaminants are present in localized fracture zone Geophysical Methods Mesuring resistivity, Electromagnetic conductivity method If data had a different property compare with another zone, That zone is a contaminated zone Consideration : natural variability in geology or water chemistry insufficient contrast in electrical conductivity or resistivity between plume and ground water

Thank You