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Corporate Social Responsibility: A Review of the Literature

Katy Wright

Introduction

This paper provides an overview of the literature about Corporate Social Responsibility, and presents some of the key debates in this area. After considering how CSR might be defined, the paper provides context for the debate by outlining social, economic and political factors driving the development and implementation of CSR. There is then a discussion of the contested nature of CSR, in particular in terms of its instrumental or normative value. Such debates are then related to notions of the role and nature of corporations. Finally, the role in CSR of the manager and issues relating to stakeholders and diversity are considered.

What is Corporate Social Responsibility?

The precise nature of CSR is understood in different ways, with differences in understanding or representation of theconcept relatable to different paradigms and concerns. Although there are several contested notions of what CSR shouldbe and how it should work, there is some agreement upon what it broadly entails. A number of concepts and issues are subsumed under the heading of CSR, including human rights, environmental responsibility, diversity management, sustainability, and philanthropy (Amaeshi & Adi, 2006), meaning that it is a complex area with an interdisciplinary focus.

It is generally agreed that CSR involves corporations voluntarily exceeding their legal duties to take account of social, economic and environmental impacts of their operations. For example, the European Commission defines CSR as:

"a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis" (European Multistakeholder Forum on CSR, 2004: 3)

Similarly, the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) considers CSR to involve corporations taking responsibility for their "impact economically, socially, environmentally and in terms of human rights" (CIPD website). The UK Corporate Responsibility Bill (2002) suggests that corporations should "take all reasonable steps to minimise any negative environmental, social and economic

impacts" (Article 7b). These definitions tend to emphasise the avoidance of harm, based on the notion of a shared responsibility towards 'stakeholders' and the achievement of sustainability, whereas for others, CSR necessarily entails actively seeking to achieve positive change. For example, McWilliams & Siegel (2001) define CSR as "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law" (117), and similarly Carroll's (1991) 'Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility' includes philanthropic requirements.

The role of the stakeholder is key to a CSR approach, with stakeholders understood to include:

"...any person who may be affected by any operations to which a report applies and includes but is not limited to: (a) shareholders and investors (b) employees (c) communities (d) individuals" (Corporate Responsibility Bill, 2002, Article 3)

Others have expanded the stakeholder definition beyond individuals and groups to include, for example, the environment (Haigh & Griffiths, 2007). The notion of the stakeholder translates into accountability on the part of a company, whether to people or non-human stakeholders (Jacobs, 1997).

Even such a brief overview of definitions of CSR begins to demonstrate the contested nature of the concept. As will be discussed in more depth below, there is particular debate around the idea of whether or not CSR is about instrumental value (acting responsibly as being good for business) or intrinsic/normative value (acting responsibly as a moral imperative). However, first of all I will look at the wider context to provide background to these arguments.

Some Background

Consideration of the social, economic and political context demonstrates how CSR forms part of a wider strategic direction being taken internationally with regard to state/market relations and the pursuit of a range of objectives and goals. The context is in part provided by concerns about the numerous examples of irresponsible behaviour on the part of corporations, ranging from colluding with oppressive regimes and in the overthrowing of governments (Alston, 2005) to issues relating to working conditions and the impact of unethical marketing practices (Richter, 2001). Such examples have demonstrated the need for the worst excesses of business to be curbed. The globalised economy is understood to raise important issues for businesses and governments due to changes in patterns of production and consumption. In particular it is noted that the manufacturing of goods is "highly mobile" (Cassell, 2001:263) and that supply chains are often dispersed transnationally, creating difficulties in terms of

legislation and regulation. The relative power of large corporations compared to that of certain states is significant:

"In their negotiations with the governments of host countries their ability to pick up and leave provides them with a great deal of leverage over states dependent upon the jobs that they provide" (Wells & Elias in Alston, p144, 2005)

Economic globalisation therefore presents challenges to the ability of states to protect people's rights (Cassell, 2001). The notion of corporate social responsibility is part of the 'third way' (Gond & Matten, 2007), where the role of the state is now to provide "steering for the promotion of social development and social justice" (Giddens, 2001: 6). There is increased involvement of the private sector in traditionally statutory provision through privatisation and public/private partnerships (e.g. see Meehan, 2003). Economic policies have created a need for markets and business to self-regulate in order to continue to pursue an international free market economy, but also to ensure sustainability (of economic, human and other resources, and of the environment). CSR is seen as a solution to these problems of regulation.

The private sector is increasingly seen as a key player in the achievement of many national and international strategic objectives for governments, which is also enabled by CSR. For example, in the UK, CSR is understood:

"to maximise the positive contribution that businesses can make to the UK's objectives on international sustainable development - including HR, trade and investment, poverty eradication, environmental protection and corruption - whilst at the same time effectively tackling adverse impacts" (Department for Trade and Industry, 2004: 2)

These objectives are related to a range of international agreements such as the Millennium Development Goals and targets agreed upon at the World Summit on Sustainable Development. The European Multistakeholder report identifies key texts to guide CSR development by business, including some key international texts and guidelines that were developed with and for business in particular, such as the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) (1977, revised 2000), the UN Global Compact (2000) and the ILO Declaration of Principles concerning MNEs and social policy. The report also refers to a range of multilateral and regional agreements relating to human rights, environmental development, consumer protection and worker's rights, which are aimed at the state level, but which they envisage acting as an 'inspiration' to companies in developing CSR strategies. An overview of these various agreements and guidelines is provided below.

Within the UK, legislation has placed a duty on nearly all corporations to report on their treatment of issues included under the umbrella of CSR. The Corporate Responsibility Bill (2002) outlined this duty and penalties for non-compliance, which range from fines to the cessation of operations and imprisonment. Requirements to report the ways in which corporations give consideration to and deal with environmental, social and economic factors, are intended to promote transparency so that companies are able to be held accountable for their operating procedures by consumers and pressure groups. There are a number of incentives for CSR related activities, for example the Dow Jones Sustainability Index and FTSE4Good Index promote environmental reporting, and the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) gives awards for social and environmental reporting internationally (for example see the ACCA website). Reporting consequently has the capacity to add value to a particular brand or to contribute positively to corporate image. In particular, it is seen to enable investors and consumers to make informed choices. Evidence suggests that ethical consumerism is on the rise (Involve, 2005), with sales of ethically marketed goods rising significantly year on year (New Economics Foundation, 2005). In this sense, the power of the ethical consumer and/or investor to pressurise businesses into ethical behaviour through the exercise of choice replaces regulation and legislation as a force for change.

So from a political or governmental perspective, CSR can be seen as a duty (having intrinsic or normative value), but there are also material incentives for corporations to be socially responsible, relating to sustainability and apparent consumer preferences for ethical business (CSR as having instrumental value). In the following section, I will focus more closely upon the debate concerning these two apparently distinct motivations for CSR.

The Instrumental/Normative Debate

A great deal of CSR literature is concerned with the perceived dichotomy of the normative and instrumental approaches. Much of the literature promotes the 'business case' for CSR with many claiming that "ethics can be good for business" (Swain in The Independent, 2007). CSR is understood to be a means of distinguishing and protecting brands and creating trust, and to attract and retain both potential employees and consumers. It is argued that CSR needs to be made relevant to the concerns of business people by emphasising and focusing on this 'instrumental' approach:

"CSR needs to be reconstructed in an instrumental linguistic praxis to be meaningful to managers in their day-to-day pursuits of organisational goals and objectives" (Amaeshi & Adi, 2006: 3)

Beesley & Evans (1978) suggest that governments should promote CSR through taxation and regulation to ensure that it is profitable for corporations to pursue CSR, and that it is only an achievable goal if competitive pressures are removed.

However, those who take a normative approach express the concern that an instrumentalist approach diminishes the underpinning ethical principles of CSR:

"Many HR advocates resist any arguments to the effect that a corporate HR agenda is 'good business' because that argument commodifies basic principles of human dignity and thus surrenders the moral high ground. In this view, corporations should protect human rights because it is the right thing to do, whether it is profitable or not" (Steinhardt in Alston, 2005: 179)

In effect, the normative/instrumental debate rests upon different notions of what the 'bottom line' of business might be. The different approaches themselves can be understood to be "underpinned by substantively differentiating, relative logics of emotional rationalism on the one hand, and instrumental rationalism (rational choice) on the other" (Amaeshi & Adi, 2006: 1). Interestingly, Reinhardt (in Hay et al, 2005) notes that the normative and instrumental arguments are often used simultaneously. For example:

"CR involves a change in company motivation. This may stem from the ethical attitudes of the managers in an industrial company, or...from an awareness that the company's own interests are best served by an enlightened policy" (Beesley & Evans, 1978: 35)

It is clear that there is interplay between the two approaches, with normative understandings of ethical business informing instrumental approaches, and different ways of conceptualising CSR seem to be used to suit different contexts or audiences in order to 'sell' the idea.

It is argued that an instrumental approach would only involve acting ethically as long as it was profitable to do so, whereas a normative approach suggests a more consistent ethical performance (Gond & Matten, 2007). Research demonstrates that the driving force for corporations to adopt CSR values is often catalysed by particular events. Cassell (2001) suggests that, for the most part, the adoption of voluntary codes by MNEs came "only after embarrassing public exposes of sweatshop conditions" and, further, that "the resulting voluntary codes have been weak and their enforcement even weaker" (2001: 268) suggesting that there has been as little commitment as possible. In such cases, an instrumental approach would seem to have been inadequate in ensuring genuine commitment to socially responsible business practices. In practice, whether or not CSR is employed normatively or instrumentally by individual corporations seems likely to be differentiated according to context. As will be

discussed in the following section, different approaches in particular are related in the literature to different conceptions of the role of corporations as well as to differences in personal values.

The Role and Nature of Corporations

In part, arguments about the nature of CSR can be related to different notions of the role and nature of corporations, and their relationship to society. These questions form a key part of 'business ethics' as a disciplinary area. As already suggested, CSR is rooted within a particular political discourse that assigns a particular role to corporations in relation to society and the state. Different frameworks for understanding this role can be seen to be related not only to different political perspectives, but also to religious ideas about business/commerce, as will be discussed below.

One of the most widely cited and strident opponents of the notion that corporations should be socially responsible is Milton Friedman (1970) who stated that:

"The businessmen believe that they are defending free enterprise when they declaim that business is not concerned 'merely' with profit but also with

promoting desirable 'social' ends; that business has a 'social conscience' and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else may be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers...Businessmen who talk this way are unwitting puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades" (Friedman, 1970)

His position relies on the 'theory of the firm' where all activity is directed towards shareholder value (Hemingway, 2005). Carroll (1991) suggests that economic responsibility is the 'bottom line' "because without it the others become moot considerations" (Carroll, 1991: 41). Others acknowledge that ethics and economics might sometimes clash, and suggest that corporations must move beyond the notion that profit "can alone stand as a reason for studying the ethics of business" (Chryssides & Kaler, 2005: 34).

But the purpose of the corporation is related to its status in society, and in particular, the question:

"Is the corporation the private property of the stockholders who choose to do business in the corporate form, or is the corporation a public institution sanctioned by the state for some social good?" (Boatright, 2000: 248)

Cone (2003) describes this debate as being about 'inherence' versus 'concession' - i.e. is 'incorporation' (i.e. the acquiring of corporation status) a privilege or a right? There are important implications for the role of the corporation and its ethical obligations. Questions are raised about the status of corporations as moral agents:

"...one of the most important issues to have emerged is whether, to what extent, and in what way, corporations can or should be held morally responsible. Are they simply organisations and artefacts that should be controlled, are they moral entities or quasi-moral entities with rights, or do they have some other status and are they to be viewed in some other light? The answers to the questions are not supplied by general ethical theory, which traditionally has been concerned with the actions of human individuals." (De George 1987: 206)

De George here suggests that there needs to be further consideration of the ways in which collective moral accountability can be understood. Similar issues are raised in terms of legal liability, where legislation often seeks to apply individualised conceptions of liability to corporations (Alston, 2004).

Religious as well as secular perspectives inform ideas about the nature of corporations and the limitations of acceptable business practice. In Jewish tradition, business ethics has historically been emphasised informed by legalistic

codes and an aspirational model that rest upon the idea of the duality of man (simultaneously ordered to 'subdue the earth' and also with responsibility to 'serve it and keep it') (Pava, 1998). Similarly in Islam, the twin principles of khalifah(delegated responsibility) are concerned with stewardship (of the earth) and social responsibility, and much of the Qu'ran deals with economic and social conduct (Cone, 2003). The Medieval Roman Catholic Church had codes of practice relating to business, e.g. fair wages and prices and Buddhism includes notions about 'perfect livelihoods' (Chryssides & Kaler, 2005). Cone's (2003) case study of Bank Muamaltat in Indonesia demonstrated the intrinsic role that religion can play in business, as the bank studied has a Shariah department to ensure that business is carried out according to Shariahlaw. Further, religion can be seen to inform the ways in which companies seek to engage in philanthropic activity, for example the Bank Muamaltat community priorities include supporting the hadj pilgrimage to Mecca. Within the UK, there are numerous examples of religiously motivated corporate philanthropy, such as the various projects of Quaker George Cadbury, who aimed to "[bring] the ethical teaching of Jesus Christ to bear upon National questions and [to promote] National righteousness" (Finlayson, 1993:139). In the following section, I will consider some different ideas about the role of the manager and of personal values within CSR and some of the issues that emerge.

The Role of the Manager

The role of the manager and other key decision makers is a central concern of much CSR literature. Key staff members are understood to face a complex task in implementing CSR values in concrete situations, and potentially to lack the skills to do so. Much of the literature suggests that commitment of employees and in particular decision-makers is essential to successful CSR. The personal values of managers are understood to be important, relating to the status of the manager as a 'moral actor'. Also interactions between organisational culture and personal values of managers are seen to be significant (Hemingway, 2005).

CSR requires a high level of understanding of key issues in order to make informed ethical or responsible decisions, although:

"...there is no necessity that...responsibilities are accompanied by heightened understanding of environmental issues amongst business managers" (Purvis et al in Fineman, 2000:15)

However, it is suggested that one obstacle to the implementation of CSR is "a new set of jargon to be made concrete to their circumstances or translated into business language" (European Multistakeholder Report, 2005: 9). It is clear that the task of including CSR considerations in decision making potentially requires skills and information that managers may not have, and that this could present difficulties.

It is further suggested that there are different types of manager, differentiated by their orientation to morality and defined as 'immoral', 'amoral' and 'moral' (Carroll, 1991), and that their 'moral type' consequently influences the decisions that they make. Gellerman (1986), however, suggests that immoral choices or decisions are made by managers for different reasons - either because of a difference of opinion on what counts as an immoral decision; because it is seen to be in individual or corporate interests; because the decision maker believes that the company will condone it for its instrumental value; or because immoral choices or decisions will not be discovered. Whilst some of these might invoke the moral orientation of the actor, there is also the implication that the subjective nature of morality plays a part, or that morality is sometimes subsumed beneath a sense of duty towards the corporation. Gellerman suggests that such issues can be solved through increased surveillance and control, and the realisation of the responsibility of senior executives to clarify the line between morality and loyalty.

However, others argue that it is more important to provide ethics training to enable managers to make informed decisions, and to increase skills in ethical decision making. Such training is intended "not to convert 'unethical' individuals but rather to help the majority of essentially well-meaning people in organisations appreciate and understand the moral significance of events around them, and to respond appropriately" (Maclagan, 1998: 2). Hemingway (2005) suggests that

reflexivity about personal values might also be a useful skill for managers, but as Maclagan points out there are significant restrictions on people's ability to employ this skill. Rather than being about the rational application of principles, managers face conflicted, power-infused, pressured and resource limited application of moral principles. Consequently, questions are raised about individual moral agency and about the limitations to moral/ethical action.

Goodpaster (2007) also acknowledges these tensions and contextual limitations:

"Business ethics appears to be essential because the requirements of business life are often so intensely goal-directed that they blind individuals and organisations to the ethical aspects of what they do. Yet business ethics appears to be illegitimate because the market and our legal system place significant limitations on management discretion when it comes to decision-making criteria. Managers who appeal to ethical values, if they are not looked upon as questionably sincere, are often looked upon as going beyond their authority" (Goodpaster, p11, 2007)

It is also perhaps important to consider what might be an ethical issue, and how the definition of such issues might change over time - for example environmental issues were not always seen as ethical in nature. This implies a need for managers to be aware of constantly evolving societal values and priorities, and to

be responsive to these changing concerns. So there are a number of questions raised about business people as moral actors, about ways of developing appropriate skills and knowledge, and of ensuring they act in accordance with ethical norms. In the following section, I will look at the relationship between stakeholders and corporations, and the ways in which companies might respond to external pressures and priorities from a diversity of different stakeholders.

Managing Accountability to Diverse Stakeholders

A key aspect of CSR, as suggested, is dialogue with and responsibilities to stakeholders. Carroll suggests that the notion of stakeholders enables a personalisation of responsibilities and also "delineating the specific groups or persons business should consider in its CSR orientation" (1991: 41). Some literature, though, problematises the task of identifying and engaging with stakeholders and of balancing different demands/claims. Further issues are raised about how to deal with applying and implementing particular codes of practice in different geographic and cultural contexts and the difficulties of dealing with diversity.

Definitions of different stakeholders can often be imprecise, or invoke taken for granted understandings. For example,

"While there is much reporting on 'community' often the community in question has not been clearly defined. Companies not only interact with the physical communities around their site, but also have any number of 'communities of interest' with whom building relationships and partnerships is important" (Bush, 2008: 25)

Further, the task of defining or delineating a particular group or stakeholder can itself be understood as a political endeavour:

"notions of the public, the community, or citizens are social constructions, formed out of a range of discourses that are mobilised in particular ways in specific historical and political contexts" (Barnes, Newman & Sullivan, p273, 2004)

Here, epistemological issues are raised concerning how to define the needs and preferences of a group whose definition is problematised, and consequently whose commonality is thrown into question.

De George (1978) presents a rather simplistic account of the ways in which corporations should seek to identify commonly held values:

"the morality which is to be applied to business in our society is the morality which is generally held by the members of our society...on those topics where there is disagreement, there should be informed debate about the nature of the activity in question, the circumstances and the moral principles which the differing groups think are applicable" (in Chryssides & Kaler (eds.), 2005: 39)

Such an account represents an appeal to metanarratives of values, but does not account for the possibility of difference or conflict. For example, multinational enterprises face distinctive challenges such as "diverse business practices, cultural and language differences and locating qualified sources" (Emmelhainz & Adams, 1999: 51). Globalisation is understood to result in cultural pluralism, rather than a global culture, and:

"whilst globalisation results in the deterritorialisation of some processes and activities, in many cases there is still a close connection between the local culture, including moral values, and a certain geographical region...globalisation reveals economic, political and cultural differences and confronts people with them" (Crane & Matten, 2007: 18)

Corporations are expected to be aware of, and to apply principles of, a range of multilateral, national and regional policies relating to, for example, rights, public participation in decision making, information sharing, environmental

responsibility, sustainability and poverty eradication. These are understood to be generalisable standards, though difficulties arise at the points of implementation and in seeking to combine them with localised value systems. All such policies can be seen as an attempt to codify ethical principles into objective standards of practice, and they are often presented as value-free, though there is a great deal of debate about this.

Differences of interpretation can arise even on the definitional level, for example Emmelhainz & Adams (1999) noted difficulties experienced in defining underage or child labour, whereby:

"The two most common definitions of underage were below 14 years of age...and 'the law of the land'. A few firms defined either 15 or 16 years as the minimum age and others provided no specific definition" (Emmelhainz & Adams, 1999: 54).

This demonstrates the complexity of applying universalist standards in particular contexts. Further, there can be disagreement amongst stakeholders "not only on the grounds of economic self-interest (losses and gains) but also on public interest (morality and social welfare)" (Cone, 2003: 51). Consequently, there are possibilities for conflict/disagreement and the varying of interpretation, which both raise difficulties for companies seeking to meet the demands and needs of stakeholders. In fact, CSR appears to give corporations the responsibility for a

task they have never claimed any ability to do, and which governments have often failed to achieve, that is the promotion and achievement of human rights standards in diverse settings. There seems to be a need for development of skills in understanding key environmental, social and economic issues as well as in evaluating competing demands and understanding the impact of different cultural, political, religious beliefs and of different socio/political and economic contexts.

The potential contribution of Philosophy and Theology & Religious Studies

A range of different disciplines inform the CSR debate, with a great deal of the literature originating in the field of business studies, or from within business itself:

"Regrettably, a significant amount of American material which passes for business ethics has been written by well-intentioned business people who, unfortunately, lack the analytical skills which would enable them to be clear as to what precisely key concepts such as fairness, justice, truth and the like might mean" (Chryssides & Kaler, 2005: 9)

Others use ideas from psychology, for example Hemingway (2005) draws on Kohlberg's stages of moral development, and also uses psychologistic notions of

self identity. Similarly, Carmichael & Drummond (1989) also use developmental understanding of values. It is likely that philosophy, as a discipline, could useful contribute to the debate through bringing a different perspective. Chryssides & Kaler (2005) suggest that modern philosophy has overly focused upon language and insufficiently on achieving positive social change. This claim raises questions about the purpose of learning or 'doing' philosophy, in particular whether philosophy is itself purely or partly instrumental. There is evidently value in considering the philosophical ground of concepts of rights. Further, there is great potential for Religious Studies to contribute to an understanding within CSR of issues relating to rights and difference, and the ways in which rights and responsibilities are interpreted within different faiths or different cultural contexts. Further, in developing dialogic interactions between different cultures and different conceptions of rights.

Conclusion

The brief overview of CSR literature provided here points towards a need for criteria to be established for judging ethical arguments, and balancing commitments to diverse stakeholders. Further, for implementers of CSR to acquire skills in defining and understanding ethical issues in business. It seems clear that the task of implementing CSR is complex, and that the contested nature of the concept raises difficult questions. Not only are businesses required to be responsive to current concerns, but they must also balance present requirements

with future demands and issues, as well as balancing local and global concerns. Whereas national and international guidelines and legislation provide a potential framework for achieving this, there are also numerous difficulties associated with the implementation of these in specific contexts. It is likely that the disciplines of Philosophy and Theology & Religious Studies could usefully contribute to the debate by bringing both expertise and diverse perspectives to bear on these issues.

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Appendix

Guidelines, Legislation and Agreements

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html

Document produced by the United Nations that outlines and lists fundamental human rights, and affirms member state's respect for, and duty to promote, such rights. The document focuses upon equality and the absence of discrimination, freedom, fair treatment, protection against state and other bodies, and protection by the state. It is intended to be applicable to anyone in any place or context.

International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)

http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm

Treaty that commits those who ratify the treaty to certain key economic, social and cultural rights, including employment aspects particularly relevant to CSR, namely:

Article 6: Recognises the right to work that is freely chosen, and includes "technical and vocational guidance and training programmes" to promote employment.

Article 7: Deals with working conditions, fair and non-discriminatory wages, equal opportunities, acceptable working hours.

Article 8: Asserts the right of workers to form and join trade unions and to take industrial action where necessary/appropriate.

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000)

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/default_en.htm

General rights document for the EU, which draws significantly on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The document details rights under the six main headings of dignity; freedoms; equality; solidarity; citizen's rights; and justice.

Chapter 2 (Article 15): the right to choose employment freely

Chapter 3 (Article 23): equality of pay and employment opportunities

Chapter 4 (Article 32): eliminating child labour

Chapter 4 (Article 37): sustainable development and environmental protection

Chapter 4 (Article 38): consumer protection

ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998)

http://www.ilo.org/declaration/thedeclaration/lang--en/index.htm

This agreement commits members to promote and respect principles and rights in four categories, including the right to freedom of association; the elimination of compulsory labour, the abolition of child labour and the elimination of discriminatory practices in employment. It is focussed upon the rights of the worker, and the importance of governmental protection of worker's rights.

UN Guidelines on Consumer Protection (as expanded in 1999)

www.un.org/esa/sustdev/publications/consumption_en.pdf

The guidelines encourage governments to set consumer protection policies, focusing on:

Health and safety of consumers Protection of consumer's economic interests Provision of information to enable 'informed choices' Education on impact of consumer choice Promotion of sustainable consumption Promoting self-organisation and consumer involvement in decision making Means of redress by consumers

The guidelines also encourage linking such policies to, for example, poverty eradication goals.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992)

http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm

Forms part of wider aims to develop global strategies for protecting the environment and promoting sustainable development. Again, this document draws reference to aims of poverty eradication and sustainable consumption patterns.

The declaration encourages the involvement of citizens and explains the importance of access to information and the raising of public awareness of relevant issues. It is addressed to the state level.

Aarhus Convention: Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (1998)

http://www.unece.org/env/pp/treatytext.htm

This agreement seeks to link environmental and human rights, and to promote the involvement of all stakeholders to ensure sustainable development. It focuses upon the need for transparency and accountability in environmental matters, and means of ensuring the informed and meaningful involvement of citizens/stakeholders in decision making and monitoring in this area. It is addressed to governments/state level.

The document seeks to establish good practice in terms of disseminating information and the importance of environmental reporting on the part of companies. It also sets out appropriate ways of ensuring public participation, through raising awareness, early publicising of involvement initiatives and identification of appropriate participants.

OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (2000)

http://www.oecd.org/document/28/0,3343,en_2649_34889_2397532_1_1_1_1,00.ht m

These guidelines are "voluntary principles and standards for responsible business conduct addressed to multinational enterprises themselves" (my emphasis, OECD Guidelines foreword, 2000: 2)

The guidelines cover the role of investment in economic, social and environmental issues; issues of sustainable development and the protection/promotion of human rights; the importance of providing employment opportunities and training; the promotion of good practice and good governance; the need for self-regulation and the building of trust; the importance of avoiding discrimination; and the need to avoid corruption or 'improper involvement' in local politics.

Useful Websites and Organisations

UN Global Compact

www.unglobalcompact.org/

The UN Global Compact brings together a number of concerns relating to CSR, and describes itself as "the world's largest voluntary corporate responsibility initiative". The compact involves a number of corporate and stakeholder partners and members, and aims to contribute to the development of integrated global strategies and policies towards ten principles of business operations.

CSR Europe

http://www.csreurope.org/

Brings together businesses to create new ideas for integrating CSR, for supporting the integration of CSR into business practice, and for sharing and disseminating best practice. The organisation includes both corporate members and partner organisations. The site includes a number of resources and also upto-date news on the development and promotion of CSR within Europe.

International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham

http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/business/ICCSR/

An academic centre based at the University of Nottingham Business School, involved in teaching and research on CSR. The site includes a number of resources, including news, academic papers and research, and links to other sites of interest.

University of Warwick Corporate Citizenship Unit

http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/research/ccu

Multidisciplinary academic research and teaching centre, focusing upon corporate citizenship and aiming to bring together a range of different actors to develop and promote corporate citizenship ideas.

Institute of Business Ethics

http://www.ibe.org.uk/

This charitable organisation aims to build awareness of ethical issues in business, and offers training in these issues. It also carries out research and disseminates information relating to ethics in business.

The Smith Institute

http://www.smith-institute.org.uk/

A think-tank with charitable status, which carries out independent research and training relating to the relationship between values and economic activity. A number of publications and resources are available on the site, covering a range of issues relating to CSR.

New Economics Foundation

http://www.neweconomics.org

A radical think tank that aims to promote social and environmental reporting and to develop new ways for business to take account of ethical issues.

Article 13

http://www.article13.com/

This site includes case studies from different companies regarding CSR and also provides services for development of CSR strategies and also reporting. The organisation also offers training in CSR competencies.

Confederation of British Industry (CBI)

http://www.cbi.org.uk/ndbs/staticpages.nsf/StaticPages/home.html/?OpenDocum ent

Organisation that lobbies on behalf of business in the UK, and works with governments and other agencies to support business opportunities. Also provides events, training and resources. Their site has a number of resources about CSR, and suggestions for incorporating CSR standards and objectives.

Ethical Consumer

http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/

An "alternative consumer organisation" that carries out research and disseminates information about ethical activities of companies and organisations. Aimed at the consumer.

Ethical Performance

http://www.ethicalperformance.com/

This is a web-based newsletter providing a range of links, news, events and resources relating to CSR in a range of international contexts.

Journal of Business Ethics

http://www.springer.com/philosophy/ethics/journal/10551

An academic journal, available online or in print format, which publishes papers from a range of disciplines relating to business ethics.

Journal of Corporate Citizenship

http://www.greenleaf-publishing.com/default.asp?ContentID=16

An academic journal, available online or in print format that is aimed at a wide audience, including NGOs, businesses and academics. Deals with a range of issues relevant to CSR.

Harvard Business Review

http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/b02/en/hbr/hbr_current_issue.jht ml

A journal more generally focussed upon business, but with articles and information relevant to CSR concerns.

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Marketing Mix

Figure 3: The Concept of Marketing Mix

Product

The main product of the Global System is the Global Smart Card. Global initially offered consumers a 10 percent savings and a 100 percent satisfaction guarantee to increase adoption in the transportation sector and to remove uncertainty about the new technology. Metro and rail transportation operators provide discounts to Global cards over single ticket cards; the discounts vary according to the distance traveled. Smart card adoption for metro riders is 90 percent and for rail commuters over 80 percent These incentives, along with the simplicity, speed, and convenience of the system's technology, resulted in over three million cards being issued during the first three months and established a critical mass of smart card users who were familiar with RFID technology as metro and rail transportation operators offer multiple ride tickets on the Global card and single ride tickets on magnetic stripe cards. This is highly relevant since over 70 percent of Hong Kong residents use some form of public transportation each day and are more likely to use the multiple ride tickets offered by Global as likewise indicated by reports that constraining multiple ride tickets to Global cards elicited little consumer dissatisfaction. Global card adoption on these transportation lines is somewhat lower compared with the metro and rail lines. In this regard, merchants also enjoy a number of benefits reducing cash handling and in-store queues, thus increasing customer loyalty through the merchants who offer ad hoc discounts to customers using the card.

Pricing

One of the advantages of the Global Smart Card is when it comes to its pricing tactic. In order to be known into the market place and as a new entrant, the company will provide its target market with an affordable cost while providing them a high quality products and services. The company will be given the customer and client a price that is lesser than its competitors so that the consumer will be enhanced to buy and patronize the Global Smart Card. Each card is loaded with HK$500 and will be topped up with $350 after the balance goes below zero.

Placement/Distribution

To be known in the market place, the product will be distributed directly to its clients and consumers. And to be known internationally, one of the strategies that the product will utilize is going on a joint venture with distinguished distributor of the card, providing them with great offers, so as to market the product of the

Global System. The company will also find a Smart Card Alliance in the US, Europe and Asia to be known globally.

One of the prospects of the company to merge with in order to be known in the local and international market is to have a joint venture with SAP, one of the most distinguished software industries in HK. In this way, the Global System will be able to distribute its products as a subsidiary of SCA, HK. With the trust that the client of SCA is giving, the company will be able to use this as an instrument to be also known by different distributors of SCA, in which in return will help the company to be distinguished as well.

Promotion/Communication

To promote the company and its product, the company will use video advertisements, print advertisements and the concept of e-marketing. These promotion and communication strategy will tend to meet the consumers form different places everywhere, especially those target markets or the consumers in the working place.

Moreover, since the trend in the market place today is the usage of emarketing, the company will provide a website that any client can access. The use of the Internet is changing high-tech marketing overnight while different industries have been trying to use it as part of their marketing strategy. It does not only reconfigured the way different firms do business and the way the

consumers buy goods and services but it also become instrumental in transforming the value chain from manufacturers to retailers to consumers, creating a new retail distribution channel (Donthu and Garcia, 1999). E-

marketing is a powerful tool used by different business organizations around the world. It is defined as the process of achieving marketing objectives through the use of electronic communications technology. Smith and Chaffey (2001) have provided a 5Ss' mnemonic for how the internet can be applied by all business firms for different e-marketing tactics. These 5S's are selling, serve, speak, save and sizzle.

E-marketing is also known to be the online marketing strategy utilized by different company whose objective is to be the best company in their field. Thus, the Company will create its own website. The main objective of utilising emarketing strategy is to keep in touch to different internet users to be able to attract more clients and consumers. All in all, through the website, whether the user is a customer, employee, stockholders, vendors, retailers or end customers, the true strength of e-marketing is acceleration of the business portfolio.

Figure 4: Marketing Communication Process Market Segmentation

Here, the Company will provide its target consumers for its product. Primarily, the context of the market segmentation for this company will be the Psychographics. Psychographics includes social class, lifestyle, and personality variables (Chiagouris and Kahle, 2000). The end result of using these variables is a psychological profile of each market segment. Issues also examined the customers' loyalties, habits and self-concept. Social class describes how individuals want their office automation will meet their comfort and satisfaction, what they consider important about their immediate surroundings, their opinions on various issues, and their interests.

As an example, Michman (1991) cited that psychographics and lifestyle can be related to newspaper readership and the selling of space to potential advertisers. Since many newspapers are confronted with competition not only from television, many are concentrating on lifestyle research in order to

comprehend how their readers allocate leisure time and how to gain a larger share of that time. Lifestyle research is most useful when it also measures demographics and the use of products or services. Lifestyle research by advertisers can help potential advertisers to envision their market better than when demographic variables are used alone.

As these lifestyle studies concentrates on what the consumer requires, using these study results as marketing strategies eventually became a marketing concept. Robert Keith (1960) is one of those highly credited for popularizing this specific marketing concept. The marketing concept is a basic philosophy that maintains that an organization should Endeavour to satisfy the needs and wants of customers through a coordinated set of activities that also allows the organization to achieve its goals at a profit. Some firms fail in this task since they are more concerned with making a product and selling the product than satisfying potential customer wants and needs. The company must be able to consider its

consumer, especially the demands of the consumer so as to let the business have an opportunity of having an expansion of its business portfolio as required by the consumers and the clients' need.

Figure 5: Buyer Decision Process

Marketing Strategies

Marketing is the practice of preparation and implementing the pricing, advertising, and supply of goods, ideas, and services to generate trades that satisfy individual and organizational goals. Marketing has two key concepts, customer/clients acquisitions and maintenance of customers/clients. In the context of marketing, learning is a result of information received through advertising or other publicity or through some reference group or other. In order to have an effect on motives or attitudes, marketing effort should associate the product with positive drives and reinforcing messages.

A fundamental aim of marketers is to bring about satisfaction for their customers, and this is cardinal to the concept of marketing. Having looked at some of the issues that make up consumer behavior, Global Cars should look at the consumer's central goal. Because they are continually occupied in the quest for satisfaction, competitive offerings will always have potential appeal. Firms must seek continuous improvement to the products or services and the levels of support they provide. This is a matter of balancing costs and potential profit with customer demands, as 'total satisfaction', except in a minority of cases, is an unrealistically expensive goal. There are four models of consumer behaviors:

An individual needs a particular product. Information will be sought from a variety of sources including family and friends (called 'word of mouth') from advertising, from catalogues, from visits to retail establishments, and from many other sources. The more complex the product, the greater will tend to be this information search. The task of marketing is to ensure that the company's products receive high exposure during this 'information search' period and that the best points of the product are emphasized during the 'evaluation of alternatives' phase. This will put the company's product in the best light prior to the 'purchase decision', because even then the consumer is still susceptible to further influences in relating to making the correct choice. Marketers must also be aware of 'post-purchase behavior' because this can affect repeat business and forward looking companies attach as much importance to after-sales service as they do to making the initial sale. This reduces the degree of dissatisfaction (or dissonance) in the case of genuine complaints. One method that is now practiced for sales of major items like new motor cars is where companies follow up a sale by some form of communication by letter or telephone with their customers. This builds confidence in the mind of the customer in having made the 'correct' purchasing decision. The terminology that has been attached to this kind of after-sales follow-up is 'customer care'.

Global Card should have knowledge of how the buyer/decision process works is critical to the success of marketing strategy. For simple products, the task of marketing is to direct the purchasing routine in favor of the company's products, perhaps through an effective mass advertising campaign. The buyer/decision model was not specifically designed for new products and its substance was concerned with search and problem solving. It begins with awareness. Marketers must first create awareness and then

assist customers through subsequent stages of the process. Consumers cannot begin to consider a new product or service as a solution to need-related problems without this awareness. Successful innovative products should attempt to be problem-solving as successful innovative products should attempt to be problem-solving as far as the customer is concerned. Awareness, Interest/Information, Evaluation, Trial, Adoption.

Awareness can come about as a result of the marketing effort of the company or simply by 'word of mouth' communication. If the product has potential interest and appeal, then potential purchasers will seek further information. Consumers then evaluate the new product against existing products, and then make an initial adoption by obtaining a trial sample, which might be a free sample or a 'trial' purchase. The adoption stage is when a decision is made whether to Use the product (in the case of a fast moving consumer good on a repeat purchase basis). Post adoption confirmation is when the product has been adopted and the consumer is seeking reassurance about the wisdom of the purchase. After a major purchase, dissonance (termed cognitive dissonance) is present in the sign of unease that what was thought to be value for money at the time of purchase may not, after all, turn out to be true value. Such dissonance should be countered by the provision of some kind of follow-up - either...

The consumption of goods purchases fall quite readily into three classes when considered on the basis of his buying habits. These are so called, convenience goods, shopping goods and specialty goods. Convenience goods are those which the consumer purchases in the most convenient manner possible. Convenience may be synonymous to one's home or one's place of work or, indeed, within the proximity,

accessibility by motorcar. The category generally comprises things of low unit value purchased at frequent intervals. Such items as bread and other staple groceries and tooth paste also fall into convenience-good class. Shopping goods include those which the typical consumer desires to compare in price and quality in a number of establishments before purchasing. They usually are relatively expensive items, purchased infrequently. Style goods, such as women's clothes and furniture, are examples of such merchandise. Specialty goods, finally, are those which are sufficiently different from other goods in the same class to possess reputation enough to cause the consumer to go to a considerable inconvenience--Usually to a particular firm--to purchase them. Specialty institutions are not, as is sometimes thought, necessarily

the higher priced establishments. For example, Penney's is a specialty institution for some consumers who, when needing shoes or sheets or some item of children's clothing, perhaps, go directly to this store to make the purchase, although they possibly become specialty buyers through experience gathered as a result of the shopping process.

Shopping has to do with a comparison not only of prices among various institutions, but of merchandise qualities also. Indeed, at times price does not even enter into the calculation, although this may be rare. The point is, however, that one is typically attempting to compare values (prices and quality) in order to obtain the best item for the money. He is, in short, attempting to make the most advantage purchase. Consumer

buying habits have a very important bearing on the lines of merchandise handled by various types of retail institutions. Among the several factors influencing the merchant's selection of lines to carry (including the availability of adequate space for display and

storage, financial requirements involved, servicing required of merchandise after sale, the markup one may expect in relation to costs of doing business, the suitability of the store's location for the sale of such merchandise, etc.) the first probably is that of consumer expectations. The question is: "Do, or will, consumers expect to buy the merchandise in question at, for instance, a department store, a variety chain store, or some type of neighborhood store? The strategic marketing plan however, does not indicate how performance will be achieved. Thus, there is also a need to develop a marketing mix strategy composed of the 4Ps and resource allocation or marketing budget which will complete the details of the strategic marketing plan.

Read more: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2008/05/marketing-mixs.html#ixzz1vi7Z1vf6

Making Markets work for CSR


by V S Rama Rao on September 1, 2007 CSR in full form is Corporate Social Responsibility. There are compelling market drivers which would give a positive reinforcement to corporate companies to focus on Triple bottom line performance. These powerful drivers energize innovation by companies, so that CSR becomes an integral part of the marketing mix and competitive differentiator. The most potent force that can trigger a complete rethink of corporate strategy and bring about transformation change lies in the power of consumers franchise. The term consumer is used here in a broader sense to encompass other market participants including Government both as a buyer and regulator, Investors, Employees, Job Seekers and other segments of Civil Society. An enlightened consumer by exercising a choice in favor of socially responsible enterprise can unleash a powerful force of incentives. A positive vote for socially responsible companies, exercised through preference for a companys products and services, would change the context and dimension of meaningful CSR, create strong economic

multiplexes and enhance shareholders value. The implication of such consumer franchise for business will be wide ranging. 1. Consumer preference will spur a massive movement in corporate innovation to integrate business goals with the building of societal capital. 2. CSR can also emerge as a distinctive market differentiator and help position progressive companies more strongly in the marketplace. 3. Companies will vie for consumer spend by positioning CSR a compelling value proposition. 4. Gains would accrue to the company and its shareholders with increasing revenues and goodwill. 5. Where consumers go, Investors will follow. Investors will increasingly find such socially responsible companies attractive, given the larger market gains. 6. Potential employees would also seek opportunities in such successful companies and the enterprises themselves would be better positioned in the war for talent. 7. Competition amongst CSR exemplars would lead to a perceptible augmentation of natural and social capital and this would create a more sustainable future. Thus, powerful market drivers will emerge to encourage CSR as an integral part of business strategy. In the course of time, stakeholders will build a more enduring relationship wit such companies, continuously creating value for the organization, for its shareholders and the nation.

more at http://www.citeman.com/2000-making-markets-work-for-csr.html#ixzz1vi8f5tAf

Marketing Mix Paper


Marketing Mix Paper

Introduction

What could possibly be important about the four Ps, and what do they have to do with this thing called the Marketing Mix? The Marketing Mix is a set of policies for the four Ps that is developed to meet the needs of a company or firm's target market. The marketing mix should be reasoned, and internally consistent. The four Ps are; Product, Place, Price and Promotion. By using variations of these four components you have the ability to reach multiple consumers

within your target market. It often takes experimenting and solid market research to creating a successful marketing mix that will increase desired results. The key is to not always depend on "one" mix, the combining and coordination of these elements will be more effective than depending on one. (Kotler, 2001) A good strategy combines the marketing mix and the target market. The marketing mix is considered the core of a marketing strategy, and can initially be stated in general terms

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GET BETTER GRADES that become more specific as the mix is implemented. All elements of the mix must be compatible with each other and they must be appropriate for the target market. (About, 2006) As an element of the marketing mix, price doesn't mean a specific price but rather a price policy describing the plan for how specific prices will be set. Price is a powerful tool, and should be set with certain objectives in mind. In the early stages of the product life cycle, high prices may be used in an effort to recover development costs early. Prices may then be lowered or the firm may move on to other markets in the early stages of development. In the early stages of the product life cycle, low prices may be used to rapidly expand the buyer base for the firm's brand, making it more difficult for other companies and products to gain market share. Pricing can be used to indicate quality levels from luxury or economy. Pricing can also be used to clear out-dated or out-of-style inventory; converting it to cash...

Marketing theory
Marketing mix (Price, Place, Promotion, Product)
When marketing their products firms need to create a successful mix of:

the right product sold at the right price in the right place using the most suitable promotion.

To create the right marketing mix, businesses have to meet the following conditions:

The product has to have the right features - for example, it must look good and work well.

The price must be right. Consumer will need to buy in large numbers to produce a healthy profit. The goods must be in the right place at the right time. Making sure that the goods arrive when and where they are wanted is an important operation. The target group needs to be made aware of the existence and availability of the product through promotion. Successful promotion helps a firm to spread costs over a larger output.

For example, a company like Kellogg's is constantly developing new breakfast cereals - the product element is the new product itself, getting the price right involves examining customer perceptions and rival products as well as costs of manufacture, promotion involves engaging in a range of promotional activities e.g. competitions, product tasting etc, and place involves using the best possible channels of distribution such as leading supermarket chains.The product is the central point on which marketing energy must focus. Finding out how to make the product, setting up the production line, providing the finance and manufacturing the product are not the responsibility of the marketing function. However, it is concerned with what the product means to the customer. Marketing therefore plays a key role in determining such aspects as:

the appearance of the product - in line with the requirements of the market the function of the product - products must address the needs of customers as identified through market research.

The product range and how it is used is a function of the marketing mix. The range may be broadened or a brand may be extended for tactical reasons, such as matching competition or catering for seasonal fluctuations. Alternatively, a product may be repositioned to make it more acceptable for a new group of consumers as part of a long-term plan. The price

Of all the aspects of the marketing mix, price is the one, which creates sales revenue - all the others are costs. The price of an item is clearly an important determinant of the value of sales made. In theory, price is really determined by the discovery of what customers perceive is the value of the item on sale. Researching consumers' opinions about pricing is important as it indicates how they value what they are looking for as well as what they want to pay. An organisation's pricing policy will vary according to time and circumstances. Crudely speaking, the value of water in the Lake District will be considerably different from the value of water in the desert.
The place

Although figures vary widely from product to product, roughly a fifth of the cost of a product goes on getting it to the customer. 'Place' is concerned with various methods of transporting and storing goods, and then making them available for the customer. Getting the right product to the right place at the right time involves the distribution system. The choice of distribution method will depend on a variety of circumstances. It will be more convenient for some manufacturers to

sell to wholesalers who then sell to retailers, while others will prefer to sell directly to retailers or customers.
The promotion

Promotion is the business of communicating with customers. It will provide information that will assist them in making a decision to purchase a product or service. The razzmatazz, pace and creativity of some promotional activities are almost alien to normal business activities. The cost associated with promotion or advertising goods and services often represents a sizeable proportion of the overall cost of producing an item. However, successful promotion increases sales so that advertising and other costs are spread over a larger output. Though increased promotional activity is often a sign of a response to a problem such as competitive activity, it enables an organisation to develop and build up a succession of messages and can be extremely cost-effective.
The marketing mix of Manchester United

What are the main elements of the marketing mix of Manchester United? First of all the product includes providing an excellent football team that plays and wins in an exciting way. However, there are other ingredients of the product including merchandising such as the sale of shirts, and a range of memorabilia. The product also relates to television rights, and Manchester United's own television channel. In one respect the place is Old Trafford where home games are played, but Manchester United also plays at a range of other venues. And, of course its products are sold across the globe, through the club's website and a range of other sales media. Manchester United markets itself as a global brand. The club also engages in a range of joint promotional activities, for example with the mobile phone company Vodafone. Manchester United books, shirts, programmes, keyrings and many other items are sold and promoted through its website. The club has positioned itself at the upmarket premier end of the market and, as a result, it tends to charge premium prices as evidenced by the high cost of a season ticket to watch home league games. Positioning or repositioning a product - refers to locating that product within a market for example presenting it is an upmarket or downmarket product. Positioning it as a product for younger consumers or older consumers etc.
Find marketing case studies

Creating a winning marketing mix Edition 16

This case study describes how JD (part of the JD Sports Fashion PLC Group of companies), a large and well-known retailer, manages the balance of its marketing mix around its consumers' needs in order to achieve business growth.

Using sports marketing to engage with consumers Edition 16

This case study illustrates how Kia, a South Korean motor company, has used sports marketing to develop its brand identity in the European motor market.

Using the marketing mix to drive change Edition 16

This case study explores how Parcelforce Worldwide responded to increased competition by using the marketing mix or 4Ps.

The marketing mix in the food industry Edition 15

This case study shows how McCain combines all four parts of the marketing mix to develop its marketing strategy.

Live, breathe and wear passion Edition 15

This case study looks at how Diesel promotes its products and the brand.

Protecting the marketing mix through intellectual property rights Edition 14

This case study looks at how one technology company, Forensic Pathways, has used these legal safeguards for a new development.

The use of the marketing mix in product launch Edition 13

This case study shows how a carefully balanced marketing mix provides the platform for launching and re-launching a brand onto the market.

Using the marketing mix in the fashion industry Edition 13

This case study examines how Ben Sherman uses the marketing mix to help the business remain competitive and extend its market share and influence.

Entering a new market with a new product Edition 12

This case study helps students understand the range of choices available to companies for market and product development.

Sponsorship and the marketing mix Edition 11

This case study helps students understand how effective sponsorship involves all 4Ps of the marketing mix.

Creating the right marketing mix Edition 11

This case study helps students understand the marketing mix including product, price, place and promotion.

Re-focussing a company's culture and marketing mix Edition 9

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: understand the cultural change brought about at Argos to boost sales, be able to identify the 7 Ps of the extended marketing mix, understand the changes made to the marketing mix at Argos,

Meeting customers' needs in growth markets - online gaming Edition 9

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: explain how broadband meets customers need for speed, identify key segments in the gaming market, explain how BT has developed a marketing mix for broadband gaming.

Using new product development to grow a brand Edition 9

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: appreciate the need to make decisions that help to manage, maintain and develop the value of brands, appreciate the importance of market research processes and the questions that market researchers seek to answer, link processes of market research with a range of products that closely meet consumers needs.

Meeting customers' needs Edition 9

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: identify how the business maintains sustained financial growth through acquisition and development of the existing business, understand how a customer service programme can help to improve performance and ensure long term financial stability, explain the key components of the marketing mix and how implementation of the mix will enhance customer satisfaction.
Glossary Related Theory

The marketing mix The extended marketing mix (7Ps) Creating strategies that meet customer needs (the marketing mix)

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Companies featured in The Times 100


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Aldi
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Aldi works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering lean production. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

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Anglo American works in the mining industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering corporate responsibility, ethics, new product development, aims and objectives and strategic planning. You can learn more about the mining industry by reading mining case studies from The Times 100.

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ARM works in the computing/it industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering motivation. You can learn more about the computing/it industry by reading computing/it case studies from The Times 100.

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ASDA works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering stakeholders and developing people. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

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Bernard Matthews works in the food & drink industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering communications. You can learn more about the food & drink industry by reading food & drink case studies from The Times 100.

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Bibby Line Group works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering growth. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

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British Gas works in the energy industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering organising people and roles and responsibilities. You can learn more about the energy industry by reading energy case studies from The Times 100.

BT
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BT works in the telecommunications industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering marketing mix and stakeholders. You can learn more about the telecommunications industry by reading telecommunications case studies from The Times 100.

CEMEX
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CEMEX works in the construction industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering location of business. You can learn more about the construction industry by reading construction case studies from The Times 100.

Chartered Institute of Management Accountants


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Chartered Institute of Management Accountants works in the financial services industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering decision making, cash flow and business cycle. You can learn more about the financial services industry by reading financial services case studies from The Times 100.

Chartered Management Institute


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Chartered Management Institute works in the consultancy industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering organising people. You can learn more about the consultancy industry by reading consultancy case studies from The Times 100.

Co-operative Food Group


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Enterprise Rent-A-Car
o

Enterprise Rent-A-Car works in the services industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering customer service, organising people, recruitment and selection, motivation, location of business and marketing strategies. You can learn more about the services industry by reading services case studies from The Times 100.

Eurostar
o

Eurostar works in the travel & transport industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering risk. You can learn more about the travel & transport industry by reading travel & transport case studies from The Times 100.

Harrods
o

Harrods works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering developing people. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

Hi-Tec Sports
o

Hi-Tec Sports works in the sportswear industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering promotion. You can learn more about the sportswear industry by reading sportswear case studies from The Times 100.

JD Sports
o

JD Sports works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering marketing mix. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

Jessops
o

Jessops works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering external influences. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

Kellogg's
o

Kellogg's works in the manufacturing industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering marketing mix, promotion, marketing planning, branding, aims and objectives, product life cycle, supply chain, market research and motivation. You can learn more about the manufacturing industry by reading manufacturing case studies from The Times 100.

Kia Motors
o

Kia Motors works in the automotive industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering marketing mix. You can learn more about the automotive industry by reading automotive case studies from The Times 100.

Morrisons
o

Morrisons works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering customer service. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

Nestle
o

Nestle works in the food & drink industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering product life cycle, promotion, supply chain, business and the environment, production process, customer focus, corporate responsibility and ethics. You can learn

more about the food & drink industry by reading food & drink case studies from The Times 100.

Network Rail
o

Network Rail works in the travel & transport industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering decision making and external influences. You can learn more about the travel & transport industry by reading travel & transport case studies from The Times 100.

OPITO
o

OPITO works in the oil & gas industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering organising people, sectors of industry and roles and responsibilities. You can learn more about the oil & gas industry by reading oil & gas case studies from The Times 100.

Parcelforce Worldwide
o

Parcelforce Worldwide works in the logistics industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering customer service and marketing mix. You can learn more about the logistics industry by reading logistics case studies from The Times 100.

Portakabin
o

Portakabin works in the construction industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering marketing planning, marketing strategies, customer focus, quality, customer service, market research, promotion, lean production and product portfolio. You can learn more about the construction industry by reading construction case studies from The Times 100.

Primark
o

Primark works in the fashion industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering ethics and stakeholders. You can learn more about the fashion industry by reading fashion case studies from The Times 100.

Red Bull
o

Red Bull works in the food & drink industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering promotion. You can learn more about the food & drink industry by reading food & drink case studies from The Times 100.

Reed Elsevier
o

Reed Elsevier works in the publishing industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering stakeholders. You can learn more about the publishing industry by reading publishing case studies from The Times 100.

Sheffield Forgemasters International


o

Sheffield Forgemasters International works in the engineering industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering developing people. You can learn more about the engineering industry by reading engineering case studies from The Times 100.

Syngenta
o

Syngenta works in the r&d industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering research and development, external influences, organising people and investment appraisal. You can learn more about the r&d industry by reading r&d case studies from The Times 100.

Tarmac
o

Tarmac works in the construction industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering organising people, roles and responsibilities and diversity. You can learn more about the construction industry by reading construction case studies from The Times 100.

Tata Steel
o

Tata Steel works in the manufacturing industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering ethics. You can learn more about the manufacturing industry by reading manufacturing case studies from The Times 100.

Tesco
o

Tesco works in the retail industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering recruitment and selection, developing people, motivation and organising people. You can learn more about the retail industry by reading retail case studies from The Times 100.

TNT
o

TNT works in the logistics industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering strategic planning. You can learn more about the logistics industry by reading logistics case studies from The Times 100.

UNISON
o

UNISON works in the public sector industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering managing change, protecting people, health & safety, communications, aims and objectives, external influences and promotion. You can learn more about the public sector industry by reading public sector case studies from The Times 100.

Zurich
o

Zurich works in the financial services industry and has case studies in The Times 100 covering market research and strategic planning. You can learn more about the financial services industry by reading financial services case studies from The Times 100.

Featured Roles & responsibilities

This case study demonstrates how the right people with the right skills ensure that the sector can maximise the recovery of the remaining oil and gas reserves as well as remaining competitive and profitable.
Investment appraisal in action

This case study looks at how in 2008 Syngenta proposed an investment in new manufacturing capacity that would allow it to increase production of Amistar. It reviews the analyses that helped the company decide whether to proceed with this investment.
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Business Case Studies by Topic


Below is a list of case studies from The Times 100 organised by Topic. Choose your sub topic by clicking the arrowed links below your selected business studies topic heading.

By Topic By Edition By Company By Industry Edition 17 Preview

External environment
o o o o o o o o o o

Business and the environment Business cycle Consumer protection Corporate responsibility Economy Ethics External influences Globalisation Government influence

Business and the environment

How an Environmental Management System (EMS) helps create a sustainable business

Edition 8: This case study shows how Travis Perkins has built an EMS based on the International Standard ISO 14001 in order to reduce costs and make a major contribution to sustainability. Therefore, it intends to minimise its impact on the environment.

The message is in the medium

Edition 6:

Doing Better By The Environment

Edition 6:
o

Business cycle

Decision making across the business cycle

Edition 16: The case study illustrates how management accountants support business decision making during all the stages of the business cycle.

Working within the business cycle

Edition 15: This case study illustrates how building societies manage theirbusiness during the various phases of the business cycle.

Managing firms throughout the business cycle

Edition 14: This case study examines how Davis Service Group, one of Britain's key service companies, has managed the recent change in the business cycle.

Planning and the business cycle

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand the business cycle and how companies manage risk and investment by understanding the external environment.
o

Consumer protection in business

Meeting and exceeding consumer protection laws to drive competitive advantage

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand consumer protection and how companies need to exceed legal requirements in competitive market places.

Championing competition

Edition 8: This case study looks at how the OFT helps to make markets work better for consumers through its roles of investigation, enforcement and communication. We can support the work of the OFT by becoming more discriminating and by seeking and demanding excellent products and high standards of service.
o

Corporate responsibility in business

Corporate Social Responsibility

Edition 12: This case study describes how the work Amway does with UNICEF supports its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy.

Social and environmental responsibility

Edition 12: This case study highlights how Anglo American contributes to sustainable development through being socially and environmentally responsible.

Creating a corporate social responsibility strategy

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand strategies for meeting stakeholders' needs.

Working for sustainable development in primary industry

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand sustainability, stakeholders and ethics as well as the links between these topics.

Nutrition, Health & Wellness - New Product Development at Nestle

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand how companies research, develop and launch new products.

Meeting global responsibilities by caring for communities

Edition 10: As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, Students should be able to: know the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), give examples of CSR activities, understand the importance to business of being involved with communities on a local and global scale.

The importance of social responsibility

Edition 7:

Corporate Citizenship and the community

Edition 4:
o

Economy in business

Using technology to improve economies

Edition 14: This case study highlights Vodafone's activities in different types of economies and the impactof technology on both developed and developing markets
o

Ethics in business

Business ethics and sustainability in the steel industry

Edition 16: This case study looks at how Tata Steel is committed to environmentally-sound practices and tackling the challenges of sustainability.

Providing consumers with ethically sourced garments

Edition 15: This case study shows how Primark sources the clothes it sells in its shops in an ethical and fair way, often at added cost to itself.

Business ethics and corporate social responsibility

Edition 13: This case study shows the challenges Anglo American faces in its industry and how it seeks to make ethical choices in its business practice.

Business principles in action - nutritional labelling

Edition 12: This case study shows how market research has helped Nestl understand what consumers wanted to know about Nestl products so they can make informed choices. This has enabled Nestle to exercise corporate responsibility and demonstrate its business principles.

Developing and implementing a strategic approach to ethics

Edition 10: As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: explain the importance of ethics, understand how a strategic approach to ethics is more likely to be effective, understand how ethics can shape responses to change.

The contribution of accountants to sound, ethical business practice

Edition 9: As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: understand the nature and purpose of accounting, appreciate the role of professional accountants in managing information and using knowledge for decision-taking purposes , understand the contribution made by accounting standards and a code of ethics towards providing a true and fair view of business performance.

Ethical business practices

Edition 9: As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: understand what is meant by ethical behaviour within business, explain the possible broad-ranging benefits of ethical behaviour, describe the ways in which Cadbury Schweppes behaves ethically towards its stakeholders.

Read more: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/case-studies/by-topic/#ixzz1viCfFi4n

Corporate responsibility in business

Corporate Social Responsibility

Edition 12: This case study describes how the work Amway does with UNICEF supports its Corporate Social Responsibility strategy.

Social and environmental responsibility

Edition 12: This case study highlights how Anglo American contributes to sustainable development through being socially and environmentally responsible.

Creating a corporate social responsibility strategy

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand strategies for meeting stakeholders' needs.

Working for sustainable development in primary industry

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand sustainability, stakeholders and ethics as well as the links between these topics.

Nutrition, Health & Wellness - New Product Development at Nestle

Edition 11: This case study helps students understand how companies research, develop and launch new products.

Meeting global responsibilities by caring for communities

Edition 10: As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, Students should be able to: know the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), give examples of CSR activities, understand the importance to business of being involved with communities on a local and global scale.

The importance of social responsibility

Edition 7:

Corporate Citizenship and the community

Edition 4:

Read more: http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/case-studies/by-topic/#ixzz1viCvma7l

Business Case Studies by Industry


Below is a list of case studies featured in the latest editions of The Times 100, organised by the industry their company serves.

By Topic By Edition By Company By Industry Edition 17 Preview

Automotive

Kia Motors case studies


o

Using sports marketing to engage with consumers

This case study illustrates how Kia, a South Korean motor company, has used sports marketing to develop its brand identity in the European motor market. Edition 16

Chemical

Cristal Global case studies

Computing/IT

ARM case studies


o

Motivation within an innovative work environment

This case study will analyse motivational theory in the context of the employees of ARM Holdings PLC. Edition 16

Construction

Portakabin case studies


o

[+] Achieving growth through product development

This case study illustrates how Portakabin, a manufacturer of factory produced buildings, has developed a range of new products called Essential Business Solutions (EBS). The purpose of EBS was to develop products that more closely meet the needs of its customers. Edition 16
o

[+] How the role of marketing drives business forwards

This case study shows how Portakabin uses marketing to identify and anticipate customer needs and then meet them. Edition 15
o

[+] Lean production at Portakabin

This case study focuses on how Portakabin uses lean production methods to ensure it produces aquality product that gives value to the customer. Edition 14

[+] Promoting the brand

This case study explores how Portakabin uses market analysis to identify customer requirements and promote its brand. Edition 13
o

[+] How market research helps Portakabin to remain at the cutting edge

This case study helps students understand the importance of market research to successful, customer-led product development. Edition 12
o

[+] The importance of excellent customer service

This case study helps students understand the importance of understanding what customers want to improve customer service. Edition 11
o

[+] The importance of quality in creating competitive advantage

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: know that quality relates to how well a product does what it is intended to do, explain how the ability to provide quality consistently gives some companies competitive advantage, demonstrate the importance of offering customers high quality service. Edition 10
o

[+] Meeting customer needs for competitive advantage

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: define the term competitive advantage, understand the importance of differentiation as a competitive strategy, distinguish between private and public sector customers. Edition 9
o

[+] Developing products and services to meet market demand

This case study examines how Portakabin has developed new products in response to growth in its existing markets. In particular, it focuses on Portakabin WardSpace accommodation: an efficient way of meeting increasingly demanding and highly specific requirements of the healthcare industry. Edition 8
o

Responding to an Emerging Market

Tarmac case studies


o

[+] Competitive advantage through diversity

This case study demonstrates how Tarmac is benefiting from developing a diverse workforce. Edition 16
o

[+] Developing a Human Resource strategy

This case study focuses on Human Resource Management within Tarmac. It looks at how workforce planning and other HR strategies enable Tarmac to meet its mission. Edition 15
o

[+] How roles and functions contribute to organisational performance

This case study focuses on how the people in Tarmac Quarry Materials deliver the highest value for customers, communities, employees and investors. Edition 14
o

[+] How roles and functions contribute to competitive advantage

This case study shows how Tarmac focuses on attracting and keeping the right staff and ensuring its employees have the right skills and expertise to grow the company. Edition 13
o

[+] Tarmac's functions - working together towards its mission statement

This case study examines how organisational structure and departmental functions all contribute to the achievement of business objectives. Edition 12

CEMEX case studies


o

Sustainable performance in the construction industry

This case study examines how CEMEX locates and carries out its operations in a sustainable way. Edition 16

Consultancy

Chartered Management Institute case studies


o

[+] Using teamwork to build a better workplace

This case study illustrates how CMI, by training managers and leaders, supports the work of effective team-working within the workplace. Edition 16
o

[+] The importance of effective management

This case study looks at the theoretical basis behind CMI's highly regarded practices and shows how CMI ensures its members have the practical skills to make an impact in business. Edition 15

Energy

British Gas case studies


o

[+] Roles, responsibilities and career development

This case study illustrates the variety of career paths available within British Gas, the structures that employees work within and the levels of responsibility for each role. Edition 16
o

[+] Workforce planning at British Gas

This case study explores how British Gas manages the recruitment and selection of new employees. Edition 15

Engineering

Sheffield Forgemasters International case studies


o

Apprenticeship training within the steel industry

This case study looks in more detail at SFILs apprenticeship programme. It draws on the experiences of three current apprentices: Dan, Kurt and Rebecca. It also considers the broader training challenge for a modern engineering business such as SFIL. Edition 17

Fashion

Primark case studies


o

[+] Engaging with stakeholders

This case study looks at how Primark engages with some of its key external stakeholders. Edition 16
o

[+] Providing consumers with ethically sourced garments

This case study shows how Primark sources the clothes it sells in its shops in an ethical and fair way, often at added cost to itself. Edition 15

Financial services

Chartered Institute of Management Accountants case studies


o

[+] Decision making techniques

This case study illustrates how management accountants use financial data to help make informed decisions. Edition 17
o

[+] Decision making across the business cycle

The case study illustrates how management accountants support business decision making during all the stages of the business cycle. Edition 16
o

[+] Controlling cash flow for business growth

This case study looks at how management accountants forecast, monitor and control cash flow in order to maintain the ongoing financial health of businesses. Edition 15
o

[+] Improving strategic decision making

This case study looks at a structured approach to decision making. It shows how CIMA-trained management accountants have the skills to offer strategic and practical advice and can contribute to effective decision making at all levels in a business. Edition 14
o

[+] Financial information in decision making

This case study looks at the roles and duties that management accountants cover in a business and at CIMA, an organisation which supports management accountants through training and certification. Edition 13

Zurich case studies


o

[+] A customer-centred approach to providing insurance

This case study examines the customer-focused approach of Zurich, the insurance and financial services provider Edition 16
o

[+] Providing a customer-centric service

This case study focuses on how Zurich has used market research to develop a business strategy of 'delivering help when it matters so that customers feel valued and taken care of'. Edition 15

Food & drink

Nestle case studies


o

[+] Business principles in action - nutritional labelling

This case study shows how market research has helped Nestl understand what consumers wanted to know about Nestl products so they can make informed choices. This has enabled Nestle to exercise corporate responsibility and demonstrate its business principles. Edition 12
o

[+] Nutrition, Health & Wellness - New Product Development at Nestle

This case study helps students understand how companies research, develop and launch new products. Edition 11
o

[+] Responding to changing customer requirements: the drive towards Wellness

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: know that increasing numbers of people want healthier foods, understand how and why market focused companies (e.g. Nestl) respond to such developments, know about Nestl: its size, its products and its worldwide reputation. Edition 10

[+] Sustainability and water

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: know the basic economic problem and how it is solved, understand the factors of production and opportunity cost, describe what is meant by sustainability. Edition 9
o

[+] From bean to bar - the production process

This case study looks at the massive, complex worldwide operations that ensures that chocolate products are on the shelves of retail outlets 365 days a year. In reality, it represents a triumph for careful planning and meticulous organisation. Edition 8
o o o o o o

Kit Kat: Revitalising a Brand Leader Doing Better By The Environment Coffee - The Supply Chain Long term maintenance of a classic brand name The power of love Injecting new life into the product life cycle

Bernard Matthews case studies


o

Communicating with stakeholders

This case study explores how Bernard Matthews has addressed the challenges of communicating with its customers and other important stakeholders. Edition 16

Red Bull case studies


o

Engaging consumers through word of mouth marketing

This case study illustrates how Red Bull, the manufacturer of the world's best selling energy drink, uses a range of innovative promotional techniques to improve the process of communication and drive consumer engagement and loyalty. Edition 16

Logistics

Parcelforce Worldwide case studies


o

[+] Using the marketing mix to drive change

This case study explores how Parcelforce Worldwide responded to increased competition by using the marketing mix or 4Ps. Edition 16
o

[+] Customer service as a strategy

This case study examines how a strategy focused on customer service can contribute to longterm business development. Edition 13

TNT case studies


o

Delivering a business strategy

The case study explores how TNT delivers its business strategy and achieves consistently high standards of service through its people. Edition 16

Manufacturing

Kellogg's case studies


o

[+] Building a better workplace through motivation

This case study focuses on how Kellogg's motivates its people. It illustrates how the use of motivational techniques helps to develop the business as a great place to work. Edition 16
o

[+] New products from market research

This case study focuses on the importance of market research during the development and launch of Crunchy Nut Bites, a more recent extension to the Crunchy Nut brand. Edition 15
o

[+] Supply chain from manufacturing to shelf

This case study shows how Kellogg's fulfils this mission in the later parts of the supply chain from manufacturing to shelf. Edition 14
o

[+] Extending the product life cycle

This case study shows how Kellogg recognised that the Nutri-Grain brand was losing market share. It used business tools to re-launch the brand and return it to growth in its market. Edition 13
o

[+] Using aims and objectives to create a business strategy

This case study shows how the use of SMART objectives is an essential part of creating a successful business strategy. Edition 12
o

[+] Using promotion to boost sales and brand value

This case study helps students understand how companies promote above and below the line. Edition 11
o

[+] Building a brand in order to sustain its life cycle

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: know what is meant by a product life cycle, understand research is needed to identify the best way of injecting new life into brands/products, explain the key components of a SWOT analysis. Edition 10
o

[+] Using new product development to grow a brand

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: appreciate the need to make decisions that help to manage, maintain and develop the value of brands, appreciate the importance of market research processes and the questions that market researchers seek to answer, link processes of market research with a range of products that closely meet consumers needs. Edition 9
o o

Revitalising a valued character Re-branding a Corporate Image

Tata Steel case studies


o

Business ethics and sustainability in the steel industry

This case study looks at how Tata Steel is committed to environmentally-sound practices and tackling the challenges of sustainability. Edition 16

Mining

Anglo American case studies


o

[+] Adding value through asset optimisation

This case study shows how Anglo American ensures it operates in the most efficient way possible. Since 2008 Anglo American has, through the implementation of its AO programme, been able to deliver on its stated target of saving $1 billion from core operations by 2011. Edition 16
o

[+] Social responsibility - using resources more efficiently

This case study shows how Anglo American, through its aims and objectives, is driving forward its approach to sustainable development. Edition 15
o

[+] New technology development in the primary sector

This case study focuses on how Anglo American carries out new product and process development. Edition 14
o

[+] Business ethics and corporate social responsibility

This case study shows the challenges Anglo American faces in its industry and how it seeks to make ethical choices in its business practice. Edition 13
o

[+] Social and environmental responsibility

This case study highlights how Anglo American contributes to sustainable development through being socially and environmentally responsible. Edition 12
o

[+] Working for sustainable development in primary industry

This case study helps students understand sustainability, stakeholders and ethics as well as the links between these topics. Edition 11

Oil & gas

OPITO case studies


o

[+] Roles & responsibilities

This case study demonstrates how the right people with the right skills ensure that the sector can maximise the recovery of the remaining oil and gas reserves as well as remaining competitive and profitable. Edition 16
o

[+] Sectors of industry

This case study shows the importance of primary sector activities in the oil and gas industry, highlighting the range of work and the skills required. Edition 15
o

[+] Management styles in the oil and gas industry

This case study examines how different management styles may be necessary to support the variety of job roles within the oil and gas industry. Edition 14

Public sector

UNISON case studies


o

[+] Using promotion to campaign for public services

This case study focuses on how UNISON has promoted its A Million Voices for Public Services campaign. It has used a range of methods and technologies designed to reach a variety of different audiences. Edition 16
o

[+] Negotiation and representation at work

This case study shows how UNISON is working with employers to support and develop high quality apprenticeship schemes for young people in line with government policy. Edition 15
o

[+] Use of PEST analysis at UNISON

This case study focuses on the issues faced by migrant workers in the UK. Edition 14
o

[+] Driving forward environmental aims and objectives

This case study focuses on the way businesses impact on the environment. One of UNISON's aims is to help to improve the environment at work and, by so doing, contribute to efforts to tackle climate change. Edition 13
o

[+] Using effective communications

This case study helps students understand communication processes and the benefits for an organisation of effective communication. Edition 12
o

[+] Health and safety in the workplace

This case study helps students understand the role of unions understanding their work in Health and Safety. Edition 11
o

[+] UNISON and unions' wider role

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: understand why employers and employees need to agree on what is fair in the workplace, explain the role of unions in both protecting and representing workers at both local and national level, give examples of cases where UNISON has been successful on behalf of workers. Edition 10
o

[+] Organisations and unions

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: explain the benefits for the employer and employee of working together harmoniously for the common good, outline the work of UNISON in protecting public sector workers rights, understand that union membership is a hard-won right that employees should exercise. Edition 9
o

[+] Trade Unions - dealing with change

This case study looks at how trade unions still play a vital role in promoting fairness in the workplace and how they achieved big improvements in the lives of working women. It also looks at why they are trying to persuade young members that becoming a union member brings them enormous advantages in the workplace. Edition 8

Publishing

Reed Elsevier case studies


o

Corporate responsibility and stakeholders

This case study shows how Reed Elsevier's business benefits from meeting the needs of all of its stakeholders. Edition 16

R&D

Syngenta case studies


o

[+] Investment appraisal in action

This case study looks at how in 2008 Syngenta proposed an investment in new manufacturing capacity that would allow it to increase production of Amistar. It reviews the analyses that helped the company decide whether to proceed with this investment. Edition 16
o

[+] Product design through research and development

This case study shows how R&D is central to building Syngenta's product range. Edition 15
o

[+] Developing an effective organisational structure

The case study shows how Syngenta operates though a matrix structure. This involves staff from different departments working together in teams on specific projects and tasks. Edition 14
o

[+] Feeding and fuelling the world through technology

This case study looks at how Syngenta, one of the world's leading plant science businesses, is meeting the dual challenge of increasing crop yield and producing alternative fuels. Edition 13
o

[+] Using research and development to improve agricultural productivity

This case study looks at the research and development process as part of product development and its importance to environmental sustainability. Edition 12

Retail

ASDA case studies


o

[+] Meeting business needs through training and development

This case study focuses on how ASDA's training and development programmes enable its General Store Managers (GSMs) to develop the skills and experience they need to become the Regional Operations Managers (ROMs) and senior leaders of the future. Edition 16
o

[+] Meeting stakeholder needs through community involvement

This case study helps students understand how companies meet their stakeholders needs through community involvement. Edition 11

Tesco case studies


o

[+] Developing appropriate leadership styles

This case study will show how Tesco's leadership framework is fundamental to developing the qualities of leadership needed at every level in the business. Edition 16
o

[+] Motivational theory in practice at Tesco

This case study looks at how Tesco motivates its employees by increasing their knowledge, skills and job satisfaction through training and development and providing relevant and timely reward and recognition. Edition 15
o

[+] How training and development supports business growth

This case study looks at how Tesco provides training and development opportunities for its employees. Edition 14
o

[+] Recruitment and selection

This case study looks at how Tesco ensures it has the right number of people in the right jobs and at its structured process for recruitment and selection. Edition 13

Co-operative Food Group case studies


o

Ethically serving stakeholders

This case study shows how The Co-operative Group's values contribute to improving the diet and health of the UK. Edition 14

JD Sports case studies


o

Creating a winning marketing mix

This case study describes how JD (part of the JD Sports Fashion PLC Group of companies), a large and well-known retailer, manages the balance of its marketing mix around its consumers' needs in order to achieve business growth. Edition 16

Jessops case studies


o

Responding to changes in the market environment

This case study reviews the external factors that have had an impact on Jessops' operations and strategy. Edition 16

Morrisons case studies


o

Developing competitive advantage through customer service

This case study shows how Morrisons uses customer service to differentiate itself from its competitors, motivate its colleagues and help the business to grow. Edition 16

Aldi case studies


o

Competitive advantage through efficiency

This case study will demonstrate how Aldi uses a lean approach to its business operations to offer its customers quality products at competitive prices. Edition 16

Harrods case studies


o

Developing a career path in retail

This case study show how Harrods develops its employees so they can achieve a rewarding career in retail. Edition 17

Bibby Line Group case studies


o

Growth through investment

This case study looks at the strategies used by Bibby Line Group to grow the business, whilst retaining a strong family ethos. Edition 17

Services

Enterprise Rent-A-Car case studies


o

[+] Marketing and product strategies for growth

This case study illustrates how Enterprise Rent-A-Car has expanded its operations beyond its core business of car hire. The case study uses Ansoff's matrix to illustrate how it has developed its strategies to improve and grow the business, creating new products and extending its services into new markets. Edition 17
o

[+] Locating a business to enhance the customer experience

This case study focuses on how Enterprise Rent-A-Car decides where to locate its new or relocated branches. Edition 16
o

[+] Motivation in action

This case study looks at ways in which Enterprise Rent-A-Car (Enterprise) managers find out about what motivates their staff. Edition 15
o

[+] Recruitment and selection at Enterprise Rent-A-Car

This case study explores how Enterprise ensures it has the right people and skills to achieve its business aims and objectives. Edition 14
o

[+] Using a range of management styles to lead a business

This case study focuses on leadership within Enterprise. It shows how its managers use a range of management and leadership styles to support Enterprise's focus on customers. Edition 13
o

[+] The importance of customer service at Enterprise Rent-A-Car

This case study demonstrates the importance that Enterprise Rent-A-Car places on the role of excellent customer service in growing the business. Edition 12

Sportswear

Hi-Tec Sports case studies


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Using promotion to position a brand

This case study illustrates how Hi-Tec Sports developed a new approach to promoting its brand positioning and engaging with customers through a viral marketing campaign. Edition 16

Telecommunications

BT case studies
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[+] Stakeholders as partners

This case study shows how BT engages with its stakeholders. It explains how the company is working with different stakeholder groups to reduce the environmental impact of its operations. Edition 16
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[+] Sustainability, stakeholders and profits

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: describe the moral principles underpinning the pursuit of sustainable development, describe some benefits of sustainability, identify factors that are important to stakeholders. Edition 9
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[+] Meeting customers' needs in growth markets - online gaming

As a result of carefully reading the Case Study, students should be able to: explain how broadband meets customers need for speed, identify key segments in the gaming market, explain how BT has developed a marketing mix for broadband gaming. Edition 9

Travel & transport

Network Rail case studies


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[+] Using PESTEL to design effective strategies

This case study describes how PESTEL analysis helps Network Rail to respond to changes in its business environment. Edition 12
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[+] Critical Path Analysis at Network Rail

This case study highlights the importance of planning for major projects and how using Critical Path Analysis contributes to efficient and effective use of resources. Edition 11

Eurostar case studies


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Calculating and managing risk

This case study examines how Eurostar proactively manages risk through its business continuity programmes. Edition 16 See also these unsponsored industries: Electrical/electronics Legal Leisure Non-profit
Featured Roles & responsibilities

This case study demonstrates how the right people with the right skills ensure that the sector can maximise the recovery of the remaining oil and gas reserves as well as remaining competitive and profitable.
Investment appraisal in action

This case study looks at how in 2008 Syngenta proposed an investment in new manufacturing capacity that would allow it to increase production of Amistar. It reviews the analyses that helped the company decide whether to proceed with this investment.
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