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Chapter #9 Study Guide

1. Regarding the affects of Coriolis on ocean circulation: a) What is meant by Geostrophic Flow? i. Balance between pressure gradient and coriolis causes a hill of water b) What is meant by Ekman Spiral and Ekman Transport? i. Ekman spiral is the circular motion caused by geostrophic flow, hill pushes mixed layer deeper ii. Ekman transport- coriolis effect felt smaller below sea level, the net motion of Ekman spiral generally 90 degrees to right in northern hemisphere c) Know the process behind coastal upwelling and downwelling. In particular, if given a wind direction along a coast, know how the surface ocean currents will flow. i. Upwelling- winds from the north blowing to the west, moved away from continent, water is replaced with cold, deep, nutrient rich water ii. Downwelling- wind blowing south along northern hemisphere west coast, water pushed towards continent, d) Know how upwelled waters differ from downwelled waters with regards to nutrient content. i. Upwelled waters have a lot more nutrients, cold water, water forced up ii. Downwelled less nutrients, warmer, water forced down e) Know the differences between eddies and gyres. Know the general differences between Eastern and Western Boundary currents (i.e. strength, salinity, temperatures). i. Gyres are surface currents circulating around ocean basins, n pacific, s pacific, n atlantic, s atlantic, indian ii. Eddies- small circulations from main flow, warm go clockwise, ccold go counteclockwise iii. Eastern boundary currents- cold, slow, small, upwelling (California and canary) west side of contine iv. Western boundary currents- large, fast, warm, downwelling (gulf stream, japan current) east side of contiennt From a global map, be able to identify and describe all 7 continents: North AmericaSouth America Australia Antarctica Europe Asia Africa From a global map, be able to identify the following bodies of water: Pacific Ocean Bering Sea Black Sea North Sea Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean Sea Caspian Sea Weddell Sea Indian Ocean Red Sea Caribbean Sea Arabian Sea Arctic Ocean Yellow Sea Japan Sea Baltic Sea Gulf of Mexico Hudson Bay Persian Gulf Bay of Bengal

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From a global map, be able to identify and describe the following Ocean Currents: a) California and Kuroshio Current b) Gulf Stream and Canary Currents c) Peru and Eastern Australia Currents d) Brazil and Benguela Current e) Algulhas and Western Australia Currents f) North and South Equatorial Current g) West Wind Drift With regards to El Nio: a) What ocean currents are interrupted? i. Currents from trade winds with nutrients, upwelling b) What happens to the trade winds to cause this effect? i. Trade winds diminish and reverse go east with warm water c) What happens to the eastern Pacific temperatures during an El Nio? i. Warmer waters d) What is a La Nia? i. Excess trade winds create upwelling e) What atmospheric signal identifies an El Nio or La Nia? i. Southern oscillation Regarding salinity and temperature of the ocean: f) How does salinity and temperature affect density of seawater? i. Higher salinity higher density, high temperature, lower density g) Know how to read a T-S diagram and be able to place layers of ocean water in corresponding depths. h) What is Caballing? i. Density of 2 of similar water masses is raised i) What is the thermohaline circulation and what is causing it? i. Distributes excess earths heat. Density drives it, because of temperature and salinity

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Regarding general ocean circulations: a) How and where are Deep bottom waters formed? i. Artic caused by cooling waters ii. Antarctica caused by freezing ice increasing salinity b) What are Countercurrents and Undercurrents? i. Counter currents is water moving the opoosite way at equator ii. Undercurrents- same thing but under like Cromwell current c) Where would you find the Cromwell Current? i. Beneath equater current, going the other way d) What are Langmuir Circulations? i. Swirling eddies caused by surface winds e) What units is ocean flow usually measured in? i. Sverdrup, ii. Ekman flow meter, measures speed and direction at a fixed position

Chapter #10 Study Guide


7. Regarding general waves: a. Know how to read the wavelength and wave height if shown a typical wave. b. Know the process of constructive and destructive wave interference. i. Constructing interference is adding ii. Destructive is subtraction, disappears c. What is meant by wave frequency and period? i. Frequency is the number of peaks passing for second ii. Period- time it takes for two peaks to repeat d. What are refraction and diffraction? i. Refraction- waves bend due to depth ii. Diffraction- waves motion around objects e. Understand the concept of a wave moving energy but not water. Regarding Rogues waves and Tsunamis: a) What are rogue waves and how are they created? i. Rare event caused by constructive interference of surrounding waves b) How are tsunamis created? i. Geological disturbance, restored by gravity c) What happens to the tsunami when it reaches shore (same as 3a below)? i. Crashes onto shore, peaks, etc d) Why are tsunamis NOT dangerous in the middle of the ocean? i. The depth doesnt hit ground, doesnt break, wavelength is very longth e) What is the first sign of a tsunami if youre near shore? i. Lowering water levels Regarding general ocean waves: a) What causes most of the ocean waves seen breaking at the beach? i. wind b) Generally describe what happens to wave speed, wavelength, wave height and the structure of the wave crest when a wave approaches shore. i. Speed decreases, height increases, length decreases c) What is meant by a wave feeling the bottom of the ocean? i. When the depth is less than wavelength d) How does depth and/or wavelength affect the speed of an ocean wave? i. Deep water waves are dependent on wavelength, shallow on depth. ii. Longer wave lengths move faster, deeper too e) What is meant by fetch? i. Distance over which wind blows

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What is an internal wave? i. Form between 2 water masses of different density, base of pycnocline

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Describe the following waves to include the "disturbing" and "restoring" forces. a) Capillary Waves i. D=winds, r=cohesion b) Wind waves i. D= winds, r= gravity c) Seiches (also know storm surge) i. D=atmospheric disturbance (pressure), r=gravity d) Tsunamis i. D= geological disturbance, r=gravity e) Tides i. D=gravity/rotation of earth, r=gravity

Chapter #11 Study Guide


1. Regarding tides: f) What causes the tides? i. Disturbing= sun and moon, restorting- gravity g) Know the definition of a diurnal, semidiurnal and mixed tide. i. Diurnal- 1 high tide 24 hours ii. Semidiurnal- 2 high tides in 24hours iii. Mixed tides- combination, different heights h) From 1b, what type of tide does Miami experience? i. Semidiurnal i) How are high and low tides positioned on Earth with regards to the position of the Moon? i. High tide= earths side facing the moon, earths side facing away ii. Low tides are where that water was taken away from j) What are Neap and Spring tides? i. Spring tides0 amplified when sun and moon aligned ii. Neap tides- tides reduced when sun and moon at right angles k) Know how a full moon might or might not affect the tides. i. Increases tides Know the following: a) Tidal datum- reference level, average seal level b) Tidal Bores- only tidal wave, advancing wall of water up a river caused by tidal currents c) Amphidromic Point- no tides exist d) Slack water (be able to pick it out from a tide graph)- no tidal currents, look like troughs

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Chapter #12 Study Guide


1. Be able to describe and identify the following: a. Sea stacks- piece of land that hasnt eroded, alone randomly b. Sea cliffs- caused by low tide wave action, waves erode base and then stops so there is a ledge c. Sea caves- water erodes base, creates cave d. Sea arches- water erodes center, arch forms, will become sea stack later e. Blowholes- water is forced upward f. Sand Spits- sand deposition downstream of headland g. Tombolos- sand creating bridge to off shore feature h. Groins- man made structures designed to limit longshore drift, jetties i. Berms- sediment accumulation by wave action, highest part of profile j. Beach scarps- wall from furthest berm caused by high tide k. Rip currents- when waves enter faster then they can leave, narrow channel of outflowing water, l. Longshore drift- movement of sediment along a shower by wave action m. Atolls (Bora Bora is a good example of an island forming into one) n. Barrier islands (Miami Beach is good example)- sand deposition apart from mainland o. Fringing reefs- corals cling to land p. Barrier reefs (Great Barrier Reef is the biggest example)- land erodes, lagoon seperates reef and land, land completely subsides, ring shape island is leftt q. Deltas- sediment deposits at river mouth Regarding coasts: a. How are coasts classified? i. High energy- large waves, continuous storms, cali ii. Low energy coast- sediments accumulate on shower, shallow waves, gulf of mexico b. What is the most influential agent in changing the shoreline? i. Waves, erosion c. What is the difference between a high energy and low energy coast? i. High energy- larger waves continuous storms, florida w/ hurricane ii. Low energy coast- sediments accumulate, shallow waves d. What are the differences between a depositional and erosional coast and what do most coasts eventually become? i. Erosional coasts are new coasts, removing material ii. Depositional are steady or growing, adding sediment e. How does refraction play a role in shaping coasts? i. Erodes protruding regions first

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Where do most of the minerals in the sands of most continental beaches come from? i. Rivers and streams How does the size of the sediment alter how steep a coast is? i. What problems face many of the beaches in the United States and what is being done about it? i. Erosion; mangroves or shipping it in

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What is an estuary and describe the biological activity in them (high or low)? a. Estuaries are water surrounded by land, exposed to both salt water and fresh water Describe the 4 general ways estuaries are formed (see below): a. Drowned river mouth- sea levels rise and flood river mouth b. Fjord- glaciers c. Bar-built- refraction, saltwater enters lagoon d. Tectonic- tectonic moving side by side With regards to glaciers: a. What are moraines? i. Furthest extent of glacier, glacier moves on way and then when it retracts, sediments stay b. What does Marthas Vineyard have to do with Glaciers? i. Terminal moraine sediment left behind from glacier c. What is a Fjord (see 3b)? i. Valleys cut by glaciers

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