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1950 5: 1017-1035

THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BLOOD : I. RELATIONSHIP TO ERYTHROCYTE CONCENTRATION


FREDERIC G. HIRSCH, E. CLINTON TEXTER, JR., LLOYD A. WOOD, WILLIAM C. BALLARD, JR., FRANCIS E. HORAN, IRVING S. WRIGHT, CONSTANCE FREY and DOROTHY STARR

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From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

THE I.

ELECTRICAL
RELATIONSHIP TO

CONDUCTIVITY
ERYTHROCYTE

OF
CONCENTRATION

BLOOD

By

FREDERIC

G.

HIRSCH,

M.D.,
WILLIAM

E. C.
AND

CLINTON BALLARD,

TEXTER, JR.,

JR.

M.D.,
FRANCIS

LLOYD

A.

WooD,

PH.D.,
HORAN,

ME.,

E.

PH.D.,

IRVING

S.

WRIGHT,

M.D.
AND DOROTHY STARR,

llith

the THE of

technical COURSE

assistance of study was undertaken. during and direct to the Stewart of Endres7 Fricke approximately cell of value the effects certain due also will design
Research

CONSTANCE of

FREY,

BA.

B.S. the in resistance blood pathologic almost of property which from made the perfect blood sys-

another essential of clotting others8 current. concentration and the the

study for The and Later of Wilson8 hematocrit

it

became

necessary interfacial

to

measure potentials of in various investigated. is and of cell an this tables volume characterissurface the also it acts AC have workers unable blood as been resistance

blood, A thorough blood and Stewart


of

a value

determining electrical electrical clot showed studies the for by delineated showed to that conduct its of direct with been observed, but conductivity of vary with the of the serum conductance. rise retraction4 that

tems. human conditions3 In was was possible resistance Cole, tics

conductivity characteristics conductivity was the red that formulation the the that resistivity, plasma. current, low frequency and Some others during were cells, clot
37.

normal

also cell the

1897,

nonconductor

showed the and

proportional utilized the by values.


2325

erythrocytes,#{176}7 mean and only It has

determination and

Subsequent
6

investigations further and giving one-half not Curtis8

Moore

Roaf,9 the while

Fricke,202 layer interior shown9 a dielectric bridges, been confirm was have to resistance variaunable attributed at of had the

Achard the red

electrophysical

of

cell. of

erythrocyte a conductivity that In tions to these these observed conductivity stirring.394 effects with
From

is nonconducting, the high in conductivity on a true to to increase was It are almost cell
Vascular

while measurements

red

does blood

sufficiently

frequency. conductivity time of of to found be entirely are shown the designs extrusion to a function essentially
Department

with

have blood

workers

agree

changes

coagulation,3034 of

findings.3536with

retraction.32 Blood 35
38 agitation,3 or

sedimentation,35 measurements reported geometry of

from

herein the

that

these cell, and

conductivity

proper
the York,
Cornell

eliminated.
Medicine, of
University

Laboratory, of Chemistry,

Cornell
and the

University
School of Electrical

Medical

College, EngineerN6 Albert ONRand Mary

New
ing,

N.
was

Y.,

theDepartment
Ithaca,
in supported

Cornell

University,

N.
pant

Y.

This
2.64

work Order

by by

grants grants Hyde


of

from from the

the the authors

Office Samuel and

of H. are

Naval Kness

Research Foundation,

(Contract the

Task The

io)
and

and are

in

part the

Lasken

Foundation

the Lillia

Babbitt personal ones Department

Foundation. notofficial, on to be construed


as pre-

views the

expressed views of the

senting

Navy

as a whole.
1017

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

1018

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

It

is

well

known

that

plasma

conductivity

depends

on

the

electrolyte

content

and concentrations, teins. The presence


conductivity the investigation The factors which in

including of erythrocytes
a complicated of the relation affect blood
TABLE
Decrease

salts,
way,

colloidal electrolytes, in the plasma in whole


and it is the purpose of concentrations are summarized
Blood Conductivity

and particularly blood also affects


this paper to to the conductivity. in table i.

prothe

describe

of erythrocyte conductivity
Which Influence

,.-Factors

ConductivityIncrease

Conductivity

Conductivity

Unchanged

Normal Constituents

Increase Increase
13, 43

in in in

RBC serum total protein base

Decrease Decrease tein


Increase 49-52

in in
in

RBC serum total probase

Urea

to

o.400%4

50
400%

Glucose
47,
50

to

0.

Decrease

Cholesterol5#{176}

Clotting Sedimentation

Clot

retraction425 in U cell537#{176} or

Clotting432

Sedimentation vertical

Flow

Effects

During

stirring

Following
37,39-42,44,45

stirring

Slow

flowing44

Fast Laking Hemolysis and Hemoglobin Laking Laking

flowing44 with by water#{176}#{176} Laking freezing followed Sapotoxin4 and by and out by thawing addition freezing withof

thawing addition Saponin45

of water#{176}#{176}

water#{176}5

Clinical

conditions

Pneumonia

with

loss

of

Anemia

Uncom plasma volume

plicated

salt0 Polycythemia Leukemia


Hemoconcentration

Increased Hemodilution

diabetes0

Diabetes sugar na
40

with and/on

high

blood ketonu-

Uremia48 Jaundice40

Many of blood

previous conductance, electrolyte

investigators and conductivity did

used not

inadequate observe and blood the

apparatus precautions Even

for

their found workers

measurements necessary have not for

accurate

measurements.536 of Jones co-workers5 conductance great

recent

taken trode
There measure

advantage area and


is general packed

of thestudies surface, and


agreement red cell

of frequency measurements accuracy#{176}68 but

effects, eleccan be used of to

cell

design.
that difference

volume5#{176}#{176}with

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

TEXTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

1019

opinion report

exists

regarding a description

its

correlation of

with
to does in normal

the
measure exist

red

cell
blood between

count.
the

The
electrical

present
and obserconductivity

includes to and show

methods

conductivity

vations of blood

that red

a correlation cell count

the

subjects.

MATERIALS

A
1075, 52.00,

variable
ii,ooo,

frequency and
19,000

oscillator.* cycles in figure resistance and


i

This per
2..t

was The The

of

the

RC

type be bridge than i

which varied was


per

operated on spot from suitable This and zero Il for was

frequencies volts. to A dia-

of

second. bridge. to

output resistance

could

gram
2..

of the An

circuit

shown is

alternating between one


io,ooo
ioo

current ohms of the


ioo,ooo

measurements accomplished adjustable

of

re-

sistance by for having woo,

megohm adjustable

a precision from io,ooo i to

of better
ohms

cent. steps,

arm
and

bridge ohms.

in Iohm

a second

1.

F;2

Fio.

i-Apparatus

for

conductivity

and

microphotography

measurements.

3. and

Detector. a 6E5 magic

The eye

null tube.

indicator bath. A

consisted of an amplifier water bath


at

connected

between the

midpoints
to maintain

of the the

bridge,

4. Constant
tivity cells
.

temperature

30

C.

o.z

degree was
a cell

used

conduc-

at a constant

temperature.

Glass

conductivity and a capacity

cells. A Jones of ml. was

type57 conductivity employed were preliminary Engineering, Cornell circuit was by measuring conductance calculated from of o.i University, added the for this M forthe made

cell with preliminary of

constants

of

7.045

reciprocal

centimeter nients
*
1-5 ,S

studies.
wine

The

cell

used

for
platinum

Expeni-

shown

in figure3. The construction


School

electrodes and

coiledlatinum p of this the

coated with

The

actual
student

design,
inthe

testing under

equipment direction of

was Prof.

doie

by

Paul

Weaver, Ballard,

graduate Jr., of the

of Electrical Engineering,

William

School cell chloride. tables

of Electrical

Ithaca. using VRI05 VR,5o and tubes. resistance of the cell when solution
=

t Subsequently,
The tassium in standard reciprocal o.i M KCI

a voltage constant was Using the


K

regulator calculated the specific


was

filled temperature cell

with

o.i as in of

M recorded

po-

at
KR,

the when R
=

proper
C
=

cell
=

constant
specific

the equation, C KCI


2.9 at

constant resistance

centimeters, in ohms.

conductance

C.,

and

measured

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

102.0

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

OSCILLATOR PREQ.
Cpu

C XX
600

/075 5200
1/000

250 150

/9000
(0)

R2QOOO

CIRCUIT A-C
FIG.

DIAGRAM BRIDGE
of AC. resistance bridge. diagram

RESISTANCE
i-Circuit

,1
I

FIG.

;.-Conductivity

cell

as designed

by

W.

C.

Ballard,

Jr.

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

TEXTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

102.1

black. mately

The
i

distance of blood

between was

the required

electrodes to fill

was the

about horizontal

cm.,

the

cell

constant cell.

being Cm,_l.* 96.3 Approxi-

ml.

section

of the

METHOD

In

measuring portion to the be cell, observed this the cell most rate

the of the attained,

blood sample. of the the

conductivity, A portion cell whole Even without blood though greater so the It end rise that

the of the extending resistance all the than i the

hepaninized blood into was erythnocytes


per cent was

blood placed filling then were


ever

sample in the tubes, observed


found

was cell After several to


when

thoroughly proper allowing times sediment


using this

mixed amount to be into type just Certain the of cell. in to temperature

to to

insure fill equihibthat the half the

homogeneity horizontal nium value of was that tween the of the A The ments The urements i. The solution. in the
i.

was the

in

measured

remained
()

constant. change was as the

lower

in resistance introduced erythrocytes increased The at been same was within of the the red difficulty above. each gave possible sedimentation blood then

If enough

blood consequently electrodes. design with other In fact,

vertical into by that in effects, suitably then The

filling the

tubes

were portion

full, of

then the the in than cell the in

an cell, path

increase owing of the of the the cells

resistance the led to herein with those defact beto current

sedimented number introduced was to found such resulted

horizontal of geometry

of nonconducting sedimentation any which to correlate designed. to and determined centrifuged precision was cell sedimentation were

erychnocytes the blood other Using

conductivity that designs with similar in resistance free from resistance ways, chamber The in and

cells

described electrodes workers313


it

horizontal

cylinder scribed.

effects. entirely accurately obtain

absent

has the

in this sample measured.


i

laboratory was

change

of erythnocytic of always resistance

in cells

ponticn plasma was

the

plasma of following

erythrocytes. measuresome meas-

reproducibility in the

the

desired cells

per in the

cent. plasma methods being used: Levy-Hausser counting one, attaching were an used determining of red per cent. in a graduated was calculated, counted. Erb for the cells and the

concentration

only c)ne method being used red cells were counted visually Five squares, was of the using ioo. visual count was consisting

and in others all four by using a calibrated corner made and the center by

Hayems used to was packed 6o, for

of each

magnification Visicam field of the

counting A check

photographically film. The

Gray whole

the the red sible 4. uring

microscope,

35 mm.

Panaomic-X cent Then, was by

magnification by first volumes blood cent

individual square, 164. 3. An accurate relative cells and also of the to prepare Another the volume of this

volume per plasma.

calculated mixing known relative the whole volume

density and

weights

of it plasma, poswas tube to the and well measknown

suspensions of accurately known method consisted of centrifuging of red meLhod. cells, from which the

centrifuge subject

per

imitations

RESULTS

In cytes
m 0.85

order

to

obtain
saline,

information

regarding

the with the

effect

of

the were red

presence made cell

of with count.

erythroerythrocytes Human centrivarying


results

in
per

an

electrolyte
cent

solution,
for comparison

initial

experiments standard

erythrocytes fuged until


amounts of

were washed several highly concentrated. the concentrated cells


cell and red cell

times with o.8 per cent saline and then Serial dilutions were made containing in 0.85 per cent saline. Resistance measurements
by the usual method were made. The

with of such observed

the

Jones

counts

a series are shown in table and a marked 2., variation as a function of red cell count. Similar experiments were carried out and essentially identical results were obtained. that the apparatus and the magnitude of the effect appeared
*

in

conductance was using human plasma It was concluded to be satisfactory for


were made by PaloMyers,

The York.

original The

cell cell

was constants

designed were

by 48.9

Prof.

Ballard. cm.i.

Two

subsequent

cells

New

cm.#{176} 50.7 and

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

102.2.

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

investigation

of

the

quantitative clear that the

relationship plasma conductance of the significant that


that not appear

between was

blood

cell

count variable

and

conamong been the

ductivity. blood shown ratio

It was

sufficiently

samples to require by others as cited of whole blood


experiments

measurement above. The to


demonstrated

plasma conductivity, measured quantity the


the to

as has also is therefore


blood conductance with

conductance

of

plasma.
ratio have an of whole exact relationship

Numerous

to plasma conductance (K/K0) did the red cell count. This is evident measured accepted
in result stated cubic this of

from

the

scattered

points

in

the

plot

of

the

K/K0 vs. the visual opinion regarding


laboratory, errors in made the it

red cell count, as may be seen in figure 6. Commonly the precision of the visual counts, as well as experiences
seem reasonable to suppose that this of within scattering eighty cells about squares per 8oo,ooo was the

visual counting

method.
erythrocytes,

Magath if a single estimate


be determined

and
field

co-workers#{176}
405,000 equal

have

that

for the

a count standard
hence

of ,ooo,ooo deviation
the count

is examined,
millimeter;

of
would

the

would counted
deviation

cells.
times

Even
using ten

when

specially trained pipets and chambers, the


TABLE

technicians
standard
2.
in Ohms

a
was

single
386,000

specimen
cells per

ten

RBC

10

Resistance

Specific

Conductance

Mho,

cm

1000

390

18.07

.89
1.94
1.73

446 549
651

35.79
11.83

3.59
4.31

572.
955

9.2.3

7.38

cubic millimeter. They found that errors of calibration relatively small, and that the main sources of error pipets and variation due to the field. In addition,
cians will fail to enumerate about whose io average per cent of the

were they
cells

of chambers associated state that


in

and pipets were with filling the routine techni-

theThey field. conclude is the determinazero,

that even with tion is reliable To


tion

technicians

enumeration
cent.

error

only the

to relative

within

i6er p accuracy

determine
experiments

of the
plasma

electrical
mixtures

and
of

visual counts,
precisely

serial known

dilurelative

yielding erythrocyte volumes per cent and red cell content Venous blood from 4 normal subjects the
nated measured, were volume in terms mixed per of

were was by
from The free

carried out. combined and centrifugation.


plasma, density and of this

thoroughly
were arbitrarily of

mixed

and
desig-

red The

cells packed
as ioo

and
red volumes

plasma cells were

were
nearly percent

separated
red cells.

volume

red

cells

was

and
in

the
cent red of per cent

plasma blood
suspensions

density
proportions,

was

also

measured.

Then

red

cells

and

plasma the This known

varying

cells on

yielded a series

the which of

and from the density of these mixtures, above arbitrary basis was determined. the volume per cent was precisely cells above.

of the original

packed

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

H1RSCH,

TEXTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

102.3

The ferent nine

red

cell

counts for 4. The


as shown

on each

each and

of blood

these three sample.

blood different The

samples calibrated

were

made pipets, of

by the

using giving whole

three a total blood

difof

calibrated determinations

chambers

conductances

and
in was washed
volume

of the
tables
per

plasma
3 and
cent,

for each
ratio

dilution
of these in figure

were

determined
i.

and
were

the

data

obtained
with

are
the

given
known

conductances

compared

4, Experiment

A second the exception


and the

series that
cell

of experiments the
counts

also

carried
free of 100

out
plasma

in a similar
with

manner,
physiologic

with
saline,

red
were

cells

were
made in

\
90 80\
70 60
0

O-EXPNO.I #{149}-EXPNO.2

x40

42
30 20

I0

102030405060708090100

VOLUME
Fio.
4._,\Taniation

PER
ratio (K/K0) as

CENT
a function

RED
ofvolume

CELLS
pen cent red cells.

of conductance

the only tion In volume should

usual once.

routine The data

hospital are the that given

procedure, in tables

i.e.,

both andand 6, the

sides

of

one

chamber

were

counted

of

relative
per be cent noted

volume
and
,

per
volume

cent

is shown
per cent

in
by may

figure

tables

as calculated

variation of K/K0 as a func4, Experiment 2.. from the density and


are given, accurate and it While correspondingvalues. absolutely

the

experimentally there are

redetermined discrepancies (Density)

centrifugation between be

the of the
that metric method

column the arbitrary

headed
the Vol.

Vol. assumption
figures

%
in

not relatively

because

that
each

the
series

initial
are

sample gravimetric
in the the inaccuracies

of red
accurate

cells
to ratio of the

was
o.oi

ioo
per the

per
cent

cent,
since

nevertheless

respective
the of Vol.

solutions

were
values this

prepared
do quantity. not reflects

by
stand

serial
same

dilutions.
as

The
gravi-

fact

% %

(Sedimentation)

(Density)

sedimentation

determining

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

102.4

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

While
ment
2.

it

was

not

to

be

expected concordant
present to be It

that
in the

the because

series of the was

of

Experiment possibility

and

of

Experi-

would

have
plasma

been
being

of different
the cells, since the the

amounts
the initial

of residual

interstices accord therefore


an extremely

between

ioo
the

volumes
two series

per of
two cent

cent
were

red cells
found

preparation
in may
in

arbitrary
within the

in each
limits
manner with

series,
of that

nevertheless
experimental conduct-

measurements
ance volume in these per
10

the
of red

conductance.
samples varies

be concluded
regular

the

relative

blood

cells

in these

two

samples.

C,) -J -J Li C)
c

EXP.

NO.1 NO.2

#{149} -EXP

8
7

Li
a:

Iz

Li 0
a:

50

Li
a-

Li

-J
0

>

I RED
Fio. .-Vaniation

2 CELL
of volume

3 COUNT
per

4
cent red

5 (MILLIONS
cells

6
as a function

7 PER
of red

8 CU.
cell count,

9 MM.)

10

It meter because is cent

is unnecessary is exactly of the the method visual

to

point

out

that
to in from the cell the

the
the

number
relative serial count density

of red
volume dilution as in a function

blood
per their of

cells
cent the

per
in

cubic
these

millitwo In volume series, figure per 5

proportional used red blood

preparation. relative attention is directed

plotted

as precisely

computed

measurements, and

to

the

scattering
must The careful fact that technic. is more

of
fall

the
on that the It

points.
a there major may the straight is

If the
much

red
line, more

cell

count
scattering

necessarily method. demonstrates most 6 below, conductance

because lie be in the

were accurate, of theof the use serial


in visual that in the the figure red cell scattering, visual

then the dilution


than count count in despite as than in

points
figure the figure in the 4

inaccuracies therefore result of

presumed

probably

inaccuracies

measurement.

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

TABLE
Approx. ; Red Vol. Cells

3.-Experiment

No.

Wt.
Cells

of

Red
(Gm.)

Vol.
Cells

of

Red (ml.)

\Vt.

of Plasma (Gm,)

Vol. of
Plasmat (ml.)

Vol. (Density)

Vol. % (Sedimentation)

2.0 30 40 50

1.131

2.053

8.2.37
7.2.32.

8.02.3
7.045

2.0.

37

2.1.4 2.9.4

3.2.61
4.137

3 . 001 3 .807 4.578 6.644 cells


at

2.9.87

6.

195

6.034

38.69
47.80

38.6 48.5 63.8 73.6


=

6o
70

4.975 6.ii
7.110

5.133
4.105 3.071

.000

3.999
1.991

58.6o 68.95
of

2.4.87
2.4.88

cc.

of

red
plasma

at 30.0

C. weighed

2.7.02.6

Gm.; Gm.;

density density
No.

red plasma

cells
=

3.087

Gm/mI.

cc. of

30.0C. weighed

2.5.542.
4.Experiment Resistance

of

i.oi6

Gm/mi.

TABLE (Mss/rmn.)

(Ohms)

(Mhs/cm.)

KX100

0 19.72. 1.05

72.30

cm.)

10 300
100 300 100

13.3*

100.0 70.2.

constant

0.33 0.04

10300

9.33 7.84 6.46


5.15

i8.i8 39,33 47.87 65.57


*

3.37 4.57 5,44 6.53


7.2.7

11900 14900 18700 2.4900


33800

58.9 48.6 38.7


19.1
11.4

0.15 o.o6 0.14


0.19

100
300

3.86 1.84

This

is

K,,.

(Cell

was

96.3

TABLE
Approx. 7,, Red Vol. Cells

5.-Experiment
Wt. Plasma

No.

Wt.
Cells

of

Red (Gm.)

Vol. Cells

of

Red (ml.)

of
(Gm.)

Vol. of Plasmat

Vol. (Density)

Vol. % (Sedimentation)

1.184

1.946
2.72.1

8.i8i
7.360

7.92.4 6.934 5.894


4.907 3.914

19.72.

2.0.5

30 40 50

3.054 4.2.88 5.057 6.116


-

i8.i8 39.33 47.87 58.2.o 67.57 of of red plasma cells=


=
-

2.5.0

3.82.0

6.o8
5.067 4.041 3.055 2.7.943

46.4 i.8 72.8 8o.5

4.505

6o
70
*

5.449 6.164 cells at at C. weighed 30 o C.

6.919

1.959

2.4.87
2.4.88

cc. cc.

of of

red plasma

Gm.; Gm.;

density density
No.
2

1.12.3 1.033

Gm/mI.
Gm/mI.

weighed 2.5.69!
TABLE

6.-Experiment

Vol.

Red

Cells

(Density)

Visual
(Millions/cu.mm.)

Count

Resistance

(Ohms)

K X 1000 (Mhos/cm.)

K X 100

0
2.0.37

0
1.2.4

72.60
10000 11800

13.3

300.0 72.3

9.63 7.73 6.59 4.96 3.66 i.8i

2.9.87

3.38
4.09

8.i 49.5 37.3


2.7.5

38.69
47.80

14600

5.19
6.03

19400

8.6o 68.95
*

i6;oo
342.00

7.65 K). (Cell constant was 96.3

11.4

This

is

cm.i)
102.5

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

102.6

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

It

was

thought

that the major error

in

the

visual counting

method

may

have

been due to the error in enumeration under the microscope, and that an count of improved precision could be obtained by photographing the counting chambers. Therefore venous blood fromfour normal subjects was combined, the red cells and plasma were separated by centrifuging. Dilutions were
lOC

absolute and made

to

9(

\
\

O-EXPNO1 #{149}-EXPNO2 * -EXP N03 J-EXPN04

80

70

260
x

42
50

40

3(
5

00

20
0

IC

I RED CELL

3 COUNT

4 (MILLIONS
ratio (K/K0)

5 PER

6 CU. MM)

FiG. 6.-Variation

of conductance

as a function

of red

cell

count.

give several solutions

ofdifferent

volumes

per

cent.

The and

red three

cell

counts

were pipets

made and

visually by using three differentcounting counting each chamber three times, Each whole field was photographed the five squares counted was likewise were visual used to give enlarged count. A typical prints example

chambers

different

giving a total of nine counts blood per at the time counting. of In addition, photographed. The photographic to compare an individual with

sample. each of negatives the square original is illus-

which were counted of a photograph of

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

ET

AL.

102.7

0
-sue

-w

..

4-.... 0
.,

o..
C)
,, .:. . 0

o
I

,
t

o#{149} o
0
Cl,

g0#{149}0
C
1

-:

.,4.,

.-. .-

0 5g 0

r-0

0
S

C:
-1

00.

___
FIG.

___
of ned cells
TABLE

__Jo
in counting chamber.
No.

__
(Square 3* within double lines is o.15 mm.)

7.-Photograph

7.-Experiment

Appnox.

Vol.

Visual

Count

Range

of Counts

Visual

Photo Whole

Count Field

Range Whole

of

Photo Field

0 10 2.0 1.09

0.02.

1.01

1.10 2.03

1.30
1.79

0.02.

3.08
1.71

4
1.89 3.35

3.96
3.05

o.o6
0.01 0.04 0.11 0.02.

i.86
3.00

o.o6 o.i8
0.2.5 0.19

30
40
50

3.11
3.91 5.51

3.05 4.03

3.84
5.30 6.13

3.76
5.15

3.78
4.60

4.94

4.33 5 .2.4 5 .96

6o

6.oo

6.ii

o.i8

5.44

Photo

Count

Individual

Range of individual

Photo

Resistance

(Ohms)

K X 1000 (Mhos/cm.)

ox

100

7400

13.7f

100.0

i.o8 i.8i
3.09

counts is

0.0k 0.05
0.15

,.o8 3.74 2.85

1.10

8730
10430 12.300 14800 19500 2.5700

ii.6
9.70

84.6
70.8 6o.o

1.89 3.34
4.30

8.2.3

4.03

0.2.4 0.2.7

3.76 4.59 5.44 expressed constant

6.84 4.94 3.75

49.9
36.1

5.09
5.71

5.45 5.95 as millions/cu.mm.


ioz

o.i8

2.7.4

All

are K,. (Cell

t This trated sponding

was

Cm.)

in

figure specific

7.

summary

of data

the

visual in

and
.

photographic counts

and

corre-

conductance

is given

table

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

102.8

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

It
curate

was

found

that

the

visual

count

in

the

microscope

was

apparently

more

ac-

than
of

the

photographic
resolution.

count,
Therefore

due was it

to

the

ability that

of the the

counter photographic out. this

to refocus proIn case, to make enlargement

for

cells

difficult

concluded

cedure did Another however,


counts.

not improve serial dilution chamber, were

the

precision similar to

of the visual Experiment

red cell count. 3 was carried times, field

only one Photographs

which was counted taken only of the


TABLE

three whole
4*

was used and each

the

8.-Experiment
Range of

No.
Visual

Appnox.

Vol.

Visual

Count

Count

Photo Whole

Count Field

Range

of Count

Photo

0
10 2.0

0.87 3.67

0.01 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.02. 0.05


0.02. 0.07 0.10

o.86
1.61
1.77

o.88
1.72.

0.82.
3.70

0.01
0.0!

o.8i

0.83 1.71

x.68 3.32.
3.90

30
40

i.8i
3.70

2.85
3.71

3.69
4.40

3.38 3.92.
6.40

0.04 0.02.

3.41

50

4.43 6.44
7.12.

4.46 6.52.
7.15

3.94 6.o 6.6o 8.35


8.40

6o
70

6.39
7.10

0.07 0.07 0.04 0.02.

6.30

8o
90 100

7.85
9.30

7.75
9.00 9.00

7.95
9.2.0

6.o 8.32. 8.37

6.40

8.2.5 8.35

9.03

o.o6

9.10

Resistance (Ohms)

K X

1000

(Mhos/cm.)

100

7,830

11.

9t

100.0

11.8 10,100 11,500


15,2.00 19,100

91.4

9.90

76.7 61.7
51.5
40.9

8. o8 6. 6
5.2.8

800
44,450

3 .76
1.17

19.1

17.6
11.9

6o,

2.50

3.67

All

counts is K0.

are (Cell

expressed constant

as was 101

million/cu.mm.
cm.)

t This

counted

three times. The

data are given

in table 8 and lead the to described


of red

same above
cell

conclusion are
count

as in Experiment 3. The results of the four in figure 6, wherein It


result

serial dilutionexperiments
of K/K0 as a function

shown
is plotted.

the

variation

is apparent about
of

that equally,

the
in were

smoothed and the

curve

shown of points method, in

fits

the

data

of

the

various
.

experithe

ments Red 8 with

inaccuracies counts

the scattering visual counting


blood

is believed to as demonstrated
were measured

be principally in figure
on thirty-three

cell

done and

conductances

specimens

of normal

blood. The

data

as given figure

table

have

been dilutions

plotted were

in figure carried

a reproduction

of the curve from

6. Arbitrary

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

TExTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

102.9

out and

to give three

points pipets

at either were used,

end each

of the chamber

curve.

In making being counted

the

counts, times.

three

chambers

three

NORMAL

BLOODS

#{149}0

0
0

3 RED
FIG.

CELL

COUNT

(MILLIONS PER
as a function

CU

MM)

8.-Variation blood.

of conductance

ratio (K/K,,)

of red cell count 33 for specimens

of

normal

DISCUSSION

To of tivity

determine

the experiments

effect

of was

red done

cell

concentration using

on

blood

conductivity whole blood.

a series

dilution

heparinized

The
temperature by tween zation the

variations
of use the and each bath of electrodes thereby

in
blood

plasma
sample

conductivity
to the cell, the in Five the temperature. which

were
conductivity all of

eliminated
its the own suspended was Sedimentation errors current orientation

by
plasma.

relating
A erythrocytes used to red were

the
constant

conduc-

controlled at all

eliminated were polariPhysical cells. bedecrease

a horizontal minimize

times.

kilocycle

streaming

of

the

movement of the The relationship


cells is presented

sample was also kept to a minimum. between the conductivity of blood and in figure 4. is It evident that the reproducibility

the

volume of results

per cent red from the

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

1030

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

TABLE !Iotation

9.-Data
Visual

on

That
Count

v-three

Specimens K,, x 1000

of Normal

Blood

ubiect Ad Ad Ad Ad Bu Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Co Fa Le

In

Fig.

{?Ullions/cu.nnn.)
I+73*

.(ish.os/ciiv.) 13.1 11.1 13.1 11.1 13.1+ 13.1+ 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 11.9 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1 12.6

K x 1000 knth.os/cin.)

_L
.Jt,,

100

5.23 9.53
6.1+6

39.9 72.8
l+9#{149}3

2.10 +.i5 7.62


-.

3.03 5.68 5.1+6 14.91 11.50 3.23 1.79 14.93 5.37 5.73 6.29 2.16 l+.88 5.89
5.02

23.2 +l8 1+0.7

14.70* 14.81* 5.36* 1.21 7.314 8.70


._.

35.8
83.6

23.6 13.1 1+1.6 1+1.0

1+.l+6* 1+67*

t:t

3.97* 14.03* 8.15

16.5 18.7 1+3.8 37.8 314.5

14,58*
Ro

13.1+ 13.3 13.1+

5.29*

Ro

(3
Not
ltlnn

5.114*

+.63

Visual k),i11tonsJcu..,) 6.21+ 7.11+ 5.31* 14.82*

Count

K,,

1000

1000

Lx in 25.1

100
-

Subject Ro
fib
So

to

1e.

jhos/cm.) 13. 13.1+ 13.1+ 13.3 13.1+ 11.1+ 13.1+ 13.14 13.1+ 11.1+
13.5

f..rnhos/cm.) 3.76 2.86


5.07

()

()

21.1+ 37.8 1+1.0 1+3.8 1+14.3 714.0 58.8 50.6 29.6


14O.O

St To To To To To To To To To

5.1+6 5.87 5.93 9.92 7.90 6.78 3.96


5.141

0
Q
0 0

14.11* 14.81* 2.17 3.50 14.20


6.1+1+
14,91*

Q
Q

3.22 6.59 14.88*

13.5 13.5 13.3


the blood before any dilutions

7,95 3,60 5.67


were de.

58.9 26.7 1+2.6

This

was

the

original is very

count of good,

two

experiments

and and the

that volume

there per

is

a cent

definite of red

relationship cells.

between

the

conductivity

of

blood

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

TEXTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

1031

To visual per ity slight the slight the cells. the which identical cent ratio

determine red of and scattering method conductivity However, visual is count, undoubtedly values and of as is seen cell red

whether count cells, the actual is plotted the

or data

not against obtained cell

this

same the from

type conductivity

of

relationship ratio in plotted place were

holds of in the figure

when volume

the

Experiments

1-4

6 which

illustrates that

that all

there
red be

is a quantitative
count.

relationship 6 do
in errors exact per counting used the count the in (tables enumeration points to of done, were fact since of the
of

between lie
electrical the no electrical scattering volume red of method. cells points One the 8), 6 was cell is data to of the to count investigate given arbitrary points from in most

the

conductivcurve.
in is when of against expect were the red points cent

It is apparent

of the
due The is the plotted same
,

points
to error importance

in figure
either of there against an volume more in fields from in the conductivity validity was The the the

not
in

on

a smooth
measurements or of per is plotted

The

could counting. in figure ratio when as of the thus curve relating 8. of 8. either the red the
an

the

measurement

4 in which relative errors if then with the errors through for of of the the count, the This curve. the

is practically cent

relative

in the

figure due count

considerably to

scattering making

is observed, might count when is visual there accepted and in lie the table dilutions reasonably constandard between instances.
nonconducting of the the susK, of particles

photographed photograph able The standard duced of give close ductivity curve falls plotted points to the and in in specimens at deviation, smooth curve figure

count indicating drawn

made visual

photograph. 7 and figure red

However, method.

is compared

consideras is a variety 9 were to the

in the this and that the visual

electrical test blood. end curve cell accepted


equation for relating of

repro-

One Many

curve the all subjected

normal

figure standard within


derived

specimens

corroborates especially precision


a the suspension medium

quantitative

relationship deviation method

Maxwell0
spheres in

homogenous, to the the specific

nonpolanizable, specific conductance conductance

a conducting the below. specific

medium conductance

volume

concentration Ko and

pension as shown

K,

K/&-i K/K0+iKi/K0+i

K,/&-i

Fnicke1

modified

this

equation

_____ _____
-

for

the

case

of spheroids

K/KU

K,/K9

(2.)

where
K,/Ko.

X,

the

form case

factor, of the red

is

a function cell
=

of

the

axial the

ratios
in

of

the

particles
of K

and to

the

conductance

ratio

In the

K, 0, therefore

equation

terms

reduces

K=

Ko(z-p)X

x+p
of the particles in the case of ellipsoids

()
the equa-

Velich tion in

and terms

Gonin

showed

for was

random

orientation

of conductance

Ko(I
K=

()
)

Cf
in

+
that

which

f represents

the

form

factor.

It is easily

shown

X i/Cf

i).

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

1032.

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

If cubic

is

the

volume
in ()

fraction

of

corpuscles

in

quantity

blood, of

g is

the

number
=

of

corpuscles

per

millimeter

and i/C and

is the

mean

volume

of the individual

corpuscles,

then p

g/C.

Substituting

solving

for

g X(K g=C
-

K)

(5)

From factor stituted

the was in

data determined the

observed formula:

in

Experiments

and

2.

utilizing values

the

method from tables

of Velich 3 and

and 4, and

Gorin, and

the 6 were

form sub-

independently

C. ofThe

known

r/ro
=

r/r0

Where

volume

per

cent

red

cells
r
= =

in

blood of of factor with of0.110. whole plasma of Velich a standard The form and Gonin deviation factor X then
0.138. of

resistance resistance form to be 1.718

blood

f
From Experiment
1.717

1,

f was

found

In

Experiment to be 1.393

2.,

f equalled
0.111.

with

a standard

deviation

was

calculated

The

equation

relating conductivity

to red cell concentration


1.393 1.393

becomes

g=C

(K0 I(
i, .,

K)

+ 4,

K and
.

The

factor C was

then

obtained

from

Experiments

Experiment

Number

of Specimens

Mean

Deviation

i
2.

6 6
7

ii.i 10.95

o.i 0.04

4 5

11.11

0.30
0.II

33 52.

io.8o 567.4!

On
greater

the basis of these, the mean weight from to the samples the 33 normal of the specimens

value C is found of serial dilution as representing

to

be 10.91.
it

However,
was

since

this use

figure theC value

gives cal0.1 I.

experiments,

preferred

to

culated

a better

statistical

average-namely io.8o

It

is clear

from

this

analysis

that

the

average

volume

and to

shape another,

of

the
itso is

red

blood

cells do not deviate greatly from one therefore certain that the conductance curate a greater within these limitations. than that precision obtainable

sample of normal blood method of obtaining opinion by the of the present

a red that visual

cell this

count method.

is ac-

It is the

authors

represents

counting

CONCLUSIONS

These

observations

show

that

the

electrical

conductivity

of

blood

can

be

used

to measure red and the volume

cell concentration. per cent of red

The cells

correlation has been noted

between the previously.

blood

conductance

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

HIRSCH,

TEXTER,

WOOD,

BALLARD,

HORAN

AND

WRIGHT

1033

These
but
ments

observations
the
give

suggest
of doing
results

that
a visual and are

the

error
erythrocyte a valid

lies

not

in the
for the

electrical
The conductance red cell

measurements
measureconcentra-

in

method
reproducible

count. measure

tion

for

human
.

blood

in

the

normal

range.

SUMMARY

I.

2.. ductivity.

The An

factors accurate cell


to

influencing apparatus has


exist

blood conductivity has been designed designed


normal blood

to

have been measure

noted. blood

and

plasma

con-

3.
been
5.

A new
shown

been
on between

to
blood

measure
before

conductivity
and after and the dilution, red

of blood.
a correlation cell count.
1.393. to

4 Through

studies

has

conductivity

The
normal

form
blood.

factor

for

normal

human is presented

red

cells relating

has red

been cell

determined count with

be

6. A mathematical
for

equation

conductivity

1.393

(K,,

K)
K

g=

C .393 K +

7. The
io.8o.

factor

on

the

basis

of

33

determinations

has

been

calculated

to

be

REFERENCES
1 HORAN,

F. F.

E.,

HIRSCH,

F. G., WOOD, L.

L.

A., AND

WRIGHT,

I. S.:

Surface
29? WRIGHT,

effects
2.02.,

on
1950.

blood

clotting beBull.
WRIGHT,

com-

ponents
2 HIRSCH,

as determined G., WooD, the erythnocyte


24.

by zeta potentials. J. Clin. Investigation I. A.,BALLARD, W. C., JR., FREY, C., AND concentration and the specific L. electro

I. S.:

The

relationship

tween Acad.
TEXTER,

conductivity W.

of blood. C., JR.,


AND

New

York

Med. E. C., The F. to G.

393,

1948.

Ja.,

HIRSCH,

F. E.

G., HORAN,
AND

F. E., WOOD, II. I.


WRIGHT,

A., BALLARD, to red cell

I. S.:
HIRSCH,

electrical G., TEXTER, clotting N.: The Boston and

conductivity C., JR., clot of retraction. the

of blood. (In electrolytes i8,

Relation S.: The to the

count.

Blood,

this

issue, Ill. Recorpuscles

p.

io6.

electrical conductivity non-electrolytes


1897.

of blood. the blood

lation
STEWART,

preparation.) in and
1897.

relations Soc. M.

blood
-:

serum.

J.

Sc., No. If,

The

measurement

of the output Leitfahigkeit

of the heart. Science 137, ,#{231}: Flussigkeiten, zur Centralb. thierscher Flussigkeiten. Bestimmung
2.97, 1897.

Elektnische
8

Leitf#{228}higkeit thierscher
TANGL,

f. Physiol. ii. Centralb.

332.,

1897. 1897.

ROTH,

W.: Elektnische S.,


AND

f. Physiol. 2.71, ii.

BUGARSZKY,

F.: Eine methode Centralb. f. Physiol. ii.

des nelitiven volumen

des Blutkorper-

chen
10

und G.

des Plasmas. N.: A Manual ,9o5. P. 50. of the

STEWART,

of Physiology hemoglobin or weight F.: and

with

Practical Exercises, of the plasma

ed.London, corpuscles

Bailli#{232}re, Tindall when


24?

and Cox,
-:

The

behavior

electrolytes and

colored

blood
1899.

is laked.

J.
12
13 -:

Physiol. 24: 111, 1899. The relative volume S., AND


TANGL,

of corpuscles

in blood.Physiol. J.

356,

BUGARSZKY,

Physikalisch-chemische

Untensuchungen ges. Physiol. Volumen


72?

#{252}ber Molecularen die


531,

Kon-

14

FRAENICEL,

centrations Kenholtnisse des Blutserums. Arch.f. d. P.: CJber die Bestimmung des Blutkorperchen Ztschr. f. kIm. M.: Med.
52. 470,
1904.

aus

den

1898. Elektnischen Beziehung.

Leitfahigheit. Pflugers Arch.

OJCER-BLOM,

Thienische
510,

S#{227}fte Gewebe und


I9oo.

in physikalisch-chemischer

f. d. ges. Physiol. 79.

From bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org by guest on July 30, 2012. For personal use only.

1034

ELECTRICAL

CONDUCTIVITY

OF

BLOOD

16

____ :

Thienische

S#{228}fte und Leitf#{228}higheit Arch. f. Physiol. von


14.

Gewebe und
13.

in

physikalisch-chemischer als in for between to the osmotic

Beziehung. Indicatoren Blut clinical the cell Serum purposes. and its

VI. den und

Mittheilung. Eiweisspaltung. Muskels#{228}ft. Physiol. Am.


i3: 139,

Die

elektnische
Scandinav.
17

die 359,

Gefnierpunktserniednigung
1901.

: Zur Arch.
WILSoN,
1905.

Frage f. Physiol. M.

den 48,

autolytischen of electrical E. : On the

Erscheinungen conductivity

Scandinav.

18

T. B.,

: Measurement H.

J.

19

MooRE soluble chem.J.


FRICKE, : 1915.

AND

ROAF,

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