You are on page 1of 112

Writing

MalcolmMann SteveTaylore-Knowles

M MILLN MAC

Topic

Skills focus

Exampractice Grammar Compositionfocus focus


havegot to gerunds and infinitives articles directandindirect objects
adverbsand adjectives direct and indirect speech inversions elisionof relative pronounsand auxiliaryverbs the verb'suggest' preposition placing participle clauses

Pao

i,,t^,
Occupations

selecting correctregister informal letter awareness target of reader prompts using


article informal transactional letter

t(
1

Sport People

layoutandtext structure report


usingdescriptivelanguage story developinga narrative awareness purpose of selectingappropriate style makingsuggestions

2l

r;";
Faod*nd Drnlr

story letter of application article

4(

t r;frhe welatthtir

4C

informal letter formal transactional letter

5:

TheEnvironment developingbeyond prompts fee&nofcgy

5{

usingcomplexsentences discursive composition letter of application formal transactional letter informal transactional letter discursive composition report

Hesffh and Fifness usingset phrases noitpotrt Foshion interpretinggraphics paragraphing presentingan argument punctuation,spelling and abbreviations

formalconditionals 7( prefer / would rather causativeform expressionof contrast comparative comparisons

7(

8i

crr
5hoppng

94

Modelcompositions Useful Phrase Reference

r0c

r09

Films
wnnM-u"@
questions. Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer following In ask the r Haveyou seenany of thesefilms?Did you enjoythem? seenare about? r What do you think the onesyou haven't film? Why? ' Whati your favourite

DeveuoP YouR wRrrrNG sKTLLS /'


Forrnal o r informa[?
Read theseextracts from differentpieces writingaboutfilms,and decide of is formal or informal. whetherthe language generally Circlethe appropriate word aboveeachextract. A formal,/ informal I sawa greatmovielast nightwith Helen. You'dhaveloved it! lt's called TheScore,and itt about a robbery. Niro is fab as one of De the robbers, and Edward Norton - as usual* is reallycooll Greattwist at the end,too. I reckonit'sgonnawin loadsof Oscars. B formal,/ informal gratefulif you could I would be extremely let me know how long I will haveto wait from the date of my order until the satellite dishand programme decoderare installed. C formal./ informal Although theremaywe[[be somekindof connection between violence TV and on violencein society, reallynot clearwhat it's that connection lt certainly not the is. is casethat the majorityof people,after watching violentfilm,feel an increased a needto commitviolentacts.In fact,possibly quitethe opposite.

D &rqqllrfoqq!
As requested, havevisitedthe three I outdoorcinemas currently takingpart in the film festival. have I compared them in terms pricing, of ticket facilities, comfort,sound qualityand picture quality. findings My are outlinedbelow.

to aPPears be cinema To conclude, younger amongst in increasing popularity of the despite availability agegroups, The evidence videoand DVD. high-quality that suggests this is due partly to the to in elementinvolved going the social partly to the benefitsof a and cinema, sound and state-of-the-art largescreen system. fproal4 fqlmal F Kytei language: fornql lfqqlql The writer'ly'anguage: 'Oh, I reallydon't fancygoingto the tonight.Can'twe just stay in and cinema said watcha movieon TV or something?' that he Kyle.Histone of voicerevealed to for wanting washidinghisrealreasons at remain home.

r fornev lfqlnq!

c foryEvjforqal
statedthat the your advertisement Furthermore, andthe with the stars interviews DVDcontains unfortunately The copy which I received director. the contains film and nothint more.

H foroql4forqql
I As you will seefrom my CV.(attached),have of asan extraon a number films.I believe worked from thosefilms demonstrate that my references and hardworking. reliable that I am professional,

How di d you know?


A, Lookagainat extracts B and C. on from the extracts the linesprovided. Write a word or short phrase extract A of 1 Findtwo examples informal Srammar. verb. of 2 Findan example an informal punctuation. of 3 Findan example informal a verb. without 4 Finda sentence spelling. informal of 5 Findan example VERY 6 Whichword is shortfor'fabulous'? means'many'? 7 Whichphrase extract B te[[ means'Please me ..' I Whichphrase of 2 Findone example the Passive. extract C of I Findone example formal grammar. grammar. of 2 Findone example informal for'lt's not true at a[[ ...'. 3 Finda more formal phrase for'most'. 4 Finda moreformalphrase

1
ffimvm**p Yffi#ffi wffi$Y*ruffiffiKLs-s
Match th e text types
Now look at all the extracts again. Matcheachextractwith a text type below,by writingA-H on the linesprovided. I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 letterof application letter of complaint letter requesting information letter to a penfriend composition your teacher for articlefor a youngpeople's magazine report short story
?

Discuss Wr'

il,

Discuss your answers. you agreeon the text types? Do

What da you thnk?


Write T for Trueand F for False next to thesestatements about writing. I ln an artictefor a youngpeople! magazine, shouldnt use you (dont, cant, itt, etc) at a[[. contractions

2 In a composition your teacher, shouldavoidusingcontractions. for you 3 Only grammar formal or informa[; is vocabulary isn't. 4 Phrasalverbs usually(but not always) are informa[. t Whenyou write a pieceof writing,the levelof formalitydepends who on
your readeris.

6 Youonly needto haveparagraphs a formal pieceof writing. in 7 Youcan be quite chatty and conversational a letter of application. in I A composition your teacheris more formal than an articlefor a for
youngperson's magazine. 9 An articlefor a youngperson's magazine the samelevelof formality is as a letter to a penfriend.

Study the model


I Quicktyreadmodel composition on page100 and find informalwordsand phrases that meanthe sameasthesemore formal wordsand phrases. I Thankyou very much 2 | am very pleased 3 Yes 5 bought 6 much 7 however

4 difficult I I haveto Now find three examples informalgrammar two examples of and of informal punctuation circlethem in the model. and

I I {.

ConnPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT
Read this composition question and do the exercises follow. that

You saw an interesting at the cinemalast night.Writea letterto your penfriend film explaining you enjoyed filmso muchand recommending theyseeit. why the that Writeyour letter.

Br ainstorm ing
Answerthe followingquestions your imagination. using Discuss your answers with the class. What's the nameof your penfriend? What willyou referto from their last letter,or what will you askthem, BEFORE

youmention th&ftm?
Who did you go to the cinema with? What wasthe nameof the film you saw?

Whatkindof film is it?


Who is in it? Who directedit? What is it about? Why did you particularly enjoy it? Why do you think your friendwill enjoy it? What reason will you givefor endingyour letter?

T hink abou t formality


Circlethe sentences which would be appropriate this kind of letter. for Theremight be more than one sentence eachgroupwhich is appropriate. in ParagraphI a I am writingto thankyou for your letter. b Thanks lot for your last letter. a c I'm writingto thankyou for your last letter. Paragraph2 a Anyway, bunchof us went to the cinema a last night. b My news- | went to the movieslast night with Darren and Angie. c I would like to describe interesting an fitm I sawat the cinemalast night. Paragraph I a Bruce Willis wasgreatasthe baddie! b Furthermore, werea[ extremely we impressed both the qualityof the acting by and the direction. c lU thereforerecommend that you seeit as soon asyou get the chance.

d Go and seeit if you get the chance I think you'll love it! e I would strongly suggest that you go and seethis movie. Paragraph4 a To conclude, film wasmarvellous. the b Wel[, I'd better go now as I'vegot to do somehomework. c Thati allfrom me for now.l'11 in touch be againsoon. losing expressions a Yours, b Yoursfaithfully, c Yourssincerely, d Takecare, e Lots of love, f Byefor now!

r!

rn

4 t

r#psrfucf
Plan your pragraphs
Completethe followint paratraph plan, making noteson what you aregoingto includein eachparagraph.
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to completethe sentences betow. You can get your tickets at the box office at the cinema. We don't watchmanyvideosthesedays; we tend to watchDVDs- the qualityis better. Thefitm is about a guy who travels backin time to savethe planet. TheScore stars RobertDe Niro,Marlon Brando and Edward Norton. In the film, De Niro playsa jazzctub owner who is alsoa masterthief. Gonewith the Wind is set in the American CivitWar. Sha[[ go to the video store,/cluband get a we video out for tonight? Most foreign-language havesubtitlesat films the bottom for you to read. Someforeign-language aredubbed,which films means that they put a[[ the voicesinto your language. A twist in the plot is when something very unexpected happens. I hateit whenforeignfilms are to ; I liketo listen them in theiroriginaI language. Thefilm is on another

lh*oruaal leLFe* plo,rt


De^,
Patnargnrrph I

-)
Parnagnarph 2

ParotgnaVhj

4 Parraigvaph

Closirrg , , eFPYessr\i5,]

Your *irsf
h4i4e

tf
Y

Homework
Nowwriteyourletter.

planet, it'sreally but aboutmodern-day issues on Earth. get Let's our ticketsfrom the
first and then get some Popcorn, Therei a very nearherebut it doesn'thavemanyrecentfilms. Leonardo CaprioDi a struggting artistwho fatlsin lovewith a rich girl. lt's a comedy a groupof peoplewho work in a TV studio. l'm goingto try not to readthe my ; it'[l help me practise English. Therei a Sreat at the end it turns out that hei actuallya ghost! As the priceof the players comesdown, aregoingto becomemore and more popular. Thefilm BradPitt, and was directedby RobertRedford.

Readthis checklist. Whenyou have written your letter,tick the boxes. . I haveusedinformalgrammar (including contractions). I I haveusedinformalvocabulary. I I haveusedsomeinformal letter expressions. . I havementionedmy penfriend's letter in paragraph'1. r I haverecommended that my penfriend sees film. the r I haveusedat leastone informal ctosing expression. r I havewritten my first nameat the bottom of the letter.

T T T T T T T

6 7

8 9

l0

"--'..* :
!L

IE

i l t"-""-'**

XAM

PRACTICE

lruronvtel LETTER
I

r xsnry w-how ,knc


i

i ' , ; l

Whenyou are writingan informalletter (to for a friend,penfriend cousin, example) or remember usea chatty,conversational to grammar vocabulary. and stylewith informal

however, are r Remember, that paragraphs still importantin an informalletter.

style. Each of these informallettersshould be written in 120-180words in an appropriate made a shortfilm with a video camera. 1 You and your friendsrecently whatthe film was about Writea letterto a friendin an English-speaking country saying and describin!tfre experience. Writeyour letter. film is in 2 Youroenfriend interested film and has askedyou aboutyourfavourite stars. why stars,explaining Writea letter yourfrienddescribing or two of yourfavourite to one you liketheirfilms. Writevour letter.

focus Grammar
You'vegot to see this film! (informal) = You have to/must seethis film. (more formol) 'havegot to'form. l,fse Rer,vn*te these sentences usingthe contractionswhereveryou can. I I must get a DVDplayer.

2 He hasto understand that he can'tgo to the cinemauntil hei done his homework. 3 'Do I haveto do the scene again?' asked the actor impatiently.

4 Doesshehaveto do the sceneagain? Therei no needfor you to pick me up. l'[[ meet you at the box office. 6 Dont you haveto be a professional actor to be an extrain a movie? 7 It isn'tnecessary film actorsto learnthe whole script for 8 The dubbingmust be realtyaccurate.

Writing

Sktlls

\AlenM-uP

Occupations

questions. Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer following In ask the r What do peopleconsider whenthey choosea job? . Whati the bestageto decideon your career? . How importantis it to earna lot of money?

DeveloP YouR wRrrrNG sKtLLs


Who read s what?

Matchthe following kindsof writingto the peopleyou think mightreadthem. job your summer 1 a letter describing 2 a job application 3 an international studentmagazine article on youngpeopleandwork a localnewspaper articleon training opportunities 5 a nationalnewspaper articleon job losses 6 a composition written as a classproject on careers a story about office workerswritten for a competition a a teacher b a studentin another country c somebody interested national in opinion d somebody interested local news in e a manager a company in f a member your family of g a fictionmagazine editor

Choos e the reader


questions. eachone,decidewho For from composition Readtheseextracts the reader going be. is to 1 Yourcolleague made the followingnotes. has to Writeyour letter askingthe Principalfor permission ... b the Principal a your colleague 2 Thecompetitionrulessay that the story must beginwith the following words... judge b yourteacher a a competition has 3 Yourschoolmagazine invitedyou to write an article about ... of at a students your school b members the public this letter from the organisers the competition. of 4 Youhavejust received Write your reply, usingthe notes ... of b the organisers the competition a a ne x a m r n e r I you to write o story for your school's English languoge mogazine. Yourteacherhasasked at a your teacher b students your school

project on work in the media. 6 Youhavebeendoing a class you to write a composition givingyour opinions... Yourteacherhasasked your teacher b the editorof a [oca[paper a

Choos e the best styI e


Foreachreader below, decidewhichstylewould be moreappropriate the whenwritingfor them.Circ[e correctanswer. an articlefor students your school at English academic a a formalstyleusing b an informalstyle usingeveryday English for a discursive composition your teacher a an informal, conversational style a b a formalstylepresenting clear artument a letter to an employerwho is offering ajob a an informative style presenting personal information clear[y your b an informalstyle showing friendlypersonality a letterto a member your family of stylepresenting clear a a a discursive argument style informal b a conversationaI using language the an articlefor youngpeoplearound world a a formal,business style interesting style b a neutral, a story for the judgesof a competition descriptive style a an interesting, informative style b a simple,

1.8 n

ffimwmucpp Y#wre wffi$Y*ru#s${$rLffi


Match th e sentences t o t he readers
Matchthe fotlowingsentences the readers to they are intendedfor. Sorryyou weresacked. Listen, why don't you ca[[Bittand seeif they needanybody at the hotel? Thismeans that something twenty like per cent of youngpeopleare lookingfor jobs - and thati a lot of waiters weekend and waitresses! In conclusion, seems it clearthat the advantages workingduringthe of holidays orJtweigh disadvantages. the Theexperiencegained I working part-timein my uncle's hotel means that I am usedto deating with the public. I wouldn'thavemuchchance getting of into trouble workingat this isolated hotel.At least, thatt what I told myself. a a teacher b a student c a manaSer d a memberof your family e a fiction magazine editor

Study the model


Read mode[composition on page'100 answer following 2 and the questions. I Who is the articleaimedat? 2 What kind of style hasthe writer used? 3 Why doesthe writer usequestionmarkswithin the text?

3i.::iil

W-

thyour partner.you asree? Do both

covrPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
Readthis composition question and do the exercises follow. that A national studentmagazine has askedyou to write an articleon how young peoplemight choosea career. Write a short article for the magazine.

Brainstorm ing
Answer following the questions. Discuss your answers with the class. 1 Whichof thee peoplemight readyour article? a adultswho wantto change theirjob b youngpeoplein other partsof your country c students aroundthe world 2 What would they expectfrom your article? a adviceabouttheir future that interests them jobs b detailed descriptions certain of job is c an explanation why a good of important Are your readers ... a muchyounger thanyou? b the sameageasyou? c mucholderthanyou? Are thesestatements Trueor False? a You shouldusea formal styleto show how muchyou know. You could start with a question to your readers. interest It would be appropriate use to contractions (isn't, dont, etc). Yourstyle shouldbe conversational and friendly. You haveto tel[ them to be good students and work hard. Whichof thesemightbe a goodtitle for this article? a Becominta successfuI professional b Combining career a with a busyhomelife c What do you want to be when you trow uP? d The dangers beingtoo ambitious of

Match
Matchthe paragraph contentson the right with eachparagraph 1-4. 1 2 3 4 a Suggest someother thingsyou mightthink about. b Conclude wishyour and readers good luck. c Askan interesting question and introduce subject. the d Suggest stepsyou might first take in choosing career. a

Starting your article


Circletwo sentences might useto you beginyour article. 1 I havebeenrequested write an article to by this magazine hereit is. and 2 Are you still wondering exactlywhat you'regoingto do with your [ife? 3 | am writingto informyou aboutthe career optionsopento you. 4 lt can be pretty scarytakingdecisions that affect the rest of your [ife.

Ending your article


Circletwo sentences might useto you your article. end In conclusion, thesearethe thingsI had to sayon the subject. I am lookingforwardto hearing from you as soonas possible. I hopethesesuggestions givenyou have something think about. to So,good luck in your future career, you decide. whatever

tl

2
Plan your poragraphs
Completethe followint paragraph plan, makingnoteson what you aregoingto includein eachparagraph.

Wordperfect
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to completethe sentences below. I think job satisfactionis far more important than earning lot of money. a Davet dad hasbeen unemployedfor over a year and can'tfind a job. Sa[[y wasfired,/sacked surfing for the internet too muchat work. ld [iketo havemy own business be my and own boss. I get on very welI with my colleagues in the office. Someworkers oaid more because are of dangerous working conditions. The Ministerwasforcedto resignwhenthe truth cameout. It can be very difficult not having job and a trying to live on unemployment benefit,/the dole. The companyis lookingfor traineesto start immediately. My contract says that I shouldget four weeks paid holidaya year. I Whensales went down dramatically, the manaterdecidedto 2 The new are learning all about the factory. 3 lgetalotof frommy work asa nurse. 4 Tom wasconstantly late and in the end he was 5 lU be carefulif I wereyou because the is in a bad mood. | don'tthink is enough to live on whenyou havechildren. 7 lt can be hardto fi[[ your time when you are

flvficle platr'r
fle
Pavargvarh I

n
PavagraTV,T

PavagvaT\

Pavagvap\ 4

fl I

u^^^,,.rrrb llomework dlYli yJrr'.rti.t"V Now write Readthis checklist. Whenyou have written your artic[e, tick the boxes.
I I I t I

I havewritten an article. I know who my readeris. I haveusedan appropriatestyle.

I havetried to maket interesting. I havechecked spelling for mistakes. T I havechecked grammar for mistakes.

l T T l

8 Makesureyou readthe beforeyou signit. 9 The for a minercan be very dirty and unpleasant. 10 Someof my boughtme a presentwhen I left the office.

14

EX.qM

pRACTICE

ARrrcrE

t
I
!

Exam know-how
' Dont wastetime counting the numberof wordsyou havewritten.Look at one of your compostions seehow manywordsyou write on a line.Formost people,it is to about seven eight.Thismeans or your compositions shouldbe abouttwenty to twenty-five lineslong,or just lessthan one pate of an exercise book.

Each of these articlesshould be written in 120-180words in an appropriate styre. Yourschoolmagazine running series articles is a of underthe tiile ,My dreamjob,. write an artiileto appearin the series describing your idealjob. A localnewspaper has invitedreaders write short articlesabout how they to imagine worldof work will changeoverthe nextdecade. the The bestarlicles will be published the newspaper. in Writeyour article.

Grammor focus
some verbsare followea by thl gerund by in), some_ the full infinitive, and some by both, sometimes -with a changeof meaning.lt is important tit you know which form to ,t". n""Jinr" "r"rpt";. . Thisiob rneons getting up early every morning. t t t Policework involves writing reports. You need to be careful in this line of work. Frank threotened to resign if the plan wosn'tchanged. Did you remember to post my letter of application for the job?

In the following sentences, put the verb in bracketsinto the coruectform. I To be a pilot, you haveto enjoy 2 An officejob in England usually means 3 The workersall stopped 4 Taxidrivers find themselves -(live)dangerously.

(work)from nineto five. (have)a ten minutebreak.

(wait)arounda lot. 5 My brotherworksasa baker, he trained but (be)a mechanic. working asa vet involves (answer) callsin the middleof the night. 7 l'[ alwaysremember (be)late for my first job interview. 8 lt wasa wasteof time trying (get)a job at that new company. 9 | couldn'tafford (pay)a[ my bittswhen r wasfired. l0 One day, I hope (be)offered a job as a manater.

Writng

Skills

Unit

15

iJ

wnnM-u" @
Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer following In ask the questions. r What are the advantages eachway of studying of shownin the photographs? r Do you personally learnbetter aloneor in a group? : Do you like studyinglanguages? Why/Wh_y not?

ffi

Education

:::

DrveloP YouR wRtrtNG sKtLLs


i,Y* :: i *i- i; * :' ;: ;'* ;; :;. r.; :: i :l
Read this question.

',

You sawthis advertisement a courseand contactedthe college more details, for for making the notesbelow.Read the advertisement the notescarefully. and Write a letter to your penfriend, who you know is interested languages, in telling them about the course.

Saluton. Kiel vi fartas?


confused? Don'tbe.That'sEsperanto for'Hello.How areyou?'Esperanto an is artificial language spokenby manypeople around world.How wouldyou like the to learnEsperanto from home?With our new homestudycourse you couldbe communicating Esperanto in with people from manycountries

@bso|utebeginnersarewe|come.Lowfee'Ca||o1276333451 furlher detail{ourse director: Hope,Eurolingua Mr College ofor


l8f7 Sperkeys:? lulilliorr Fee, 66 uroos *on Z-r,rohfh cL\vse *lextbooks exfrq rl lwe\fe:

coul o i*
oVer ffre
51.\v$1|,i'11.

.,.".,,ri.1,i,iiii;f+fir

from your notes. It is very importantto includeall the right information you to pieces information have include. of Tickwhichof the following I 2 3 4 5 6 7 Esperanto a confusing isn't language. lt wasinventedin 1887. You haveto pay extra for the textbooks. The fee is 60 euros. Yourfriend could do the courseoverthe summer. 'Saluton' in means'Hel[o' Esperanto. of aroundthe world. Thereare 2 million speakers Esperanto

H*w drd rftey #*3


paraSraphs from letterswritten by differentstudents Read these*two r question Underline wherethey mention above. in answer the composition to notesabove. the pointsfrom the

1 I called them for you yesrerday. The secretary told me about the guy who invented it in 1887, but I can't remember hs name. I do remember that there are speakers around the world, s o m e t h i n g l i k e r \ . d om i l l i o n though. She said it was sixty euros for a two-month
.rlr'rrqor ^ r h i r - h \: / v r 1 v r-o'r'ld n^sqihrr do r\/or the Summer.

from You can get more information Mr Hope. Do you want the number?

the

course

drrector,

2 ,iyh\a fhe worl.Esgeratnto iwe\te wts fhere awetwo r^rilliot sgerrkers


i\ 188?.The lee is sixty tavS t fwo-prohfhcuvse/ovevthe shu4rtev Nor iQ you like. Texfbooks exfrr. The chyseiveclor is l.{vHope. Ctllhiwro\ 01216'|jj+sl. 1 the Write the correctnumber, or 2, to answer followingquestions. Which writer has... usingthe prompts? a wrtten naturalsentences it? b copiedone of the promptswithout understanding c forgottento mentionone of the prompts? d usedan appropriate style? of e not thought aboutthe grammar the prompts?

Unit

17

i'

y*aire w-dre$y$ruffi ffimqgmuffip sKg*g-s


Wns # psrcgrcp& *e
Hereis an incomptete answer the question to above. Tick which of the followingpointsthe writer hasmentioned. a b c d e Esperanto inventedin 1887 was You haveto pay extra for the textbooks. Thefee is 60 eurosfor the 2-monthcourse. Yourfriend could do the courseoverthe summer. Thereare 2 millionspeakers Esperanto of aroundthe world.

Now writethe missing paragraph your notebook, in including remaining the pointsfrom above. DeavJeuy
Hi! How are yot'J fhrqLs Qor yoh' lrsl lelfe'. Gveql \ews 4teoqf yotar carf. SeVe\ ki{-fe\S! )orar horase rrqsf lre chroSrf fhe wroqe\f! Atrywrty, lisle\. I kow yota sari yr^ wve fhirrkir,,g o{ leatvnirrg ar urew latrrgraarge bqf yora coraltr'l Aec\Ae which oure.Harve yoq fhoughf tlpoqf Espe"atnrfo,fhe rvfiQici arl lotngua,ge? I saw ar\ a,A Pov d.hoqe sfra/y cohyse fhe ofhe' Aay auA il sor\el pe'Pecf Po' yora. I carlle), le college anA lhey lol wre r bif tborf Eserarnfo. ll wrsihve\fe ih 1887 a\A lheve qve abotl fwo u.rilliohspeake"s avoh\ lhe wovl.

\
u.Jhrf ).o yor,tfhiqk? l'll ser/ yora lhe qhvurbero* fhe college iQ yora'"e

ihfe"esfe. QovgoLPelev sary5hello. I have fo go \r^- Gevwa\ fllr,,rosf horrewo"k.Yoh'"e \of fhe otrly orre/.oirg larnguarges, krrow! you Lols oPlove, Tirrt

&*sd "y* rrp*nfnar's wrifrng Swapparagraphs readwhat your partnerhaswritten. and


your partnert paragraph, Using answer followingquestions. the I Hasmy partneruseda[[the remaining prompts? 2 Hasmy partnerput them into naturalsentences? 3 Hasmy partnerusedan appropriate informalstyle?

5fe;dy ff*e rnsdef


Readquestion3 on page101. Circlewhich of the followingthe writer hasto mention. a Theydo vegetarian meals. d Thereare no tableson the 7th, but there b A mealcostsabout 25 eurosper person. are on the 8th. c Large get a discountof l0%. e Theyhavelive musicat the weekend. SrouPs f The restaurant in the countryside. is Now readmodelcomposition on page101. 3 Underline phrases the wherethe writer mentions the necessary information above. What style hasthe writer used?

CovrPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
question that and do the exercises follow. Readthis composition for You saw this advertisement a courseand contactedthem for more details,makingthe and the notes carefully.Write a letter to your notes below. Read the advertisement penfriend, their memory, tellingthem aboutthe in who you know is interested improving

course.
serr yotawo"ksheets
1^,l[4 vciSeS

- -

:
j

";i"io iiptove yourmemory


Our new distance lear Remember names and telephone numbers. Easily learn words in a foreign language. You'll be arnazed at the results in just 10 days!

cosk 55 gotarrs cevfilicrfe al e/

l I i

I
i ; :

Srs,nsform ng
your answers questions. Discuss with the class. Answer following the your penfriend's name? What's What newsmightyou tell them beforeyou mentionthe course? Wheredo you do the course? How longdoesthe courselast? How muchdoesthe coursecost? 'certificate What does at end' mean? will you givefor endingyour letter? What reason How mightyou closeyour letter? style? What would be an appropriate How manypointsdo you needto include?

From prsm pfs fo snfRcss


that information. Foreachprompt,write a sentence that you might useto tell your penfriend 2 I completecourse: months 3 cost:70euros

2 sendyou worksheets with exercises

4 certificateat end

lv4ske f n {armal i
that gives the sameinformationin an informal, Foreachof thesesentences, write a secondsentence friendlystyle. I RegardinS enquiry, am pleased be ableto report that my mothert healthis much improved. your I to

in with satisfaction. 2 | received newsof your recentsuccess your examinations the seventy euros. 3 | would like to informyou that the total cost will be approximately

5kl1ls

Unit

19

' .:,, l'

.:. :

;*i*-: -l* -;." * * r.t:$i'i:;.* ;: : Completethe followingparatraph plan, making noteson what you aregoingto include eachparagraph. in

Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to comoletethe sentences below
a I

ne*&evp]e;x [q$ovw,on]
Fean
Pat"c'r9"atp',^ j

Parargvrrh ? r

Paoagvaph 3

4 Parargvotpk

Xpv556t113;

{losiv,g"

,,

Students schoolare sometimes at ca[ledpupils. go Pupils Britain to primary schoolup to the in ageof eleven. Fromeleven sixteen, pupilsin Britainhaveto to to secondaryschool;in America,they go to to juniorandsenior highschool, Somepupilsdecideto stay on at schooluntil they are eighteen do exams. to The fee{s}for the courseis/are 2OO eurosbut the booksare free. Turnto paSe sevenin your textbook and study the mode[. I did the courseby distancelearning, I so studiedat homeand sent exercises back throughthe post. I passed examand I shouldget the the certificate in the post in a few weeks. I understand English, I haveproblems but learning definitions heart. by lf you leave collegeor schoolbeforethe end of your course, you drop out. lf therearen't you anycolteges your area, in couldconsider studying by I'lt be so proudwhen I pass that I'mgoing to hangmy on the wall. My mum's worriedthat my brother's goingto of collegeand not get any qualifications. Atl students arerequired paythe course to beforetakingthe examination. Manyyount people ot schoolbecause difficuttto find a iob without iti oualifications. We movedhousewhen I wasnine so I had to start at a new lt took me ages learnthe English to alphabet

Yc.rv*ivs! \r{w1e

2 3

i* : : * vr * I .ji: Now write your letter.

Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your letter,tick the boxes. I haveusedthe informationin all the prompts. I haveturnedthe promptsinto naturalsentences. I haveusedan appropriate informalstyle. I havechecked spelling for mistakes. I havechecked grammar for mistakes.

I
l

7 I

I thinkthe we usetn our Historylesson reallyboring. is Our new English getson well with all teacher the -. 10 It can be a bit frightening when you leave primaryschooland haveto moveup to

20

i
i

t,,
F

: tsXAM PRACTICE

lruponnnRL TRANSAcTToNAL LETTER i

l-*-*""**.-

S.gs*?*,,:,:',.'*i:* *
. Makesureyou include your composition in information from allthe promptsin an appropriate style. . lf you are not sureof the meaning a of guess prompt,makean educated and put it in your own words.Neverjust copy the prompt, and neverleaveit out.

questionin 120-180words in an appropriate style. Writean answerto the following the for You saw this advertisement a summercourseabroadand contacted collegefor furtherdetails, Youhavedecidedto attendthe courseand wouldliketo invitea friendof yours making notesbelow. the who livesin another town to joinyou. Thenwritea letter to your friend,givingthe necessary Readthe adver*sement the notescarefully. and persuade your friendto join you, information tryingto and

r :..-",..,'i-, Htill::ir,u,:*:i ,1 Summer Coursgs in English


fl ccowru,roatfio\ con*orf^ble roowrsrbove college Ftqsf \rook rrow i wtqt voot4sl 250 eutos -weeV ctvsetourlY Dafes: lofh - ?SvA f,ugusl frigs fo r^useur / libetv7 sPvts ceulve

. Experienced tutorsfor all levels. o Reasonable fees. . Accommodation lable. avai in Beautifulcollege countryside setting. Morning lessons, with afternoonoutingsarranged. CalI01223 37565for further details.

#rmrery$??#n furrus
l.$h*n w* v.'rits :*ts*, w* *ft*s ffi*ss*;t *h* x:*ti*i*s. Principalsaid we must pay fee. = The Principalsaid we must pay the fee. y*lc !&he* Sdscl 6lvemnm**sas pr*Rnp*su *av* ?* eaks s*r'* t*ri ti$* etr* g&* e*rr**t ar*c*s ar:,t*:e} ln y**r writi*9. &.*wsit*el* 6*!1*l'vi*S pr*ry*p*s {x, in e*rxp{*t* se;'l**nc*s, a*sing xrti*** wh*rc appr*prlat*, I has poolat back. College swimming

2 Collegemay offer discounton fee for group. take placein local school. 3 Exams is 4 Library open for few hourseachmorning. charges extrathirty eurosfor WelcomeParty. 5 College

ffi

wanM-u" @

Sport '

Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. ln ask the r What facilities sportsdoesyour town have? for r Are you a memberof a gym?Would you liketo be? r What facilitiesdo you think a sportscentreshouldhave?

Deveuop YouR wRrrNG sKrLLs


***J* rr:g *f {*y**f
Even thoughyou cant readthe words,you canstill saywhat kindsof composition theseare. Matchthe diagrams the composition to type and write why. II I

I I

A letter Diagram number: -

whv?
A report Diagram number: -

why?
A discursive composition Diagram number:-

whv?

22

Compfe te f&' fs&fe


tick Foreachtype of composition, the correctboxes. often hasa title article report letter hasparagraphs usesheadings your nameappearsin it

story
discursive composition

5f*rfx/Fg # rspsrf
Read this question and completethe start of the report. you has office.Yourmanager asked You work for a localtourist information in to write a reporton the new sportscentrewhichopenedrecently your how town. Describe facilities the offeredby the sportscentreandexplain it. you wouldbe in visiting interested thinktourists To: From: Subject: two. Which of thesecanalso be usedat the start of a report?Choose Date: Conclusion: Mark: Re:

He:v' dd d t&ey do? ir


from two differentanswers the questionabove to Read thesetwo paragraphs and answer questions the that follow.

Swimming Pool
fhe Qrcililies af fhe spovfs cehlre iqclqe atr.rolyr^,rgic'liteA pool, which is fhe onrlyohe oQ fhtf sie irr otr tve.,. ouly will if lce qse tov ferwr Nof fvarirrirrg o*rA votces, buf iF will arlso be open fo lhe prablic dlr sot"re arys o0 fhe week. r"Je shoql expecf if lo tffvtcf r,'tarrrylot^visfs fo fhe cehf"<,

', T|pre ig a gwimmiapool, gnaokbar,indoortennisaurt, s andbaeketballl a ': Qt l: avrte.lthrrk7eo7lewi||7robab|1likzthosofa|itiee'TT.vrearebi6 ',ohanfn6rooilc endfriend\ eeeighn+s. I evryet wo askthe manay, for l , Ioafletewe c-en ,ive to /-,vriete. J lo tovricte.

Writing

Skills

Unit

23

&
ffimqsmu#pY##ffi vwffifiY*F*ffi sKLrffi
Which paragraph... a tries to mentiontoo manythings? b hasa more formal style? c cleartyfocuses one main point? on d makes good suggestion? a e is clearlylaidout with a heading? f would get better marksin the exam?

to aboveby writinga paragraph Completethis answer the question to and listento other of about30 words.Readyour paragraph the class paragraphs. students' To: Mr Johnson t From: Debbe Lambert Subject: The new sportscentre f;rrtrod ctio'l u As requested, havevisitedthe new sportscentrein KingStreet.The I centrehasnow beenopen for two months.The mainfacilities are the basketball courts,the gymnasium the ice-sl<ating and rinl<. B a s l < e t b a le o u r t s l The centrehasthree courts,which are generally modernand wellmaintained.They often bookeddaysahead are and we shouldtell tourists this when they contactus for information.

f* W{rf # ff#r#$rspfu

C y r n r - r a si u rm

lee-sl<ating in:l< n The rink is in excellent conditionand hasalready attractedpeoplefrom other towns.Thecentreorganises in classes skating Saturday on mornings, whichare popular with youngpeople. e enclusion To sum up,the sportscentreis very positive our area.Wecan expect for it to attracta numberof visitors. suggest I asking manager provideus the to with leaflets handout to tourists. to

Sfrudy f&s sm*d*d


Readmodel composition on page10'land do the fotlowingtask. 4 Underlinein the model... a wherethe writer mentions the subjectof the report. for b a good phrase introducing report. a c two ptaces wherethe writer givesa summary the report. of d the writert suggestion. e the readerof the report.

covPosrrroN DEVELoeMENT @
Readthis composition question and do the exercises follow. that

job Youhavea part-time in a sportsshop.The manager wantsto makethe shop more popular with young people and has asked you to write a report making some recommendations. Writeyourreportfor yourmanager.

Br ainsform rng
Answerthe followingquestions, using your imagination wherenecessary. Discuss your answers with the class. What is your manager's name?

Whatisthe subjedf yourreport? of


Write three reasons why youngpeoplemight preferother shops.

t
2 3
What three solutions could you suggest? I

2 3
What style would be appropriate your report? for

Chaoss fh e best headins s


Read theseheadings circlethe oneyou think might be good to usein this report. and Choose three. f The peopleto blame Prices Windcvciisplay Advertising Facilities
,;

L:::

Football

M ake it for ma{


These sentences too informalfor a report.Express sameideain a more formal way. are the 1 You shouldmakethingscheaper, shouldn't you? 2 You know,it must be ages sinceyou changed window disptay. the

3 Youradvertis reallyboringand old-fashioned. 4 Get somenew trainers.

Skills

Unit

25

een#srfur$
psrexgrmp&s Pfsn .y# rr
plan, Completethe followingparaSraph making noteson what you aregoingto includein eachparagraph what and you aregoingto give heading eachparagraph.
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to completethe sentences below. The new sports centre/leisurecentre hasgreat tenniscourts. A gym/gymnasiumis a placewherepeoplego to get someexercise try to get fit. and I try to work out at the gym at leastonce a week. A rink is a placewherepeoplego to skateon the ice. Mum, I needa new pair of trainers,and they haveto be the right brand. I don't carewhichside winsas long as it'sa good match. A commentatordescribes actionfor people the watching Iistening home. or at Hangon! | think I'veleft my racketin the changing rom. Our team trains at leastthree times a weekano sometimes more. Whenever playfootball,Johnpicks all his we friendsto be on the sameside. And it'sa goal!'the shouted excitedly. lf you want to set in shape, why don't you join a ) I just hopethe other don't scorebeforethe final whistle. What this town needsis a new with modernfacilities. Gregdeserves get into the team because to he harder than anybody else. Don't leave any valuables behindin the

ReporFplavt
fo: Fr.owr: Sr,r\aject-:
lulvo/t^cfioh

Pa,vagvat7V,7 Hea.A\ug:

?eva"qvap\j

Hearlirrg:

?avagvagV,4

Heatlirr9:

Co{clrsicr"r 3 4 5

H*me'\rnrk ft
Now write your report Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your report,tick the boxes. | haveusedthe correct format for a rePort. : I haveclearheadings each for paragraph. I haveusedan appropriately formal style. I havechecked spelling for mistakes. I havechecked grammar for mistakes.

7 | can'trun asfast asthe other runners these in old forget me when he I I hope the coachdoesn't the team for this Saturday. puttingon a professional showat the ice 9 They're this weekend. to t0 | used but now I'velet myselfget a bit out of shape.

T
L
l

26

Exavl

PRACTICE

Reponr

ffxwpt xfunmw-fo*w
. Makesureyou usethe correctformat for your writing.You shouldalways write in paragraphs you should givethe paragraphs and headings whenyou arewriting a rePort.

Eachof thesereports wordsin an appropriate shouldbe writtenin 120-180 style. job in a gym. The managerwantsto attractmore customers 1 You havea part-time and has asked you to writea reportmakingsomerecommendations. Writeyour report for your manager. '&' 2 You work for a local footballclub. The club is considering making changesto its stadium. you to writea repofion the current The manager has asked stadium, suggesting improvements. Writeyour report.

ffirmsmffisr fucexs
Thesports centre offers a great opportunity to local people. Wh*n ;* $*mtemc* has a dineet *hleet (a great opportunity)a*& ar*is*direa* *lxiect (localpeople),!t is *Sten hettey *o rewrite tke semtenee $o{{ows: as Thesports centre offers local people o great opportunity. Rewn*t'e $*&iowin$ the sentenes tk* $eryr ixx K&X. I I am writingthis letter to you to requestinformation about membership the gym. of

for 2 The coachorderedsomenew equipment the team.

for 3 My mum boughtsomenew trainers my sister.

the company makea special to tennisracketfor me. 4 | asked

Simonaskedme to lend my new footballto him.

the 6 The playerpassed ball to the captain.

7 Givethe microphone the commentator. to

Writing

Skills

Unit

27

wanM-u"@
the ask ln Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. are . what do you think the peoptein the photographs [ike? r How importantarefirst impressions? . Do we judgepeopletoo muchon their appearance?

People

DeveloP YouR wRlrlNG sKlLLs


use rnor adecfYes

whichtwo Choose makeyoui writing more descriptive. Adjectives eachof the followingpeople' use from t'hebox you-might to describe adjectives
i*rrr'fuve'
1

{-kerSh.l-}ess *rr'qbifies ,
I

1:aA-fexpeve
t cl1sh
, \ ! .

hoqesl
Cd&1.t\S

lYA{

irapcli.t_e

sel$ish

though,sheforgetshow it can teltsthe truth. sometimes, I Janetalways feelings. hurt other peoP[e's tries to help them with his neverbetrays friendsand he atways 2 Gregory their problems. and shethinksthat the wholeworld should wantsto be famous, 3 Nadine in be interested her and her problems! in 4 Robertneedsto grow up and stop behaving sucha stupidway. 'please' or'thank you'' He antry aboutsomething. neversays 5 lan is always

Use more adverbs


how something done. is Adverbs often describe from the box. usingadverbs Completethe sentences might havemore than one answer? Whichsentences

t-----'-'
deve'ly
'

qe'r''oraSly : r

pnotrly

bvavely

a,trgvilY

genfly

' excifelY

t 2 3 4 5 6

the prizeshehad won. showedher parents and held him in her arms. Aliceliftedthe babyup at his brotherand ranout of the house. shouted George to and began read. Emmaopenedthe letter office. outsidethe headmastert Ritawaited fixed the problemwith my computerand we surfed Paul the internet. house. decided go backinto the burning to 7 Mr Simpson

Jill

t.

Study the model


5 Quicklyreadmodelcomposition on page102. you a[[ and Underline the adjectives circleall the adverbs canfind. Compare what you havefound with your partner.

Be descriptive
helps makeyour writingmoredescriptive. interesting vocabulary to Choosing Foreachword below,write as manyother wordsasyou canthat meanalmost your answers with your partner. Compare the samebut that are more descriptive. good bad say look beautiful big walk cIever happy
rhf4sfic, jreql, ,rw*ql, ho"rible, explrih,whisper, jlattce, slqre,

L Jm t

5
ffimqdmu*p v*um wffixx$e$ffi sK*LLffi
Write a paragroph
These two paragraphs comefrom a story.The middle paragraph missing. is Write a paragraph about40 wordsdescribing of Karen completethe story. to Try to useadjectives, adverbs and interesting words.
Everybody knew that a new girl was starting at oLlr school. -We had heard that her name was Karen.The desk next to nre was empty and I knew she would probably sit there.When I got to school on Monday morning,I quickly hung my coat up and went to my desk.There was the ner,vgirl. She r,vas ...

Ir

k. wp 'l:w'4
,.,.t1'

Lessonsstarted and I found out that she was excellent at maths. She even helped me with one or tr,voof the problems.I kner,v we were going to be great fi'iends from that day on.

ll
]|

Readyour partner'swritng@
Swapparagraphs readwhat your partnerhaswritten. and Using your partnert paragraph, answer fo[lowingquestions. the 1 What adjectives my partnerused? has 2 What adverbs my partnerused? has 3 What interesting vocabulary my partnerused? has

I
El

Discuss@
yourparagraph the class, listen paragraphs Read to or to other people have written. Howcouldyoumake yourwritint even moredescriptive?

30

CoMPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT
Readthis composition question and do the exercises follow. that Yourteacherhas asked you to write a story for the school'sEnglishlanguagemagazine. It must beginwith the following words: When I first saw Louise,I got completelythe wrong impression her. of Writeyour story.

Br a inst orming
Answer following the questions using your imagination. your ansfteriwith the class. Discuss Who is Louise? What doesshe look like? What is her character llke? Wheredid you meet her? What day wasit? What wasthe weather[ike? What wasyour first impression her? of Why wasit wrong? Do you still seehernow?

Where?
Are you good friends? How do you feel about her?

summorise yourprot @
Write one or two sentences summarise to what happens your story.Discuss in your plot with your partnerand askthem questions about what happens their story. in Example: Louisewasmy new neighbourond tthought she lookedfriendly but in the end sherefusedto help me when t neededit.

Ch oose the best title


Decidewhich of thesetitles would be good for your story. Discuss your choices. What othertitles canyou think of?
FIow wrong I was

I ktew I waeriglt

Leu!se'ssurpnise f&s s$va**f**** bsisa sf hi*ee*$?


New girl at school

You neuel lnow

i.:

.':

:.

-;

5
P/mnyaur psragraphs
Completethe followingparagraph plan, makingnoteson what you are goingto includein eachparagraph.

Wordperfect
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to comoletethe sentences below. They interviewed members the general of public in the streetson the TV newslastnight. Yourfirst impression{s} somebody of is/are what you think whenyou meet them for the first time. The characters the story were interesting, in but the plot wasboring. just Sandyisn'treallyunkind. She's thoughtless and forgetsabout other peoptesometimes. Every applicantfor the job hasto write a letter to the company. Yourtelephonemanneris how wellyou communicate with peopleon the phone. Adam hasa reallyfriendtypersonality, you if givehim a chance. It'snot easyto get on with somebody who is so bad-tempered. Davefound it difficult to makefriends when he first cameto this school. Vickyseems unfriendty, untiI you get to know her better. ! Try not to be so and remember that other peoplehavefeelings too. 2 I'm goingto try to with the boy who hasjust movedin next door. 3My of Denise wasthat she

Slory plarh
rifle
P,na,*rrrrf i^ ,

Ply'aaova,gt,7

Pav;agr,aph 3

F*rv*rgvnph 4

isa reatly funny girt.


4 A good is very importantif you work asa receptionist. 5 I'm surel'vereadanotherstory with the same I find it reallydifficuttto my younter sisters. In somejobs,you meet every day. 8 lf you havea strong 'you haveto be carefulto giveother peoptea chance to speak. 9 Onceyou Witliam, you'I seethat he'snot sucha bad guy. 10 The successful couldspeak three foreignlanguages.

Hornwark
Now write your story. Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your story,tick the boxes. . I haveusedat [eastfive descriptive adjectives. I haveusedat leastthree descriptive adverbs. T I I haveusedinteresting vocabulary. I
I

I havechecked spelling for mistakes. I havechecked grammar for mistakes.

32

i 1

tsXAM
Ftl

PRA CTICE

Sronv

: i

, ExamKnow-now
:
t

" : i i

, Whenyou are writinga story,makesureyou they havegiven know whetherthe sentence or you hasto go at the beginning the end of your story.

that you are not allowedto Remember you aregivenin any way. the change sentence

style. Eachof thesestoriesshouldbe writtenin 120-180words in an appropriate rulessay that the story The competition 1 You havedecidedto entera short story competition. words: must beginwith the following As the door Siowtyopened, I was surprised fo see Tom standing there. Writeyour story for the competition. has askedstudentsto write a seriesof stories.Eachstory must beginwith 2 Yourschool magazine story.You have beenaskedto write the next story,which must of the last sentence the previous words: beginwith the following Martina knew she would never be the same after everythingthat had happened. Write your story.

focus Grammar
Decide whether the adjectivesand adverbsare used correctly in the following sentences. and rewrite the incorrect ones. Tick the correct sentences I the Peteopenedsuddenly door and ran inside.

is 2 My uncleGeorge a typicallyEnglishman.

when my cousinhit me hardlyin the face. 3 We were playing

towardsme. very unfriendly shebehaved 4 When lfirst metJane,

that Simonwasmy friend. 5 | wronglybelieved

in beautifully her new outfit. 6 Tinalookedabsolutely

I 7 | realised hardlyknew him.

Writing

Skills

Unit

33

wnnM-u"@
Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. In ask the r What differentkindsof journeydo peoplemakewith the means transport of shownin the pictures? . Do you enjoy [ongcar,train,busand planejourneys? the a " How do you pass time when you aretravelling long way?

Travel

DEvEr-oP YOUR wRtrtNG sKtLLs


/

Summarise the plot I


Lookat model composition on page102.lt'sthe samestory you looked 5 at in the last unit. In one or two sentences, write a very brief summary the p[ot. of

Now think of the storyashaving threeparts- a beginning,middleand an end. a In note form, write what happens the followingparts. in nt the beginning: In the middle: At the end:

34

F ind the words and phrases


thesequestions. 5 in Findwordsand phrases modelcomposition to answer Which word or phrase... 1 te[[sus that two thingshappenat the sametime? a 2 introduces contrast? changed overtime? 3 tells us that a situationhasn't after anotherevent? 4 tells us that one eventhappens 'despite the badthingsthat had happened'? 5 means

Summorise the plot 2


102. 6 Now look at modelcomposition on page of Write a briefuummary the plot in one or two sentences.

in Now dividethe story into three parts.Write what happens note form. At the beginning: In the middle: At the end:

by a Star'again. of Lookat the first TWO paragraphs (things happen). that Therearefive mainevents happened). order(theorderin whichthey actualty In noteform,writethem in chronological

Look of the order of events 'Saved

I 2 3

4 5

in Are they presented the sameorder in the story?Yes/ No BEFORE he What tensedoesthe writer useto showthe concerthappened wasaloneon the road?Simplepast ./ Presentperfect / Pastperfect / Pastcontinuous

F ind the words and phroses 'Saved


in Findwordsand phrases

thesequestions. by a Star'to answer

Which word or phrase... t tells us that an eventwasunexpected? a 2 introduces contrast? introduces of an 3 at the beginning a sentence fact? unpleasant after anotherevent? 4 te[[sus that one eventhappens happens? the 5 introduces time something

Writing

Skills

Unit

35

ti

Ft il*,*,vx l-{}il} Y*LJr'qi',, i "i: i'!j{:i **{* {-g--*


Order the events
and number the summary of Herei a brief summary anothershort story.Read (A-G)from l-7, in the orderin whichthey happened. the events Pip hasan accidentwhile riding his bike,and makeso new friend in hospital. A B C D E bed Pipwaking in hishospital up his Pipmeeting newfriend Pipbeingtakento hospital after Pip left hospital whathappened what Pipwasdoingbeforethe bike accident F the bikegccident an G Piphavint' operation the Now separate story into three parts. l-7 Thenwritethe numbers nextto the three parts. Beginning: Middle: End:

Think about tenses


Write a letter of a tensenext to eachdescription. You wil[ usesometensesmore than once. past A Simple B Past continuous C Pastperfect(simpleor continuous)

'background' whilethe main in happening the 1 Thisis usedfor events story is happening. of 2 Thisis usedfor the maineventsand the feelings the characters. event. BEFORE another 3 Thisis usedto showthat an eventhappens when another 4 Thisis usedto showthat a longereventis in progress It eventhappens. is often usedwith As','While'or'When'. 5 Thisis usedto showthat a longereventis stoppedor interruptedby or'When'. lt another event. is often usedwith As','While'

Match the examples


Write a numberfrom l-5 abovenext to Herearefive examples. to eachexample showwhat the tenseis beingusedfor. ABCDEWe Finally, planetoucheddown on the runway. weresafe. the realised that she As shewasflyingto London, suddenly table. shehad left her noteson the kitchen rapidly. and He stood on the platform.lt wasraining, the skywasdarkening throughParis. overby the policewhilewe weredriving We wereputted lt wasa fantasticride.I had neverbeenin a helicopterbefore.

CovrPosrnoN DEVELoPMENT @
that question and do the exercises follow. Read this composition

To a A travelcompanyis organising short story competition. enterthe competition, journey. storymustbeginlikethis: The you haveto writea storyaboutan exciting knew from the beginningthat this wouldbe a iourneyto remember Rebecca Writeyourstory for the competition.

Br a instorming
your imagination. using the followingquestions Answer your arl9wers with the class. Discuss I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 How old is Rebecca? lf ls shetravelling alone? not, who is shewith? Wheredoesher journeystart? Whereis shegoingto? this Why is shemaking journey? of Which means transportdoessheuse? Why doesshethink it will be a journeyto remember? What eventshappenon the journeyto makeit exciting?

9 How doesshefeel at the end ofthe journey?

Write your summary


of write a summary what your story is about. In one or two sentences,

Divde your sto ry


Now put the eventsinto three parts.Write noteson the linesprovided. Beginning: Middle: End:

T hi nk of a title
title for your story? and Canyou think of an interesting appropriate

Unit

37

6
Plan your paragraphs
plan, Completethe followingparagraph making noteson what you aregoingto include eachparagraph. in

Wordperfect
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and below. bold to completethe sentences You usually needa passportwhen you travelto anothercountry. duringthe flight,just ask lf you needanything the air hostess/stewardess. lt's I usual[y trave[first class. more expensive, but it's muchmore comfortabte. CanI just get a ticket at the station,or do I have to book a seatin advance? A package holiday is a holidaywhereyour flightsand accommodation bookedfor you are by a travel company. A motel is a fairtycheaphotet.Most guests are peopletravelIing car. by Havea look in the guide book and seeif there are anygood beaches nearhere. I didn'ttake much luggage with me just a smallsuitcase a handbag. and lf you are sufferingfrom jet lag/ietlag, you feel if tired after a longflight (particularly you have entereda differenttime zone). We went on a fantasticcruisearoundthe Greek islands summer. last I I didn'twantto do anything duringmy first day - | hadterribte in the States 2 Shedoesn'twant to go on a to Sheprefers arrivein a placeand then find it's accommodation. says more exciting! She 3 ld beendriving day so I decided spend atl to the nightin a by the road. 4 That castlelooksinteresting. What doesthe sayabout it? 5 Shatt to on a we this year?lt wouldbe wonderful sailing through the Mediterranean a couoleof weeks. for 6 | would hateto be a(n) It mustbe so boringpouring manycupsof so
7 coffee! l d [ i k et o

&owyplavr
Ti{-le
Pa.vergr*h I

)
? Pave"tgvarph

3 Parvorgva.Bh

?aa,3*aq 4

Homework
Now write your story Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your story,tick the boxes. . Thestoryhasa beginning, middle andend. The story hasat leastfour paragraphs. The story begins with the correct words. ' I havechecked verbtenses the very carefully. r I haveincluded somedescriptive adjectives adverbs. and

T T L] T T

a room for

tomorrow night,please. 8 I'vegot my tickets,somedollarsand my . Right!l'm ready. the point of travelling 9 What's ? Thejourneystill takesthe same amountof time! your t0 lf you'dliketo leave reception, porter will take it up for you the

38

iE Xl\M :
5***.-.

PRACTICE

Sromv

Exam know-how
. Whenyou arewritinga story,try to include u Remember directspeech that shouldbe somedirectspeech and someindirect informal. The restof your storyshouldbe speech. It makes story more interesting read. the to more formal. Lookat modelcompositions and 6 on page 5 102to seehow directspeech beenused. has

Eachof thesestories wordsin an appropriate shouldbe writtenin 120-180 style. 1 You naveOed entera short story competition. to The rulesof the competition statethat the storymust beginwith the following words: 'How are we going to get home?' asked Tim with a worried expression. Writeyour story for the competition. English language magazine. 2 Yourteacher has askedyou to writea shortstoryfor the school's Yourstorymust beginwith the following words: As the plane took off, I wonderedwho would be waitingfor me when I landed. Writeyour story.

focus Grammor
indirect speech: Mrs Peters odvisedher doughternot to pack her blue sweateras she would not needit on her holiday. direct speech: "Don't pock your blue sweater,Suson.You won't need it on holiday,"said Mrs Peters. Rewrite these sentencesin direct speech,beginningwith the words given.Try to make the direct speech sound as natural as possible.Rememberthat direct speechis often (but not always)informal. t AdamaskedDavewhetherhe thoughtthey shouldbook the train ticketsin advance. "Dave,

2 Rachet told Sa[[ynot to buy first class ticketsbecause the expense of "Dont told us that he believed coachwould leaveat half oastthree. the 3 Darren "l think politely asked if 4 The stewardess the businessman he wantedanothercup of coffee. "Would for 5 Nigelasked Julieto hold hissuitcase him while he boughta newspaper.
.,f^^

Writing

Skills

Unit

39

::

i, :l

:*:{3}

Foodand Drink

\A/anM-u" @
the In ask Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. . lf you weregoingout for a meatwith your friends, what kind of placewould you like to go to? Why? . Which do you prefer- home-cooked or food, takeaways, eatingout?Why? . Would you [ike to be a waiter/waitress? Why,zWhynot?

DeveuoP YouR wRrrrNG sKtLLs

: ; t 1 . ' ':;. : : : ' : , I l : . : : i , i i : , : : i , i ,

Herearefive extracts from differenttexts aboutfood and drink. First, decidewhat kind of texts they are. Write the letter of the text type A-Eon the line aboveeachtext. 'purpose' Leave the line empty for now. A short story magazine B articlefor a youngpeople's C letter of application D report E composition your teacher for purpose: I text type: Mmogphore and fun Both cjf the restaurants which I visitedcreatea lively,relaxed for however, that manyolder couples atmosphere youngpeople.I suspect, in mayfeel uncomfortab[e suchsurroundings. purpose: 2 text type: Are you having party soon,and you'renot surewhat to do aboutfood? Here's a somehelpfuladviceon what to offer - and what not to offer - your guests.

40

purpose: 3 text type: chips andfizzy drinksdoesnot providethe Moreover, diet of hamburgers, a that youngpeoplerequireif they areto SrowuP physically nutrientsand balance fit and mentallyalert. purpose: 4 text type: Grantgazedlovinglyinto Maureen's The candleon the table flickeredgently. 'Will you marryme?'he whispered. for sea-blue eyesand reached her soft hand. purpose: 5 text type: in I Forthe pasttwo summers, haveworkedas a waiter in a beachbar at BondiBeach Australia. for while studying the I havespentthe lastsix monthsworkingpart-timein a caf in Sydney, HSP Caterintrfetificate.

s VYfusf sf fn yf n g tc dsP
of Now think aboutthe purpose eachtext type. What is it for?What is it tryingto achieve? F-J. Aboveeachextract,write the letter of a purpose, F to G to H to I to I to interestand entertainthe reader clearty, that it is easyto readandfind so presentinformation presentan argument opinionin a clear,logicaland formal way or explainwhy you are a suitablecandidate interest the readerin your ideasor opinion

How dse s it d o f t?
F-J. Look againat the list of purposes that purpose? How do the extracts achieve Thenfind Write a letter from the list next to eachof thesewritingtechniques. on the extracts. Write the examples the linesprovided. from eachof examples I useheadings: one examp[e: language: 2 usedescriptive three examples: chatty style:3 createa conversationa[, two examples: information aboutyourself: clearlypresentrelevant one examp[e: and vocabu[ary: expressions formal grammar and 5 useconnecting threeexamoles:

m trl:::ii"W.nswers

that purpose? Do you agree how they achieve on

*? "{r

ffi gxq-umL#ffi :fl#tiffi i.&tffi *i&# %K.gL*s

g-ru r":
e#

ffi]r "';r 'W?

Hereare somemorextracts. Theyare not very successfut. On the line beloweachone,makenotesabout why they are not very successful. your ideas a class. Now discuss as I from a letter of application: I would likethis positionbecauseneedthe moneywhen I go out on I Saturday nightwith my friends.

2 from a short story: Theyarrivedat the restaurant. Theysat down.The waitercameover. Theyordtred.Theyhad a nicemea[.Theypaidthe bitl.Theyteft.

3 from an article for a young people's magazine: Fast food is not unhealthy because likefast food. My friendsand I eat I hamburgers often. I ate two hamburgers Saturday. my opinion,your last In readers wi[tagree with me.

5*;;*;r i**

r;**:::

Lookat the letter of application, model 7 on page103, and do the tasksthat follow. I The advertisement asked someone for who... a speaks English b likes beingwith children wantsa job for the summer d hasprevious experience e canorganise sportsand games Underline partsof the letter where the Helenresponds thesepoints. to Write the lettersa-e next to them. Helenalsogivesthree other pieces of relevantinformation about herself. What arethey?Findand underline them. Helengives two pieces information of aboutthe advertisement. What arethey?Findand underline them.

Sheasks Mrs Green two questions. Canyou find them? Do her questions have question marks? Yes./ No DoesHelenmakeanyother pointsin her letter? lf shedoes, writethem on the Iines below.

DoesHelensayWHY shewantsa job for the summer? / No Yes DoesHelengiveanyi rrelevant information about herself? / No Yes

42

CovrPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
that question and do the exercises follow. this composition Read in You havejust seen the followingadvertisement your local newspaper:
j!

v -We t waitersand waitresses work are looking for several in and weekends) our busy high-streetca{. part-time (evenings nvet' &yylicantc,
D be over the age of 16 i i : "" t q be polite tto .customers t nlite o rrcf^mcr( r at all times

Tart-time waiterSfwaitreggei reqvired

i 1,
i

pressure willing to work under pressure tr fl be ,


fl E h r v e s o m e previousexperience have some n r e v '-:i

:,,. r!

Please apply in writing to'il'r''

llr'r''i'-ic {-:;iri' ii::i'ri"

to Writeyourletterof application TheBlueBottleCaf.Do not wrlteanyaddresses.

&r si nsforming
use 7-12, your imagination. For questions. questions the Answer following your answers with the ctass. Discuss I Do you know the name of the personyou are goingto write to? 2 Do you know if they are a manor a woman? 3 So your letterwill begin: one 4 Havethey advertised job, or severaljobs? in? 5 Whichjob areyou interested would be correctfor your letter? 6 Which phrase for in a I would be very interested applying the positionof ... for in b I would be very interested applying of one of the positions ...
12 What other pointswill you makein your

7 Wheredid you seethe advertisement?


8 When? 9 How old areyou? candidate? t 0 Why areyou a suitable

wi[[you needto ask? lI What questions

letter?

wr 13 W iltyou ite faithfully, or sincerely, b Yours a Yours yourname? before

*r*g psrdsr#pfu llln& s&0rr


1 2 3 4 5 6 a b c d e f

103. hassix paragraphs. lt to Lookagainat the letter of application Mrs Greenon paSe numberon the left. on Matcha purpose the right with eachparagraph aboutyourself information general giving you are writingthe letter why saying why you are suitable the presenting first reasons tellingthem to contactyou if they needanything questions relevant asking why you are suitable further reasons presenting

;,,:-.: i1*:'
l

plan Compteiethe followingParagraPh, on what for your letter,makingnotes you aregoingto inctudein each paragraph.

and thesesentences then usethe wordsin Read below' the sentences comptete botd to r That waiterwasvery rude'I don't think we shouldleavehim a tiP, do You? we Shatt get a Chinese r I don't fancycooking. takeawaYinstead? and lovesfizzy drinks like lemonade Georgina sodawater. l'd We coutdn'tbelieveit when we got the bill' restaurant neverbeento suchan expensive before. I don't reatlywant a starter' l'[[ just havea main dish,I think. l'm not verYhungrY ls the waitergoingto bringus any cuttery' or wi[[ we haveto eat with our fingers? What would you Iikefor dessert'/pudding? here! gateau chocotate Theydo a delicious or like A snackis something a sandwich that you eat betweenmeals' bar chocolate crisps' CoutdI havea packetof salt and vinegar please? and CoutdI havea cheeseburger chips'/french fries, please?

P]enw [eb&e,r o* g,PP]ieg,btovt


ilrrraS*nph I

?ova'1vaYV.j

ya.va,a,vaVn t

Fenrer.graPh6

me I Mum asked to PUtthe on the tabte,but I can'tfind any cteanspoons' dinneruntil late tonight' 2 We won't be having to keep Would you like a you going? we As the bi[[ wasthirtY pounds, shouldleavea for the waiter. three-pound to 4 Karen!just goneto the newsagent tet a packetof for tonBht. 5 I'veordereda Couldyou pick it up from the Indianrestaurant on your way home? 'l don't think I'l[ haveanY 6 a I'm on a diet.Wet[,maybe.iust pieceof appte pie...' I muchpreferthings 7 | hate juiceor mi[k. like orange thistime.You l'[[ get the paid tasttime we went out to dinner' She My mum nevercooks often havebaked they'rebad for you. We says though. potatoes, ca[leda 10 Thefirst courseof a meal is usua[[y ' Britain; the USAit's in in an'aPPetizer" calted usual[y

j{ : :; {i '!v i} '* Now write Your letter'

WhenYouhave this checktist. Read tick the boxes' written your letter'

I . I havewritten a letter. and . I haveusedformal grammar .] vocabularY. allthe information I haveincluded I needto. anYirrelevant inctuded I haven't information. somerelevant I haveasked l questions. fr l I I haveusedParagraPhs. I I haveusedsomeuseful f l l from the modet' expressions

al

i Exnu PRACTICE

Lerren oF APPLrcArroN
*J._,..**,-.-*-*-*

. Whenyou are writinga letter of application, don't saywhy you needa job. Theyareonly interested whetheryou will in job well. be ableto do the

For if Beimaginative! example, the question in says'You this advertisement a saw a localnewspaper...',r the newspaper t give "' b'r 'l name.Do not write: sawyour advertisement ;

I r I"-'1T[:P-:P:

- -.* --*]

wordsin an appropriate style. Eachof theselettersof application shouldbe writtenin 120-180 2 You havejust seenthe following 1 You havejust readthe following in advertisement: advertisement a localnewspaper:
) t . :

J..ome' s

Tt

Ptzzas

'
Fruit pickersrequired. Likeworkingoutdoors? Physically fit? Want to earn some extra cash over the summer? Come and pickfruit for us! Flexible workinghoursand good ratesof pay. experience No necessary. Pleasewrite to

veryStaffreqrred.."rEvenings ad/orweekeds .' r Home-De - Overthe age of '1 r.,Knowthe areawel? 8? ,rr Lookg icr partt me work? Got a vald drv ng cence?ii.. If the answer is yes, we would like to hear from you. to * Good rates of pay offerecl successfu cand clatcs ;i; De very bkes/cars provded To apply, write us a letter telling us why we should give you a jobl

Writeyour letter of applicationto Jerome's Pizzas.Do not write anv addresses.

Writeyour letter of applicationto Mrs Danton.Do not writeany addresses.

#r**ryrffi#f, f*s--;s
I I don't only servecustomers; also do the washing-up. {ixf*r*r*!.} Not onfy da I servecustomers, I also do the washing-up. but i:;r*vc {e:rm;ij ,l::rlrr*pxt **rtxi:,::*g*ii;* g:i:r*;*:; !:** *i:1:**i:; i .: :a:r'i'i:;:iii. *t :'.::: irr'*t c,*rb!:,ce*x:* iiL* * qx**:i*n: I don't only servei;:*:r:xa! **geti'**! Not only do I servei:l!.:*qx*rti** l'*r:; - *x* it'; **1 .::q**:::ii:ri ,.:i* t*c** :*****c: rv:*r* {*ri:tet *y lt:eiei*g t**r* i*;*l-ir*:.
ii'i1*$!**:. t* xl*k-* !h* r*sl *f *3i* s*::**::i* it*rr'::*i t.*-

I 2 3 4 5

I don't just haveexperience; got qualifications I've too. Not only l d o n l yjust startedworkingin the restaurant when I wasmaderedundant. Hardty I'verarelyworkedwith a more capable chef. Rarely parties; alsoorganised I | didn'tjust arrange weddingreceptions. Not only Members staff mustnt be rudeto customers of underany circumstances. Underno circumstances

ffiP@ Wnn
M.U

TheMedia

the In ask Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. r How can we find out whatt goingon in the world? r What areyour favouritekindsof TV programme? Why? r How often do you usethe internet? you useit for? What do

DrveuoP YouR wRtrtNG SKILLS


W&sf sfyf * s if f

,8

Differenttypes of writing havedifferenttypes of style. of from differentpieces writingand write T for True Lookat theseextracts below eachextract. next to the statements or F for False
A Don'f khow wh4f fo o wifh yoqvsel* qvihg fhe holiarys? Why hol fhi\k ttoqf uaarking t shorf Pilr,,r? ll's atcftaatlly hof fhrl /.iPicrall, if's ve"y crealtve qt\A if's g"earl {qh! All yora 'earlly nee is a v\Aeo c^t'v\eva,.

1 2 3 4

and The style is conversational chatty. to the reader replyto the questions. The writer wants The writer usescontractions. Thisis probablyan extractfrom a letter.

-ead-ng ls an acL-ve oastine, B Many peop e arg*e that y pass i ve. fnis, i s essentta whereas watch'^g telev-sion po nl of v'ew. rs a rarher srmplrsric in my ooinion,

I 2 3 4

and The styteis conversational chatty. and vocabulary. The writer uses formal grammar wordsand phrases. The writer usesdiscursive for Thisis probablyan extractfrom a composition a teacher.

46

of Oh, \ the rvat1, have lov got the lateet ieeve 1ot! It\ geat! -l'pre\ a rall4-cnolintewiew with l-l'p 6ac*rod 6ory Jooi lookeag oryteae ovui.!
I 2 3 4 The style is very conversational chatty. and formalgrammar vocabulary. Thewriteruses and punctuation. Thewriteruses someinformaI Thisis probablyan extractfrom a letter.

'Teen7o7'

D Shecasually openedthe newspaper.


There, pagetwo,wasa largephotograph Colin.'Oh nol' shethought on of he siehed shereadthe report as to herself.-Whatt donethis time?'She below tbpicture. I 2 3 4 The writer usesdescriptive language. Most of the verbs in the simplepast. are The direct speechis asformal asthe rest of the extract. Thisis probablyan extractfrom a short story.

KITVcurrentlyhas no gameshowsor quiz showswhich are aimed The research which has beencarriedout at specifically teenagers. indicates that there may be a marketfor such programmes. I 2 3 4 The style is conversational chatty. and The writer usesinformalgrammar and vocabulary. Thewriteruses passive. the is probablyan extractfrom an articlefor a magazine This for teenagers.

I would be very gratefulif you could let me know what time we shouldarive at the studio,andhow long the recordingis expected take. to

I 2 3 4

The style is conversational chatty. and The writer wantsthe readerto answer questions. the Thewriteruses formalgrammar vocabulary. and Thisis probablyan extractfrom a report.

W&e;f f* xf fy# *s tf r
Now matcheachof the extracts A'F abovewith one of the text types below. I a report 2 a formal letter 3 a letter to your cousin 4 a short story for 5 an articlefor a magazine teenagers for 6 a composition your teacher

::..,t,

ffi

Y#*ffi wru*T*pd#"HeLLs ffimagm*gpp


Sfudy rhe rrlcd*ls
,|00-103. l-8 Lookat modelcompositions on Pates and from the compositions write them in the chartbelow. Findexamples of model I find an example a chatty,conversational: style i
l

question i of model Z jfind an example a rhetorical wherepart or of model 3 find an example a phrase ' alI of the verbis missing

vocabutary of an modelcifind example formal


of model s ifind an example directspeech of model 6Lfindan example indirectspeech question of model7ifnd an example an indirect i i beginning of model Alfind an example a sentence 'But' with beginning anda sentence iwith iAnd'.
i

-_-_*,.-.1

the of from differentpieces writing.Unfortunately, Hereare somemore extracts in your the extracts with their style.Rewrite beenvery successful writershaven't style. notebookin a more appropriate 1 from a letter to a friend
fo I wohl like lo ih*oru^ you lharl y4y P4ve\fs htVe PiqrllY givetl uae pevu,rission t^Jrhls be afeenage lo 4ffeh lhe vecovAing o* yoqv 4PP\v4hce oh lho I l.,tillioqiive'. look Qo"wrvfo if vevy unruch.I woql be vevy g"arfe*ral iQ your coul lel u.re krrow whrl fiuae I shoqla rvvive tf fhe slqio.

sr3r{* tfu*s$# f.fu*

2 from a report So, I did what you told me and iooked at lots of different mags for teenagers most of them are rubbish.They're nainly about pop and looking cool. I guessthey think teenagersaren't into anything nrole serious.Idiots! Anyway, here'sr.vhatI found out.

3 from an article for a young peoplel magazine However, basis. on todayuse the internet a regular of The majority youngpeople I. T t h e i ro w n w e b s r t e . h i si s u n f o r t u n a t en m y r f e w o f t h e m c o n s l d ec r e a t i n g strarghtforward. is that websitecreation relatively they needto realise opinion, and it Moreover, is both enjoyable constructive.

ffi nffi

fr*r+,:j ycJr'1rli'jrr'r g !/viti,116Wrl above. the has Lookat howyourpartner rewritten extracts style youthinktheyhave moreapPropriate now? a Do themfurther? to any Canyoumake suggestionsimprove

ffi--

48

GovPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
that question and do the exercises follow. Read this composition in studentmagazine: You haveseenthis announcement an international

Does TV just entertain us, or is it informative too?


We are lookingfor articleson this subject.Write and tell us what you think. Writeyour article.

W&sf *rx I w"frngl


next to these Write T for TruEd for False statements. t 2 3 4 SirlMadam,'. I should start by writing'Dear My articleshouldbe very formal. My articleshouldsoundacademic. and will be professors Most of the readers editors. the readers. I shouldtry to interest style. I can write in a conversational questions. rhetorical I can askthe readers if I canusecontractions I wish. I shoulduseverysimple and informal vocabulary. | shouldwrite aboutfour paragraphs.

f&in& sfu{rtr sfyfe


Whichof thesemightbe a goodbeginning for your article? Circlethe lettersof the you beginnings thinkareappropriate. courseit is. a TVi reallycoo[,right?Yeah, b Haveyou everwonderedwhy is television so popular? that students should I stronglybelieve c not havetime to watchtelevision. has and d Television both advantages disadvantages. is e What I like most abouttelevision the available. choiceof programmes

5 6 7 8 9
I0

liln& s&s{rf psrssroprng


have four Yourarticlewill probably purposeon paragraphs. Matcha paragraph l-4. the right with eachparagraph of 1 a explorethe issue TV as entertainment introduce topic,get the reader the interested together, express bringyour ideas your general opinion of 4 explorethe issue TV as informative

Er srnsformng
thesequestions. Makenotesto answer your answers with the ctass. Thendiscuss entertain? I What kind of TV programmes

2 How do they entertainpeople? 2 Givean example: are 3 What kind of TV programmes informative?
4 What do they inform us about? 5 Givean example: that 6 Canyou think of any programmes are
informative and entertaining the sametime? at your opinion?ls most TV entertaining? What's ls most TV informative? Canit be both at the sametime?

Writins

Skills

Unit

49

l_

t1

ffi
Ffexnys{J'psrssrdp$?s
Comptete followint paragraph the plan for your letter, makingnotes on what you aregoingto includein each paragraph.

eed#rdsrfur
Readthesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to completethe sentences below. I don't Iiketabloid newspapers because they're futl of gossip and scandat. prefermore serious I PaPers. I'vetakenout a monthlysubscription to Teenpop magazine. They send it to me every month throughthe post. Therewasa very interesting documentaryon lastnightaboutthe SouthAmerican rainforests. I love Friends. so funnyl lt's the best lt's sitcom./situation comedy on TV. And you can watch the next episode of Friends at the sametime tomorrow night. I'veseenthis episodebefore.lt must be a repeat. What'sthe addressof your website? love to lU checkit out. Shewritesa weektycolumn for the local newspaper. She! always givingher opinionabout something other. or Therearetwo mainkindsof book:hardbacks and paperbacks. I don't havevery good reception where | [ive,so I can'tpick up all the TV channels very clearly. I Haveyou seenthat new with TonyParker? set in a shoeshopand it! lti hitarious! 2 The rswww.my-autotraphs.tr. I don't know why you get that 3 everyday.There's neverany newsin it. I mustn'tforget to set the video to recordthe next of MelrosePlace. l'[[takea coupleof to read by the pool. 6 The isterrible. yousure Are you'vetuned in the TV properly? 7 Therei a about soace traveI on BBCI, a blackandwhite movieon BBC2. and 8 | think l'[[cancel my Forthlink; other companies offering are much cheaperinternetconnectionpackages thesedays. 9 So what if iti a ! Don'tyou want to seeit again? I0 | always readMartin Ftannigan! in ThePost.Hei very clever.

Avficle plarn
.tille
Pat"atg"atph I

-t

Paa.gvagb,2

Pava,grag,j

Pava,g"atg[ 4

lf

HAffieWork

tr.-..,--

lf,

o* *rn" your articleYV

,ttT1 },a

Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your articte, tick the boxes. . I havewritten an article,not a letter. ' I havetried to interestthe reader. I haveuseda conversational style. . I haveusedat leastone rhetorical question. . I havewritten at leastfour paragraphs. ' I havechecked articlecarefu[[y my for mistakes.

I
l .--

T T

50

Exau

PRAcrlcE -

Anrrcre

furu*w-fu*w Sxmm
' Thinkaboutthe don'tstartwritingimmediately. Whenyou arewritingan article, plan.Only write the Thenmakea paragraph first and note down someideas. question you paragraph want to articlewhen you know exactlywhat you want to say,in which it. sayit and how you want to express

style. shouldbe writtenin 120-180words in an appropriate Eachof thesearticles this month.The prizeis a a is 1 Yourfavourrle{nagazine running writingcompetition you haveto write an article studio.To enterthe competition, tour rounda television why programme explaining you would and yourfavourite television describing to others. it recommend Writevour article. 'Radioand Young underthe title of a is 2 Yourschoolmagazine running series articles You havebeenaskedto writean articleto appearin the seriesgivingyour People.' today. radiois with youngpeople viewson how popular Writevour article.

fueus ffirmm$msr
KiTV currently hos no game showsor quiz showswhich are aimed specifically ot teenagers. A*sther way of writixlg t*e sarnctking is: K|TVcurrently has no game showsor quiz shows aimed specifically ot teenagers. if :ryll{ sr?lp{ssiticns be mnpn*ss*dyc*ause this The person marking y&&r yealrwrtirlg! piee* o gra!mar m pr*ns$ an$ the auxiiiaryverb. the xltFcxt nelativ Rewritethcse semteeses I and for designed teenagers youngadults. lt'sa problempagewhich hasbeenspecifically

which havebeencreatedby youngpeople. 2 The internetdoesn'thavemanywebsites

by 3 | wasinterviewed a reporterwho wascatledlvor Penn!

are 4 Books which are printedwith soft covers calledpaperbacks.

to who is wel[ knownfor her rudeness politicians. a 5 She's journalist

Writing

Skills

Unit

5t

TheWeather
wanM-u" @
Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. ln ask the r What's the weatherlike whereyou live in eachof the four seasons? . Which is your favouriteseason? Why? r What is the besttime for visitorsto cometo your country?

DeveloP YouR wRtrtNG sKtLLs

^/

EI

Where is t from?
Read the fotlowingsentences making suggestions choosethe type of and composition eachone probablycamefrom. 1 lf I wereyou,lU askthem to turn the heating at school. up a article b informalletter just Makesureyou'vemadealternative arrantements, in caseit rains! a report b article Onethingwe mightconsider booking indoorvenuein case rain. is an of a report b discursive composition I would liketo suggest that in future your companyoffer a refundin the eventof bad weather. a report b formal letter Haveyou thoughtaboutgettingflood insurance the house? for a informalletter b formal letter

52

Match to make sentences


and suggestions matchthe first Lookat thesedifferentwaysof making with the secondhalf. half of eachsentence I 2 3 4 5 6 I would liketo suggest Why don't you What about./Howabout Haveyou thought lf I wereyou, Don't bother a b c d e f put your jacketin the car,just in case? a about becoming meteorologist? that our shopstartsto sell sunhats. you a bringing coat because won't wear it. good weatherthis weekend. I wouldn'trely on having whenit'snot so hot? in visiting the spring,

Moke a sutteston
in style. the Write sentences making followingsuggestions an appropriate 1 Suggei tt a friend that they visit you next summer. he 2 Suggest your managerthat startssellingumbrellas. to that they take up a hobbyfor rainydays. to 3 Suggest fellow students 4 Suggest your cousinthat shestartsa coursein meteorology. to

Make i t i nformal
that is The sentences below comefrom an answer Read this writingquestion. in too formal.Rewrite suggestions a more informalstyle. the to Yourpenfriend planning visityou in the summerand has askedyou for some is suggestions aboutwhat clothesor otherthingsthey will needto bringwith them. Writethem a letter, givingyour suggestions. is whichwill require clothing 1 One factoryou mightliketo consider the heat, madeof tightmaterial.

that you havewith you a pair of 2 | would liketo suggest that you ensure sunglasses.

giventhe opportunities for would certainlybe advantageous, 3 A swimsuit in this area. swimming

Writing

Skills

Unit

53

li

g
#KXLLS ffimvmr#$* Y{p#ffi wffi$Y$ruffi
WrtE a psra&raph
to answer the questionin D. this incomplete Read in of write a paragraph about30 wordsto fillthe gap,givingsuggestions style. an appropriate
DeatnJnne, Grea"f fo gel youv le{-ferl So*"y fs l,reav rbotf your o9. f4y v,lhra,\ says Fha! {tulelve is qqi'l-e et goo ,'tge Qona }'og" Frarybe youv r",ur- will lef you gef aHofhey phppy s6h. o, orrly fhvee t^tollfhs r,rrt|i'lyotl'"e here. I cart\'f \rlaikl Yct bnirtg. Dou'f }ofhen aske re abourf r*hr! cXo{:hsyr.l shoun} *er swealevs \f c.fs' foo lol in flte shv"lr^rev bviugir.,g a,ny Lrerrvy cleffres. lf's Np'.n Aou'l l{ lwere yoi, l'l ,aaVe sqve lhat lcfs ci--shi"ts arr,r ariv5o{ shovfs. Av\'

ysvy y' lfre beach rli"'rosf r""le'11 o'3ef Touy s'r;ir*rsr'rifl be geing"l-o vivr$' i{ srlsoarsk-ed fheve warsatyfhiqg else I lhoughf you shor'tl Yer.r \

,i

wifh fhe wcrshirg t*p. Tlaf's qll *o* qc.r. l' be*fer 3o arHA hetrpr4yr,,rrm ,nq. Tarke cane, otrr Aotr'f *orgef fo sa,y heltro !o y{,\\fr&1i.{r{4 { {or r'e" Lofs o{ love,

qieky

Fl Ut

Read yo.ur =#-p6rtnbr's writing


and Swapparagraphs readwhat your partnerhaswritten. paratraph, answer your partner's Using the followingquestions. I What thingshasmy Partner suggested?

ffi;

D i s c Y 5 5W = . , '
to your paragraph the class, Read other people or listento paragraphs haveyou havewritten.What language usedto makeyour suggestions?

Sfudy the rwodef


9 modelcomposition on Read page104. that any Underline suggestions the writer makes. doesthe writer use What language to makesuggestions?

Hasmy partnerusedan approPriate style?

54

covrposrrroN DEVELoeMENT @
Read this composition question and do the exercises follow. that Your penfriend planning visit you in February is to and has writtento you askingwhat weather expectand what clothesor otherthingsthey shouldbring. to Writea letter to your penfriend, describing typicalweather conditions whereyou liveand suggesting what itemsthey shouldbringwith them.

Br oi nstorming
Answer following the questions, using your imagination wherenecessary. Discuss your answers with the class. What style is appqopriate? How will you start your letter?Dear What pieceof newscouldyou mentionin your first paragraph? Whatthreethings you goingto sayaboutthe weather February? are in I

What clothesareyou goingto suggest your friend brings? What other itemsareyou goingto suggest your friend brings? Why do you haveto stop writing? How areyou goingto closeyour letter?

Wr it e your suggestions
Write two sentences an appropriate in style suggesting c[othesfor your friendto bringand two suggesting other items.Compare your sentences with your Partner's.

t
2 3 4

M at ch t he poragraphs t o t he content
Decidewhat you might includein eachparagraph matching paragraph by the contents on the rightwith eachparagraph 1-4. I 2 3 4 a b c d thank my penfriend their last letter and referto something for they saidin it saywhy I haveto stop and closethe letter suggest other itemsI think my penfriend mightneed suggest clothesI think my penfriend mightneed

a;j

i*

I
Pan your parotraphs
plan, Completethe fo[lowint paragraph making noteson what you aregoingto include eachparagraph. in

Wordperfect
and Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin below. bold to comoletethe sentences the In Greece, wintersare quite mild and not too cold. The poltution this city isterriblewhenwe in havea heatwave. it's I think l'[[ weara scarfbecause a littte chilly. Whenthe weatheris wet and hot, it feels very humid. Don't forget your raincoat/mac if you'regoing out in this rain. I preferwearing bikini to an all-in-one a swimsuit. Wellingtons./Welliesare boots made of rubber often by farmers. which are worn outdoors, I know it's raining, it! only a shower;it'll but stop in a minute. The forecastsaidthat the rainshouldclear up by this afternoon. so We'l[be goingto the beach, don't forgetyour suncream, you'lIget sunburnt. or

leb*ev plar,r hr&ov&,x&}


Dea
Frrvagx*"pk i

T I

2 Pervargoah

,
Fainng"aph3

?atvaava?l

Clcsirrg
xPf5SlqtS'

I The path will be quite muddy,so put your 2 They'veforecasta , so now would be a good time to get air-conditioning. the matchwhen 3 | dont think we shouldcancel the rainmightjust be a passing 4 Do you think you could put some on my back? herein January, 5 lt'susually so don't worry too muchabout beingcold. because [eft my I've 6 | can'tgo swimming backat the hotel. 7 lf I wereyou, I would take a with me. I don't like the look of thoseclouds. 8 Do you thinkthe weather wi[[ in time for usto haveour picnic? 9 I can'tstandit when the weatheris so . lt's like beingin the jungle! l 0 I t h i n kl ' 1 takea sweater 1 with me in caseit gets a bit

Fiv5f Eq1

'V Now write your letter Readthis checklist. Whenyou have written your letter,tick the boxes. ' I havestartedand endedthe letter in an appropriate way. I havewritten in an appropriate style. I I havemadegood suggestions.
I

Homework

th

tr
T T T

I havechecked spelling for mistakes. I havechecked grammar for mistakes.

56

Exavl

PRAcrlcE

truronvrel LETTER

Exam know-how

Eachof theseinformal lettersshouldbe writtenin 120-180words in an appropriate style. 1 YourAmericapenfriend thinking travelling is of aroundEurope and hasaskedyou for you any advicdandsuggestions mighthave,particularly aboutwhat weatherto expect. Wriieyourletter,givingsuitable adviceand suggestions. 2 Yourareahas beenhavingsome very strangeweatherin recentweeks.Writea letter to your penfriend describing strange the weather and the effectit has had on your life. Writeyour letter.

Grammar focus
The verb'suggest'can usedin the following ways: be (the townk) building a flood barrier. (-ing form) I suggest (that)the town builds a flood borrier. (that clause) I suggest (that)the town should build a flood barrier. (that clause with should) I suggest I suggest flood borrier. (noun) o I suggest that the town build a flood barrier.(is also possible,but very formal and not used very often) Tick any sentences that are correct. Rewrite any that are incorrect. I I would like to sutgest that we warning touristsaboutthe dangers sunbathing. of

2 The pilot suggested shouldwait until the cloudscleared. we 3 | suggest that an examination weatherrecords evidence climatechan6e. of for of 4 Many locaIpeoplesuggested council! bui]dan indoorshopping the centre. 5 The weatherman suggested peopleplanning trip checking forecastbeforethey leave that a the

Writinp

Skills

Unit

wanM-u"@
the Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. In ask r What differentforms of pollutionarethere? r What is the biggest whereyou live? threat to the environment r How would you improveyour [oca[environment?

10

TheEnvironment

DeveroP YouR wnrrrNc sKrLLs


Dos and Don'ts

,#'
Do./ Don't

Decide whetheryou shouldor shouldn't the following do whenyou are writinga transactiona[ letter. 1 choosethe two most importantpromptsto write about 2 often imagine that the noteswerewritten by you points in your letter 3 mentionextraretevant 4 mentionallthe prompts togetherin a list in one paragraph 5 introduceextrainformation that is interesting, evenif irrelevant

Do ilpon't Do / Don't
Do,/ Don't Do / Don't

IEI
Iit

Make the prompts formoI


Readthe followingpromptsfrom differentexamquestions and write sentences for or givingthe informationin a more formal way.Startwith the wordsgiven. asking 1 Any plansfor cleaning beach? I wonder Timeof nextenvironmentaltroup meeting? Wouldyou mind Localresidents asked opinion. not for Anotherconcernis

58

in 4 Doctorssayhealthprobtems town increasing' to According 5 Noisefrom localfactories big problem' A major

Think about the PromPts

and do the taskwhichfollows. this writingquestion Read

You live closeto a largefactoryand are concernedabout the environmental in problemsit causes.Yu haveseenthis advertisement a local newspaper directorof the factory' managing and decidedto write a letterto the Then write and Readthe advertisement the notesyou have made carefully. causedby the problems about complaining director, a letter to the managing the factory.

Gentte lndustrial Bliitiiietrue i,,!ehsi:ct


vvhat abovt tho rivor?

seriously. we atwebster Brotherstakethe environment That'swhy this year we have: 6Y o Zu ce dair p ollution l0%. o startedto recyclematerials' to o listened localoPinion. You cantrust us to carefor your environment' for Bi'r-i!gl'S:Working a better future for all' ilCbSrlGf

bad <1,ll emollc, gorvodalc' on

woronT

at laetloc.al
no<,fln5

to Tick which of the followingpointsyou HAVE mentionin your letter' shoutdhavestartedsooner a the fact that recycting aboutriverpollution b your concerns the last [oca[meetint on the environment they missed . ih" fact that a d the fact that the factory produces bad smell by e the noisepotlutioncaused the factory

Tick which of he foltowingexira pointi you COULDmentionin your letter. a a the factory makes lot of noise for b the workersare underpaid the work they do shouldhavestartedsooner c recycling d your cousinworksat the factory as a manager e traffic to the factory is increasing

Think beyo nd t he PromPts

Skilts

Unit

10

59

ti

r3

&

10

y*a*r*e&rre*$ru* ffimvgg-*p sgsts_s


Readthis incompletenswer the question to above. Wrte a paragraph about 30 wordsto complete of the letter,mentioning the one remaining prompt and adding.ny ,."i"u.nt ideasoiuou,. o*n.
Deat* F1rTr^Yqey, I ai*t wri{-ing fo yor,r"l-oconpla.in abouf yor,rv ervev.l_iser^leq{_ wlich appave irr f4orra,y's D.aily News. lr, ^y oplrlior,, yor,,,o ct{Pt\y ha"Sho righf !c cliq fa be ca.virrg*ov fhe ehroqr*le\! irr *act yar.r"*arcfouy is ohe s{ i-le biggesf pollq.l-,5 .l-heavea. ir.r h^, l-he ervevfiseqer.,.Fyou, wreq{-io!",e .l-he {acf lfra{_ qir pol'lulion*roq fhe {atc{:o,y frrs{aller by \Al" Flowever, you *qile fo vqeqfihl-hs"l ob,sou.leays locql r.esie\{-s rrye *evce fo sfa,ry o* l-he rrnplea,rsarhisNolell cor.",rirg lror, l_he *aclovy. Theye lla-oe'becrrse wrt qlso rnr'rehfich e* .l-he*rcf flaat pollurliorr o+ fnu Bi ive" Lee has

Yr.il, o parotroph

alcl-rr,arllyi!^,creaged oVer ffre lasf yerr.

\lebsfev Bvofhers is serieraslyaprarging .l-frelocal etrviroq!,eeql_ ,\d ytusl_ "l-ake ac{-ioy, be*o*e il- is .l-olr{-.e. i look {erwa.v l-o reni\S yr^r }.espr.s l-o ffc abeve poir,,fs. Yours siqceyetry Janes Fypthcis

R"9.4your partner's
wrtttng
Swapparagraphs readwhat your partner and haswritten.-Uing your partnert'parairaph, answer followingquestions. the 1 Hasmy partnermentioned the remaining prompt? 2 What extrarelevant points hasmy partner made?

3"::;i;,W,",he tr or listen crass, to paragraphs other


people havewritten.What extrarelevant pointshaveyou come up with?

Study the model


Read modelcomposition on l0 page104. Tickthe sentences wherethe writer mentions pointsfrom the the prompts. Underline extrainformation any that is from the writer'simagination.

3 Hasmy partnerusedan appropriate style?

60

CovrPosrrroN DEVELorMENT @
Readthis composition question and do the exercises follow. that You live in a coastaltown and are concernedabout pollutioncausedby localferries.you haveseenthis advertisement a local newspaper in and you decideto write a letterto the managingdirectorof the ferry company. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made carefully.Then write a letter to the managingdirector, complaining about the environmental problemscausedbv ferries.

noT fvtto 'oilto aro

our fast, efficientferry serviceruns art year round.you,ll be amazedat the fuxury of a Fastsailferry. And wete gone green, too! we care about our environmentand that,s why we:

etrll produc-o a lot of


gwtoke

we are also planning this summer to provide a regularservice the r to island of Alonissos, where passengers can see the Mediterr"n"; L r..monk seal in its natural habitat.
'itr:".+

throatong

.,f

.".,_",,"_."

Br ainstormng
Answer following the questions. Discuss your answers with the class. 1 Do you know the nameof the personyou are writingto? _ 2 How areyou goingto start your letter? Dear 3 What style is appropriate? 4 What complaints you have do to mention?

5 Whatactionwouldyou likethe managing directorto take? join morelocalenvironmentalgroups a b cance[plansfor trips to Alonisios c improvethe behaviour his staff of

Relevant or irrelevont?
Decide whether the following additional points would be relevant or irrelevant in this (R) (t) letter. Fastsail ferriesare more expensive than other ferry companies. b Fastsail ferriesusuallyleavelate. c The Mediterranean monksealis an endangered species. Passengers complainaboutthe staff beingrude. Fastsail ferriesare very noisy, especially late at night. Theferriesdump rubbish sea. at

Make it formol
These sentences too informalfor this are kind of letter.Rewrite them in a more formaIstyle. I The thing aboutyour ferriesis that someof them are ancientand dirty.

You saypollution siO%less, that's but rubbish because therei still a lot of smoke.

riting

Skills

IJnit

TO

61

10
PIan your poragraphs
ptan, Completethe followinSparagraPh noteson what you aregoingto making in include eachparagraph.

Wordperfect
and thesesentences then usethe wordsin Read below. the sentences botd to comptete who live nearairportsoften sufferfrom People noisepollution. natural habitat is the placewhereit An animal's lives. usua[[y and need are Someanimals endangered orotection. we The blue whalefacesextinction unless act quickly. in is Whenan animal in captivity,it Iives a place like a zoo and isn'tfree. of Thisspecies tiger is very rare. monk seaIis protected, The Mediterranean you can'thuntthem. whichmeans In the West,we rely on fossilfuels suchas oiI and coa[. by You can help the environment usingmore that havea in especial[y countries solar energy, lot of sunshine. are Manyconservationists workinghardto save whichareunderthreat. animals

Fo*mptl bvatnsacf tonal lefkev platn


Dea*
I Pa,.nagroo.ph
T a

Farargratph ?

Pavarg*aph3

Pavolgva.ph&

Ltosihq exPvSSth(S/

Yonrs
Fivsf ntrre {*
St,{v\1!^xe

Homework ilh. 'V

Now write your letter Whenyou have this checklist. Read written your letter,tick the boxes. . I havewritten in an appropriate L-l style. r I haveincludedpointsfrom alI the prompts. . I haveaddedrelevant from information my imagination. I havewritten in paragraphs. I

for I havechecked spelling mistakes. for I havechecked grammar mistakes.

T
il

the I Eventually, world wil[ run out of and we wi[[ haveto find other enerty sources. in the town centreis 2 The you haveto shoutto havea terribleand conversation. to It wasexciting go to Africaand seeelephants in their heattheir waterusing Manypeoplein Spain in the summer. to we 5 Unless do something helpthoseanimals we could lose whichare forever. manyanimats saythat pollution Expert this area. threatens serious[y that it wasthe first time a 7 The zoo announced pandahad had a baby 8 The Indianelephantis a different from the African. there are so few in the wild, the golden 9 Because by [aw. eagleis andcoutd tiger I0 TheSiberian time. in disappear a veryshort

62

Exavl

PRAcrlcE

TRANSAcTToNAL LETTER FonvrRr-

Exam know-how
information Whenyou write a transactional letter,you must includeall relevant You wi[[ alsobe givencredit if you includeextrarelevantpoints from the prompts. that you havethought of yourself. questionin 120-180words in an appropriate style. Writean answerto the following in the You and other residents the areahavereceived followingletter You livenearan airport. proposeddevelopment the airport. of from the airportdirectorregarding Writea letter to the airportdirector, Readthe letterand the notesyou havemadecarefully. youropposition the to causedby the airpoftand expressing complaining aboutthe problems proposeddevelopment. bq{\of
arf rrighf

hot\cYerise

th

lvrlQic

that time,we haveseennoise Heathwick airportis now entering tenthyear.During its This is in spiteof the fact that the numberof flightshas levels to recordlow levels. fall from localresidents. in increased. havealsoseena decrease the numberof complaints We to We hopethat you will agreethat now is the time for Heathwick expand.We have more decidedto add a fourthrunwayto the airpod,whichwill attractaround100,000 the to travellers At everyyear. the sametime,we are planning planttreesto helpdecrease for noiseoroblem localresidents.

\ectqse peo7lel.,ave woveA awayt

)\l qoA e\qgh r\ee {ewet llighfs

proposals. you regarding these to any I wouldbe interested hear views mayhave Yours sincerely, Tatrick (zordon AirportDirector

focus Grommar
more formal by moving a preposition You can make some sentences from the end of the sentenceas in this example: Pollution threatensthe jungle which the tiger lives in. Polluton threatensthe jungle in which the tiger /ives.{more formal} Rewrite the followint sentencesin a similar way. I whichthe pollutioncomesfrom. People can write lettersto the factories

groupwhich manypeoplebelongto. is 2 Greenpeace an environmental

is 3 Extinction a problemwhich we shouldallworry about.

needto be protectedfrom. 4 Huntingis a threat whichsomeanimals

5 Noiseis anotherproblemwhich peoplecomplainabout

Writng

Skills

Unit

t0

63

i.: l:.-.ii

w.anM-uP@
questions. the In ask Lookat the pictures. pairs, andanswer following r How muchelectronic technologydo you useeachday? . Would robotsbe usefulin the home? Do you thinkwe will everhave robots? domestic

xrc

Technology

Devslop YouR wFnrrNG sKrLLs ,/


i' a :" i.j a' r.,j, i li !l:
'_ t ',:' -.

aboutwritingareTrueor False. Decide whetherthe following statements t together. lt is better to havelots of short sentences True / False True / False True / False True / False True ./ False True / False it's write longersentences because too easyto 2 You shouldn't makemore mistakes. evenif you make 3 ltt better to try to write difficult sentences, minormistakes. are they usemore 4 Two sentences better than one because words. A long sentence followed by a short sentence createa can strongdramaticeffect. Longel more complicated sentences tend to be more formal.

64

Vlsfeffs m ake senfencss


to of Matchthe two halves the sentences eachother. I 2 3 4 5 6 a b c d e f lf robotsbecomecommonin the home, Thosepeoplewho are afraidof technology would havefacedthe sameproblems Our grandparents Feeling that they aretoo old to learn, in would neverbecomeinterested computers Manyteenagers violence, games, whichsomesayencourage Videoand computer somepeopleavoidcontactwith new technology. if they did not playvideo games. peoplewi[[ havemorefreetime. as if they had hadthe sametechnology us. suchas map reading. can actuallyteachyoungpeopleskills, to shouldbe encouraged learn.

Whaf do fhe senfer?css do?


l-6, write its numbe1 For above. eachsentence, Lookagainat the sentences nextto what it is doing. Thissentence... a b c d e f gives reason. a an contains example. future situation. presents possible a a contains suggestion. situationaboutthe past. presents hypothetical a world. situationabouttoday's a presents hypothetical

Connse t f'he sntncs


starting to Joineachpair of sentences makeone more complexsentence with the wordsgiven. I Theywill haveproblems Somepeopleknow little about comPuters. findinga job. People

they did not As did 2 The AncientEgyptians not havetelevision. a result, haveadvertisements. the 3 We rely on technologymore and more.lt is changing way we work. Technoloev Theyknow they haveno choice. witt be forcedto usecomPuters. 4 People Knowing 5 The raceto the Moon took placein1969.ltproducednew technology that we usetoday. The raceto the Moon,

Writing

Skills

Unit

11

65

'*'t
*: xvn L{}i"} r"{3{J ts,iffi i-ki; :s!{$ iq }'ri Lts
il * t i, ' i;,. 1 i'; * ;.:* .'i:g r..: ; .r; The paragraph below comesfrom a discursive composition abouttechnology. The writer could haveconnected sentences the togetherto makea better paragraph. Rewrite the paragraph, connecting sentences the together. In couclusion,technologvcleveloping the tinre.It atTects of us.Sorrie is all all peopleare
not afiaid to take rrsks.These people:rle plep:rrcdto lern horv to Llse new tcchnologr,. 'We knorv horv important it is. We shoulcl all try to beconre farniliar rvith conrpr.rters, rhc internet and e-mail.

lv\ cohclusiotr,fechnology,
Sorre geopl, t^l[a

knowirrg

ffi
ffi*

:@
Read yourparagraph the class, listen paragraphs people to or to other have written. Have atljoined sentencesthe same you the in way?

5'i';-;*v i'* * .,'t,:t:rj*


Read modelcomposition on page'105. the following ]l Find and underline. Findsentences that connectideas togetherusing: I an -ing form 2 a conditional 3 a retative pronoun (who,which) 4 an inversion

66

ConnPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
Read this composition question and do the exercises follow. that You have been doing a class projecton domestictechnology. Yourteacherhas askedyou givingyour opinions the following to writea composition on subject: The future role of technology in the home. Writeyour composition.

&rs snste rr:tjng


Answer following the questions. your answers Discuss with the class. I Who is goingto readyour composition? 2 What style is appropriate this composition? for 3 Decidewhetherthe followingstatements aboutthis composition Trueor False. are a Youraim is to useinteresting descriptions entertainyour to reader. True/ False b A clearargument with a few pointsis better than a complicated argument with manypoints. True./ False c Youshouldstart a new paragraph everysix lines. True / False d Youshouldn't to useconditionalsentences try you because might makea mistake. True./ False 4 Circle whichof the following you mighttalk aboutin this composition: i domesticrobots e-mail travel space computer games teIevision cars cookers w a s h i nm a c h i n e s g weaPons

p &.4 sdaey# ,{r $"di *r?s ctJ


Foreachof the fo[lowingforms of domestictechnology, predicttwo waysin whichyou think eachof them aregoingto change the future. in television cooker telephone radio

fffseds$ @
Discuss your predictions with your partner asa class. or Did you makethe samepredictions?

Wrif

i ' , n 'c o

Skills

Unit

TI

67

G
$ $ *: :1.: ; i .i,i i*g i*;:::::: plan, Completethe followingParagraPh noteson what you aregoingto making in include eachparagraph.
and Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin below. the sentences bold to complete r Thereare manydomesticusesof technology, and cooking. suchasentertainment to are usedin car factories do lndustrial robots routinejobs. is A word processor a computerprogramme that we usefor writing. One of the wayswe put informationinto a computeris by typing on a keyboard. My mum got a microwave(oven| because they'reso fast, but she neverusesit. and is hardware the machine allthe Computer partsinside. and Computersoftware is the programmes that run on computers. tames the Double-click left button on your mouseto selectthe icon. ld lovecableTV so that I could seea[[ the latestfi[ms,but it's reallyexpensive. Somepeoplesufferfrom technophobiaand by feel very threatened new technology. I
pqv6avaT'*

&rscq*sive
plnvr t"&psSi&ioer
-Iifle
P*v*,gvetph I

Paruargraph3

Pavagratph 3

2 3 4 5

put in so My dad just got that he can get the sportschannel. but I You'ltthink I'vegot rea[y haveno ideaabout computers. half an hour in takearound shoutd Thechicken the -probtemon You'vegot a - | think it'sthe keyboard. your computer lt'[ be a while beforewe seerobotsin

#*x#'v*r*

th|

'V Nowwriteyourcomposition. you have When Read checktist. this tick writtenyourcomposition, the boxes.
I havewritten in an appropriate T style. I havetried to usemore sentences. compIicated I haveusedat leastone conditional T sentence. for I havechecked spelling . mistakes. for I havechecked grammar l mistakes.

6 I'vejust boughta new pieceof for my computerso that I on-[ine. can playSames for are 7 Thesemachines designed usein factories. on my laptop is so small 8 The that I keephittingthe wrongkeys and the cursor 9 Moveyour moveson the screen. a l0 The greatthing about using is that you canjust deleteyour mistakes.

68

Exavl

PRAcrlcE

coMposrroN DrscunsrvE

:l

try compositions, to find waysto usemore complex Whenyou write discursive for you Evenif you makesmallmistakes, will sti[[be givenmore marks sentences. tryingto usedifficuttSrammar. style. wordsin an appropriate shouldbe writtenin 120-180 Eachof thesecompositions in commentwas printedrecently a localnewspaper: 1 The following Computergames teach us nothingand young people shouldavoid them. on Now your teacherhas askedyou to write a composition this subject,wtth reference to yourown experience. Writeyour composition. in technology classand your teacherhas askedyou to write a 2 You havebeenstudying statement: with or agreeing drsagreeing the following composition Richcountriesshouldsharetheir technologywith poor countries. Writeyour composition.

f{:{# {Sr*ru-tffi#r
!V* e*n,.*{1** i*?r**i:{* ii {*r:*:.::.ilt ':i:i':' ,;'.': r:;:' :-..'lr;''1f"':' i i:!:r:::':i i;r'r-r:"',r1,,'':l

**rei*r*t* ;9?** b*gi**i*; :{-;::rer,ir**;:t Scored of change, somepeople seecomputersos o threat. = Somepeopleseecomputers a threat becouse they ore scored of change. os Having more choice,people think more about home entertainment. = People think more about home entertainmentbecouse they have more choice. 'Y*x *;sv* i* b* r*r***l tkxg *h* tx* par** *f t&* $****ne ref* ic ?h* sa*te t*!ng:

Hdving more free time, computergomeswill becomemore populor. p**pi* }:av* *t*r* 9r** ti*:*. *** {*eesii**r *an:*s. !s wr*xg be*e{,r** !e s*tcasl* b*r Having more free time, people willplay more computergames. s*****c*s, *tartl*g wrth 1k* {&*s a$ in **:* cx*rxp{e* ab*:v*. &*qsri?*th* S*li*rryi;tg their jobs. they are afraidof losing because I Manypeoplewant to studycomputers to they are introduced them by games. because 2 Someyoungpeopledecideto work with computers they hope it wi[[ not affectthem. because 3 Somepeopletry to ignoretechnology we 4 Manyof us would not welcomedomesticrobotsbecause are worriedaboutthe danger. we 5 We cant be certainbecause do not know the future.

Writing

Skills

Unit

11

69

LJ

wanM-uP @;

reffi ffi Health and Fitness

the ask In Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions' Would you liketo work in the heatthindustryin any of thesejobs? r What qualities you needto do thesejobs? do How importantis it for ordinarypeopleto knowfirst aid?

DevrloP YouR wRlrlNG sKlLLs


&,4* fr&** m*,ks s*nfc]r*s

that you can usein your writing. all sentences useset phrases These to Matchthe two halves makecompletesentences. for I I am writingto aPPIY ! Sorryto hearabout I 3 As requested, havevisited when 4 lt wasone of those daYs 5 On the one hand, | gainedsomeexPerience who 7 Are you one of those PeoPle that I I would liketo recommend gYm. in a whileworking my uncle's havea cold? b seemto always

c schoolshavea duty to Provide


care. medicaI basic trainer. d the post of assistant in e we trainall our employees first aid. you know you'regoingto be il[.

of the t you missing trip because the flu. in and h hospitals healthcentres the area.

Wher ar e t he y use d?
Decidewhich of the sentences A you could usein the followingcompositions. in Write the numbers the sentences. of You may usethe samenumbermore than once. a report a story a letter of application an article a discursive composition an informal letter

Correct th se t ph rsss
Rewrite followingsentences the correctly. I | look forwardto hearfrom you.

your ad,which I sawin a local newspaper. 2 | am writingwith reference me, 3 As you requested I havespoken local doctors. to medicaltreatment 4 As far that I'm concerned, shouldbe free. do contacting if you needmore informations. me 5 Please not hesitate

Compf efe fh e so mp os f ion


Read this questionand the answer that follows. Usethe set phrases belowto completethe composition. just readthe followingadvertisement: Youhave

Wanted:
Roc.eTttonigt a" vvork in doctor's surgery at rveekends.
Would suit teenager learn about medicine vrho wishes to as a possible career.

Tleaeo a11 writing-to in


Dr Brovrn, Harley Road.

Write your letter of applicationto Dr Brown.

Skills

Unit

T2

71

!.,.:

:l

xffi

sm*ilts Y*wffi bruffixxxruffi ffimwmx**p


Dear Dr $vtuh,
'larily News'. , which I srwi\ loAatY's vecegfiotisf. fhe Fifh High School in E/itbtavgh' lhe Crwrbvi/qeFivst

I ru.r sixleer yeavs ola ^lA a*eqA Cevfi*icale in Errglish4\/

fhe DELFZin Fvench'

I like lo r^reef new 7eo7le au\AV\ave a. SooA felephone u ah\ev' lfisuayinlenfionfogoorrlosfra/ylobeaAoclovwheurllerveschool' lea"tr whaf is irrvolve/. wo"kitrg Po" uay raurcle, a+tA woql/ liLe to Pirr oql i^^ore' s a Aevsalologisl, ltsf sur,'rwrev, which gives r^,rote oQ efrilS r\ fhe a\AAYeSSeS lwo ,eHevees. l yoraveqraiver"roveirr+ovyaarfiorr, . I av,r tvailrble Qov

Stvarhporaglats

a b c d e f

Thispost would be a very usefulopPortunityto for necessary the Positionbecause qualities I I betieve havethe personal from you. I took forwardto hearing include My qualifications to do ptease not hesitate contactme sincerely, Yours t at your convenience to h I am writingin response your advertisement | | would liketo apptyfor the post of while j I gained someexPerience find attachedmY CV. k Please

rne rnodel Sruedy


12 Readmodel composition on page105. that yoJ think you coutdusewhen writinga letter of application. anyset phrases Undertine with the class. your answers Discuss

72

corvrPostrtoN DEVELoPMENT @
that and do the exercises follow. question this composition Read You have seen the followingadvertisement:
i-

involv e.i in yo , i W a n t e i l : 2 u n g p e o p l eto wo r k a s assistants localgym. Duties a e w . d e a l i n q i i r ' t e l e p h o n e n q u i r i e s n d m e m b e r so f t h e p u b l i ca n d b e i n g " ' necessaras all tr ainingwill be y fi rsta i d .No e xper ience fo i "r o o r i o t " r b a src fir staidwouldbe anadvantage. and/or tr in i p r o vi d e dS o me n te re st f i tn e ss aining . Datvies,$xxw&m$wS$xxx*' in "',,Apply writing to Stvth
Write a letter of aPPlication'

,'lt.

f &rs r-so rnt mg

wherenecessary. your imagination using the fo[lowing!uestions, Answer with the class. your answers Discuss I ls this letter formal or informat? 2 Who are you writingto? Dear for? 3 What job are you aPPlYing and 4 Wheredid you seethe advertisement, when? haveyou got, if any? experience 5 What relevant 6 What do you know aboutfirst aid? do 7 What first aid qualification you have? in areyou interested fitnesstraining? 8 ln what way do qualities you havethat are relevant 9 What personal I O How are you goingto closeyour letter?

aboutthis letter areTrueor False' Decidewhetherthe followingstatements there to anotherPerson work with you because I You shouldsuggest True / False aretwo positions. 2 3 4 5 The fact that you haveworkedin a gym beforeis irrelevant. Theymight giveyou the job if you tell them your cousinworksthere. Theydon't want to know aboutyour interestin jogging' You shouldmakeclearhow much moneyyou want for doingthe job.

f 'ue *n fs{se?

True/ False
True / False True / False True / False

ff:o0s f& sef Pf*rsses

you Circlewhich of the fotlowingset phrases might usein this letter' of to a I am writing in response your letter of the ... d I havesomeexperience "' personal e I believeI havethe necessary b I am writingto applyfor one of the positions ... because qualities ... advertised could be more f I would be gratefulif the salary ... include c My qualifications than ...

Writing

Skills

Unt

t2

TI

t..ll

1k
#d*n ysffr psr*gr*Pfus . plan,
Compleiethe foltowingParagraph noteson what you aregoingto making in include eachParagraPh.

Wdmr#prrfuril
and thesesentences then usethe wordsin Read be[ow' the sentences botd to comptete When you havea cold, your noserunsand a you sneeze lot. When you have(the)flu, you feel weakand havea fever. first aid can be realtyusefulif you Knowing are everinvolvedin an accident. for I My dad is desperate a cure for baldness' I I hope you get over Yourcold soon' roundmY broken : My mum put a bandage arm until we got to the hosPital. if You haveto study medicineat university you want to becomea doctor. practitioner to I went to my G.P./general for askher for something my stomach-ache' so We'regoingto visit my sick aunt in hospitat flowers. lU liketo get some The doctor gaveme a prescriptionfor painkillers. when | leave 1 ld liketo schoolandwork in a hosPital. the The doctor asked his to remove shirt. Comeon, go to school- you'veonly got to the chemist, 4 | took the l me who gave the medicine needed. when I found the otd man on the 5 I felt helpless I floor and wished hadknownsome 6 Maybeone daYtheYwittfind a
for cancer.

Le&fev o*
applncnbiobt fXq\
Po,vragnaphI

Pcrua,gt;lPh j

Potr.agvarph 4

FrvSf rralre
It\v\{,114't

w ffsT,.nsffi'1,,".
Readthis checklist. of application. Whenyou havewritten Yourlette tick the boxes. r I havewritten in an appropriate style. set r I haveusedappropriate phrases. mentionedanY I haven't points. irrelevant for I havechecked sPelling mistakes. for I havechecked grammar mistakes.
tl

8 9

10
L-l

You'vegot ..--------.--------------. I suggestYou stayin bed and keepwarm and phoneme if it getsany worse. rouno Why haveYougot a your head? to starting My sisterhasbeenquite it[,but she's it now. didn't know what the My me referred to a specialist. problemwasand

L-l

74

Exnv

PRAcrlcE

LErreRoF AppLrcArroN

1
j

_."_.._i-

Sxmm furu*r*-fu*vr
Do not learnwholecompositions. Thiswill not get you a goodmark. As you prepare the exam,learnset for phrases eachkindof composition for andtry to usethem in your writng. You'llfind a list at the backof this book. Remember, though,that you haveto use them appropriately, thinkaboutwhat so they mean.

Eachof theseletters application of shouldbe writtenin 120-180 wordsin an appropriate style. I You haveseenthe following advertisement:

Healflr Foo Shop Requires Assisftr.rf


Saturdayassistantrequired localhealth for food shop.Job involves serving customers, as well as providing information our products. experience knowledge necessary on No or is as full training provided. is Someinterest health in food and diet would be an advantage. Please apply in writingto 1.r;rr"rl' 1.,'i-<'', HighStreet. 17

Write your letter of application. 2 You have seen the followinq advertisement:
Localchemist seel<s Saftvaty atssisfatnf.The successful applicant be brightand quickto learn, will possibly with an interestin worl<ing full-timein a chemist's.An abilityto dealwith the publicis more importantthan l<nowledge. experience No necessary. GooA vqles oQ gaty. Apply in writingto PafvicitColliev,Medichem, | LondonRoad. 2

yourletterof application. Write

ffirwmryp#r fues*'s

lSws kav* a s*c*me* e*:di*l***s,$*aee *xehas: lf I got a job in o health food shop, I would learn a lot about diet. We *xr mxk* i* m'*re S*rrx{i*xt[rc S*{t*wi*:g way: Were I to get a job in a health food shop, I would learn a lot about diet. Rswrite th* S*{!s*v}rxg sex,*t*nss a sirmi&ar }*x way. I lf we advertised healthproductsmore,we would attractmore customers. our

People would havefewer heatthproblems they ate more vegetables. if

knew more about diet,they would eat lessjunk food, 1 lf students

mealsfor lunchif the schoolagreed. 4 We could offer vegetarian

WritinR

Skills

Unit

12

wnnM-u"'@)

X 3 M Transport

the ask In Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer followingquestions. of r what .r" th" differentmeans transportin the picturesusedfor? r How often do you travelby publictransport? r How good is the pubtictransportsystemin your area/country?

DeveloP YouR wRlrlNG sKlLLs


you will often be givengraphics 1 In question of the exar, . the etc) diagrams, to look at. lt is very importantto understand (maps, informationin them correctlY. next to each and Lookat thesegraphics, write a letter of a graphic on question the next Page. A
Train Bristoldep. 09.36 10.15 12.56 arr PlYmouth 11.45 12.24 15.18
3007 krn Ill4 D 8% buses

Whaf kf nd of graPhe s tf ?

Arstcrclanr - Athens Berlin London

krn

tu"'" "*,,'"1,,'
lorrlesand vans 25%

rrritt:::l

l{onre - Paris

1449 km

--[ti.t '"+n"n | ";.; | ^. licVet - LL*


itheafve il rhofel - t3s tsirrqle voonr

| I

3% motorbikes

trr.to 1"ot^l'
I (rl,^slooa, virrks,etc)

i
)

with LARGEgarden. SCOTLAND Cottage still dates Some Useof THREEBICYCLES. details Tel. available. 0874 476302for further

\ _._.-._._.-.-.-.

76

Whichgraphic... 1 is a map? advertisement? 2 is a classified 3 is a timetable? 4 is a pie chart? 5 showsus the distancebetweenplaces? things? 6 showsus the cost of various

the Write noteson the linesbelowto answer questions. again. Now look at the graphics GraphicA mean? I What does'depJ mean? 2 Whatdoes'arrl you 3 Whichtrainshould catchif you want to be in Plymouthbeforemidday? B Graphic I Whichtown,/cityis furthestsouth? 2 Which is furthest north? GraphicC I What does'km'mean? 2 Which is the longest journey(in terms of distance)? 3 Which is the shortest? D Graphic us? What mightthis chartbe showing (X)thepossibitities. Tick(/) or cross I Differenttypes of transporton our roads. of of 2 Sales differentmeans in one year. transport 3 The cost of buyingeachof the means of transport. of How muchpollutioneachmeans transportcauses. of the Who purchases differentmeans transport. E Graphic by be 1 Wiltthe person travelling road or rai[? by 2 Are they travelting pubticor private transport? 3 What kind of coachticket is it? 4 What doesthat mean? the 5 Whichbestdescribes information (tickone): a budgetfor a trip to London b budgetfor a journeyto London GraphicF t ls this cottagefor saleor rent? 2 Canyou staythere PermanentlY, or only for a shorttime? 3 How would you contactthe Person who placedthe advertto find out more?

Whot do they tell us?

;=
Ef

Dtscuss -

ffi;

they are? Do your answers. you atree what kind of graphics discuss In pairs, they giveus? you agreeaboutthe information Do

Writing

Skills

Unit

13

77

f3

13
ffimvffir{:tr Y{p#ffiwffi*Y$ru#sw$$*r%
Formal ar nformal?
presenting information from the graphics. Hereare somesentences Write F for formal or I for informal. Decideif they areformal or informal. 1 The train you want leaves quarterpastten, and getsin at12.24. at .|0.'15, 2 Thetrain departsfrom Bristolat arrivingin Plymouthat12.24. 3 And it says there arethree bikes, we'[ be ableto cycleinto town so good,eh? we whenever like.Sounds hundredkilometres 4 The distance from Berlinto Londonis only severa[ from Rometo Paris. shorterthan the distance 5 These cometo about 80 euros, but of courseyou'll alsohaveto take some spending moneyfor food, drinks, shopping, etc.

Study the model


]3 in Lookat modelcomposition on page106. Underline the sentences all the letter which referto informationin the graphics.

Write a paratraph
Lookat this advertisement write a few sentences the linesprovided and on friend who is comingto staywith you to completethis letter to an English Virginlslands. on the UnitedStates Regular 1-daysailing trips to 5t John Natonal Tarkon beautiful sailing boat.DepartAmerican Yachtharbour09.30. for fishing Stop and swimming way. on (food and drinksprovided). Barbecue lunchon beaoh Relaxing Return19.30 (approx). eurosper person. afternoon. 35

Call6eoff on 5979694 more info. for

Deav Cqvl, I Hil How'sif going?\ol lorrgnow fill youv holiary orr lhe US Vivgirrlslrrrsl crrr'l wail - catrr yora?We've goirrg lo hrve a, gveal fiuael frnywaty, I satw au a,A Pova. oue-Aay irfeveslirtg. Matybe we cohl o if while yor.t're. lvi lhaf soh\/s l',r. sarilirrg "erlly

vJharf /o you fhirrk? Shrll I lpook hs at corale oP plarces? oh, by lhe wary,fheve is rn itlfevhef caQ Ae"e on lhe Vivqih lslatl/s, so yora'llbe able lo chck yourve-u,raril while you're here. wrtwr fhe hofel. irr Well, l'a beflev g \Lv - gof fo help r^,ry faVe care, auA see yorasoon! All lhe best,

nike

78

CovlPosrrtoN DEVELopMENT
Read this composition question and do the exercises follow. that

Youworkpart-time a car rental in agency. Thisis partof a letter you havereceived from an English-speaking tourist:
l..

I wovld be very gratefvl if yu c.ovldscnd mc fvrther infornation rgrdtng- tho hio-door oerg (wih air-anditionin1 1ovhave available i.f and how mvoh the ren#,l fees per da1are. hvld y, alo .poeeiblo) \, laf mo ktow whethor I havo to bookin advan*? Read carefully the extractfrom the letterabove, the car rentaltable and the notes you have made.Then write a letter to the tourist responding the points made in the letter. to
Pains Car Rental 1 day 2 days 1 week
o wherT? : ;;;* ov fiu.gt'rst fo book i* July A'tYs? o how Y'rr'\Y AaY il - xelai\: clteaqet 9e" a weer i"tting Qov

""'2:'i"""""' ".60 """"35' g'S?s)


2-door (witha/c) 4-door (witha/c)
a/c = air-conditioning

45 60

89 119

280 390

. ;;;hotel? (aeliveyY L??:";; l':l s-': t' Lo

write a letterin 120-180 wordsin an appropriate style.Do not writeanvaddresses.

Br o inst orming
Makenotesto answer thesequestions. your imagination use wherenecessary. Thendiscuss your answers with the class. I Do you know the nameof the personyou are writingto? 2 So how will your letter start?Dear 3 Willyour letterbe formalor informal? 4 Whichinformation the tableis relevant? in 5 Will you mentionthe restof the informationin the table? 6 Youwill haveto askthree questions? What arethey?
a

b
c

Whatother information willyou needto give? Whichof thesewould be a good endingfor your letter? a I hopethis info helps.Hopeto hearfrom you soon. b lf you requireanyfurther information, please not hesitate let me know. do to

Writing

Skills

Unit

13

79

f:

13
PIan your ParagraP h, s,
ptan Completethe followingparagraPh. for ybur tetter,makingnoteson what you are goingto inctudein each paragraph.

Wordperfect
and thesesentences then usethe wordsin Read below' botd to completethe sentences systemin Londonis railway The underground the underground' often caltedthe tube or it's In Paris, catledthe metro' York,it's calledthe subwaY' ln New I havethree lanesfor traffic motorways ln Britain, in eachdirection. so I'vegot a monthtybus pass, I don't needto
I I

Fo*vqatlfvat.satcfionatl

leffev plavr
Pava'.grarphI

2 Parvargvatph

buy a ticket. A edroomon a shipis catleda cabin' The train was [ate,so we sat in the waiting room untiI it arrived. to a In Britain, car needs passan M'O'T'every yearto showthat it's in good condition' We stopped at a servicestation at the side of the motrwayto havea coffeeand fi[[ up with . petro[. in the UK,the fue[ we put in most carsis called petrol. In the US,it'scaltedgas'

Pa'atgrargh i

4 PatvargvatPh

I Canwe Pu[[in at the next I needto go to the toitet! 2 Our on spentmost of the time sunbathing deck'so it didn't matter. but are 3 Dualcarriageways similarto motorways' for they onty havetwo traffic in eachdirection. we 4 Shatt wait on the platform,or 8o to the
I

Homewark

Now write Your [etter. When Youhave this checktist. Read written your letter,tick the boxes'
I I

I havewritten a formal letter. a[[the information I haveinctuded I needto. I all I haveasked the questions need to. are The questions all indirect questions. I havedividedmY letter into paragraphs. mY I havechecked tetter carefullY for mistakes.

al
r,l
rL] fr
!

5 I'vegot to take the car in for its next week. stationto the closest What's the EiffelTower? stationto What'sthe closest BigBen? stationto the closest What's StateBuilding? the Empire to I must remember fill uP with before I set off tomorrow. 10 | don't think I needa I'veboughta car.I won't usepubtictransport much.

80

Exavl
Fl

PRAcrlcE

TRANSA.TT.NAL LETTER FoRvrRr-

Examknow how
you r Sometimes will haveto write a formal 1, letterfor question and sometimes an informal letter.Readallthe information very You carefully. will only be ableto decide : your lettershouldbe formalor whether ; who informal whenyou understand exactly you arewritingto, and whattheir relationship with you is. all r Makesureyou haveincluded the points.

Writea letter in 120-180words in an appropriate style. to the You and your classmates planning one-dayexcursion celebrate end of your course, are a to it. below,but you needto and you haveoffered arrange You haveseenthe advertisement TripsLtd givingrelevant details know more.Usingthe notesyou havemade,writeto Tailored for information. and asking further Do not writeany addresses.

: -:^ (
"'.,!:":n o's(:hre
t( :l . b.\
r' lr'tS tJ(
|

i I and trips to'suit youi needsand yur poc-ket.


|

LJ ' Tailored Trips Ltd specialise organising in outings


o 1 -day outings to local places of interest -- - --_/ r'-/theatfe/COnCeftS

iaiid ilps Ltd

t*
\

)
\ i I
nnqcihla nr^12mma

a'on :Lp'n

Stalfnr.l

'
-1|

-. p.,.rre . r 4-r.

i c coaches/minibuses varioussizesavailable of | .,/ i Let us know whereyou want to go and it. what you want to do, and we'll arrange
i Tailored Trips serving the Midlands

. d a t e :2 2 n dJ u l y . dep. Coventryl0.00am Oxford- shoppingand lunch . Stratford- sightseeing, then play,if poss Shakespeare . return- time?

rnr focus Grsrn


I prefer trains to coaches. {generally} I prefer going by troin to going by coach.{generally} I would prefer to go by train rather than (go) by coach.{on this occasion} I would rathergo by train thon (go)by coach.{generallyor on t}ris occasien} Rewrite these sentences that they are correct, and circle whether your new sentnc so is 'generally'or'onthis occasion'. may wish to circle both. "fisr I lU preferto book the ticketsin advance get them at the station. to generally/ on this occasion 2 | had rathertake a taxi than walk. generally/ on this occasion 3 Simonprefers drivingon the motorwaythan drivingalongcountrylanes. generally/ on this occasion prefers 4 Rachel flyingto Paris take the train. to generaffy onthis occasion / 5 Andrewprefers train stations than busstations. generally/ on this occasion

,Vritinp

Skills

14WnnM-U".,,ffi

Fashion

the following questions. Look at the pictures.ln pairs,askand answer . Describe how the peoplein the photos[ook. r What canyou tell about a personby how they dress? r How often do you buy new clothes?

DeveloP YouR wRlrlNG SKILLS


Think about paratraPhs

ff

about paragraphs. nexi to thesestatements Write T for Trueor F ior FalsJ in I Eachparagraph a pieceof writing hasa differentpurpose' to start a new paratraph introducea new point. 2 We usually than twenty words. shouldneverbe [ess 3 Paragraphs in 4 Paragraphs reportsshouldusuallyhaveheadings' in 5 You dont needto haveparagraphs an informalletter. to to We useparatraphs makea pieceof writingeasier read'

Study the model

thesequestions. Thenanswer 14 LookafmodeI composition on page107. Yes1N9 1? 1 DoesEmmamentionthe computerin paragraph in the Compar one for 2 Doessheput a[[the reasons buying Yl1{ Ne paragraph? Yes' \gr 3 Doesshereferto all the notes? 4 Doesshesaysomethingsin the letter that are not in the Yes/ No notesor the advert?

82

What's the point?


a serves differentPurPose. paragraph Each 14 Lookat model composition again. Makenoteson the linesprovided. What! the point of eachparagraph?

I Paragraph refer to Peters'letter / Sive news 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 5 Paragraph

tr

paragraph? or on Do you answers. asree thepurposeeach fl i:fr:ii..lr, ,ou,.

Divide into paragraphs


below. answer question, and a student's Lookat this composition that mistakes the studenthasmade, spelling and the lgnoring grammaticaI shouldend.You shouldend up whereyou think eachparagraph put a line (,2) with four paragraphs. You have been doing a class projecton fashion.Your teacherhas asked you to write a compositionabout the followingstatement: Appearanceis important. You should state whether you agree or disagreewith this statement,explainingyour reasonsclearly.

T\'to lnyorhn* of hyTearanoo


Sociery places great value on appearanceand most people care about how they look. Indeed, we oflen judge others by their appearance.However, there is danger of placing too much importance on how someone looks, as it does not always indicate There is no doubt the kind of character they have, or what skills they may posess. job interview without that appearance is important. For example, if you go to a having made effort to look smart, then you will probably not be offered the job. Moreover, someone's appearancecan give us useful information about that person. When we see a person wearing a suit, we suspect they are professional.This can inspire conftdance. Nevertheless, fhere is a danger of falsely judging someone by For instance,not all punks are hooligans and untrustwerthy. People their appearance. which judge solely by appearancemay suspectthat they are.In conclusion, althought appearance is important, we must also consider other factors, such as personaliry 'Never when forming opinions about people. There is some truth in the saying: judge a book by it's cover.'

&i

14

:si'i il;i*vL, _:3try{-}LJft :,J*i#?'*g..ai{3 i i,-L*; Whch paragraph?


t-+ Write the numberof a ParagraPh in E to from the comPosition thesequestions. answer paragraph(s)... Which I 2 3 4 examples? present the introduces toPic? the summarises argument? of the explains danger judging aPPearance? by someone their of the imPortance 5 explains appearance?

Which phrases?
again. Lookat the comPosition usedto Write the wordsor Phrases ideas. these introduce I an example

2 anotherreason idea 3 a contrasting of 4 a summary the arSument

and one mistake abovemadeone spelling The wriier of the composition them. Find in mistake eachparagraph. them and underline grammatical

Can you find the mstakes?

Match the paratraphs to the text types


I 2 3 4 5 6 7 your exPerlence presentinS your findings presenting disadvantages presenting action requesting a describing fictionalevent how to do something describing your news giving a b c d e f g

text type on the right. the teft wth its appropriate Matcheachparagphcon-tentbn short story article magazine comPosition discursive report informalletter letter of application letter of comPlaint

of and write an introductoryparagraph about40 wordsin this question Read the reader. to interest question Try your notebook. to start with a rhetorical A teenage fashion magazinehas asked you to write an article on the subject of of the importance fashionto young peopletoday,entitled 'We are what wc weatr'

Wrte an introduction

The of and wite a paiagraph about 30 wordsin your notebook. this question Read 'sportswear'. a report shouldbe formal. that Remember is of heading the paragraph you have a parl-timejob in a clothesshop. The managerwants to make the shop with youngpeopleand has askedyou to writea report makingSome morepopular recommendations.

Wrte a repart paragraPh

84

GovrPosrrroN DEVELoPMENT @
that questionand do the exercises follow. Read this composition A friend of yours has written to you asking for advice on what to wear to a pafty. Carefullyread the extractfrom your friend'sletter,the list of possiblecostumesand the notesyou have made.Then write a letter to your friend makingyour recommendation. o* l'r^,r goirrglo at artcy vess p4lr/ itvr cor,rgie weeks'fiu,re, a\A |tw\ \Aea{.1 wahf fo wratkeu,ry tof stve whart fo 9o ars!HtVeyou got orrry ow\ costqu^ebuf il's gof fo be qhile eo\ry ^s l'v,rnof very gooA otl lhirgs like fhafl l've witfeh 4lisl oQgossibilifies.Coql yoralef vnte knrowwhatf yorafhink tbohf eacltohe? Thorhks!
gooA - but hrf's /iPlict\lf!
nqqi
1 ? ni

hi
rfa

I i f iae

easy:\a,ge white sheet curl holes ov eyes - bif bovitrg

fogar oraf oQ cooll: r^.rtke lar'ge whife sheef bell, browrr sa,rls?- hol/ 'pqch ol graqes\ -

ahncl_

3 Ancent 4 Dracula

Greek/Roman

v qoo bL\f rrore |ricky: blrck shef lov cage, atir,f {ace whife, ^atke leeth oqf oP carA, lisfick

BEsr CHotCEl

style. Do not write any addresses. Writea letter in 120-180words in an appropriate

Br ainstormin g
wherenecessary. usint your imagination Answerthe fotlowint questions

I 2 3 4 5

Do you know the nameof the personyou are writingto? Yes/ No How areyou goingto beginyour letter?Dear l? Are you goingto mentionthe party in paragraph Yes/ No Yes./ No you mentionallthe possible costumes? Should Which costumeareyou goingto recommend?

M atch the p aro gra ph s to t he content


l-5. Matchthe paragraph contentson the right with eachparagraph

1 2 3 4 5

a b c d e

sayyou hopethey enjoythe party / let you know what they decide you the threepossibilities don't recommend saygoodbye/ why you haveto stop writing your recommendation thankthem for their letter / giveyour news

Writinq

'"

Ski

/ls

Unit

14

85

L'

14
Plan your poragraphs
Completethe followingparatraph plan for your letter,makingnoteson what you aregoingto includein each paragraph.

Wordperfect
Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin and bold to completethe sentences below. Anguswasdressed a ghostat the fancy dress as party and I didn't recognise him! Thoseshoes don't rea[ty with,/match your go skirt.Haveyou got anotherpair? Modelling easy! is Allyou have do is walkup to and down a catwalk! Lipstick and eye shadoware examples of make-up/makeup. l'm thinkingof having earspierced. my Doesit hurt? Sarah's a smalltattoo on her shoulder the got in shapeof a butterfly. I'm goingto dye my hairgreenfor the party tomorrow! I don't havea washing machine home,so I at haveto go to a launderette to washmy clothes. Necklaces, bracelets earrings examples and are of jewellery. Beltsand handbags sometimes are ca[led accessories. Please don't get your nose - | know you'lIregretit! l'm lookingfor a top to thesetrousers. Haveyou got anything suitable? Iti Halloween soon.We'll haveto start thinking about =-=-.costumes. And Jane, whoi just comingonto the now,is modelling new our Summer-Fun beachwear. Actors often wear on srage so that they dont look pale underthe bright lights. ls therea nearhere? I'vegot loadsof dirty laundry. TonyaandJakewent to a shopyesterday look at weddingrings. to lh neverget a . They're almostimpossib[e remove. to We'vegot a 20%discounton hats,shoes and other this week. I'mgoing to thesewhite jeanspink.Pink's reallyin at the moment!

Ih*orb"la!,It'vr{hsarcllohtl leFFev platur


Derw
Pararg"arph 1

PavegvaghZ

Parratgr1p i

Parvargraph4

Closirg ser{-erce(s)
Firratl clcsitrg
exPYSSl\

Fivsf tlairle * Sl^r\4i^ e

'V Now write your letter. Read this checklist. Whenyou have written your letter,tick the boxes. r I havewritten an informalletter. ll r I havethankedthem for their letter in paragraph 1. T I haveincludedall the information I needto. l-r I havedividedmy letter into paragraphs. T I havechecked letter carefully my for mistakes.

Homewark

1{h

6 7 8 9 10

86

lF

: EXAM
FTI

PRACTICE

Iruronvrnl TRANSAGTToNALLETTER

' ExamKnow-now
Whenyou do question be verycareful 1, with names. you are responding a letter you lf to havereceived then you definitelyknow the nameof the personyou are writingto (evenif i their nameisn'tgiven you).Useyour to i imagination comeup with a good name. to i . put Remember you shouldn't their that surname the beginning your surname at or at the end if it'san informa[letter.

question 120-180 Writean answer the following to in wordsin an appropriate style. Do not writeany addresses. You are organising fashionshow to raisemoneyfor charity. You haveinviteda friendof yours a who livesin another town to come alongand supportthe event.Look at the extractfrom their reply, map and the notesyou havemadeand writea letterto your friendresponding the the to pointsthey haveraised.
Thanks inviting - I'd loveto comel l'll probably for me come by train.Couldyou let me know how to get to the venue,and what time I shouldget there?Also,any chanceI can stay at your placefor the night?| don't thinkthere'll a trainbackthat late,willthere? be
o slr{y rl r"ri\e / (oq sol,a)
| + / | 4/ , Railway sialron /

hH

// /

//

osprral

O giVe Ai"ecfiou,S Q"or^", S{-afiou! o sfavts - 830pva o r^^el al &.A)pw a,* N"o\l ehl-nace?

l |tl
l)"/
a
tl

h:-:f;3ri""
Fl ,'o,u'
tl

O brirrg a sleepirg betgl

focus Grqmmar
Thejeweller pierced my ears. ausative ferm: / had my ears pierced (by the jeweller). Causativeform: / gat my ears pierced (by the jewel/erl. {more informa[] \bu / Somgeeelsq Who is actuallygoingto do the piercing? Rewrite these sentencesin the ca*sative form. Use either'have'or'get'. Dont write who actuatly did it {so don't mention the hairdresser in the first sentence}. 1 The hairdresser dyed Susanihair purplefor the play. 2 Our costumes beingmadeat the moment. are 3 My trousers too long so I'm goingto pay someone take them up. are to 4 They're her delivering weddingdress tomorrow. 5 | want someoneto removemy tattoo.

Writing

Skills

Unit

t4

87

,:i

reffi wanM-uP @

Crime

the foltowingquestions' ask ln Lookat the pictures. pairs, and answer betweenthe pictures? ' What is the connection . Would you like to be a judge?Why'zWhynot? ' Wn"t ao you know aboutt-heprisonsystemin your country?

DeveloP YouR wRlrlNG sKlLLs ,/


PxiP*s*l aboutcapitalpunishment' composition Hereare somesenten."r'fro* a discursive eachsentence'
ilrH,fri;;;
A B D

? Y i : * i - qf * *

Writea ietterfrom the boxnextto of eachsentence?

the vtl'! introducing topic opinion giving ;i"i;;.1"*.tpt" an presenting advantage

a E presenting disadvantage pointsof view t*o F presenting opposing a G presenting conclusion

for murderin the the I Forinstance, majorityof peopleexecuted are UnitedStates btack. actsas a that capitalpunishment there is tittte evidence 2 To sum up, deterrent. in a i*out artue that there is no placefor capitalpunishment civilizedsocietY. humane, issue. controversia[ is 4 -apitat punishment an extremety family of the the when a murdereris executed, 5 Secondty, justicehasbeendone' victim often feel that throughouthistory there havebenmanyoccasions 6 Finatly, when innocentpeoplehavebeenexecuted' to a sends message it 7 Firstty, is saidthai capitatpunishment ' but it alsoctearlysends that murde,*iit noi be tolerated, ;ii in that kittingis acceptable certaincircumstances' the mssage

88

havefour paragraphs' wit[ compositions usually Yourdiscursive go in would the sentences A probabty in? Which paragraphs paragraph. next to its appropriate Write the numberof eachsentence I Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph introduction of advantages capitalpunishment of disadvantages capitalpunishment conctusion

p* YVhtfu rcgrcpfi ?

reXfiiHj""W

they woutd probablybe found in? which paragraph Do you agree

doing? are sentences the

Puf n f&e ea{{et orde'


Here'sthe third paragraphfrom the composition about capital punishment. The sentencesare n the wront order. Rewrite the paragraphin your notebook, putting the sentencesinto the correct order' Finally,there have been many occasionsthroughout history This is a dangerousmessage. when innocent people have been executed.However, there are many argumentsagainst that most people punished by death capital punishment. Secondly,the evidence suggests are the weakestmembers of society.Firstly,it is said that capital punishment sendsa to message society that murder will not be tolerated,but it also clearly sendsthe message For instance,the majority of people in that killing is acceptable certain circumstances. executed for murder in the United Statesare black.

whenyou write a wordsand phrases to You are expected usesomediscursive clearer. Thesemakeyour argument composition. discursive and write a letter from in Lookat the wordsand phrases the table overthe page, below in eachpurposebox. the tist of purposes A B C D E F G H I J K contrast expressing a introducing further point in a list of points results expressing pointsof view two opposing presenting a final point in a list of points introducing opinion else's someone expressing the introducing first point in a list of points a introducing conclusion your expressing opinion giving examples together two (dis)advantages presenting

fempfefe fhs fsbfe

WritinS

Skills

Unt

I5

89

,.i:

,:'l

reffi

y*tiffi wffiery-&ru# sm*uffi ffim"uurL#p

Forthis reason,

Because this, of

As a result,

like
Inmyoprnron (that) I believe as

(that) It '-io issaid conld;-In summary,

Tosumup,

$fudy

f&# rffi*def

15 Lookat model composition on page108. wordsand phrases. allthe discursive Underline

ff*'-vrf* *fu* strf#*f*s i


Theyaretoo informal. compositions. haveall beentakenfrom discursive sentences These wordsand phrases style.Usesomeof the discursive them in a more appropriate Rewrite from the table above. is I To end,then,I thinkthat finingcriminals often betterthansending them to prison. toughthesedays. thing- beinga cop is really 2 And another shouldbe lockedup for ever. and murderers like rapists 3 People doesanygood. murderers that kilting proved, though, 4 No one's pinchthingsfrom shops. 5 And we'vegot to askwhy somePeoPle

90

CovrPosrrtoN DEVELoPMENT
that questionand do the exercises follow. Read this composition You have been doing a class project on crime. Your teacher has asked you to write a compositionabout the followingstatement: Anyone found guilty of corntnitting a crime should be sent to prison. You should state whether you agree or disagreewith this statement,explainingyour reasonsclearly. Writeyour composition.

Br si nsformfng
your own opinions. giving questions Answer following the to will 1 Whichof thesecompositions be easiest argueand write? by shouldbe punished imprisonment that a[[ crimes arguing a a composition by shouldbe punished imprisonment cririres that onty certain arguing b a composition by shouldbe punished imprisonment that no crimes arguing c a composition if 2 What do you thinkwould happen all weresentto prison? criminals if What do you thinkwould happen no criminals weresentto prison? than others? Are somecrimesmore serious Giveexamples. cflme: very senous less serious crime: whichshould of I Givethreeexamples crimes by be punished imprisonment. punishment an 6 Why is imprisonment effective Givetwo reasons. for thesecrimes?

whichare Canyou think of threepunishments to alternatives imprisonment? if Whichcrimes, any,couldthesepunishments be effectivefor? Why?

9 Canyou sum up your opinionin one sentence?

fft n k sbout y0ur f i,"sf s entncs


for might be a good first sentence your introductoryparagraph? Which of thesesentences ones. onesand cross(x)the inappropriate Tick (/)the appropriate t 2 3 4 5 6 T I and safesociety. We would alt tiketo live in a crime-free | havenevercommitteda crime. visiteda prison. Lastweek,our class in lf peoplecommit crimesthen they haveto be punished someway. to Society cannotallowcriminals get awaywith their crimes get Too manycriminals awaywith their crimesthesedays. Every civilizedsocietyneedsa legalsystem. just done a projecton crimeat our school. We have

sentences above. based the appropriate on Now write your own introductorysentence,

Writing

Ski//s

Unit

T5

91

Tfu
:'*g.r c;{:i: : S J,* I * i,jr i.:{.:
plan the Comptete fotlowingparagraph makingnoteson for your composition, in to whatyou aregoing include each paragraph.

*?*
and Read thesesentences then usethe wordsin below. bold to completethe sentences r by Capitalpunishmentis punishment death. the the electricchair, gas include Techniques hanging and lethaIinjection. chamber, punishment that capita[ Somepeoplebelieve they think it actsas a deterrent.Thismeans stopspeoptecommittingmurder. to The serialkitlerwassentenced life imprisonment. I'm The policethink I committedthe burglary! goingto haveto get a lawyer./solicitor. of on Shewasarrested suspicion fraud,and later wasofficiallychargedwith the crime. The court caselastedfor three monthsbefore the jury found him guilty. How do you plead? Judge: The accused: Guilty,your Honour. jury found him not guilty, but nobody The reallythinkshe'sinnocent. that he did it - his There! lots of evidence were all overthe gun,for example. fingerprints Masonis fifteen yearsin prison, Havintserved to be releasednext week.

wvslve Dise p'!nx c&&\rsi*loq


Fat"rnguaPh I

r r r

Paoargvaph?

r r .

Para,gvaplt3

Par*a.g'aph 4

ffi ffT:;;1o,po,,o" Whenyou have Read this checklist.


tick written your composition, the boxes. r I havewritten a formal composition. T I have written four paragraphs.
I I T t

--

is My argument clear. I havegivensomeexamples. my I haveexpressed opinion. words I haveusedsomediscursive and phrases. my I havechecked composition for carefully mistakes.

T T I T T

me 1 My lawyer's advised to guilty,but I'm not goingto. I'm innocent! for 2 People imprisoned [ife are usually after abouttwenty years. me hasinstructed not 3Mv this to discuss casewith reporters. without beingcharged wasreleased 4 The suspect due to lackof countrysupports 5 No European think that . Most Europeans it'sbarbaric. would be a good your drivinglicence 6 Losing drinking driving. and against at a 7 I'm buying new suit.My the CountyCourt startson Monday. the policehave 8 | can'tbelieve with embezzlement. Jane They must havemadea mistake. to bein6sentenced 9 Canyou imagine you haveto and knowing spendthe restof your life behindbars? 10 The foremanof the jury readout the verdict. ' he said.

92

I Exnvl

PRAcrlcE

coMposrrroN DrscunsrvE

-,']1..'t;1," 1,':"' i i: ':r:;:': ir..; wordsand to : . You are expected usediscursive


in phrases a composition. :
j
l

more is that . Remember a composition usually is more Theemphasis formalthanan article. giving opinions an on presenting argument, than on them clearly, supporting and the interesting reader.
!

style. wordsin an appropriate shouldbe writtenin 120-180 Eachof thesecompositions in commentwas printedrecently a localnewspaper: 1 The following need to be taken to The crime rate in our area is far too high and extreme measures reduce it. on Now your teacherhas askedyou to writea composition this subject,stating yourown opinions. and expressing you agree disagree with the comment or whether Writeyour composition. 2 Yourclasshas beendoing a projecton crime.Yourteacherhas askedyou to write a question: youropinions answer the following to giving in composition Why do some people breakthe law? Writeyour composition.

*s*r*f,ffi#fl *:r*s
The burglar ran fast but he was caught by the police. Atthough / Eyen though,/ Though the burglarran fast,he wascaughtby the police. ln spite of the fact that / Despite the pct that the burglar ran fast, he wos caught by the police. In spite af / Despite running fast, the burglor was caught by the police. The burglor ran fast. However, he was caught by the police.
!iq:.,,:;* i*:;t l*r':'i:ta: ..'.::,

Shehad a very good lawyerbut shewasstitl found guilty'DESPITE

there is a strongmotive.ALTHOUGH However, 2 Thereisn'tany evidence. BUT he a 3 ln spiteof his having criminalrecord, wasonly givena warning. FACT the crime rateis actuallydropping. 4 Atthoughpeoplefeel lesssafe, HOWEVER Masonwasneverarrested. 5 Despitebeinga suspect,

Writing

5klls

Unit

15

93

13

ffi Wn RM -uP@

ry

Shopping

Lookat the pictures. pairs, andanswer following In ask the questions. r Would you liketo be a shopassistant? Why/Why not? r What haveyou boughtin the pastmonth? r Haveyou everboughtanything second-hand?

DeveloP YouR wRrrrNG sKTLLS(/// /


|.

W & * f * r s f * 3 rf * r f
Matchthe abbreviations with their uses I-5 a-e. I 2 3 4 5 a b c d e e.8. i.e. a.m. P.m. etc. the time is before12noon a Iist is not complete the time is after 12noon to introducean example to introducemore detail

fi*rrn*f *r ruf*'r** fI
Are the abbreviations usually formal or informa[? Writethe abbreviations l-5 on the appropriate lines. a Whichabbreviation usually is used in formalwriting? b Whichtwo abbreviations are usually usedin informal writing? c Whichtwo abbreviations be can usedin formaland informal writing?

w
94

W&mf *rs f&*y rsf fsdf


Matchthe punctuation symbolsin the box with their names below. A. B, C; D:.. E? - F! semi-colon questionmark apostrophe comma exclamation mark .G" 6 7 I 9 10 Hl)' dash full stop invertedcommas hyphen colon

I 2 3 4 5

Sfudy f&e , 'no de f


Lookat modelcomposition on page108.Circleone example 16 of: 1 a colon 2 an apostrophe 3 a semi-colon 4 a dash 5 a hyphen 6 invertedcommas

fnue sr f,ofse?
Are thesestatements true or false? Write T for Trueand F for False. about punctuation I 2 3 4 5 6 Exclamation marksshouldonly be usedin informalwriting. You can connecttwo sentences aboutthe samesubjectusinga comma. Indirect questions needquestion marks the end. at We neverput <'>arounddirectspeech English. in Colons andsemi-colons unusuaI informal are in writing. 'who','which'and Youshouldalways a commabeforerelative put with clauses 'where'. 'that'. 7 Youcannotput a commabeforerelative clauses with whether use'...' "..." directspeech, you shouldbe to or for but I Youcanchoose consistent within a pieceof writing.

Carrecf fh e pu ncf u a t on
Each thesesentences at leastone punctuation has mistake. of Circlethe mistakes and rewritethe sentences correctly. 1 <Where you get that hat?"askedLinda. did 2 Simonsaidhed meet us outsidethe supermarket three o clock. at 3 | boughta nicetop lastweek,it wasreallycheap. 4 'l think iti pricetag hascome off. How much is it?'

centre- - it washuge! 5 We went to that new shopping Gift and Souvenir 6 Subject; Shopsin Bournemouth quicklyoffer convenience Corner shops whichsadlyaredisappearing anda sense community, of whichis irreplaceable! 8 The shopassistant askedif he could help me? 9 'lts actuallyhalf priceat the moment Madam]' saidthe salesperson.

10 The recordstore.that I went to. had a saleon.

Unit

16

95

1.,i

-x ffi

:'i

',:

ffimwm**p Yffi#ffi wffi*ru#ffiKsLLffi


&ewrf*s f&s rcP*rf"
below' answer Readthe report questionand a student's letters, capitalizeappropriate in your notebook. the'report Rewrite mistakes. and the punctuate sentences correctthe 10 spelling wantsto makethe shop more You havea parl-timejob in a toyshop.The manager popular with teenagers and has asked you to write a report making Some recommendations. Write a report for your manager.

to from subiect date

mr williams s a s h as p e n c e r t t t a t r a c t i n ge e n a g e r so t e d d i n g t o n o y s 2 5 t hj a n u a r Y

introduction o t i a s r e q e s t e d h a v e l o o k e da t w a y s t o i n c r e s e h e p o p u l a r i t y f areoutlined m t t e d d i n g t o no y s w i t h t e e n a g e r s y r e c o m e n d a t i o n s below range of Products s t h e v a s t m a j o r i t yo f t o y s a n d g a m e sc u r e n t l y o l d a r e f o r c h i l d r e n m u c h m o r e l i k l e yt o v i s i t w u n d e rt h e a g e o f t e n t e e n a g e r s o u l d b e t s h o p i f i t s o l d c o m p u t e rg a m e ss o m e s p o r t se q u i p t m e n a n d the quiz b o r e dg a m e ss u c ha s m i l l e n n i u m advertising t a s t e d d i n g t o n o y s i s n o t i n t h e h i g h s t r e e ty o u m a y w a n t t o c o n s i d e r o y f a a d v e r l i s i n g n y n e w p r o d u c t s o u i n t r o d u s eo r t e e n a g e r s n e o p l a c es h o r ta d v e f t i s m e n to n l o c a lt e l e v i s i o n r r a d i o s p o s s i b i l i t ys t o i local a p y o u m a y a l s ow i s h t o c o n s i d e r u t t i n gu p p o s t e r s r o u n d schools conclusion t t i n c o n c l u s i o ne d d i n g t o n o y s c o u l d b e c o m em u c h m o r e p o p u l a r f i w i t h t e e n a g e r sf i t o f f e r e da r a n g eo f p r o d u c t s o r t h e m h o w e v e r to also needsto be advertised inform teenagersin the this range local area about it

...;.,' ,..d= *' ...;,*

ffi\
W FHf; Read you{ P:riier 5 \^,'rtt-rttg )' correctly? the Have with repbrts yourpartner. theypunctuated report Sfi,$ Swap
mistakes? Oid ihey do it differentlyto you?Havethey correctedall the spelling

96

t CovPostrtoN

DEVELoPMENT@

__l

that questionand do the exercises fotlow. Readthis composition You are working in a local tourist office. You have to write a report for your manager comparingtwo very differentshoppingcentresin your area.Say what each centreis like, compare their facilitiesand comment on their particulargood or bad points as tourist attractions. Writeyour report.

Branstarming
your imagination. using questions the Answer following 1 2 3 4 the nameof your manager? What's centre? the nameof the first shopping What's large, etc) old-fashioned, What is it like?(modern, etc) gift cafs, provide? (chain stores, shops, What kind of facilitiesdoesit

Why? 5 How popularis it with tourists? centre? the nameof the secondshopping 6 What's it must be very differentfrom the first one. 7 What is it like?Remember doesit provide? 8 What kind of facitities Why? 9 How popularis it with tourists? or better for tourists, do they both attractdifferent centres l0 ls one of the shopping kindsof tourists? Yes fl Do you needto makeany recommendations? / No

Thnk about pu nct ust ion


Here is an introduction to a similar report. Punctuateit correctly. as requestedi have compared the daverton centre and lakesidemill both within 10 km of sharpville in terms of their popularity as tourist attractionsmy findings are presentedbelow

Think abou t sp el l ng
you Hereare somewordsand phrases may wishto usein your report. them correctly. Rewrite mistake. Theyeachcontaina spelling I 2 3 4 facillities souveneers resterants coachpartys 5 6 7 I rageof products hand-maid arts and craphts bitding

Writng

Skills

Unit

t6

97

xffi
plan the Comptete fo[lowingParagraph noteson making for your composition, what you aregoingto inctudein each paragraph.

Wd*r#psrfsrf
F/cn .y#ur pr#gruPils
and Readthesesentences then usethe wordsin betow. the sentences bold to complete I'm afraidwe don't haveanyjeansyour size in stock at the moment.We shouldhavesome though. by next Friday, houseis for sa[e.How much is he I seeEd's it seIting for? in avaitable the sale' Engtish,'on means ln British it English means whereasin American shops at avaitable a reduced Price. a Dawsoniare having saleat the moment. ha[f Everything's price. Theydidn't havethe laptop I wantedin the shop,so I hadto order it. TheysaidI coutdpick it up in a coupleof weeks. Youget free deliveryfor a[[ goodspurchased ,|00. over askedme if I wantedto try The shopassistant room. the changing the top on in A department store is a largeshopwith lots of thingssuchas setling differentdepartments etc. apptiances, electrical clothes, in is a shopwhich hasbranches A chainstore lots of townsand cities. I boughtthis jumperherelastweek but it'stoo one? it Could| (ex]change for a bigger smalt. saidI coutdn't The assistant without a receiPt. the tracksuit 'New be Worldof Knowtedge'wi[[ todaY. in newsagent's 3 lt cost forty-fivequid,but I hadto pay another tennerfor ln is 4 Harrods a famous there! Theysell everything London. queueup of 5 Thousands bargain-hunters waitingfor the openingof the overnight
L]

YepYtplatn
t!1ttla.l

{o:
Fvopr:

iil$orr"{1fioq

Su\ojecf: Dtfe:
Fairargvarph I

Heating:

?avagvotphZ

Hearitrg:

3 Parratgvatph

Fleaiug:

4 Parva,g'ra,Ph

Heaing:

N*rngw*,u&
Now write your rePort. WhenYou have this checklist. Read written your report,tick the boxes. r I havewritten a report and not a letter. I I haveusedformal language. : My paragraphs haveheadings. t mY I havechecked Punctuation carefulty. my I havechecked sPelling carefully. my I havechecked trammar carefulty.

L_l

Harrods January the CD rom I 6 lhadto wantedasthey didn't haveit . lt'[ come next week. 7 | couldn'tbelieveit when I went into the . Therewere no mirrors! 5 suite. Yrsold. 3-Piece 8 -. Candetiver. V. Beige. G. condition. is 9 Dixon's a we[l-resPected branches with over seventy-five

98

Exnu

PRAcrlcE -

R'ponr

ffxsmkn*r,v-fo*tv
. when you are mistakes and spelling punctuation lt'svery easyto makeSrammar, very checkyour w.ork writing, finished Whenyou have writingquicklyin the exam. you better impression will makethe you make, The carefu'ily. fewersilly mistakes you willget! andthe moremarks

style. Eachof thesereportsshouldbe writtenin 120-180words in an appropriate penfriend: from an English 1 This is part of a letteryou received We'redoing a project at schoolon how young peoptein differentcountriesspend their could you write me a shortreport on your countryto includein the money. Please project? Couldyou write about how much moneyyoung people have,wherethey get spend it on? it from, and what they generally in can Writea reportwhichyour penfriend include the project. has askedyou to write Yourmanager organisation. for 2 you work part-time a consumer whichsell books,videosand CDs.Say websites internet a reporton two very different on and comment their and prices, theirproducts is website like,compare whateach pointsfor internet shoppers. good or bad particular Writeyour report for your manager.

foc;s Grsmrym?ffr

a Small shopshave a friendlier atmospherethan large shops. b tf you wait a long time, electricalgoods usually becomecheaper. We ean rewrite tt'lese: a Thesmaller the shop,the friendlier the otmosphere. b The longeryou wait, the cheaperelectricalgoods become. wil[ e,*nstr.ction lrnpressthe people marking your eompasltlEns, This gnamnnatiea{ It ean be used in both formal and informal writir*g. construetion. usingthe sarneSramffaticatr Write one word ir eaehgap ts eomp{etetl"efoliowir*g seRt*nces lf you pay more,you get better quality. quatitY you Pay, the The Youget. qualitY. you Pay,the or: The quickty. are Customers happierwhen they'reserved they are. the are customers served, The the customersare served, or, more formally: The more are sales higher, 3 When pricesare cheap, the The Prices, throughadvertising. becomewell-known 4 Products a product is,the --The more

they are.

sates.

it becomes.

Writing

Skilts

Unit

to

99

'*******-***i Mopel coMpostrtoN

1: lNronvlAL

LETTER

friend: from an English Thisis part of a letter you received tsy fhe wary,irryou" larslleffev yorasari you \xeve goinglobuy eifhev a,viAeo c^w\ev* r"lhich A\A youbuy, artA why? l'l love fo heav rll aboul if. oy d, g^w\es r^.rrchi\e. Do details. not write any addresses. and your friend! questions givingrelevant Write your letter, answering DearlsabeIte, with Debbie. a Thanks lot for your last letter.l'm realtygtadyou'vemadefriendsagain It'sawfuIwhen you havea fight with your bestfriend,isn'tit? wasa verytricky or whetherto tet a video camera a tamesmachine deciding Yeah, I lf decision. onty I had enoughmoneyto get both! Anyway, finattydecidedthat a video but I think he wasrightl) my wasmore fun. (Wett, dad decided, camera than the others The cameraI got is reallycoot,and it wasactuallyquite a bit cheaper lt's I lookedat (so I'vestitl got somemoneyfor when you come over in the summer!). not a just fitmed. whereyou can seewhat you've digitalone,but it'sgot this greatlittle screen to The problemis,though,that my dad lovesit too, so I don't get muchof a chance useit! I'd Anyway, bettergo now as I'vegot to studyfor a historytest tomorrow (unfortunately!). Write backsoonl
LOVe,

AnY Mooel coMPostrtoN 2: Anrlcle


for waysin whichtelevision youngpeople has magazine invitedyou to suggest Yourcollege givingyour suggestions. Write an article for the magazine, coutd be improvedin your country.

ls there anythngon the other side?


lf on the Are you tired of seeing sameold rubbish your TV screens? so,you'renot alone.Many and aimedat them in this countryare old-fashioned youngpeoplethink that the programmes So boring. what shouldbe done about it? Interviews so Firstof a[[,youngpeoplelove music, why not giveus more musicprogrammes? woutd both go down wetI with of and stars(not yesterday's!) reviews concerts with today's by coutdevenbe presented youngpeoplewho know something The programmes teenaters. a b o u tm u s i c . Youngpeoplecare forgetabout us teenaSers. Newsis anotherareawhereprogramme-makers but they aregrowingup in.Theywant to know more about what'shappening aboutthe world Woutdn'tit be better if there wasa or confusing. uninteresting find most newsprogrammes the showthat explained newsin waysthat we coutd understand? We in producers needto think aboutteenagers new ways. don't just want more soap Television youngpeopletalkingaboutthe things Let'shaveshowsmadeby dramas. operas and American we careabout.

tnn

Mooel

coMpostrtoN

3: lruronMAl TRANsAcTtoNAL LETTER

A friend of yoursis planning visityou with their family.Theywitt be cetebrating to their birthday while they are with you.Youthink a special mealmight be a good way to celebrate. You have seenthe followingadvertisement a restaurant contacted for and the manager more details, for making the notesbelow. Read the advertisement the notescarefulty. and Thenwrite a letter to your friendgivingthe necessary information aboutthe restaurant asking and them if they want to book a table.

Rose Gardens

Restaurant

. Luxurymealsat affordable prices. o O u t d o o s e a t i n gn g a r d e n u r i n g u m m e rm o n t h s . r i d s . S p e c i a l i s c o u n tfs r f a m i l y r o u p s . g d o Gontact us on O671 33453 for further details.

rvli\rb\ rnV \t

\01

li"J"'*'* .l-;"n"""^'j.".
o'n'Jth'

,l

DearCaroline, *Yl*0, r,utoSt" \.v Hi! How arethings? Haveyou got your ticketsyet? | can'twait to see e\??Yor' you next Wednesday. Have you packedeverything? I wasthinkingaboutyour birthdayon Friday 7th. (No, I haven't the forgotten!) What do you think aboutgoingto the RoseGardens? ages lt's sincewe went out togethe and I think your mum and dad would probabty tikeit. I calledthe restaurant the manateress and told me they'refu[[ on the 7th, but they've got tablesfree on Saturday. That might be better because they havelive musicat the weekends. Shame not the summeror we could sit outsidein the garden. it's Theysaidit would be about twenty-fiveeurosper person, we'd geta10% but discountbecause there are six of us.I'm sureyour dad'lItikethatl Yoursisterwilt be okay,too, because they do vegetarian meals. Let me know if I shoutdbook it. Got to to now Mum is ca[[ing for dinner. me Only ten daysuntiI you come! Love, Jqrre

,':;.;"-'-"^t ht^^
_ "9"t -"' ^v vY*ls
-oe\Ved ru*

Moont- coMposlroN 4: RepoRr


You work for the [oca[tourist office.Yourmanaterhasasked you to write a report on the facilitiesin your town for film-goers. Describe currentfacilities the and suggest waysin which they might be improved attractmore visitors the area. to to Write your report.

To: Ms Davies From:VincePorter Re: Facilities film-eoers for Date: l8th March Introduction As requested,haveprepared report on cinemas the area. I a in Generally, facitities good,although the are there are waysin whichthey could be improved. MegaplexCinema With ten screens, Megaplex a moderncinemaon the the is outskirtsof town. They haveall the major fitms first ano use the latestequipment. The only criticismI haveis that the bus service the areais unreliable. to

Lido Cinema The Lido is a smalloutdoor cinema. Instead showing of rne tatestreleases, they concentrateon classic films. lt is very popularwith students. Localpeopleoccasiona{[y complain aboutthe noise. Rialto Cinema Bigger than the Lido,the Rialtois currently facingprobtems. Most peoplevisitthe Megaplex and the Rialtocannotaffordto replace equipment. will probably its lt closein the nearfuture. Conclusion Our town hassomeexcellent facilities film lovers, for although one cinemais aboutto disappear. better busservice the A to Megaplex Cinema would be an mprovement.

Moorl

coMPosrrroN 5: SHonr sronY

You havedecidedto entera short story competition. The competitionrulessaythat the story must beginwith the fo[lowingwords: AsJohngot off the troin, he couldn'tbelievehow cold it wos Write your story for the competition.

trip John's
AsJohngot off the train,he couldn'tbelieve how cold it was.He quicklyput on his warm hat and gloves and walkedcarefully the snow He lookedaroundexcitedty in and sawhis UncleBi[[at the end of the platform. With him wereJohni cousins, Alex and Tony. The train left the stationandJohncameup to his relatives. hadn'tseenhis uncle He for a longtime, but he hadn'tchanged. wassti[[ short and fat, with a round,bald head. He They a[[ saidhello nervously and then they laughed and kissed eachother.The boysstartedtatking loudlyand began watktowardsthe car. to 'Where areyour bags, askedUncleBi[[, suddenly. John?' Johnstopped. 'Oh 'They're no,'he cried,sadly. on the train!'Theyalt looked.In the distance, train was the slowlydisappearing. felt so foolish. John 'lt's UncteBit[quicklyfound a guardand spoketo him.He camebacka secondlater. 'They okayi he exptained. aretoint to sendthem backfrom the next station.'They smited a[[ andJohnknew it wasgoingto be a greatholiday, after a[[.

Mooel coMPosrrroN 6: Snonr sroRY


You havedecidedto entera short story competition. The competitionrulessaythat the story must beginwith the foItowing words: I was alone on o dark road. Suddenly,I saw bright lights in the distance. Write your story.

Savedby a Star
I wasatoneon a dark road.Suddenly, sawbright lightsin the distance. wasa car.'Thank I lt 'Maybe goodness,' I thouSht. they'llgiveme a [ift.' I'd beenwalking hours. for That evening, beento a concert.My favourite ld singeAngusMcDuffy, had sunga[[ his hits to a crowdof over2,000 people.lt wasfantastic, on the way home my but motorbikehad brokendown.I teft it by the sideof the road and decidedto walk home. Unfortunately, wasoverthirty kilometres, not one car passed on the road.UntiI this it and me one. It spedpast me. I wavedand shouted. sloweddown,and then reversed, lt backto whereI was s t a n d i n g t w a sa b l a c kl i m o u s i n e . l. A blackelectricwindowslowlycamedown.'CanI hetp?' saida voicefrom inside. explained I 'Get the situation. in. We'llgiveyou a Iift.' I couldn'tbelieve when I got in the car.lt wasAngusMcDuffy! | told him how much l'd it enjoyed the concert,and hischauffeur droppedme right outsidemy front door.I had beensaved by a star.

i"._."-._--"."" 10 2

Mooel

coMpostrtoN

7: Lerren oF APPLcATloN

in You havejust seenthe followingadvertisement your local newspaper:

Do Write your letter of applicationto Mrs Green. not write any addresses. DearMrs Green, which I sawin the'Daily News' to I am writingin response your advertisement, for in applying this position. I yesterday.would be very interested Mathsat WarwickUniversity. currentlystudying year-oldstudent, I am a nineteen who I regularly and sisters, brothers I I love beingwith children. havethree younger swimming, are look after when my parents at work.Theyalsolove sportsand games basketball, - and I would be very happyto organise for similaractivities your children. tennis,hide-and-seek in FirstCertificate an very well. I wasawarded A gradein the Cambridge I speakEnglish last English examination year. if I would be very gratefuI you could let me know what the rateof pay per hour to would be,and which hoursduringthe summerI would be expected work. I could be free ofJune untiIthe end of September. from the beginning everyday if necessary, please do or any further information, wish me to attendan interview, lf you require not hesitateto let me know. Yourssincerely, HelenTaylor

Mooel coMPostrtoN 8: l\Rrlcle


for magazine youngpeople: in You havejust seenthe followingannouncement an international weatherconditions? in Haveyou everbeencaught extremeor unusual -low Cidyou feel? haPpenedi we'dlove Lo ^ear abouryour expe'ience,Wral lf you have, issue. in will on of A seection the bestarticles this sublect be pubished ne*t month's Write your article.

Caughtin a Snowstorm
| Haveyou ever been caughtin a snowstorm? have, of experience my [ife. and it wasthe most frightening on I was with a group of classmates an adventure the in Wales.The plan was to climb Snowdon, hotiday in Wales, and be backat the campin time tal[estmountain to thingsdidnt 5o according plan. for tea. Unfortunatety, we set out. But as we got The sun was shiningas higher, it started to snow. Our guides - professional climbers- told us not to worry.Up and up we went, and we Before[ong, werein the middleof the snowgot heavier. The a btizzard! snowwasso strongthat I couldnt evensee And beginning the personin front of me.We wereterrified. to freeze! Our guidestold us to jump up and down to keep passed. was lt warm.We had to wait until the snowstorm we the longestand coldestfour hoursof my [ife.Fina[[y, were able to make our way down the mountain- tired, but scared, very gladto be alive.

Writing

Skills

Model

compastions

10 3

Mooel

coMpostroN

9: lruronMAL LETTER

would like to cook you and your family are planning visit your penfriend England. Yourpenfriend in to you you for any adviceand suggestions have. you and hasasked mealto wetcome a special usefulsuggestions. adviceand making givingsuitable Write a letter to your penfriend, Will, Dearv

.haks Qo' yora"lrsf lefler. lf wats wariling lor r^rewhet I gof hor.re *'o'r school o (v\)'ay' Gve^f hews albotaf yotar exrrrs! LePs hoe ^y vesqlts \Ye^s gooA atsy ouvs' ohe ^ye r^,rorlhanl we'll be fhe"e wifh youl I carr'l believe if's "eally haggetirg. We'"e wrif lookirgQorwrr/fofhisfvi, ov),wryQarv.,rilycartr'f for'reef yota.fheyfhitkif woql/\ee arll i* yor,,cooVeAa'^/.eal *o' (^56,1fhe Qivsf nighl. ny a,Av\ce woql be fo Lee if sirrle. Yora grearf on'l wrqt lo sgen a,ll ),ary cookirrg rt^/ fhetl rrof be rble fo telrx. My sistev's ar vegefarviaur,br^f she sai/ she'll be hary w-rfh salr/s. fi G"eeV srltwifh orriosrn/ Qefrcheese woul be greart )ora coql 4lso o sonething frarlifiolarlly fowrarloes, soq\sqt^ife Etrglish.Whafrboqfshepher/'s g\e7|V,eavAa\eoqfif iraurEtrgl-tshlessourrif tice. l'll fry arrryfhirrg otrce - ,tlfhohgh l'r'r rrof ar \rig atr oQlive Yukl Gol lo go - v'ty )'a,A's carlling ne. Dour'fwotk loo V,avA. fll r^rylove, St,re

Mooel

coMposTtoN 1O: FonvlAL TRANSAcTIoNAL LETTER

You havedecidedto write to provided. you recentlyvisitedyour localsportscentreand were dissatisfied with the service the manater. for readthis advertisement the sportscentreand the notesyou havemade.Write a letter to the manager' Carefully improvements. and suggesting you received aboutthe service comp[aining

OldburySportsGentre
iAq'f kow arrylhitg alpout sqqash

rof winsrar*ing

yoursportscentre offers Now in its thirdyear. gYm r a fully-equiPPed staff r professional pool a swimming tenniscourts r full-size in r lessons manyspods on So, get yourtrainers and comeon down. yourbackstroke losea or you Whether wantto practise is SportsCentre the placeto be! Oldbury few pounds,

exgeursive shoql/ be

D e a rS i r l M a d a m , I am writing following a recent visit to the Otdbury Sports Centre.I would like to expressmy I with the service received. disappointment of the members staff seemedto lack basicsports polite and hetpfut, Atthoughthey were general[y you I racket. suSSest send a None of them could offer any adviceto me on choosing squash knowledge. trainingcourses. your employees suitable on need that repairs pool wasclosed.I understand for Anothercause complaintwasthat the swimming did day beforemy visit,the recePtionist not the for when I catted information to be carriedout. However, lf mentionthat the Doo[wasclosed. I had known,I would havevisitedthe sportscentreat anothertime. The in Finatty, offeringlessons differentsportsis a good idea,but I found them to be very expensive. was not that windsurfing pricesshouldbe lower,and more sportsshouldbe offered.I wasdisappointed availabte. I hope you wi[[ take thesepointsinto consideration. from you. | look forwardto hearing Yoursfaithfully,
l'htltP Y145

104

M o o e - co M p o srrro N 1 1 : D rs cu Rsr vEcoM postr toN


you to write Yourteacherhasasked education. You havebeendoinga classprojecton changing givingyour opinions the fo[lowingstatement: on a composition Standardsof education today are lower than in the past. Write your composition. teachers, who were at school.Firstly, A greatdeal haschanged sinceour grandparents schools are havea 6reateffect on standards, bettertrainedthan in the past.Secondly, of Thereis no doubt that standards education havemore moneyand betterequipment. risen. have more today. Being more understanding, teachers ableto help students are more and so learn that students enjoytheir education Theyare lessstrict,which means than in the past. havemore qualifications are better educated and more.In addtion, teachers Schools, but better educated, they alsowork in betterschoots. Not only areteachers generally, managed are betterand havemore moneyto spendon thingssuchas booksand lf offer or computers. Someare ableto providemusiclessons dramalessons. schools it standards. more opportunities learn, raises to students of are In summary, there is no truth in the claimthat standards education lowerthan in the a that students today receive past.Teachers schools haveboth improved, which means and did. better education than their grandparents

Moorl

coMposrrroN 12: Letr.ERoF AppLrcATloN

just readthe fo[lowingadvertisement: You have

Write your letter of application. DearMs Turner. which I readin the for I am writingin response your advertisement tour guides, to 'Reporter'on f d l l t h . , l u n ew o u l d I i k et o a p p L yo r o n e o f t h e a d v e r t i s ep o s i t i o n s . l. the opportunity inform to I am very interested modernart and would welcome in I workedin a [oca[museum, you canseefrom my as visitors the galtery.havepreviously to has to C.V. Director, MrJones, kindlyagreed provideme with a attached The Museum with this letter. reference. which I haveenclosed qualities qualifications necessary this position for I alsobelieve havethe personal I and how importantit is to be welI dressed.speak I lenjoy meeting pubticand understand the in Engtsh passed Cambridge First Certifcate French my first language recently as and the examination with an A grade. to you require furtherinformation, any ptease not hesitate contactme. I am do Should for at available interview your convenience. from you. | look forwardto hearing Yours sincerely, PathlBishop

Writng

Skills

Model

compositions

10s

MOpeu

COMpOSITION 13: FOnVIAL TRANSACTIONAL LETTER

You are interested you havejust reada columnin a [oca[newspaper about crime in your area. You disagree you haverecentlydone a projecton crimeas part of your studies. in this subjectas columnist. o withthe opinions f the Read the columnbelow,togetherwith the notesyou havemadeandthe information the presenting factsand giving Thenwrite to the editor of the newspaper from your project. y o u ro p i n i o n .

Fear

the voce of reason et's face t We ust do't ve a tY safeareaanylfore Ourccmmun s crirerdde ad out oi cctro, iaf ts wth rhe crme ratenjgne[ l.lol everbee, Ad rost cf the crme

MvnSoNowcnrvbo

viclent crime980/o

a 6
.I

the:e da: s r oi't Whe w I ihe counc do solel ng aDout

tl're theyadmi tnat scrapping It?Whe r,vll oreveto prog[artfe ast yearw cl-.re ot a sesibeidea? It'st me to te tl'em whatwe th K ol ten.l t's t me to te themthal\iewo't lve in iear anyrfore

a 20years go

10 yearsago

crime non-violent
ht tralnrv J13-'/L ?o/^

programme crimeprevention
OUOOEI

fraud2% shoplifting4% car theft65% other26%

last vear: t3,000 this year: t4,500

i Writ" a letter of between120and DearEditor,

.l80 style.Do not write any addresses. wordsin an appropriate

Mr 24thJune). Newcombe to I am writingin response MungoNewcombe!column('Feai, 'crime-ridden' 'out of control'. recentty carriedout a project Having and our describes areaas with Mr Newcombeiopinions. strongly on crime,I disagree Thisis simplynot true. ln that the crime rate is higherthan everbefore. Firstly, states he the he Secondty, describes crimesthat are for fact, it hasbeenfa[[ingsteadily the pastten years. 'violent'. makes only two percentof a[[ crimes up The truth is that viotentcrime committedas this unpleasant is,it rarelyinvolves car The majorityof crimesinvotve theft. However committed. to violence other people. He the crime prevention. accuses locaIcounciIof scrapping alsomentions Mr Newcombe this the Thisis untrue.Indeed, counciIbudgetfor crime prevention programme. the crime prevention yearwasfifty percentmorethan lastyear. beforehe writesagain his checks factscarefu[[y that Mr Newcombe suggest I would strongly doesnot benefitour [oca[communityat a[[. Makingpeoplefeel afraidfor no reason on this subject. Yours,

vJer/y tsishop

106

Moprl

coMposrrroN

14: luroRMAL TRANSAcTIoNAL LETTER

adviceon in A friend of yourswho is currentlystudying Britainhaswritten to you asking letter,the advertisement readthe extractfrom your friend's which computerto buy.Carefu[[y your recommendation. and the notesyou havemade.Thenwrite a letter to your friend making atboraf while l'r^rere, so l'r^'r th-rrrkirrg geffirrg ar ktrow,l've gol fo wrile lots o{ essarys As your
cor.rtrfer. )ora Lurow a lol r^rore arbor,rt corrqfe"s fha rae, so I fhoqghf l'A gel yorar ogirriorr livsf. l've hayyrNe lhe choice Aowt fo the fwo i\ fhe 4verf. Which one Ao yora fhink I

shoul/ bury?

Special offersthis month:


. Compar3500- laptop
word processing software ' includes canying-case
more useful v. portable

+ free prnter

need

these

for

'l4" monitor mouse free scanner includes free games 10

. HSD-X2000

nn

r^rnrrl

f^aqqr

<------internetconnection 6 months

----l

| |

o be rn ""'"uX-i'JY t3 monrhs t""'

^ - r- , "

^^r^^

.|20 style. and 180wordsin an appropriate Write a letter of between Do not write anv addresses.

Dea, ?eler, a, gled' yott've harvirrg gooA fht\ks Por yora"leller. Cawrbv\Age soq\/s gealt. l'u,r "eatlly firre. We rll,,issyou,he"e - kelly r\ D4hiel saryhi, by fhe waryl sot^\s rVry gooA \Aea,. Bofh oQfhe cor'rgrafersin fhe Yearh,brayirrgar cotnrgrafev jS00. ll's r u,rqchbe*ev \Aeat aAvevl looVgooA, bhf l' saryyor^shoql/ gel lhe Cowtpet - you wo'f hrve arrrygrobleuns bvingirrg geffirg atlaTlog,tsif's so easy lo cayry alrohhA if brck lo Gveece wher yoracovqeba.cV. il yora'lleQirrifely \\eeA o\ wor/. gvocessov frlso,i you're goirrgfo be rasirrg ov essarys, - fhe HSD-X2000Aoesr\'l have eifher o fher^.r.)orr'l harve lo gay exlvr {o* arr gvirtev ohly goi\g fo be lher^.r. fhe irrfer\ef cohqecfioq looVsgoo),,orr'f Porgef yorr,'re flrr/, atlfhourgh irr fhe Uk Qorfhvee ,ronlhs/so yot^ /our'f rearlly neeA\1, ),o you?. which oe you AeciAe lo gel. Hargpy fhaf's whaf I fhihk. Lel uure kurow shoggirrgl Arrywaty, (bqf qof foo haAl) ^\A see yq s\. So, farLe crr"e, work hrvl

Byel

Er^rwrr

i , _ " , " , " , . . , . - . _ - . , . . . . , . , . - . . , . . " .-.,,. . . , -

\A/ririno

' ,,

5k

ills

Model

compositions

107

M o o e u c o MP o sl rl o N 1 5 : D t s c u R S l v E c o M P o s l r l o N
you to write Yourteacherhasasked projecton the environment. You havebeendoinga ctass aboutthe followingstatement: a composition Everybodycan help to Protect the environment' clearly' your reasons explaining with this statement, or you shouldstatewhetheryou agree disagree Write your comPosition. the Mankindhascaused world's is Thereis no doubt that the environment in danger. do problems' and only man can solvethem' But can we' as individuals' environmental to anything helP? can and that only Sovernments businesses solve' probtems Thereare manyenvironmental and cars' of one of the causes gtobatwarmingis pollutionfrom factories Forexampte, their po[[ution' for to factories take responsibility reducing must persuade Governments fumes' exhaust to and car manufacturers producecarswhich do not giveout damaging our used we can there arethingsthat individuals do. Firstly, can recycte Nevertheless, wi[[ not haveto produceso much'As a resutt' lf and paper. we do this,factories plastic, glass Thiswitt we secondly, can useour carsas littte as possibte' there will be lesspotlution. and issues, put about environmentaI awareness we Finat[y, can raise alsoreducepoltution. to and businesses act responsibly' pressure tovernments on However' the has one ln conclusion, individual Iittle effect on Protectng environment' we if we work together, can a[[ makethe world a cleanerplace'

M o o E t - c o M P o sl ro N 1 6 : R e P o n r
comParlnt you are workingin a [oca[tourist office.You haveto write a report for your manaSer their is [ike,compare Saywhat eachcentre in two differentheatthand fitnesscentres your area. to your area' good or bad pointsfor visitors and commenton their particular facitities

Walker To: Denise

Futterton Heather From:


GYm Re: DavertonSPaand Rourke's Date: l9th November lntroduction Gym I As requested, havecomparedDavertonSpaand Rourke's for - both in the town centre- in termsof their suitability below' are My to visitors the area. findings presented Daverton SPa Atthough DavertonSpaprovidesa wide rangeof health and fee' is the facitities, majordrawback the membership fitness membership are Visitors not permittedto join for short periods; basis. is only on an annual

Rourke'sGym and Rourke!Gym is ratherold-fashioned, Built in the 1950s, the tym does However, welcoming. doesnot feel particularly aerobics for offer facitities a full workout,plustwice-weekly 'Daily RateScheme' well as an as a The classes. gym offers fee. membershiP annual Conclusion of because for suitable visitors Spais not particularly Daverton to fee. membership We may wishto suS8est them its annual that they changetheir poticy and also offer a daily rate Rourkel Gym is not very modern,but it does havea daity rate for visitors.

108

Userul Pnnasr Rereneruce


Formal letter SreetrnS reason writing for questions asking referring their letter,/points to closing expressions nameunknown: Dear Sir / Madam, nameknown:Dear Mr .../ Dear Mrs.,. / Dear Ms .,.+ surname, I am writing to ... I am writing with regardto ... I wonder if you could ... I am writing on behalf of ... Could you .'.?

I would be grateful if ...

As you stated in your letter,...

Regarding... Concerning... With regardto... /

lf you require any further information, pleasedo not hesitate to contact me. I look forward to hearingfrom you. if Dear+ name:Yours sincerely, if DearSir ,/ Madam:Yoursfaithfully' Yours, Dear+ nameor DearSir./ Madam: your first name+ surname

off signing

name

lnformal letter
prtrt np

Dear+ first name, Hi! How are things? Great news about... How are you? How's it going? Sorry to hear about... Oh, and another thing.

aboutthem askinB referring their news to grvrng news making suggestions ctosing expressions off siSning name

Glad to hear that -.

Listen,did I tell you about...

You'll never believe what ... How about...? Say hello to ,..

Why don't you ..,? Maybe you could ... Well, got to go now. Love, Lots of love, Give my love to ... Yours,

Seeyou soon!

your first name

Letter of application

Sreetrns
reason writing for

nameunknown: DearSir./ Madam, name known:Dear Mr ,.. / Dear Mrs... / Dear Ms ...+ surname, I am writing to apply for the post/position of ... I gainedsomeexperience while ... ...as advertised in ...

I am writing with referenceto your advertisement,which I saw ... your experence C.V ctosing expressions My qualifications include... I am currently ... Pleasefind attached my C.V. As you can see from the attached C.V.,... Pleasedo not hesitate to contact me iflshould you require further information. I am availablefor interview at your convenience. I look forward to hearingfrom you. signing off if Dear+ name:Yourssincerely, if DearSir ./ Madam:Yoursfaithfully, Yours. Dear+ nameor DearSir./ Madam: name your first name+ surname

Report initialinformation
headings

To:

From:

Subiect:or Re: Conclusion

Date: Recommendation Havingvisited / spoken to

lntroduction

introduction presentjng findings/ opinion recommending

As requested,...

This involved visiting / speakingto ...

My findints are outlined/presented below. phrases composition below) lseedrscursrve Havingconsideredthe options, ... I therefore sugSest recommend ... / I would like to suggest/ recommend ... You may wish to consider ...

time phrases devices dramatic


i" r .! f! ! u <v a! ,a h J ! !

It all began...

lt was one of those days when "' At first, "' ... In the end,... All of a sudden,..' Just at that moment, ...

speech verbswith direct/ indirect concluding It had all been ... After everything that had happened,"'

Discursive of the introducing first Pointin a List polnts a introducing furtherpoint in a Iist of points Third(ly),... Moreover, ... Furthermore' ." Another from that. ... Also... First,... Firstly,... First of all, ... To start with, "' To begin with"" In addition,... to be made is that ...

af i n L r o d u c i n qi n a lp o i n ti n a i s t o f p o i n t s roSether ...not onlv... but ... also... presenting (dis)advantages two On the other hand, ... On the one hand, -. p tg D r e s e n t i n w o o p p o s i n g o i r f so f v t e w results exoressinR contrast expressing e eivine xamptes your expressing oPinion oPlnlon etses someone exoressnR a introducing concIusion conctusion

of ... Because this, Forthis reason,


however but although though nevertheless In contrast to this,... for instance such as for e In my opinion ... Some As I see it, ... As far as I'm concerned,... believe

lffgg!!r-,'.
even though like

Therefore.... Thus,... in spite of despite

To my mind, "'

I believe (that) "' It is said

In my vieq ...

Article
the engaRing reader suggestions making e eiving xamples opinion expressing Have ever...? Do ... As I see it,... In my vieq... Let's /nstance... To mY mind, ... I believe (that) ... As far as I'm concerned,... find that...? Are one of those of ...? not...? Have

110

Fonvrll-

AND INFoRMAL LANGUAGE


A more informalstyle is appropriatefor: . an artictefor your schooImagazine . a letterto a friend in . directspeech a story

A more formal style is appropriatefor: for composition your teacher . a discursive or o a reportfor your manaSer emptoyer you do not know personally . a letterto somebody . a story,apart from direct sPeech

Formalwriting examples
no contractions I do not think there is any excusefor the treatment I received. formal set phrases t look forward to hearingfrom you. formal greetingsin letters Dear Sir/Madam, DearMr/Mrs... inversions Seldomhave I had a worsemeal. complete sentences redoingthe shop ln my view,we shouldconstder window disptay. formal vocabulary,usually not using phrasalverbs 'Put 'tolerate' uP with' insteadof indirect questions I wonderif you could inform me about the cost of the courSe. more use of the passivevoice The majority of local sports centreswere opened in the last ten years. formal connectingwords and phrases tn addition to this,many people feel that the policeare underfunded. more complex sentencestructure Knowing what a good reputation the restauranthas,I was with the service. disappointed punctuation using semi'colons The library offers no facilities for borrowing videos:this is of because the high cost involved.

lnformal writng examPles


contractions elseI'vegot to tell you. something There's informal set phrases Thanksfor your letter. informal greetingsin letters DearSam, incomplete sentenes Great newsabout your brother. informal vocabulary,including phrasalverbs 'continue' 'go on' insteadof direct questions How wasyour holiday last month? more use of the active voice built a new cinemanear our house. They've informal connectingwords and phrases Well,I think that'sabout all I wantedto say. simpler sentencestructure exam' of I'ttbe late for the party. tt's because my French punctuation using exclamationmarks you'd have loved the food! tf you'd beenat the wedding,

Writng

Skills

Reference

nl

know-how Exam
p'nr 2 ouesrloru 5 How To Do ... Wnlrlruc
Generalinformation about the set 5 r In WritingPart2, question is always books. not read and Do NOT attemPt this question if you have studiedone of the set books' (a) be You wi[[ usually givena choiceof two questions' one of them' and (b).You shouldonly answer sheetwhereyou write your composition' On the answer number' you haveto write (a)or (b) next to the question Thisis so the togetherwith the titte of the book' and you are answering' know which question examiners w h i c hb o o kY o ua r ew r i t i n ga b o u t ' you one of thesequestions, must atways r lf you answer has your comPosition not that the personreading assume that if you for readthe book.Thismeans, exampte, who they you mentiona character, haveto explainin detaiI are. Key words o author:the writer of a novelor short story to The outhor manates bring the past ond the Examote: half the novel in the eighteenth by present together setting century.and half in the twentieth century' and place' be set in: Most storiesare set in a certaintime London' century Thenovel is set in eighteenth Example: Theseare are dividedinto chapters' o chapter:Most novets a titte' have and sometimes numbered usually in we are introducedto Rose the first When Example: she chapter, is lonelYand Poor' the end of the storY o ending: Thisnovel doesnot offer a traditional happy Example: ending. In a . main/centralcharacter: very importantcharacter the storY Is Eliza Doolittle,one of the two main characters' Exampte: in flower-sellerwho doesnot speakEnglish a working-class an educatedwaY.

How to write about a set book .minorcharacter:acharacterwhodoesnotptayacentrat they Sometimes carefutly' extremety the question Read role in the storY letter' In an askyou to write a composition, article or a ne Tom is only a minor choracter' Example:Atthough story' to haveevenbeenasked write a the oast,candidates greatly affectshow Angelaviewsrelationships' etc) conversationat' witt you e The language use(forma[, tettingthe story the question . narrator:the person dependon the text type you arewriting'Read we see The Exampte: narrator of the story is lshmael'so to carefu[[y decidewhat style would be appropriate' everything thot happensthrough his eyes' you of Do not just write a summary the novel'What . novel:a book whichte[[sone long story you are asked' the question write must answer that Patriciois in Examole:Laterin the novel, AIanrealises the text o Makea ptanbeforeyou start writing'Whatever else. love with someone needto write at least you wil[ probabty type and question, of r plot the series eventsin the story 4 paragraPns. around five membersof o family The plot revolves Example: the to o Remember mentionthe nameof the book and the across PacificOcean' soiling a u t h o re a r l yo n i n y o u rc o m p o s i t i o n ' the o short story: Sometimes, set book wil[ be a collection write the title of the book in invertedcommas' o Always Thesestoriesare muchshorterthan stories. of short 'Rebecca', Daphnedu Mourier' would makea by Exampte: novets. wonderfulfilm. 'The Devil',we seethat humans ln Example: the shortstory You witl probablyneedto usekey wordswhen writing do not alwayshavecontrol over their actions' from the'key I about a set book.Usethe wordsand phrases whichthe readerwas twist: a suddenplot development ' words'section. not exPectins wherewe discover The twist in the final chapter, Example: long-lostfather' is that Mr Davenportis in fact Helen's totally unexPected.

1 t s B N 1- 4 0 5 - 07 4 7 - 3

llililil