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AS 1565÷1996

Australian Standard
Copper and copper aIIoys-
Ingots and castings
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This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee MT/2, Copper and Copper
Alloys. It was approved on behalI oI the Council oI Standards Australia on
17 May 1996 and published on 5 September 1996.
The Iollowing interests are represented on Committee MT/2:
AUSTAP
Australian Foundry Institute
Hunter Water Corporation, Australia
Metal Trades Industry Association oI Australia
New Zealand ManuIacturers Federation
Welding Technology Institute oI Australia
Additional interests participating in preparation oI Standard:
Non-Ierrous Ioundries
Review of Australi an Standards. To keep abreast of progress i n i naustrv, Australian Stanaaras are subfect
to perioaic review ana are kept up t o aate bv the i ssue of amenaments or new eait ions as necessarv. It i s
important t herefore t hat Stanaaras users ensure that t hev are i n possession of the latest eaiti on, ana anv
amenaments thereto.
Full aetails of all Australi an Stanaaras ana relatea publi cati ons will be f ouna i n the Stanaaras Australi a
Catalogue of Publications, t his information i s supplementea each month bv the maga:ine The Australi an
Stanaara, which subscribing members receive, ana which gives aetail s of new publications, new eait ions
ana amenaments, ana of witharawn Stanaaras.
Suggesti ons for improvements t o Australi an Stanaaras, aaaressea to the heaa off ice of Stanaaras Australia,
are welcomea. Noti ficationof anv inaccuracv or ambiguit v founa in an Australian Stanaara shoula be maae
without aelav in oraer t hat the matt er mav be investigatea ana appropriate acti on taken.
This Stanaara was issuea in araft form for comment as DR 95207.
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AS 1565÷1996
Australian Standard
Copper and copper aIIoys-
Ingots and castings
PUBLÌSHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALÌA
(STANDARDS ASSOCÌATÌON OF AUSTRALÌA)
1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ÌSBN 0 7337 0624 X
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AS 1565-1996 2
PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee MT/2, Copper and Copper Alloys, to supersede AS 15651985. The grades oI
copper and copper alloys and their compositions have been revised so that they align with
the current listing oI the UniIied Numbering System designations.
This Standard is the result oI a consensus among Australian and New Zealand representatives
on the Joint Committee to produce it as an Australian Standard.
No International (ISO) Standards are available on the subject oI copper and copper alloy
ingots and castings.
The objective oI this Standard is to speciIy the requirements Ior the manuIacture and testing
oI copper and copper alloy ingots and castings.
Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables are deemed to be requirements
oI this Standard.
The term inIormative` has been used in this Standard to deIine the application oI the
appendix to which it applies. An inIormative` appendix is only Ior inIormation and guidance.
Copyri ght STANDARDS AUSTRALIA
Users oI Standards are reminded that copyright subsists i n all Standards Australia publications and soItware. Except where the
Copyri ght Act all ows and except where provided Ior below no publi cati ons or soItware produced by St andards Austr al ia may be
reproduced, stored i n a retr ieval system in any Iorm or t ransmitt ed by any means without prior permissi on in writ ing Irom
Standards Australi a. Permission may be conditi onal on an appropriate royalt y payment. Requests Ior permission and inIormat ion on
commercial soIt ware royalti es should be dir ected to the head oII ice oI Standards Australi a.
Standards Austr alia will permit up to 10 percent oI t he technical content pages oI a Standard to be copied Ior use exclusively
in-house by purchasers oI the Standard wit hout payment oI a royalty or advice to Standards Australia.
Standards Austr alia wil l also permit the inclusion oI it s copyright materi al in computer soItware programs Ior no royalt y
payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators oI t he programs.
Care should be taken t o ensure that materi al used i s Irom the current edit ion oI t he Standard and that it is updated whenever the
Standard i s amended or revised. The number and date oI t he Standard should t hereIore be clearly i dentiI ied.
The use oI materi al i n print Iorm or in computer soItware programs t o be used commercially, with or wi thout payment, or in
commercial contracts is subject to the payment oI a royalty. This policy may be vari ed by Standards Austr al ia at any ti me.
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3 AS 1565-1996
CONTENTS
Page
1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3 DEFINITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 DESIGNATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5 MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6 FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
7 TEST PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8 ROUNDING OF TEST RESULT VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9 MARKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
APPENDICES
A PURCHASING GUIDELINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
B CODING SYSTEM WHEN ADDITIONAL INSPECTION IS REQUIRED
FOR CASTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
C RELATED COMPOSITION SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
D COLOUR CODE FOR INGOTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
E SHAPES OF STANDARD TEST BARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
F A GUIDE TO ALLOY SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Originated as AS H13 1940 and AS H141940.
Previous editi on AS 1565 1985.
Thir d editi on 1996.
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AS 1565-1996 4
STANDARDS AUSTRALÌA
AustraIian Standard
Copper and copper aIIoys-Ingots and castings
1 SCOPE This Standard speciIies requirements Ior the manuIacture and testing oI high
conductivity copper castings and copper alloy ingots and castings.
NOTES:
1 Advice and recommendations on inIormation to be supplied by the purchaser at the time oI
enquiry or order are contained in Appendix A.
2 Provision has been made Ior additional inspection requirements Ior castings which can be
speciIied by a coding system (see Appendix B).
2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The Iollowing documents are reIerred to in this
Standard:
AS
1391 Methods Ior tensile testing oI metals
1515 Copper alloys (all parts)
1696 Copper
1696.1 Part 1: Determination oI phosphorusSpectrophotometric method
1816 Metallic materialsBrinell hardness test
2062 Methods Ior non-destructive penetrant testing oI products and components
2345 DezinciIication resistance oI copper alloys
2614 Copper and copper alloys Sampling Ior chemical analysis and electrical resistivity
2700 Colour standards Ior general purposes
2706 Numerical values Rounding and interpretation oI limiting values
2883 Analysis oI metalsProcedures Ior the setting up, calibration and standardization
oI atomic emission spectrometers using arc/spark discharge
3641 Recommended practice Ior atomic emission spectrometric analysis
3641.1 Part 1: Principles and techniques
K208 Methods Ior the analysis oI unalloyed copper
K208.1 Part 1: Method Ior the electrolytic determination oI copper in unalloyed copper
containing not less than 99.85 percent copper
BS
5714 Method oI measurement oI resistivity oI metallic materials
ASTM
E 53 Test methods Ior chemical analysis oI copper
3 DEFINITION For the purpose oI this Standard the deIinition below applies.
3.1 Cast the product oI one Iurnace melt, one crucible melt, or a number oI Iurnace or
crucible melts that are aggregated and mixed prior to sampling.
NOTE: In respect to continuous melting Ior the production oI castings, a cast` is deIined as 500 kg
oI melted metal.
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5 AS 1565-1996
4 DESIGNATION The copper or copper alloy designation shall comprise the number oI
this Australian Standard, i.e. AS 1565, Iollowed by a slash and six additional characters
commencing with the letter C, in accordance with the UniIied Numbering System (UNS).
The suIIix letter A indicates a deviation in chemical composition Irom the corresponding
UNS composition.
Examples of aesignation : AS 1565/C85400, AS 1565/C92410A.
5 MATERIALS
5.1 Chemical composition
5.1.1 General The chemical composition oI ingots and castings shall comply with the
limits given in Table 1 Ior the appropriate alloy designation.
NOTE: Residual elements other than those listed in Table 1 may be present in amounts that
generally have no deleterious eIIects. An agreement at the time oI order may require the analytical
determination oI any oI these elements, or any residual element not included in Table 1.
5.1.2 Methoas of analvsis Sampling Ior chemical analysis shall be in accordance with
AS 2614. Chemical composition shall be determined by any methods that are at least as
accurate as those given in AS 1515 (all parts), AS 1696.1, AS 2883, AS 3641.1 and
AS K208.1.
NOTES:
1 Test methods Ior the chemical analysis oI copper are also speciIied in ASTM E 53.
2 Related composition speciIications to those in this Standard are listed in Appendix C.
3 A system Ior the colour coding oI ingots is given in Appendix D.
The reported analysis oI ingots and castings shall comply with the limits given in Table 1 Ior
the appropriate grade.
5.1.3 Frequencv of analvsis The Irequency oI analysis shall be as Iollows:
(a) For ingots At least one sample shall be taken and analysed Irom each cast. For casts
oI 2 t or more, at least two samples shall be taken and analysed, including one at the
beginning and one at the end oI each cast.
(b) For castings When the melt is prepared Irom ingots oI known composition, together
with properly segregated and identiIied Ioundry returns, the Irequency oI checks on
chemical composition shall be at the discretion oI the manuIacturer. In any other
circumstances, samples shall be taken Irom at least one cast in Iive Ior each alloy
supplied to this Standard.
NOTE: When the contents oI a melting Iurnace or pot are supplemented Irom time to time by
additions to maintain an adequate bulk oI molten metal, additional samples need to be taken during
the period oI operation oI the Iurnace.
5.2 Mechanical properties (optional)
5.2.1 Tensile test When required, the tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with
Clause 7.1.2, and the results Ior tensile strength, 0.2° prooI stress and elongation shall
comply with the requirements oI Table 2. Tensile test pieces shall be prepared Irom test
samples manuIactured in accordance with Clause 7.1.1.
5.2.2 Haraness When required, hardness testing shall be carried out in accordance with
Clause 7.1.3, and the results shall comply with the requirements oI Table 2.
5.3 Resistance to dezincification When required, castings shall be tested Ior resistance
to dezinciIication in accordance with AS 2345 and shall meet its requirements.
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AS 1565-1996 6
5.4 Electrical resistivity (applicable to alloys C80100 and C81500) When required, the
electrical resistivity oI these alloys shall be determined in accordance with Clause 7.2.1 and
shall meet the Iollowing requirements:
(a) For C80100 (high conauctivitv copper) The electrical resistivity oI castings shall be
19 n.m maximum.
(b) For C81500 (copper chromium) The electrical resistivity oI castings aIter heat
treatment (see Note 1) shall be 22 n.m maximum.
NOTES:
1 Heat treat Ior 30 min minimum at 1000 C, water quench, then heat Ior 4 h at 480 C and air
cool.
2 Resistivities oI 19 n.m and 22 n.m correspond approximately to electrical conductivities
oI 90° and 80° IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) respectivel y. A
conductivity oI 100° IACS corresponds to a resistivity oI 17.241 n.m.
5.5 Microstructure of castings (applicable to alloy C86500 only) When required,
microscopic examination oI test samples shall be carried out to determine the proportion oI
the alpha phase. At least one test shall be made to represent each cast, and the proportion oI
alpha phase, determined Irom the average oI at least Iive counts, shall not be less than 15°
oI the total area.
6 FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS Castings shall be clean and Iree Irom deIects
detrimental to their subsequent processing and end use.
II, aIter the acceptance oI castings and provided that they have been properly treated aIter
delivery, subsequent processing reveals that they contain manuIacturing deIects Iound to be
detrimental, the castings shall be deemed not to comply with this Standard.
NOTE: DeIects reIerred to in this Clause cannot be completely quantiIied. Where the presence, size
or Irequency oI any deIect is considered to be oI concern, arrangements should be made between
the purchaser and the manuIacturer. This may be achieved by acceptable type samples or methods
oI test.
7 TEST PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS
7.1 Mechanical tests
7.1.1 Test samples Test samples Ior the tensile test shall be oI suitable size Ior machining
to the dimensions oI test pieces given in AS 1391. Requirements Ior cast test samples are as
Iollows:
(a) Sana castings Test samples shall be separately cast in sand moulds at the same time
and Irom the same cast as the castings they represent, and shall be heat treated with the
castings where applicable.
(b) Chill-cast ana aie-cast castings Test samples shall be separately cast in chill moulds
at the same time and Irom the same cast as the castings they represent, and shall be
heat treated with the castings where applicable.
(c) Continuous castings Test samples shall be taken Irom the actual castings and
machined to the largest practicable dimension in accordance with AS 1391. In the case
oI material subject to heat treatment, the test samples shall be taken aIter heat
treatment.
(d) Centrifugal castings in chill moulas Test samples shall be separately cast in chill
moulds at the same time and Irom the same cast as the castings they represent.
In the case oI material subject to heat treatment, the test samples shall be heat treated
with the castings.
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7 AS 1565-1996
NOTES:
1 II standard test pieces are precluded by the shape oI the casting, e.g. a thin-walled casting, the
shape oI the test pieces and acceptance limits are subject to agreement.
2 Recommended shapes oI test samples are given in Appendix E.
3 The pouring temperature oI the test samples may not necessarily be the same as that required
Ior the casting.
4 Test samples may be taken Irom the actual castings, and iI heat treatment is required, taken
Irom the castings aIter heat treatment.
7.1.2 Tensile test The 0.2° prooI stress, tensile strength and elongation shall be
determined in accordance with AS 1391 on test pieces manuIactured Irom test samples (see
Clause 7.1.1).
II any test piece appears to contain casting deIects, the results oI the test shall be discarded,
and a Iurther test made using a test piece taken Irom the same test sample. The results
obtained shall be substituted Ior those oI the deIective test piece.
The elongation results shall be reported on a gauge length oI L
o
÷ 5.65 S
o
, where S
o
is the
cross-sectional area oI the test piece beIore testing.
NOTE: The 0.1° permanent set stress may also be used as a basis Ior acceptance (see AS 1391).
The values oI this test are approximately equivalent to the 0.2° prooI stress values.
7.1.3 Haraness Brinell hardness tests shall be made in accordance with AS 1816, using,
whenever possible, a 10 mm ball and a load equivalent to a mass oI 1000 kg. Where this is
not suitable, an alternative is to use a F/D
2
ratio oI 10, where F is the test Iorce, in newtons,
and D is the diameter oI the ball, in millimetres.
The test shall consist oI three determinations, the average being regarded as the Brinell
hardness oI the material.
7.2 Electrical tests
7.2.1 Resistivitv test The resistivity test shall be carried out in accordance with BS 5714
on a suitably cast test piece oI suIIicient length to give the accuracy required.
For calibration and in cases oI dispute, the accuracy oI the measurement shall be 1° and
the resistivity corrected to a temperature oI 20 C.
7.2.2 Conauctivitv When required, conductivity may be determined as an alternative to
resistivity.
Conductivity testing shall be carried out using an eddy current testing instrument which is
calibrated and operated under the conditions recommended by the manuIacturer. The test
sample surIace shall be suitably prepared.
8 ROUNDING OF TEST RESULTVALUES
8.1 General With the exception oI tensile test results, the observed or calculated values
shall be rounded to the same number oI Iigures as in the speciIied values and then compared
with the speciIied values. For example, Ior speciIied maximum or minimum values oI 2.5,
2.50 and 2.500, the observed or calculated value would be rounded to the nearest 0.1, 0.01
and 0.001 respectively (see also AS 2706).
8.2 Tensile test results The determined value oI tensile strength shall be rounded to the
nearest 10 MPa and the determined value oI the 0.2° prooI stress shall be rounded to the
nearest 5 MPa.
9 MARKING
9.1 Ingots Ingots supplied by the manuIacturer should be colour coded, where applicable.
NOTE: A scheme Ior the colour coding oI copper alloy ingots is given in Appendix D.
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AS 1565-1996 8
Batches oI ingots shall be clearly marked to
(a) identiIy the manuIacturer;
(b) indicate the alloy designation oI the material;
(c) enable traceability oI the cast; and
(d) enable them to be reIerenced to this Standard, i.e. AS 1565.
9.2 Castings Where required, castings supplied by the manuIacturer shall be legibly and
durably marked by appropriate means to
(a) identiIy the manuIacturer;
(b) indicate the alloy designation oI the material;
(c) enable traceability oI the cast; and
(d) enable them to be reIerenced to this Standard, i.e. AS 1565.
NOTE: ManuIacturers making a statement oI compliance with this Australian Standard on a
product, packaging or promotional material related to that product are advised to ensure that such
compliance is capable oI being veriIied.
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A c c e s s e d b y A E C O M A U S T R A L Ì A P T Y L T D o n 2 3 J a n 2 0 1 2
A c c e s s e d b y A E C O M A U S T R A L Ì A P T Y L T D o n 2 3 J a n 2 0 1 2
A c c e s s e d b y A E C O M A U S T R A L Ì A P T Y L T D o n 2 3 J a n 2 0 1 2
AS 1565-1996 12
NOTES:
1 II an alloy is requir ed Ior use i n contact with potable water, the chemical composit ion i s subject to agreement bet ween
purchaser and suppli er.
2 Nickel includes cobalt .
3 Copper i ncludes sil ver.
4 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 99.5° min.
5 In determining copper min., copper may be calculated as Cu ¹ Ni.
6 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 99.3° min.
7 Fe ¹ Sb ¹ As, 0.50° max.
8 For conti nuous casti ngs, P 1.5° max.
9 Nickel can be 2° max., by agreement.
10 Copper i ncludes nickel.
11 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 98.9° min.
12 Fe ¹ Sb ¹ As, 0.8° max.
13 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 99.4° min.
14 For zinc-Ir ee bronze (acid resistant) , zinc should be 0.05° max. and phosphorus content increased t o 0.15° max.
15 Ti n plus halI t he nickel content, 7.0° to 8.0°.
16 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 99.0° min.
17 Fe 0.35° max., when used Ior steel- backed beari ngs.
18 Cu ¹ sum oI named elements, 98.7° min.
19 For conti nuous casti ngs, S 0.25° max.
20 For welding grades, Pb 0.01° max.
21 Fe not t o exceed Ni content.
22 Lead can be up to 0.5°, by agreement.
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13 AS 1565-1996
TABLE 2
MECHANICAL PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS FOR CASTINGS
Alloy
designation
Form of casting
0.2º proof stress
MPa
Min.
Tensile strength
MPa
Min.
Elongation on
L
o
÷ 5.65 S
o
º
Min.
Hardness
HB
Min.
C80100 Sand 160 23 40
C81500 Sand 170 270 18 90
C83600A Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
100
110
100
110
200
200
270
220
13
6
13
8
66
80
75
80
C83700 Sand 80 170 18 45
C83810A Sand
Chill
80
80
180
180
11
2
55
65
C85210 Sand 80 170 18 45
C85310 Sand 170 12
C85400 Sand 70 190 11 45
C85710 Chill 90 300 13 60
C86300 Sand 415 760 12 150
C86500 Sand 170 450 20 100
C87300 Sand 170 380 30 85
C87800 Sand
Chill
205
310
460
585
21
25
134
163
C90250 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
130
140
160
140
230
270
310
280
6
5
9
6
70
90
90
90
C90710 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
130
170
170
170
220
310
360
330
3
2
6
4
70
95
100
95
C90810 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
130
170
170
170
220
270
310
270
5
3
5
3
75
100
100
100
C91700 Sand
Chill
CentriIugal
150
220
220
305
415
415
16
16
16
85
106
106
C92410A Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
130
130
130
130
250
250
300
230
16
5
13
6
70
80
80
80
C92610A Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
130
130
140
130
270
270
300
250
13
3
9
5
70
85
90
70
(continuea)
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AS 1565-1996 14
TABLE 2 (continuea)
Alloy
designation
Form of casting
0.2º proof stress
MPa
Min.
Tensile strength
MPa
Min.
Elongation on
L
o
÷ 5.65 S
o
º
Min.
Hardness
HB
Min.
C92710 Sand
Chill
Continuous
80
140
160
190
200
280
5
3
9

C93200 Sand 100 210 12


C93500 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
60
80
130
80
160
200
230
220
7
5
9
6
55
60
60
60
C93700 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
80
140
160
140
190
220
280
230
5
3
6
5
65
80
80
80
C94100 Sand
Chill
Continuous
CentriIugal
60
80
100
80
160
170
190
190
5
5
8
7
45
50
50
50
C95210 Sand 170 450 20 90
C95400 Sand 210 520 12
C95710 Sand
Chill
280
310
650
670
18
27
160

C95810 Sand 240 590 15 140


C96200 Sand 170 310 20
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15 AS 1565-1996
APPENDIX A
PURCHASING GUIDELINES
(InIormative)
A1 GENERAL Australian Standards are intended to include the technical requirements
Ior relevant products, but do not purport to comprise all the necessary provisions oI a
contract. This Appendix contains advice and recommendations on the inIormation to be
supplied by the purchaser at the time oI enquiry or order.
It is recommended that beIore the patterns are made, and preIerably while the design is
still on the drawing board, the purchaser should conIer with the Ioundry operator
regarding casting requirements. In this way the Ioundry operator`s experience can oIten
assist the purchaser in obtaining castings best suited to meet the overall needs.
It is Iurther recommended that the purchaser provides the Ioundry operator with any
inIormation regarding diIIiculties previously encountered in connection with castings oI
the same or similar pattern.
A2 INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE PURCHASER The purchaser
should supply the Iollowing inIormation at the time oI enquiry and order, aIter making
due reIerence to the advice and recommendations contained in this Appendix:
(a) Designation oI copper or copper alloy, as appropriate (see Clause 4).
NOTE: General inIormation on the properties oI cast copper alloys and a guide to their
selection are given in Appendix F.
(b) Quantity (mass or number oI pieces or number oI castings to be made Irom each
pattern) and delivery instructions (dates, schedules, delivery points).
(c) Whether castings are to be produced by sand casting, die casting, continuous casting
or centriIugal casting.
(d) Patterns, drawings and samples oI the casting with casting dimensions, tolerances
and machining locations clearly indicated (see Paragraph A3).
(e) The location oI identiIication markings (see Clause 9 and Paragraph A4).
(I) The amount oI dressing and Iettling required.
(g) Whether deIects may be rectiIied by the manuIacturer (see Paragraph A5).
(h) Test requirements (see Paragraph A6).
(i) Whether a test certiIicate or a certiIicate oI compliance is required.
(j) Whether it is the intention oI the purchaser to witness the pour or inspect the ingots
or castings at the manuIacturer`s Ioundry.
(k) Any special or supplementary requirements.
(l) ReIerence to this Australian Standard, i.e. AS 1565.
A3 PATTERNS, DRAWINGS AND SAMPLES OF THE CASTING
A3.1 New patterns II no pattern is available and the Ioundry is to provide a pattern at
the purchaser`s expense, the purchaser should state at the time oI enquiry and order
whether substantially permanent patterns are to be constructed Irom materials such as
wood (hard or soIt), brass, aluminium, white metal, iron, cast resin or glassIibre.
Alternatively, the purchaser should provide suIIicient inIormation to enable the Ioundry to
assess a suitable liIe Ior the pattern.
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AS 1565-1996 16
II the Ioundry is not requested to provide patterns, it should be consulted as to how such
patterns should be made.
NOTE: The purchaser should state whether a separate price on pattern equipment is required.
A3.2 Existing patterns and equipment
A3.2.1 General The purchaser, iI proposing to supply existing patterns, should provide
Iull details oI such pattern equipment as set out in Paragraphs A3.2.2 to A3.2.5, including
inIormation on the condition oI all pieces.
A3.2.2 Patterns The Iollowing inIormation should be supplied by the purchaser:
(a) The contraction allowance Ior which the pattern is designed.
(b) Material Irom which the patterns are made.
(c) II loose, the number oI patterns, their details and whether they are suitable Ior
mounting on plate.
(d) II gated, the number oI patterns on the gate. II two or more diIIerent patterns are on
the same gate, whether equal quantities oI castings oI all diIIerent patterns will be
ordered.
(e) II plated, the number oI patterns on the plate, indicating plate material and the size
oI the Ilask.
A3.2.3 Core boxes The Iollowing inIormation should be supplied by the purchaser:
(a) Number oI core boxes.
(b) Kind and type, such as dump, split or loose-piece.
(c) Number oI cores per casting.
(d) Number oI cores to each box.
(e) Material Irom which the core box is made.
(I) Whether designed Ior core blowing machines.
(g) Number and kind oI core dryers, core gauges, jigs, etc.
(h) Process Ior which core box is designed.
A3.2.4 Flasks The purchaser should supply details oI Ilasks, including quantity, size,
cope height, drag height, type and material oI construction (steel, aluminium or wood).
A3.2.5 Gauges ana checking fixtures Where such Iixtures already exist, the purchaser
should supply a description and give details oI their condition at the time oI the enquiry.
A3.3 Sample casting or drawing The purchaser should provide a sample casting or
detailed drawing, or both. The drawing should show the Iollowing:
(a) Name and part number.
(b) Actual or estimated mass.
(c) Important dimensions.
(d) Dimensional tolerances.
(e) SurIaces to be machined and machining allowance.
(I) Special requirements, such as Iinish, testing, gauging, special tolerances, disc or
special grinding, drilling, tapping, machining locations and hardness test locations.
(g) Special location Ior symbol, pattern numbers or trademarks, and type oI symbols or
numbers preIerred (raised or sunken).
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17 AS 1565-1996
A4 IDENTIFICATION The location Ior identiIication marks required by the
purchaser or manuIacturer and their size and type should be indicated on the drawing or
incorporated in the pattern.
When a casting is machined on all surIaces, special arrangements are required to retain
identity.
A5 RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS
A5.1 General It is usual to permit rectiIication oI deIects, iI subsequent processing
and useIulness oI the casting is not impaired. The method, extent and location oI repairs
and prooI oI Iitness Ior purpose should be determined at the time oI enquiry and order.
A5.2 Repair by welding Unless otherwise speciIied by the purchaser, castings oI
aluminium bronze or manganese aluminium bronze alloys may be repaired by welding
(see Paragraph A5.1).
A6 TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR CASTINGS
A6.1 General Chemical analysis is carried out on castings supplied to this Standard as
a matter oI course, but it should be noted that the Iollowing other tests are optional and, iI
required, should be stated at the time oI enquiry and order:
(a) Mechanical properties (see Paragraph A6.3 and Clause 5.2).
(b) Electrical conductivity oI alloys C80100 or C81500 (see Clause 7.2.2).
(c) Proportion oI alpha phase Ior alloy C86500 (see Clause 5.5).
(d) Resistance to dezinciIication (see Clause 5.3).
A6.2 Frequency of testing A regular Irequency oI chemical analysis and mechanical
testing is considered essential to obtain an adequate level oI technical control in a casting
Ioundry. The recommended Irequency oI mechanical tests Ior castings is given in
Table A1.
A6.3 Mechanical tests on standard test bars Neither integral test pieces on the
casting nor separately cast test bars give mechanical properties which are representative oI
the casting.
The separately cast test bar is usually a simple Iorm oI casting which can be made
substantially Iree Irom deleterious Ieatures such as porosity and internal stresses, and may
have a cross-section larger or smaller than that oI the casting itselI. It is known Irom
experience that test bars cannot be designed to have the same Ieatures as the castings
represented, and Ior purposes oI inspection the test bar properties can thereIore only be
regarded as an indication oI the properties which the metal poured is capable oI giving
and oI the control exercised in the Ioundry.
A6.4 Additional test requirements for castings Additional tests can be speciIied by a
coding system (see Appendix B) at the design stage Ior quotation purposes and Ior order.
Over-inspection will lead to unnecessarily high costs and longer delivery times, with no
compensating advantages. For these reasons it is essential to select only those tests which
are necessary Ior the design concerned.
A6.5 Retests In the event oI no additional test bars being available to carry out an
agreed retest procedure, the manuIacturer has the option oI submitting one or more
Iinished castings to a test agreed to by both parties, or the castings may be sectioned Ior
mechanical testing at agreed locations. II the test results are satisIactory the castings are
deemed to comply with this Standard.
A6.6 Independent tests In the event oI a dispute concerning compliance oI castings
with the requirements oI this Standard, the purchaser and the manuIacturer should agree
to have reIeree testing carried out by an independent laboratory, whose results should be
accepted at Iinal.
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AS 1565-1996 18
TABLE A1
RECOMMENDED NUMBER OF MECHANICAL TESTS
Material
Maximum mass of unfettled castings per test for
each alloy or the product of one cast, whichever
yields the less frequent rate of testing
Aluminium bronzes
Manganese aluminium bronze
Brasses
1 000 kg
Gunmetals
Phosphor bronzes
Leaded tin bronzes
5 000 kg
Copper
Copper-chromium
No tensile tests required
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19 AS 1565-1996
APPENDIX B
CODING SYSTEM WHEN ADDITIONAL INSPECTION
IS REQUIRED FOR CASTINGS
(InIormative)
B1 GENERAL When additional inspection to that speciIied in the Standard is required
Ior castings, it should be based on the coding system given in Paragraphs B3 to B9. A
purchaser`s test schedule should be supplied at the enquiry stage to give, in addition to
the coding, Iull details oI any speciIic test conditions which may apply
(see Paragraph B2).
When castings are made to the requirements oI this Appendix, they should be individually
marked, or batched and tallied, as soon as possible aIter casting, and the identiIication
maintained in such a manner as to enable the castings to be correlated with their relevant
inspection records at the time oI despatch Irom the Ioundry. The inspection records should
be kept on Iile so that they can be made available to the purchaser or the purchaser`s
representative on request.
B2 INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED IN THE TEST SCHEDULE The
purchaser should supply the Iollowing inIormation at the time oI enquiry, as appropriate:
(a) Component description, drawing numbers, alloy speciIication, inspection coding and
pattern numbers.
(b) Whether Code A (analysis oI each cast) is applicable (see Paragraph B3).
(c) Whether Code T (mechanical tests oI each cast) is applicable (see Paragraph B4).
(d) Whether Code M (machining) is applicable (see Paragraph B5), and iI so
(i) whether Iull machining or prooI machining is required;
(ii) reIerence to the drawings to call attention to all necessary machining
inIormation; and
(iii) the proportion oI castings to be machined iI less than 100°.
(e) Whether Code P (pressure testing) is applicable (see Paragraph B6), and iI so
(i) the type oI test;
(ii) the test pressure and working pressure;
(iii) any special test requirements; and
(iv) the proportion oI castings to be tested iI less than 100°.
(I) Whether Code F (penetrant Ilaw detection) is applicable (see Paragraph B7), and iI
so
(i) the type oI test;
(ii) the areas to be subject to testing with reIerence to the casting;
(iii) whether testing is to be carried out beIore or aIter machining, or prooI
machining; and
(iv) the proportion oI castings to be tested iI less than 100°.
(g) Whether Code R1 or R2 (radiography) is applicable (see Paragraph B8), and iI so
(i) the proportion oI casting to be radiographed when R2 is speciIied;
(ii) the areas to be subject to testing with reIerence to the drawing;
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AS 1565-1996 20
(iii) the system oI agreement on technique; and
(iv) the system oI radiograph approval.
(h) Whether Code C (electrical conductivity) is applicable (see Paragraph B9), and iI
so, the acceptable methods oI test.
(i) Whether the Iollowing certiIicates are required:
(i) CertiIicate oI analysis.
(ii) CertiIicate oI mechanical test results.
(iii) CertiIicate oI compliance either with this Standard or with the test schedule.
(j) Details oI any outside inspection required by the purchaser beIore delivery oI the
castings (see Paragraph A6.4 oI Appendix A).
(k) The names oI the representatives oI the design department and purchasing
department with whom contact should be made.
B3 CODE A (ANALYSIS) When Code A is speciIied, all casts should be analysed.
B4 CODE T (MECHANICAL TESTS) When Code T is speciIied, at least one
mechanical test should be carried out to represent each cast.
B5 CODE M (MACHINING) Frequently, the quality oI castings subject to machining
cannot be assessed adequately in the as-cast state and provision should be made by the
supplier Ior machining, either partially or Iully, beIore inspection.
The region or regions to be machined beIore inspection should be the subject oI
agreement between purchaser and supplier and should be detailed on the drawing and
noted in the purchaser`s test schedule. Where the proportion oI castings subject to this
requirement is not stated on the purchaser`s test schedule all the castings should be
machined.
Visual inspection oI the machined surIace will be suIIicient to identiIy gross deIects, but
prooI machining is also particularly valuable in conjunction with pressure testing (Code P)
or penetrant Ilaw detection (Code F).
B6 CODE P (PRESSURE TESTING)
B6.1 Exclusions Where castings Iorm part oI a product (e.g. a valve) which is the
subject oI an Australian Standard, then the requirements oI Paragraph B6.2 should not
apply and the test pressure should be that speciIied in the relevant Australian Standard.
B6.2 Requirements The types oI pressure tests required, the conditions oI test and
instructions on the production stage at which the tests should be applied should be
speciIied on the purchaser`s test schedule.
Wherever conditions permit, the test should be carried out aIter machining or, where this
is not practicable, aIter prooI machining.
When the proportion oI castings to be tested is not stated on the purchaser`s test schedule,
all castings should be tested.
Castings may either be tested hydrostatically or be subjected to a hydrostatic test initially
and then be tested pneumatically, as Iollows:
(a) Hvarostatic test The castings should be suitably blanked oII and hydrostatically
tested at the speciIied pressure. The test pressure should be held Ior 5 minutes or
more to permit adequate inspection. Any casting Irom which leakage occurs is
deemed to have Iailed the test. Water is the preIerred test medium, but other liquids
may be speciIied subject to the agreement oI the supplier.
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21 AS 1565-1996
(b) Pneumatic test The castings should be suitably blanked oII, immersed in water and
pneumatically tested to the speciIied pressure. The water should be clean and the
castings should be submerged not more than 150 mm below the surIace. The test
pressure should be held Ior 5 minutes or more to permit adequate inspection. Any
casting Irom which leakage occurs is deemed to have Iailed the test. Air is the
preIerred test medium, but other suitable gases may be speciIied subject to the
agreement oI the supplier.
NOTE: It is recommended that the pneumatic test is carried out aIter conducting the
hydraulic test which has been perIormed using at least twice the pressure proposed Ior the
pneumatic test.
B7 CODE F (PENETRANT FLAW DETECTION) SurIace deIects may be detected
with the aid oI dye penetrant testing (see AS 2062). Should this Iorm oI inspection be
required, the conditions oI test should be speciIied in the purchaser`s test schedule. Where
the number oI tests is not stated, all the castings should be tested.
The casting should be thoroughly cleaned by appropriate methods beIore testing to
remove mould residues such as sand, dressings, and other deposits which would interIere
with the test.
B8 CODES R1 AND R2 (RADIOGRAPHICEXAMINATION)
B8.1 Marking of test regions When radiography oI castings is required, test regions
Ior radiographic examination should be marked clearly on the drawing.
B8.2 Grades The Iollowing grades should apply:
(a) R1: Radiography oI test regions on all castings supplied.
(b) R2: Radiography oI test regions oI the Iirst castings produced in any particular
order. This is to be Iollowed by check radiographs on a proportion oI the
remainder. The number oI castings required to be radiographed at both stages
should be stated on the purchaser`s schedule.
In all cases, radiographic techniques and standards oI acceptance should be subject to
agreement between supplier and purchaser.
B8.3 Repairs When castings supplied to Codes R1 and R2 are repaired, the repaired
areas are subject to radiographic examination in accordance with the requirements oI
Paragraphs B8.1 and B8.2.
B8.4 Approval The test schedule should state whether the purchaser requires to
approve the radiographic procedure, the system oI inspection and the resultant
radiographs.
The system oI inspection and approval may include
(a) acceptance oI the decision oI the supplier subject to periodic assessment by a
representative oI the purchaser;
(b) viewing oI each batch oI radiographs at the supplier`s works by a representative oI
the purchaser beIore delivery; or
(c) delivery oI radiographs with each batch oI castings. In this case, the radiographs
should be accompanied by sketches or descriptions to enable the identiIication oI
each radiograph with its related casting.
B9 CODE C (ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY TESTING) II Code C is speciIied,
at least one conductivity test should be carried out per cast or heat treatment batch,
whichever is the smaller, in accordance with Clause 7.2.2.
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AS 1565-1996 22
APPENDIX C
RELATED COMPOSITION SPECIFICATIONS
(InIormative)
Alloy
designation`
Alloy name
Former
AS 1565
alloy
BS 1400 ISO1
C80100
C81500
C83600A
High conductivity copper
Copper chromium
85/5/5/5 Leaded gunmetal
801A
815B
836B
HCCI
CCI
LG2

Cu Pb 5 Sn 5 Zn 5
C83700
C83810A
C85210
Sand-cast brass (brazing
brass)
83/3/9/5 Leaded gunmetal
Sand-cast brass
837D
838C
852C
SCB6
LG1
SCB1

C85310
C85400
C85710
Sand-cast brass
Sand-cast brass
Diecast brass
851D
854C
857B
SCB2
SCB3
DCB3

C86300
C86500
C90250
High tensile brass
High tensile brass
Phosphor bronze
869D
865C
906D
HTB3
HTB1
PB3

Cu Zn Al 2 Fe Mn Ni
Cu Sn 10
C90710
C90810
C91700
Phosphor bronze
Phosphor bronze
Tin bronze
904D
907C

PB1
PB2
CT2

Cu Sn 12

C92410A
C92610A
C92710
87/7/3/3 Leaded gunmetal
88/10/2 Gunmetal
Leaded tin bronze
924B
905C
930D
LG4
G1
LB3

Cu Sn 10 Zn 2

C93200
C93500
C93700
Leaded gunmetal
Leaded tin bronze
Leaded tin bronze

935B
937B

LB4
LB2

Cu Pb 10 Sn 10
C94100
C95210
C95400
Leaded tin bronze
Aluminium bronze
Aluminium bronze
941C
952C

LB5
AB1

Cu Al 10 Fe 3

C95710
C95810
C96200
Manganese aluminium
bronze
Aluminium bronze
90/10 Copper-nickel
957B
958C

CMA1
AB2

Cu Al 10 Fe 5 Ni 5

* These UNS numbers have been adopted by the American Society Ior Testing and Materials (ASTM).
f The international Standard ISO 1338 has been withdrawn.
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23 AS 1565-1996
APPENDIX D
COLOUR CODE FOR INGOTS
(InIormative)
Designation Colour code
C80100
C81500
C83600A

Blue
C83700
C83810A
C85210
Green/Brown
Blue/Red
Green/Blue
C85310
C85400
C85710

Green
Yellow/Brown
C86300
C86500
C90250
Brown/Red
Brown

C90710
C90810
Yellow
Yellow/Red
C92410A
C92610
C92710
Blue/Brown
Red

C93200
C93500
C93700

White/Green
White
C94100
C95210
C95400
White/Brown
Aluminium

C95710
C95810
C96200
Aluminium/Red
Aluminium/Green

NOTE: The numbers oI colours used Ior identiIying ingots


should be those standardized in AS 2700, as Iollows:
Yellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Red . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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AS 1565-1996 24
APPENDIX E
SHAPES OF STANDARD TEST BARS
(InIormative)
E1 BNF 'CAST TO SHAPE` TEST SAMPLE It is recommended that the cast to
shape` test bar shown in Figure E1 be used Ior alloys C83600A, C83810A, C92410A and
C92610A that have been sand cast and have long Ireezing ranges. In addition, it is oIten
used Ior alloys C90710, C90810, C93500 and C94100.
DÌ MENSÌONS Ì N MÌLLÌMETRES
FÌGURE E1 BNF 'CAST TO SHAPE' TEST BAR PATTERN DÌMENSÌONS
(NOT TO SCALE)
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25 AS 1565-1996
E2 SAND-CAST TEST SAMPLE It is recommended that the test bar shown in
Figure E2 be used Ior alloys C81500, C86300, C86500, C95210, C95710 and C95810 that
have been sand cast and have short Ireezing ranges.
DÌ MENSÌONS Ì N MÌLLÌMETRES
FÌGURE E2 SAND-CAST TEST BAR
E3 CHILL-CAST TEST BARS It is recommended that the test bar shown in
Figure E3 be used to represent samples cast in chill moulds (see Clause 7.1.1).
DÌ MENSÌONS Ì N MÌLLÌMETRES
FÌGURE E3 CHÌLL-CAST TEST BAR
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AS 1565-1996 26
APPENDIX F
A GUIDE TO ALLOY SELECTION
(InIormative)
F1 INTRODUCTION This Appendix is intended to give general guidance on the
selection oI the most appropriate alloy Ior a particular application. It is emphasized that
the data contained herein are Ior inIormation only, and should not be used as the basis oI
agreement between the supplier and the purchaser.
It is recommended that the purchaser consult the supplier on alloy requirements unless the
purchaser has had previous experience oI the behaviour oI copper alloys in the particular
circumstances concerned.
Guidance on alloy selection is given in the Iollowing Paragraphs:
(a) Corrosion resistance: Paragraph F2.
(b) Wear resistance (bearings and gears): Paragraph F3.
(c) Elevated temperature service: Paragraph F4.
(d) Pressure tightness: Paragraph F5.
Table F1 sets out selected characteristics oI the alloys speciIied in this Standard, with the
exception oI C87300, C87800 and C91700.
F2 CORROSION RESISTANCE
F2.1 Atmospheric corrosion
F2.1.1 General All oI the cast copper alloys have good resistance to atmospheric
corrosion, although most undergo superIicial tarnishing, resulting in the development oI
the well-known greenish patina. Copper-base alloys suIIer high corrosion rates in sulIur-
bearing atmospheres and are not suitable where the concentration oI sulIur dioxide in the
atmosphere reaches a high level. Alloy C95810 can, however, be used at moderate levels
oI contamination.
F2.1.2 Stress corrosion Stressed components manuIactured Irom cast beta brass, e.g.
alloy C86300, are subject to stress corrosion cracking. The cracks spread rapidly with
little or no general corrosion evident. The presence oI tensile stresses and exposure to a
corrosive medium, which may include an industrial or a marine atmosphere, is necessary
to cause stress corrosion cracking.
F2.2 Corrosion by water
F2.2.1 De:incification DezinciIication is a Iorm oI corrosion which results in the loss
oI the beta phase Irom alpha-beta brass alloys. It can be plug` type which results in
leaking castings or meringue` type which blocks the Iitting. The alloys which may suIIer
dezinciIication corrosion are C85400, C85710, C86300 and C86500. These alloys should
not be used where corrosion oI this type may be experienced.
F2.2.2 Stress corrosion See Paragraph F2.1.2.
F2.2.3 Natural waters As corrosion rates in natural waters are generally negligible, the
cast brasses are traditionally used Ior plumbing and similar Iittings. Pipe Iittings made
Irom duplex brasses such as C85400, C85710 and C86500 may suIIer dezinciIication in
supply waters in some areas. Terminal Iittings such as taps, radiator valves and Iittings in
closed circuit central heating systems are not aIIected. Some mine waters may be
appreciably acid in character and these are more aggressive, especially where they contain
iron salts, particularly Ierric chloride; the copper-nickels, phosphor bronzes, aluminium
bronze (C95810) or manganese aluminium bronze (C95710) are the most suitable alloys
Ior such applications.
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F2.2.4 Seawater The phosphor bronzes, copper-nickels and gunmetals have notably
good resistance to corrosion by seawater and are used Ior pipe Iittings, cocks and pump
bodies. The high zinc brasses, C85400, C85710, C86300 and C86500 tend to undergo
slow dezinciIication.
The copper-nickel alloy C96200 has high resistance to seawater attack. It can be welded
although special techniques are required to prevent cracking in the weld and heat-aIIected
zone; 70:30 CuNi Iiller rods are employed Ior this process.
High-tensile brasses oI suitable composition are widely used Ior marine propellers.
Aluminium bronze C95810 and manganese aluminium bronze C95710 have outstanding
resistance to seawater under most conditions oI service and are used extensively Ior such
items as pump impellers, marine propellers, valves and underwater Iittings. While
aluminium bronze C95210 also exhibits good general corrosion resistance, it suIIers Irom
de-aluminiIication under some circumstances, especially in crevices, under stagnant, non-
aerated conditions.
F2.2.5 High velocities For handling high velocity natural water or seawater, the
maximum resistance to impingement attack is oIIered by aluminium bronze C95810,
manganese aluminium bronze C95710, gunmetal C92610A and phosphor bronze C90250.
F2.2.6 Boiler feea waters The phosphor bronzes, gunmetals, aluminium and manganese
aluminium bronzes are all used Ior handling boiler Ieed waters. The high zinc brasses tend
to suIIer dezinciIication and are not generally suitable; de-aluminiIication oI aluminium
bronze C95210 may sometimes occur under adverse conditions.
F2.3 Resistance to chemical attack
F2.3.1 Mineral acias Copper alloys are not completely resistant to attack by acids.
Rates oI attack oI many acids under non-oxidizing conditions are very low, ranging Irom
about 0.05 mm to 2 mm per year according to the concentration and degree oI aeration.
The best resistance to attack is aIIorded by aluminium bronze C95810. The phosphor
bronzes are also suitable Ior handling dilute acids. Leaded bronzes are sometimes
recommended Ior dilute sulIuric acid. Brasses are not generally satisIactory. Corrosion
rates are higher in hydrochloric acid than in sulIuric acid; the phosphor bronzes,
aluminium and manganese aluminium bronzes are Irequently used in applications
requiring contact with these acids. The aluminium and manganese aluminium bronzes Iind
considerable application in both hydrochloric and sulIuric acid steel pickling and metal
treatment processes. The aluminium bronzes also show useIul resistance to hydroIluoric
acid.
Strong aeration or the presence oI oxidizing salts oIten increases the rate oI attack on
copper alloys. The corrosion rate oI aluminium bronzes can be signiIicantly reduced under
many oxidizing conditions, notably in pickling acid solutions containing Ierric` iron salts.
F2.3.2 Organic acias Copper alloys have good resistance to organic acids and salts;
the gunmetals, phosphor bronzes, aluminium bronzes and some special alloy compositions
are used in many Iood processing applications involving dilute acids such as acetic and
Iormic acids. The aluminium bronzes, notably C95810, also Iind some application in the
processing oI acetic acid.
NOTE: Copper alloys are widely used Ior handling Iood products, though in many cases they
are given a heavy coating oI tin. This is not so much to protect the alloys against attack, but
rather to avoid risk oI traces oI copper aIIecting the Iood. Very small amounts oI copper can
cause discolouration or an alteration in the Ilavour oI certain Ioods. Leaded alloys should not be
used.
F2.3.3 Alkalis The resistance oI the copper alloys to alkaline solutions, although not so
high as their resistance to acids, enables them to be used Ior handling many alkalis and
salt solutions. All oI the alloys suIIer considerable attack in solutions oI ammonia or
ammonium salts and contact should be avoided.
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AS 1565-1996 28
F3 WEAR RESISTANCE (BEARINGS AND GEARS)
F3.1 General The inIormation normally required beIore a decision is made on the
selection oI appropriate copper alloys Ior wear resistance includes the Iollowing:
(a) Working load.
(b) Backing Ior bearings.
(c) Material and design oI gears.
(d) Impact loading.
(e) Hardness and material oI shaIt or mating gear.
(I) SurIace speed at the bearing Iace.
(g) Lubrication (method oI lubrication, lubricant and the possibility oI interruption oI
supply).
(h) Working temperature with consideration oI peak temperature.
(i) Abrasive material.
F3.2 Working load
F3.2.1 Bearings The working load Ior bearings and bushes should take into account the
ability oI the assembly to provide support, the size oI the bearing, and the projected area
taking the load. The material should be well within its compressive load limits and the
Iatigue strength, hardness and bearing properties should be suIIicient to resist surIace
cracking.
Although the Iirst consideration is dependent on the design oI the structure supporting the
bearing, the compressive strength and resistance to cracking are to some extent related to
each other. The 0.2° prooI stresses both in tension and compression are approximately
the same and the perIormance may thereIore be estimated Irom the tables oI mechanical
properties.
F3.2.2 Backing for bearings Most bearings are secured into a rigid housing oI cast
iron, steel or aluminium alloy. Phosphor bronzes, gunmetals, the leaded gunmetals and the
low-lead leaded bronzes generally have suIIicient strength to render the backing Ior the
bearing relatively unimportant so long as the structure is rigid enough to carry the load.
The high-lead leaded bronze C94100, because oI its greater plasticity and lower operative
strength, requires greater attention to be paid to its support.
Gunmetals and phosphor bronzes are oIten used as backing materials Ior white metal
bearings.
F3.2.3 Material ana aesign of gears Similar considerations to bearings prevail in gear
and wormwheel design; the wheel should be designed so that the tooth web and other
sections are capable oI withstanding the axial and tangential loads put upon them. As the
aluminium bronzes and high-tensile brasses do not possess ideal bearing qualities, the
harder phosphor bronzes such as alloy C90810 are oIten preIerred Ior these conditions.
F3.2.4 Impact loaaing Although bearings or correctly designed gears are not normally
subject to true impact loading they are occasionally subject to shock loading or pounding.
F3.3 Hardness and material of shaft or mating gear Hardened steel shaIts require a
hard bearing material, provided that there is adequate lubrication to resist wear and to
ensure Ireedom Irom pick-up oI the bearing material by the shaIt. The converse applies
Ior soIt shaIts, which are susceptible to scoring and also to deterioration due to pick-up oI
the shaIt material by hard bearing bronzes. For the soIter shaIts, the leaded alloys are
suitable bearing materials, while the harder phosphor bronzes are generally used Ior the
harder shaIts.
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F3.4 Surface speed at the bearing face SurIace speeds, by themselves, are not the
operative Iactor in alloy selection because their eIIect depends on lubrication, working
load, surIace Iinish and running clearance to determine the degree oI continuity oI the oil
Iilm and the surIace temperature oI the mating parts; however, extreme speed and rapid
and large changes oI speed accentuate the eIIect oI the other Iactors.
F3.5 Lubrication Unless operating under negligible load conditions, bearing materials
will not withstand a complete absence oI lubrication. However, bearing design should
allow Ior the temporary absence oI lubrication in many applications, particularly under
starting conditions. The leaded alloys, particularly the leaded bronzes, are very useIul
under such conditions, as the lower dry coeIIicient oI Iriction reduces the chance oI pick-
up or seizure in the event oI a temporary breakdown oI lubrication. However, Ior any
lengthy period oI running, the leaded alloys require as much lubrication as the harder
bearing materials in order to resist wear. Phosphor bronze bearing surIaces may be
grooved and Iilled with a suitable graphite wax compound to provide a dry lubricant.
F3.6 Working temperature with consideration of peak temperature In many cases,
lubricating oil temperatures are erroneously quoted as the operating temperatures oI
bearings or gears. In practice, surIace temperatures are, usually, considerably in excess oI
the oil temperature.
F3.7 Abrasive material The possibility oI the presence oI abrasive material should be
taken into consideration in the operation oI bearings. The leaded alloys C92710, C93500,
C93700 and C94100 are used in certain Iield conditions because oI their ability to absorb
abrasive particles which become embedded in the surIace oI the bearing.
F3.8 Recommendations
F3.8.1 Selection of casting methoa It is recommended that, where appropriate,
continuous, chill or centriIugal castings be selected Ior applications requiring wear
resistance, as these casting methods generally provide higher levels oI soundness and a
more suitable structure to give consistent perIormance.
F3.8.2 Bearings Recommended bearing alloys in the order oI preIerence Ior various
service conditions are as Iollows:
(a) For hard shaIts subject to any combination oI high working load, high speed, impact
loading or pounding, and when there is adequate lubrication and good alignment:
C90250, C90710, C90810.
(b) For hard or moderately hard shaIts subject to moderate or low loads and speeds, and
having less than adequate lubrication and alignment: C92710, C93500, C93700.
(c) For soIt (mild steel) shaIts subject to conditions oI low working temperature, low
impact loading or pounding, in conjunction with doubtIul lubrication Ior short
periods, or misalignment (provided there is adequate backing Ior the bearing):
C93500, C94100.
(d) For non-critical applications subject to low loads and adequate lubrication:
C83600A, C92410A, C93500.
F3.8.3 Gears Recommended gear alloys in the order oI preIerence Ior various service
conditions are as Iollows:
(a) For heavy duty gears and worm wheels subject to high working loads or high speeds
and with adequate lubrication and good alignment and where some shock loading
and presence oI abrasive material can be tolerated: C90710, C90810.
(b) For gears subject to very heavy loads and slow speeds with good lubrication and
alignment: C90810, C95810.
(c) For medium duty gears with adequate lubrication and alignment: C90710, C90810,
C95210.
(d) For very light duty gears when loading is negligible: C83600A, C95210, C86500.
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AS 1565-1996 30
F4 SERVICE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES (INCLUDING SUPERHEATED
STEAM)
F4.1 General When considering service at elevated temperatures, the important Iactors
to be considered are as Iollows:
(a) Resistance to oxidation.
(b) Load carrying capacity.
(c) Structural stability.
F4.2 Resistance to superheated steam Many years oI service experience have proven
the suitability oI gunmetal components Ior handling superheated steam at temperatures up
to 260 C. Aluminium bronzes have also been used Ior similar applications, but under
service conditions where the steam contains chemically active impurities, selective attack
on these alloys has been experienced. The aluminium bronzes are not recommended Ior
handling steam at high temperatures iI the steam is contaminated with small amounts oI
sulIur dioxide or chlorides; manganese aluminium bronze is not similarly aIIected and is
suitable Ior this application.
F4.3 Resistance to oxidation The copper-base alloys that contain additions oI
aluminium have exceptional resistance to oxidation. The aluminium and manganese
aluminium bronzes, and certain oI the high-tensile brasses remain practically unaIIected
by oxidation almost up to the melting point. The casting alloys containing no aluminium
are less resistant to oxidation but suIIer no more than superIicial tarnishing at
temperatures up to 320 C. Copper and copper chromium oxidize more readily than the
other alloys.
F4.4 Load carrying capacity Despite the relatively good room temperature
mechanical properties oI some oI the alloys, none oI the cast copper-base alloys are
suitable Ior sustaining high loads at high temperatures. Their high temperature
applications are mainly in cases where resistance to corrosion and oxidation are important
and steel is unsuitable. The mechanical properties oI an alloy at room temperature are not
a reliable guide to its perIormance at elevated temperatures. It is not saIe to base design
stresses on the results oI short-time tensile tests carried out at the operating temperature.
SaIe working stresses can only be determined Irom the results oI creep tests oI several
thousand hours` duration when the deIormation oI the specimen under load is recorded as
time proceeds. Under sustained stress at high temperatures, metals undergo slow
permanent deIormation (plastic strain) and the most useIul inIormation to the designer is
the load which will cause not more than a certain amount oI plastic strain in a given time.
For long-term applications, the load to produce 0.1° plastic strain (an extension or
compression oI 0.001 mm/mm) in 10 000 h is oIten determined.
Brasses have good room temperature properties, but begin to lose strength at temperatures
above 150 C. Although they are not suitable Ior load carrying applications at higher
temperatures there are many applications where the loads involved are very low and the
resistance oI the brasses to oxidation and corrosion makes them a good choice.
F5 PRESSURE TIGHTNESS Hydraulic or gas pressure is a particularly searching test
oI the quality oI a casting, revealing deIects which might have quite signiIicant eIIects on
its strength. Any discontinuities in the metal Iorming the wall oI the casting, regardless oI
size, are potential sources oI leakage.
Given a reasonable design, it is possible to make pressure-tight castings Irom any oI the
copper-base alloys. The copper-nickel alloys, aluminium and manganese aluminium
bronzes, and high-tensile brasses require careIul Ioundry techniques, but can make
excellent pressure-tight castings. Because oI the good mechanical properties oI these
alloys, it is possible through design to make weight reductions in the castings that should
more than compensate Ior the extra cost oI their production.
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The best alloys Ior the production oI pressure-tight castings are those containing
substantial amounts oI lead; the majority oI pressure-tight castings are made Irom leaded
gunmetals. These leaded alloys are also more easily machined than other copper-base
alloys; this is an important consideration with castings such as valves and pump bodies.
When designing castings Ior applications requiring pressure tightness, sudden changes in
thickness oI adjacent sections should be avoided. Where this cannot be done, the angles
should be rounded or Iilleted. Machining allowances should be kept to a minimum to
avoid the removal oI the Iine-grained metal near the skin.
A test oI pressure tightness Irequently applied to castings, such as small valve bodies,
employs air applied to the casting submerged in water (see Appendix B). Air at a pressure
oI 700 kPa is generally used. This test is suitable Ior castings with masses between 0.1 kg
and 10 kg. It is usual to test larger castings under hydraulic pressure.
Ratings Ior the suitablity oI alloys Ior pressure-tight sand castings are given in Table F1.
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