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# Q. 1. Find the equation of the plane, which is at a distance of 5 unit from the origin and has as a normal vector.

Ans.
Here, p = 5 and ,

Q. 2. Find the equation of the plane whose distance from the origin is 8 units and the direction ratios of the normal are 6, 3, 2. Ans.
Here, p = 8, a = 6, b = 3, c = 2.

## Therefore, the required equation of the plane is:

Q. 3.

Find the equation of the plane is plane from the origin. Ans.

units.

Q. 4.

Here,

## Now, Cartesian form of the equation of this plane is:

Q. 5.

Find the equation of the plane passing through the point (3, 3, 1) and perpendicular to the line joining the points (3, 4, 1) and (2, 1, 5). Ans.
The equation of the plane passing through the point (3, 3, 1) is:
a(x 3) + b(y + 3) + c(z 1) = 0 and the direction ratios of the line joining the points (3, 4, 1) and (2, 1, 5) is 2 3, 1 4, 5 + 1, i.e., 1, 5, 6. Since the plane is perpendicular to the line whose direction ratios are 1, 5, 6, therefore, direction ratios of the normal to the plane is 1, 5, 6. So, required equation of plane is: 1(x 3) 5(y + 3) + 6(z 1) = 0 i.e., x + 5y 6z + 18 = 0.

Q. 6.

If

. P(x, y,

Here, and

## . Find the equation of plane in

is perpendicular to

. Therefore,

Q. 7.

Let be the vector normal to the plane and be the position vector of the point through which the plane passes. Then find the equation of plane. Ans.
Let P be a arbitrary point on the plane with position vector .

## as a position vector of the point through

Q. 8. Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (1, 4, 3), (3, 2, 5) and ( 3, 8, 5). Ans.
Let
The equation of the plane is:

Q. 9. Find the co-ordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the origin to the plane 2x 3y + 6z + 7 = 0. Ans.

Let the co-ordinates of the foot of the perpendicular drawn from the origin to the plane 2x 3y + 6z + 7 = 0 is (x1, y1, z1).
Now, the equation in the normal form is:

## Hence, the foot of the perpendicular is

Q. 10. Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (2, 5, 8) and perpendicular to each one of the planes 2x 3y + 4z + 1 = 0 and 4x + y 2z + 6 = 0. Ans.
Equation of the plane passing through the point (2, 5, 8) is:
a(x 2) + b(y 5) + c(z + 8) = 0 If the plane perpendicular to the plane 2x 3y + 4z + 1 = 0, then 2a 3b + 4c = 0 If the plane perpendicular to the plane 4x + y 2z + 6 = 0, then 4a + b 2c = 0 On solving equations (2) and (3), we get (1) (2) and (3)

## On substituting the proportional values of a, b and c in (1), we get (x 2) + 10(y 5) + 7(z + 8) = 0

Q. 1. The equation of the plane which makes the intercepts 2, 3, 4 with X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis respectively. Ans.
Equation of the plane making the intercepts 2, 3, 4 with co-ordinate axes is:

Q. 2. Reduce the equation of the plane 3x + 4y 6z = 6 to intercept form and find the intercepts made by the plane with the co-ordinate axes. Ans.
The given equation of the plane is 3x + 4y 6z = 6.

It is the required equation in the intercept form and it makes the intercepts 2, 3/2 and 1 with the X-axis, Yaxis and Z-axis respectively.

Q. 3.

Write the equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes . Ans.
If and are two planes.

and

Then equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes is:

Q. 4.

## Show that the lines

and

are coplanar.

Ans.
Here, x1 = 1, y1 = 2, z1 = 5, a1 = 1, b1 = 2, c1 = 5 and
x2 = 3, y2 = 1, z2 = 5, a2 = 3, b2 = 1, c2 = 5.

## Therefore, the lines are coplanar.

Q. 5. Find the equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes 3x 5y + 4z + 11 = 0, 2x 7y + 4z 3 = 0 and the point ( 2, 1, 3). Ans.
The equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes 3x 5y + 4z + 11 = 0, 2x 7y + 4z 3 = 0 is:
. Also, the plane passing through the point ( 2, 1, 3),

## Now, the required equation of the plane is:

Q. 6.

Ans.

Q. 7. A variable plane moves in such a way that the sum of the reciprocals of its intercepts on the three coordinate axes is constant. Show that the plane passes through a fixed point. Ans.

Q. 8. Reduce the equation 2x + 3y - 4z = 12 to intercept form and find its intercepts on the coordinate axes. Ans.

Q. 9. A plane which remains at a constant distance 3p from the origin cuts the co-ordinate axes at A, B and C. Show that the locus of the centroid of triangle ABC is x-2 + y-2 + z-2 = p-2. Ans.
Let a, b, c are the intercepts made by the plane with the co-ordinate axes, then the co-ordinates of A, B and C are (a, 0, 0), (0, b, 0) and (0, 0, c) respectively.

## Then the equation of the plane is

(1)

Also, the perpendicular distance of this plane from the origin is 3p.

Now, let (x, y, z) be the co-ordinates of the centroid of the triangle ABC, then

## On putting the values of a, b and c in (2), we get

Q. 10. Find the equation of the plane passing through the line of intersection of the planes and the point .

Ans.
The equation of the plane passing through the planes . Also, the plane passing through the point
.

and

is:

Q. 1.

## Write the condition for the plane Ans.

Let be the angle between the planes and

and

are perpendicular.

and

. Also,

to the planes

## . Then the angle between the planes is given by

.
Also, both planes are perpendicular, if

Q. 2. Find the angle between the planes 2x + y z = 4 and x 2y z = 7 using vector method. Ans.
The angle between the two planes is the angle between their normal . and

Q. 3.

Find the distance of the point (3, 2, 5) from the plane Ans.
Here, , and d = 5.

Now, the distance of the point (3, 2, 5) from the plane is:

Q. 4.

What is the length of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane Ans.
The length of the perpendicular from the origin to the plane is:

Q. 5.

## Show that the planes 3x + 4y 5z + 7 = 0 and x + 3y + 3z + 7 = 0 are perpendicular. Ans.

The direction ratios of the normals to the planes are 3, 4, 5 and 1, 3, 3.
Now, (3)(1) + (4)(3) + ( 5)(3) = 3 + 12 15 = 15 15 = 0. Therefore, the planes are perpendicular to each other.

Q. 6. A variable plane is at a constant distance p from the origin and meets the axes in points A,B,C. Through A,B, C planes are drawn parallel to the coordinate planes. Prove that the locus of their point of intersection is x-2 + y-2+z-2 = p-2. Ans.

Q. 7. Find the equation of the plane which passes through the point (3,4,-1) and is parallel to the plane 2x - 3y + 5z + 7 = 0. Also find the distance between the two planes. Ans.

Q. 8.

## and the plane 5x 4y + 7z + 10 = 0.

Ans.
Let be the angle between the given line and the plane. The vector equations of the line and and .

plane are:

Here, and . Now, angle between the line and the plane is given by

## Q. 9. Find the angle between the planes 3x 2y + 6z = 8 and 4x 8y + z = 13. Ans.

Let the angle between the planes be
.

## Also, here, A1 = 3, B1 = 2, C1 = 6 and A2 = 4, B2 = 8, C2 = 1.

Q. 10. The foot of the perpendicular drawn from the origin to a plane is (2, 1, 5). Find the equation of the plane. Ans.
Since, the foot of the perpendicular to the plane is A(2, 1, 5). Therefore, (2, 1, 5) is the point on the plane.
So, equation of the plane passing through the point (2,.1, 5) is: a(x 2) + b(y 1) + c(z 5) = 0. Now, the direction ratios of the perpendicular line OA = 2 0, 1 0, 5 0, i.e., 2, 1, 5. Therefore, the required plane is: 2(x 2) + 1(y 1) + 5(z 5) = 0 i.e, 2x + y + 5z = 30.

Q. 1. Find the direction cosines of the line whose direction ratios are 4, 3, 2 . Ans.
Let l, m, n be the direction cosines, then

Q. 2.

## Find the direction cosines of the vector Ans.

Direction ratios of the vector = 6, 2, 3.

.&

Q. 3. Find the direction cosines of the line segment joining the points (2, 0, 1) and (1, 3, 2). Ans.
The direction ratios of the line segment joining the points (2, 0, 1) and (1, 3, 2) are ( 1 2), (3 0), ( 2 1) i.e., 3, 3, 3.

Q. 4. Find the angle inclined to Z-axis, where line is inclined to X-axis at 45o and to Y-axis at 60o. Ans.

Q. 5. If a line in the XY-plane makes an angle 60o with X-axis. Find the direction cosines of this line. Ans.
A line makes an angle 60o with X-axis and 30o with Y-axis, then it will make an angle 90o with Z-axis.

Q. 6.

Let

Q. 7.

Let

## be the direction cosines of the given line. Then .

Q. 8. The co-ordinates of the vertices of the triangle are A(1 0, 3), B(2, 3, 6) and C(1, 3, 2). Find the direction cosines of the medians of the triangle

Ans.
The co-ordinates of the vertices of the triangle are A (5, 1, 2), B (1, 3, 6) and C (1, 3, 2). Let mid-points of BC, CA and AB be D, E and F respectively.

## Co-ordinates of point D = Co-ordinates of point E = Co-ordinates of point F =

, and .

Q. 9. Show that the points A (2, 3, 4), B (1, 2, 3) and C (3, 8, 11) are collinear. Ans.
Direction ratios of line joining A and B are 1 2, 2 3, 3 + 4 i.e., 1, 5, 7. The direction ratios of line joining B and C are 3 1, 8 + 2, 11 3, i.e., 2, 10, 14. It is clear that direction ratios of AB and BC are proportional, hence, AB is parallel to BC. But point B is common to both AB and BC. Therefore, A, B, C are collinear points.

Q. 10. The vertices of a triangle ABC are A (1, 2, 3), B (5, 0, 6) and

C (0, 4, 1). Find the direction cosines of the bisector of the angle BAC. Ans.
Here, AB = .

AC =

By geometry, the bisector of will divide the side BC in the ratio AB : AC i.e., in the ratio 7 : 3 internally. Let the bisector of meets the side BC at point D. Therefore, D divides BC in the ratio 7 : 3.

Coordinates of D are

i.e.,

Therefore, direction ratios of the bisector AD are Hence, direction cosines of the bisector AD are

i.e.,

Q. 1. Find the Cartesian equation of the straight line passing through the point (1, 3, 2) and parallel to the vector Ans.
The equation passing through the point (1, 3, 2) and the direction ratios of the vector to which line is parallel are 2, 3, 1.
Cartesian equation of line is:

Q. 2.

Find the Cartesian equation of line which passes through the points (2, 0, 5) and (4, 3, 2). Ans.
Cartesian equation of line passing through the points (2, 0, 5) and (4, 3, 2) is:

Q. 3. Find the Cartesian equation of the line which passes through the origin and parallel to the line .

Ans.

## The direction ratios of the line, which parallel to the line

is ( 1, 2, 5).

The Cartesian equation of the line which passes through the origin and parallel to the line is .

Q. 4. Find the Cartesian equation of line which passes through the origin and the point (2, 1, 5). Ans.
Cartesian equation of line passing through the points (0, 0, 0) and (2, 1, 5) is:

Q. 5. Prove that the points (7, 2, 5), (2, 4, 2) and (4, 0, 4) are collinear. Also find the equation of the line containing these points. Ans.
Let the points A, B and C are (7, 2, 5), (2, 4, 2) and (4, 0, 4) respectively.
Direction ratios of the line AB = 2 7, 4 + 2, 2 5 = 9, 6, 3 and Direction ratios of the line BC = 4 + 2, 0 4, 4 2 = 6, 4, 2. It is clear that direction ratios of AB and BC are proportional. Hence, AB is parallel to BC. But point B is common to both AB and BC. Therefore, A, B, C are collinear points.

Cartesian equation of the line ABC: Equation of the line passing through C(4, 0, 4) and parallel to the line whose direction ratios are 9, 6, 3 is
.

Q. 6.

## and find its direction cosines.

The given equation is: parallel to the line whose ratios are (1, 2, 3).
Thus, the Cartesian equation of the line is:

## So, the direction cosines are

Q. 7. Find the Cartesian equation of the line which passes through the point (3, 2, 1) and equally inclined to the axes. Ans.
Let the direction ratios of the line which is equally inclined to the axes.

Now, the equation of the line passing through (3, 2, 1) and parallel to the line whose direction ratios are 1, 1, 1. is: .

Q. 8. Find the equation of the line passes through the origin and in the direction of the line which passes through the points (0, 2, 5) and (7, 5, 2). Ans.
Direction ratios of the line which passes through the point (0, 2, 5) and (7, 5, 2) = 7 0, 5 2, 2 + 5 = 7, 3, 7.
Now, the equation of the line passes through the origin and parallel to the line whose direction ratios are 7, 3, 7 is:

Q. 9. Find the equation of the line in vector and in Cartesian form that passes through the point with position vector and is in the direction .

Ans.
The vector form of the equation passes through is: . and parallel to the vector

## The Cartesian form of this equation is:

Q. 1.

Let be the direction ratios of two lines and be the angle between them. Then find the angle between them in the form of direction ratios. Also find the condition that the lines are perpendicular. Ans.
Let vectors be the direction ratios of two lines, then the angle between the is .

Q. 2.

## Find the angle between the pair of lines given by .

and

Ans.
Here, and . Let the angle between the lines be .

Q. 3.

## Find the angle between the lines

and

Ans.
The direction ratios of the first line are 2, 3, 6 and the direction ratios of the second line are 2, 1, 2. If the angle between the lines is , then

Q. 4.

## Show that the lines

and

are perpendicular.

Ans.
The direction ratios of the first line are 3, 2, 5 and the direction ratios of the second line are 1, 1, 1. If the angle between the lines is , then

## Thus, the lines are perpendicular.

Q. 5. Show that the line segment joining the points ( 1, 2, 3) and (1, 4, 1) is parallel to the line segment joining the points (1, 2, 3) and (2, 3, 5). Ans.
The direction ratios of the first line segment is 1 + 1, 4 2, 1 + 3 i.e., 2, 2, 4 and the direction ratios of the second line segment is 2 1, 3 2, 5 3 i.e., 1, 1, 2.
Let the angle between the both line segments be , then

Q. 6.

and

Ans.

## The both lines are parallel, because

are proportional.

Q. 7.

## Find the shortest distance between the lines:

and

Ans.
The vector equations of these equations are:

and

Q. 8.

## Find the shortest distance between the lines: . Ans.

The given equations can be written as
and

and

## Q. 9. Show that the line 6x = y = 4z is perpendicular to the 2x = 3y = z. Ans.

The given lines are 6x = y = 4z and 2x = 3y = z.

Q. 10.

## Find the angle between any two diagonals of a cube. Ans.

Let O, one vertex of a cube, be the origin and three edges through O be the
Co-ordinate axes. The four diagonals are OP, AA', BB' and CC'. Let a be the length of each edge. Then the co-ordinates of P, A, A' are (a, a, a), (a, 0, 0), (0, a, a). The direction ratios of OP are a, a, a.

i.e.,