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Chapter 2

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier


2.1 Introduction
The only way to turn on the diode is when its anode voltage becomes higher than cathode voltage as explained in the previous chapter. So, there is no control on the conduction time of the diode which is the main disadvantage of the diode circuits. Despite of this disadvantage, the diode circuits still in use due to its the simplicity, low price, ruggedness, .etc. Because of their ability to conduct current in one direction, diodes are used in rectifier circuits. The definition of rectification process is the process of converting the alternating voltages and currents to direct currents and the device is known as rectifier It is extensively used in charging batteries; supply DC motors, electrochemical processes and power supply sections of industrial components. The most famous diode rectifiers have been analyzed in the following sections. Circuits and waveforms drawn with the help of PSIM simulation program [1]. There are two different types of uncontrolled rectifiers or diode rectifiers, half wave and full wave rectifiers. Full-wave rectifiers has better performance than half wave rectifiers. But the main advantage of half wave rectifier is its need to less number of diodes than full wave rectifiers. The main disadvantages of half wave rectifier are: 1- High ripple factor, 2- Low rectification efficiency, 3- Low transformer utilization factor, and, 4- DC saturation of transformer secondary winding.

2.2 Performance Parameters


In most rectifier applications, the power input is sine-wave voltage provided by the electric utility that is converted to a DC voltage and AC components. The AC components are undesirable and must be kept away from the load. Filter circuits or any other harmonic reduction technique should be installed between the electric utility and the rectifier and between the rectifier output and the load that filters out the undesired component and allows useful components to go through. So, careful analysis has to be done before building the rectifier. The analysis requires define the following terms: The average value of the output voltage, Vdc , The average value of the output current, I dc , The rms value of the output voltage, Vrms , The rms value of the output current, I rms The output DC power, Pdc = Vdc * I dc (2.1) The output AC power, Pac = Vrms * I rms (2.2) P The effeciency or rectification ratio is defiend as = dc (2.3) Pac The output voltage can be considered as being composed of two components (1) the DC component and (2) the AC component or ripple. The effective (rms) value of the AC component of output voltage is defined as:-

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier


2 2 (2.4) Vac = Vrms Vdc The form factor, which is the measure of the shape of output voltage, is defiend as shown in equation (2.5). Form factor should be greater than or equal to one. The shape of output voltage waveform is neare to be DC as the form factor tends to unity. V (2.5) FF = rms Vdc The ripple factor which is a measure of the ripple content, is defiend as shown in (2.6). Ripple factor should be greater than or equal to zero. The shape of output voltage waveform is neare to be DC as the ripple factor tends to zero.
2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms = = 1 = FF 2 1 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc The Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) is defiend as:P TUF = dc VS I S

RF =

(2.6)

(2.7)

Where VS and I S are the rms voltage and rms current of the transformer secondery respectively. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) measures the shape of supply current or voltage. THD should be grearter than or equal to zero. The shape of supply current or voltage waveform is near to be sinewave as THD tends to be zero. THD of input current and voltage are defiend as shown in (2.8.a) and (2.8.b) respectively.
THDi =
2 2 I S I S1 2 I S1

2 IS 2 I S1

(2.8.a)

THDv =

VS2 VS21 VS21

VS2 VS21

(2.8.b)

where I S1 and VS1 are the fundamental component of the input current and voltage, I S and VS respectively. Creast Factor CF, which is a measure of the peak input current IS(peak) as compared to its rms value IS, is defiend as:I S ( peak ) (2.9) CF = IS In general, power factor in non-sinusoidal circuits can be obtained as following: P Real Power PF = = = cos (2.10) Apparent Voltamperes VS I S Where, is the angle between the current and voltage. Definition is true irrespective for any sinusoidal waveform. But, in case of sinusoidal voltage (at supply) but non-sinusoidal current, the power factor can be calculated as the following:

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Average power is obtained by combining in-phase voltage and current components of the same frequency. P V I1 cos 1 I S1 (2.11) PF = = = cos = Distortion Factor * Displaceme nt Faactor Where 1 is the angle between the fundamental component of current and supply voltage. Distortion Factor = 1 for sinusoidal operation and displacement factor is a measure of displacement between v(t ) and i (t ) . 2.3 Single-Phase Half-Wave Diode Rectifier Most of the power electronic applications operate at a relative high voltage and in such cases; the voltage drop across the power diode tends to be small with respect to this high voltage. It is quite often justifiable to use the ideal diode model. An ideal diode has zero conduction drops when it is forward-biased ("ON") and has zero current when it is reversebiased ("OFF"). The explanation and the analysis presented below are based on the ideal diode model. 2.3.1 Single-Phase Half Wave Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load Fig.2.1 shows a single-phase half-wave diode rectifier with pure resistive load. Assuming sinusoidal voltage source, VS the diode beings to conduct when its anode voltage is greater than its cathode voltage as a result, the load current flows. So, the diode will be in ON state in positive voltage half cycle and in OFF state in negative voltage half cycle. Fig.2.2 shows various current and voltage waveforms of half wave diode rectifier with resistive load. These waveforms show that both the load voltage and current have high ripples. For this reason, single-phase half-wave diode rectifier has little practical significance. The average or DC output voltage can be obtained by considering the waveforms shown in Fig.2.2 as following:
Vdc V 1 = Vm sin t dt = m 2

VS I S VS I S IS
1

(2.12)

Where, Vm is the maximum value of supply voltage. Because the load is resistor, the average or DC component of load current is: V V I dc = dc = m R R The root mean square (rms) value of a load voltage is defined as:
Vrms = V 1 2 Vm sin 2 t dt = m 2 2

(2.13)

(2.14)

Similarly, the root mean square (rms) value of a load current is defined as: V V I rms = rms = m R 2R

(2.15)

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

It is clear that the rms value of the transformer secondary current, I S is the same as that of the load and diode currents V Then I S = I D = m (2.15) 2R Where, I D is the rms value of diode current.

Fig.2.1 Single-phase half-wave diode rectifier with resistive load.

Fig.2.2 Various waveforms for half wave diode rectifier with resistive load.

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Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Example 1: The rectifier shown in Fig.2.1 has a pure resistive load of R Determine (a) The efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) TUF (e) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of diode D1 and (f) Crest factor. Solution: From Fig.2.2, the average output voltage Vdc is defiend as:
Vdc V V 1 = Vm sin(t ) dt = m ( cos cos(0)) = m 2 2

Then, I dc =
Vrms

Vdc Vm = R R

V 1 = (Vm sin t ) 2 = m , 2 2

I rms =

Vm V and, VS = m 2R 2

The rms value of the transformer secondery current is the same as that of the load: V I S = m Then, the efficiency or rectification ratio is: 2R Vm Vm * Pdc Vdc * I dc R = = = 40.53% = Vm Vm Pac Vrms * I rms * 2 2R Vm V (b) FF = rms = 2 = = 1.57 Vm 2 Vdc

Vac = FF 2 1 = 1.57 2 1 = 1.211 Vdc Vm Vm P R (d) TUF = dc = = 0.286 = 28.6% Vm Vm VS I S 2 2R (e) It is clear from Fig2.2 that the PIV is Vm . I S ( peak ) Vm / R (f) Creast Factor CF, CF = = =2 IS Vm / 2 R

(c) RF =

2.3.2 Half Wave Diode Rectifier With R-L Load In case of RL load as shown in Fig.2.3, The voltage source, VS is an alternating sinusoidal voltage source. If vs = Vm sin (t ) , vs is positive when 0 < t < , and vs is negative when < t <2. When vs starts becoming positive, the diode starts conducting and the source keeps the diode in conduction till t reaches radians. At that instant defined by t = radians, the current through the circuit is not zero and there is some energy stored in the inductor. The voltage across an inductor is positive when the current

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

through it is increasing and it becomes negative when the current through it tends to fall. When the voltage across the inductor is negative, it is in such a direction as to forward-bias the diode. The polarity of voltage across the inductor is as shown in the waveforms shown in Fig.2.4. When vs changes from a positive to a negative value, the voltage across the diode changes its direction and there is current through the load at the instant t = radians and the diode continues to conduct till the energy stored in the inductor becomes zero. After that, the current tends to flow in the reverse direction and the diode blocks conduction. The entire applied voltage now appears across the diode as reverse bias voltage. An expression for the current through the diode can be obtained by solving the deferential equation representing the circuit. It is assumed that the current flows for 0 < t < , where > ( is called the conduction angle). When the diode conducts, the driving function for the differential equation is the sinusoidal function defining the source voltage. During the period defined by < t < 2, the diode blocks current and acts as an open switch. For this period, there is no equation defining the behavior of the circuit. For 0 < t < , the following differential equation defines the circuit: di (2.17) L + R * i = Vm sin (t ), 0 t dt Divide the above equation by L we get: V di R (2.18) + * i = m sin (t ), 0 t dt L L

The instantaneous value of the current through the load can be obtained from the solution of the above equation as following: R R dt dt L e L * Vm sin t dt + A i (t ) = e (2.19) L Where A is a constant. R R t V t (2.20) Then; i (t ) = e L e L * m sin t dt + A L By integrating (2.20) we get:

i (t ) =

Vm R 2 + w 2 L2

(R sin t L cost ) +

R t Ae L

(2.21)

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Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig.2.3 Half Wave Diode Rectifier With R-L Load

Fig.2.4 Various waveforms for Half wave diode rectifier with R-L load.

Assume Z = R + j wL Then Z 2 = R 2 + w 2 L2 ,
R = Z cos , L = Z sin and tan =

Z wL R

R Substitute these values into (2.21) we get the following equation:


t V i (t ) = m (cos sin t sin cost ) + Ae L Z t V Then, i (t ) = m sin (t ) + Ae L Z R R

(2.22)

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

The above equation can be written in the following form:


R

t Vm Vm L sin (t ) + Ae = sin (t ) + Ae tan i (t ) = Z Z

(2.23)

The value of A can be obtained using the initial condition. Since the diode starts conducting at t = 0 and the current starts building up from zero, i (0 ) = 0 (discontinuous conduction). The value of A is expressed by the following equation: V A = m sin ( ) Z Once the value of A is known, the expression for current is known. After evaluating A, current can be evaluated at different values of t . t Vm tan (2.24) i (t ) = sin (t ) + sin ( )e Z Starting from t = , as t increases, the current would keep decreasing. For some value of t , say , the current would be zero. If t > , the current would evaluate to a negative value. Since the diode blocks current in the reverse direction, the diode stops conducting when t reaches . The value of can be obtained by substituting that i (t ) = 0 wt = into (2.24) we get:
Vm tan i( ) = sin ( ) + sin ( )e Z

=0

(2.25)

The value of can be obtained from the above equation by using the methods of numerical analysis. Then, an expression for the average output voltage can be obtained. Since the average voltage across the inductor has to be zero, the average voltage across the resistor and the average voltage at the cathode of the diode to ground are the same. This average value can be obtained as shown in (2.26). The rms output voltage in this case is shown in equation (2.27).
Vdc V V = m * sin t dt = m * (1 cos ) 2 2

(2.26)

Vrms

Vm 1 = * (Vm sin t ) 2 dwt = * + 0.5(1 sin( 2 ) 2 2 0

(2.27)

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Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

2.3.3 Single-Phase Half-Wave Diode Rectifier With Free Wheeling Diode

Single-phase half-wave diode rectifier with free wheeling diode is shown in Fig.2.5. This circuit differs from the circuit described above, which had only diode D1. This circuit shown in Fig.2.5 has another diode, marked D2. This diode is called the free-wheeling diode.

Fig.2.5 Half wave diode rectifier with free wheeling diode.

Fig.2.6 Various voltage waveforms of diode rectifier with free-wheeling diode.

Fig.2.7 Various current waveforms of diode rectifier with free-wheeling diode.

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Let the source voltage vs be defined as Vm sin (t ) which is positive when 0 < t < radians and it is negative when < t < 2 radians. When vs is positive, diode D1 conducts and the output voltage, vo become positive. This in turn leads to diode D2 being reverse-biased during this period. During < wt < 2, the voltage vo would be negative if diode D1 tends to conduct. This means that D2 would be forward-biased and would conduct. When diode D2 conducts, the voltage vo would be zero volts, assuming that the diode drop is negligible. Additionally when diode D2 conducts, diode D1 remains reversebiased, because the voltage across it is vs which is negative. When the current through the inductor tends to fall (when the supply voltage become negative), the voltage across the inductor become negative and its voltage tends to forward bias diode D2 even when the source voltage vs is positive, the inductor current would tend to fall if the source voltage is less than the voltage drop across the load resistor. During the negative half-cycle of source voltage, diode D1 blocks conduction and diode D2 is forced to conduct. Since diode D2 allows the inductor current circulate through L, R and D2, diode D2 is called the free-wheeling diode because the current free-wheels through D2. Fig.2.6 shows various voltage waveforms of diode rectifier with free-wheeling diode. Fig.2.7 shows various current waveforms of diode rectifier with free-wheeling diode. It can be assumed that the load current flows all the time. In other words, the load current is continuous. When diode D1 conducts, the driving function for the differential equation is the sinusoidal function defining the source voltage. During the period defined by < t < 2, diode D1 blocks current and acts as an open switch. On the other hand, diode D2 conducts during this period, the driving function can be set to be zero volts. For 0 < t < , the differential equation (2.18) applies. The solution of this equation will be as obtained before in (2.20) or (2.23).
t Vm tan i (t ) = sin (t ) + sin ( ) e Z

0 < t <

(2.28)

For the negative half-cycle ( < t < 2 ) of the source voltage D1 is OFF and D2 is ON. Then the driving voltage is set to zero and the following differential equation represents the circuit in this case.
L di + R* i = 0 dt

for < t < 2

(2.29)

The solution of (2.29) is given by the following equation:


i (t ) = B e
t tan

(2.30)

The constant B can be obtained from the boundary condition where i ( ) = B is the starting value of the current in < t < 2 and can be obtained from equation (2.23) by substituting t =

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Chapter Two
V Then, i( ) = m (sin( ) + sin ( ) e tan ) = B Z

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

The above value of i ( ) can be used as initial condition of equation (2.30). Then the load current during < t < 2 is shown in the following equation.
Vm i (t ) = sin ( ) + sin ( ) e tan Z

t tan e

for < t < 2

(2.31)

For the period 2 < t < 3 the value of i (2 ) from (2.31) can be used as initial condition for that period. The differential equation representing this period is the same as equation (2.28) by replacing t by t 2 and the solution is given by equation (2.32). This period ( 2 < t < 3 ) differ than the period 0 < wt < in the way to get the constant A where in the 0 < t < the initial value was i (0) = 0 but in the case of 2 < t < 3 the initial condition will be i (2 ) that given from (2.31) and is shown in (2.33).
Vm (2.32) i (t ) = sin (t 2 ) + Ae tan for 2 < t < 3 Z The value of i (2 ) can be obtained from (2.31) and (2.32) as shown in (2.33) and (2.34) respectively.

t 2

Vm tan i (2 ) = sin ( ) + sin ( ) e Z

tan e

(2.33)

Vm sin ( ) + A (2.34) Z By equating (2.33) and (2.34) the constant A in 2 < t < 3 can be obtained from the following equation: V A = i (2 ) + m sin ( ) (2.35) Z Then, the general solution for the period 2 < t < 3 is given by equation (2.36): i (2 ) =
V V i (t ) = m sin (t 2 ) + i(2 ) + m sin ( )e Z Z
t 2 tan

2 < t < 3 (2.36)

Where i (2 ) can be obtained from equation (2.33).


Example 2 A diode circuit shown in Fig.2.3 with R=10 , L=20mH, and VS=220 2 sin314t. (a) Determine the expression for the current though the load in the period 0 < t < 2 and determine the conduction angle . (b) If we connect free wheeling diode through the load as shown in Fig.2.5 Determine the expression for the current though the load in the period of 0 < t < 3 .

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Solution: (a) For the period of 0 < t < , the expression of the load current can be obtained from (2.24) as following: L 314 * 20 *10 3 = tan 1 = tan 1 = 0.561 rad . and tan = 0.628343 R 10
Z = R 2 + (L) 2 = 10 2 + (314 * 20 *10 3 ) 2 = 11.8084
t Vm tan i (t ) = sin (t ) + sin ( ) e Z

220 2 sin (t 0.561) + 0.532 * e 1.5915 t 11.8084 i (t ) = 26.3479 sin (t 0.561) + 14.0171 * e 1.5915 t =

The value of can be obtained from the above equation by substituting for i ( ) = 0 . Then, 0 = 26.3479 sin ( 0.561) + 14.0171 * e 1.5915 By using the numerical analysis we can get the value of . The simplest method is by using the simple iteration technique by assuming 1.5915 and substitute different values for in the = 26.3479 sin ( 0.561) + 14.0171 * e region < < 2 till we get the minimum value of then the corresponding value of is the required value. The narrow intervals mean an accurate values of . The following table shows the relation between and :
1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

6.49518 4.87278 3.23186 1.57885 -0.079808 -1.73761

It is clear from the above table that 1.18 rad. The current in < wt < 2 will be zero due to the diode will block the negative current to flow. (b) In case of free-wheeling diode as shown in Fig.2.5, we have to divide the operation of this circuit into three parts. The first one when 0 < t < (D1 ON, D2 OFF), the second case when < t < 2 (D1 OFF and D2 ON) and the last one when 2 < t < 3 (D1 ON, D2 OFF). In the first part ( 0 < t < ) the expression for the load current can be obtained as In case (a). Then: i ( wt ) = 26.3479 sin (t 0.561) + 14.0171 * e 1.5915 wt for 0 < t < the current at t = is starting value for the current in the next part. Then

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i ( ) = 26.3479 sin ( 0.561) + 14.0171 * e 1.5915 = 14.1124 A

In the second part < t < 2 , the expression for the load current can be obtained from (2.30) as following:
i (t ) = B e where B = i ( ) = 14.1124 A

t tan

Then i (t ) = 14.1124 e 1.5915(t ) for ( < t < 2 ) The current at t = 2 is starting value for the current in the next part. Then i (2 ) = 0.095103 A In the last part ( 2 < t < 3 ) the expression for the load current can be obtained from (2.36):
V V i (t ) = m sin (t 2 ) + i (2 ) + m sin ( )e Z Z
t 2 tan

i (t ) = 26.3479 sin (t 6.8442) + (0.095103 + 26.3479 * 0.532)e 1.5915(t 2 ) i (t ) = 26.3479 sin (t 6.8442) + 14.1131e 1.5915(t 2 ) for ( 2 < t < 3 )
2.4 Single-Phase Full-Wave Diode Rectifier The full wave diode rectifier can be designed with a center-taped transformer as shown in Fig.2.8, where each half of the transformer with its associated diode acts as half wave rectifier or as a bridge diode rectifier as shown in Fig. 2.12. The advantage and disadvantage of center-tap diode rectifier is shown below: Advantages The need for center-tapped transformer is eliminated, The output is twice that of the center tapped circuit for the same secondary voltage, and, The peak inverse voltage is one half of the center-tap circuit. Disadvantages It requires four diodes instead of two, in full wave circuit, and, There are always two diodes in series are conducting. Therefore, total voltage drop in the internal resistance of the diodes and losses are increased. The following sections explain and analyze these rectifiers.

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2.4.1 Center-Tap Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load In the center tap full wave rectifier, current flows through the load in the same direction for both half cycles of input AC voltage. The circuit shown in Fig.2.8 has two diodes D1 and D2 and a center tapped transformer. The diode D1 is forward bias ON and diode D2 is reverse bias OFF in the positive half cycle of input voltage and current flows from point a to point b. Whereas in the negative half cycle the diode D1 is reverse bias OFF and diode D2 is forward bias ON and again current flows from point a to point b. Hence DC output is obtained across the load.

Fig.2.8 Center-tap diode rectifier with resistive load.

Fig.2.9 Various current and voltage waveforms for center-tap diode rectifier with resistive load.

In case of pure resistive load, Fig.2.9 shows various current and voltage waveform for converter in Fig.2.8. The average and rms output voltage and current can be obtained from the waveforms shown in Fig.2.9 as shown in the following:

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Vdc =
I dc =

V sin t dt = m
0

2 Vm

(2.36) (2.37)

2 Vm R

Vrms = I rms =

(V sin t ) m
1
0

dt =

Vm 2

(2.38)

Vm (2.39) 2 R (2.40) PIV of each diode = 2Vm V VS = m (2.41) 2 The rms value of the transformer secondery current is the same as that of the diode: V (2.41) IS = ID = m 2R

Example 3. The rectifier in Fig.2.8 has a purely resistive load of R Determine (a) The efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) TUF (e) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of diode D1 and(f) Crest factor of transformer secondary current. Solution:- The efficiency or rectification ratio is 2 Vm 2 Vm * Pdc Vdc * I dc R = = = 81.05% = Vm Vm Pac Vrms * I rms * 2 2R Vm V 2 = = 1.11 (b) FF = rms = 2 Vm 2 2 Vdc

Vac = FF 2 1 = 1.112 1 = 0.483 Vdc 2 Vm 2 Vm Pdc R = = 0.5732 (d) TUF = Vm Vm 2 VS I S 2 2 2R (e) The PIV is 2Vm

(c) RF =

(f) Creast Factor of secondary current, CF =

I S ( peak ) IS

Vm = R =2 Vm 2R

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2.4.2 Center-Tap Diode Rectifier With R-L Load Center-tap full wave rectifier circuit with RL load is shown in Fig.2.10. Various voltage and current waveforms for Fig.2.10 is shown in Fig.2.11. An expression for load current can be obtained as shown below:

Fig.2.10 Center-tap diode rectifier with R-L load

Fig.2.11 Various current and voltage waveform for Center-tap diode rectifier with R-L load

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It is assumed that D1 conducts in positive half cycle of VS and D2 conducts in negative half cycle. So, the deferential equation defines the circuit is shown in (2.43). di L + R * i = Vm sin(t ) (2.43) dt The solution of the above equation can be obtained as obtained before in (2.24) t Vm tan (2.44) i (t ) = sin (t ) + sin ( )e for 0 < t < Z In the second half cycle the same differential equation (2.43) and the solution of this equation will be as obtained before in (2.22)
Vm i (t ) = sin (t ) + Ae tan Z

(2.45)

The value of constant A can be obtained from initial condition. If we assume that (2.46) i()=i(2)=i(3)=..=Io Then the value of I o can be obtained from (2.44) by letting t =
Vm tan I o = i ( ) = sin ( ) + sin ( )e Z

(2.47)

Then use the value of I o as initial condition for equation (2.45). So we can obtain the value of constant A as following:
Vm i ( ) = I o = sin ( ) + Ae tan Z V Then; A = I o + m sin ( ) Z Substitute (2.48) into (2.45) we get:

(2.48)
t

Vm Vm tan i (t ) = sin (t ) + I o + sin ( )e , then, Z Z


t Vm i (t ) = sin (t ) + sin ( )e tan Z t + I e tan o

(for < t < 2 )

(2.49)

In the next half cycle 2 < t < 3 the current will be same as obtained in (2.49) but we have to take the time shift into account where the new equation will be as shown in the following:
t 2 Vm sin (wt 2 ) + sin ( )e tan i (t ) = Z t 2 + I e tan o

(for 2 < t < 3 )

(2.50)

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2.4.3 Single-Phase Full Bridge Diode Rectifier With Resistive Load Another alternative in single-phase full wave rectifier is by using four diodes as shown in Fig.2.12 which known as a single-phase full bridge diode rectifier. It is easy to see the operation of these four diodes. The current flows through diodes D1 and D2 during the positive half cycle of input voltage (D3 and D4 are OFF). During the negative one, diodes D3 and D4 conduct (D1 and D2 are OFF).

Fig.2.12 Single-phase full bridge diode rectifier.

Fig.2.13 Various current and voltage waveforms of Full bridge single-phase diode rectifier.

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In positive half cycle the supply voltage forces diodes D1 and D2 to be "ON". In same time it forces diodes D3 and D4 to be "OFF". So, the current moves from positive point of the supply voltage across D1 to the point a of the load then from point b to the negative marked point of the supply voltage through diode D2. In the negative voltage half cycle, the supply voltage forces the diodes D1 and D2 to be "OFF". In same time it forces diodes D3 and D4 to be "ON". So, the current moves from negative marked point of the supply voltage across D3 to the point a of the load then from point b to the positive marked point of the supply voltage through diode D4. So, it is clear that the load currents moves from point a to point b in both positive and negative half cycles of supply voltage. So, a DC output current can be obtained at the load in both positive and negative halves cycles of the supply voltage. The complete waveforms for this rectifier is shown in Fig.2.13
Example 4 The rectifier shown in Fig.2.12 has a purely resistive load of R=15 and, VS=300 sin 314 t and unity transformer ratio. Determine (a) The efficiency, (b) Form factor, (c) Ripple factor, (d) TUF, (e) The peak inverse voltage, (PIV) of each diode, (f) Crest factor of input current, and, (g) Input power factor. Solution: Vm = 300 V

Vdc =

V sin t dt = m
0

2 Vm

= 190.956 V , I dc =

2 Vm = 12.7324 A R

Vrms

1 = (Vm sin t )2 dt 0

1/ 2

V Vm = 212.132 V , I rms = m = 14.142 A 2R 2

(a) =

Pdc V I = dc dc = 81.06 % Pac Vrms I rms Vrms = 1.11 Vdc

(b) FF =

2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = 1 = FF 2 1 = 0.482 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc

(d) TUF =

Pdc 190.986 *12.7324 = = 81 % 212.132 * 14.142 VS I S

(e) The PIV= Vm =300V (f) CF =

I S ( peak ) IS

300 / 15 = 1.414 14.142


I2 *R Re al Power = rms =1 Apperant Power VS I S

(g) Input power factor =

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Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2.4.4 Full Bridge Single-phase Diode Rectifier with DC Load Current The full bridge single-phase diode rectifier with DC load current is shown in Fig.2.14. In this circuit the load current is pure DC and it is assumed here that the source inductances is negligible. In this case, the circuit works as explained before in resistive load but the current waveform in the supply will be as shown in Fig.2.15. The rms value of the input current is I S = I o

Fig.2.14 Full bridge single-phase diode rectifier with DC load current.

Fig.2.15 Various current and voltage waveforms for full bridge single-phase diode rectifier with DC load current.

37

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

The supply current in case of pure DC load current is shown in Fig.2.15, as we see it is odd function, then an coefficients of Fourier series equal zero, an = 0 , and
bn = = I o * sin nt dt
0

2 Io [ cos nt ] 0 n

(2.51)

2 Io [cos 0 cos n ] = 4 I o for n = 1, 3, 5, ............. n n


4 Io 1 1 1 1 * (sin t + sin 3t + sin 5t + sin 7t + sin 9t + ..........) 3 5 7 9
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Then from Fourier series concepts we can say:


i (t ) =

(2.52)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 THD( I s (t )) = + + + + + + = 46% or we can obtain 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

THD( I s (t )) as the following:

From (2.52) we can obtain the value of is I S1 =


2

4 Io 2

2 2 IS I o 1 = 2 1 = 48.34% THD ( I s (t )) = I 1 = 4 I 4 o S1 2 Example 5 solve Example 4 if the load is 30 A pure DC Solution: From example 4 Vdc= 190.986 V, Vrms=212.132 V I dc = 30 A and I rms = 30 A P V I (a) = dc = dc dc = 90 % Pac Vrms I rms V (b) FF = rms = 1.11 Vdc
2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = 1 = FF 2 1 = 0.482 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc

(d) TUF =

Pdc 190.986 *30 = = 90 % VS I S 212.132 * 30 (e) The PIV=Vm=300V

(f) CF = (g) I S1 =

I S ( peak ) IS

30 =1 30

4 Io 4 * 30 = = 27.01A 2 2 Re al Power = Input Power factor= Apperant Power = VS I S1 * cos I * cos 27.01 = S1 = *1 = 0.9 Lag VS I S IS 30

38

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2.4.5 Effect Of LS On Current Commutation Of Single-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier. Fig.2.15 Shows the single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance. Due to the value of LS the transitions of the AC side current iS from a value of I o to I o (or vice versa) will not be instantaneous. The finite time interval required for such a transition is called commutation time. And this process is called current commutation process. Various voltage and current waveforms of single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance are shown in Fig.2.16.

Fig.2.15 Single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance.

Fig.2.16 Various current and voltage waveforms for single-phase diode bridge rectifier with source inductance.

Let us study the commutation time starts at t=10 ms as indicated in Fig.2.16. At this time the supply voltage starts to be negative, so diodes D1 and D2 have to switch OFF and

39

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

diodes D3 and D4 have to switch ON as explained in the previous case without source inductance. But due to the source inductance it will prevent that to happen instantaneously. So, it will take time t to completely turn OFF D1 and D2 and to make D3 and D4 carry the entire load current ( I o ). Also in the time t the supply current will change from I o to I o which is very clear in Fig.2.16. Fig.2.17 shows the equivalent circuit of the diode bridge at time t .

Fig.2.17 The equivalent circuit of the diode bridge at commutation time t .

From Fig.2.17 we can get the following equations di VS Ls S = 0 (2.53) dt Multiply the above equation by dt then, VS dt = Ls diS (2.54) Integrate both sides of the above equation during the commutation period ( t sec or u rad.) we get the following: VS dt = Ls diS
+u

Vm sin t dt = Ls diS
Io

Io

(2.55)

Then; Vm [cos cos( + u )] = 2Ls I o Then; Vm [ 1 + cos(u )] = 2Ls I o 2Ls I o Then; cos(u ) = 1 Vm
2Ls I o Then; u = cos 1 1 (2.56) Vm 2Ls I o u 1 And t = = cos 1 1 (2.57) Vm It is clear that the DC voltage reduction due to the source inductance is the drop across the source inductance. di (2.58) vrd = Ls S dt

40

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier


+u

Then
+u

vrd d t = LS diS = 2 LS I o
Io

Io

(2.59)

vrd d t
+u

is the reduction area in one commutation period t . But we have two

commutation periods t in one period of supply voltage. So the total reduction per period is: 2

vrd d t = 4 LS I o

(2.60)

To obtain the average reduction in DC output voltage Vrd due to source inductance we have to divide the above equation by the period time 2 . Then; 4 LS I o Vrd = = 4 f LS I o (2.61) 2 The DC voltage with source inductance tacking into account can be calculated as following: 2V Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce Vrd = m 4 fLs I o (2.62)

To obtain the rms value and Fourier transform of the supply current it is better to move the vertical axis to make the waveform odd or even this will greatly simplfy the analysis. So, it is better to move the vertical axis of supply current by u / 2 as shown in Fig.2.18. Moveing the vertical axis will not change the last results. If you did not bleave me keep going in the analysis without moveing the axis.

Fig. 2.18 The old axis and new axis for supply currents.

Fig.2.19 shows a symple drawing for the supply current. This drawing help us in getting the rms valuof the supply current. It is clear from the waveform of supply current shown in Fig.2.19 that we obtain the rms value for only a quarter of the waveform because all for quarter will be the same when we squaret the waveform as shown in the following equation:

41

Chapter Two

u/2 2 2I o 2 t dt + I o dt ] u u/2
2 2I o u 2 3

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University


2

Is =

(2.63)

Then; I s =

2 2I o 4 u 3 u + = 3u 2 8 2 2

(2.64)

Is
Io

u 2

u + 2
2 u 2

u 2

2
Io

u 2

Fig.2.19 Supply current waveform

To obtain the Fourier transform for the supply current waveform you can go with the classic fourier technique. But there is a nice and easy method to obtain Fourier transform of such complcated waveform known as jump technique [ ]. In this technique we have to draw the wave form and its drevatives till the last drivative values all zeros. Then record the jump value and its place for each drivative in a table like the table shown below. Then; substitute the table values in (2.65) as following:

42

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Is
Io
u 2

u 2
u 2

u + 2

Io

u 2

Is
2Io u

u 2

u 2

u 2 u 2

2I o u

u 2

Fig.2.20 Supply current and its first derivative. Table(2.1) Jumb value of supply current and its first derivative.

Js Is

u 2

0 0 2I o 2I 2I Is o o u u u It is an odd function, then ao = an = 0


1 bn = n

u 2 0

u 2

+
0 2I o u

u 2

m 1 m J s sin nt s (2.65) J s cos nt s n s =1 s =1 1 1 2I o u u u u bn = sin n sin n sin n + sin n + * n n u 2 2 2 2 8I nu (2.66) bn = 2 o * sin 2 n u 8I u b1 = o * sin (2.67) u 2

43

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Then; I S1 =

8I o u * sin 2 2 u 8I o u * sin 2 I 2 u u u cos pf = S1 * cos = 2 IS 2 2 2I o u 2 3


u u 4 sin cos 2 2 = 2 sin (u ) = u u u u 2 3 2 3

(2.68)

(2.69)

Example 6 Single phase diode bridge rectifier connected to 11 kV, 50 Hz, source inductance X s = 5 mH supply to feed 200 A pure DC load, find: i. Average DC output voltage. ii. Power factor. iii. Determine the THD of the utility line current. Solution: (i) From (2.62), Vm = 11000 * 2 = 15556V 2V Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce Vrd = m 4 fLs I o

Vdc actual =

2 *15556

4 * 50 * 0.005 * 200 = 9703V

(ii) From (2.56) the commutation angle u can be obtained as following:


2Ls I o 2 * 2 * * 50 * 0.005 * 200 = cos 1 1 u = cos 1 1 = 0.285 rad . Vm 15556

The input power factor can be obtained from (2.69) as following


pf = I S1 u * cos = IS 2 2 * sin (u ) u u 2 3 = 2 * sin (0.285) .285 0.285 3 2 = 0.917

IS =

2 2I o u = 2 3

2 * 200 2 0.285 2 3 = 193.85 A

I S1 =

8I o u * sin = 2 2 u
2

8 * 200 0.285 * sin = 179.46 A 2 * 0.285 2

2 I 193.85 THDi = S 1 = 1 = 40.84% I 179.46 S1

44

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2.5 Three Phase Diode Rectifiers 2.5.1 Three-Phase Half Wave Rectifier Fig.2.21 shows a half wave three-phase diode rectifier circuit with delta star three-phase transformer. In this circuit, the diode with highest potential with respect to the neutral of the transformer conducts. As the potential of another diode becomes the highest, load current is transferred to that diode, and the previously conduct diode is reverse biased OFF case.

Fig.2.21 Half wave three-phase diode rectifier circuit with delta star three-phase transformer.

For the rectifier shown in Fig.2.21 the load voltage, primary diode currents and its FFT components are shown in Fig.2.22, Fig.2.23 and Fig.2.24 respectively.

5 6

Fig.2.22 Secondary and load voltages of half wave three-phase diode rectifier.

45

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig.2.23 Primary and diode currents.

Primary current

Diode current

Fig.2.24 FFT components of primary and diode currents.

46

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

5 in the output voltage we can calculate the 6 6 average and rms output voltage and current as following:

By considering the interval from


5 / 6

to

Vdc

3 = 2

/6

Vm sin t dt =

3 3 Vm = 0.827Vm 2

(2.70)

I dc =

3 3 Vm 0.827 * Vm = R 2 * * R
3 2
5 / 6 2 (Vm sin t ) dt =

(2.71)
1 3* 3 + Vm = 0.8407 Vm 2 8

Vrms =

(2.72)

/6

I rms =

0.8407 Vm R

(2.73)

Then the diode rms current is equal to secondery current and can be obtaiend as following: Vm 08407 Vm Ir = IS = = 0.4854 (2.74) R R 3 Note that the rms value of diode current has been obtained from the rms value of load current divided by 3 because the diode current has one third pulse of similar three pulses in load current. (2.75) ThePIV of the diodes is 2 VLL = 3 Vm
Example 7 The rectifier in Fig.2.21 is operated from 460 V 50 Hz supply at secondary side and the load resistance is R=20 . If the source inductance is negligible, determine (a) Rectification efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Transformer utilization factor, (e) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode and (f) Crest factor of input current. Solution: 460 (a) VS = = 265.58 V , Vm = 265.58 * 2 = 375.59 V 3
Vdc = I dc =

3 3 Vm = 0.827 Vm , 2 3 3 Vm 0827 Vm = 2 R R

Vrms = 0.8407 Vm I rms =

0.8407 Vm R

47

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Pdc V I = dc dc = 96.767 % Pac Vrms I rms


Vrms = 101.657 % Vdc

(b) FF =

2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = 1 = FF 2 1 = 18.28 % 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc

(d) I S =

0.8407 Vm 1 I rms = 3 3 R
(0.827Vm ) 2 / R = 66.424 % 0.8407 Vm 3 * Vm / 2 * 3R

Pdc TUF = = 3 * VS I S

(e) The PIV= 3 Vm=650.54V (f) CF =


I S ( peak ) IS = Vm / R = 2.06 0.8407 Vm 3R

48

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2.5.2 Three-Phase Half Wave Rectifier With DC Load Current and zero source inductance In case of pure DC load current as shown in Fig.2.25, the diode current and primary current are shown in Fig.2.26.

Fig.2.25 Three-phase half wave rectifier with dc load current

Fig.2.26 Primary and secondary current waveforms and FFT components of three-phase half wave rectifier with dc load current

New axis

49

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

To calculate Fourier transform of the diode current of Fig.2.26, it is better to move y axis to make the function as odd or even to cancel one coefficient an or bn respectively. If we put Y-axis at point t = 30o then we can deal with the secondary current as even functions. Then, bn = 0 of secondary current. Values of an can be calculated as following:
1 a0 = 2
1
/3

/ 3

I o dt = 3o

(2.76)

/3

an = =

/ 3

I o * cos nt dwt
(2.77)

Io [sin nt ]//33 = I o * 3 for n = 1,2,7,8,13,14,.... n n I = o * 3 for n = 4,5,10,11,16,17 n = 0 for all treplean harmonics
I s (t ) = IO 3I O + 3 1 1 1 1 1 cos t + cos 2t cos 4t cos 5t + cos 7t + cos 8t ... 2 4 5 7 8

(2.78)

I THD( I s (t )) = S I S1

Io / 3 1 = 1 = 3I O 2

2 * 2 1 = 1.0924 = 109.24% 9

It is clear that the primary current shown in Fig.2.26 is odd, then, an=0,
bn = = 2
2 / 3 0

I o * sin nt dt

2Io [ cos nt ] 20 / 3 n

3I o for n = 1,2,4,5,7,8,10,11,13,14,.... n = 0 for all treplean harmonics


iP (t ) = 3I O 1 1 1 1 1 sin t + sin 2t + sin 4t + sin 5t + sin 7t + sin 8t ... 2 4 5 7 8

(2.79)

(2.80)

The rms value of I P =

2 Io 3
2 Io 2 3 1 = 2 1 = 67.983% (2.82) 3I O 3 3 2
2

(2.81)

I THD ( I P (t )) = P I P1

1 =

50

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Example 8 Solve example 7 if the load current is 100 A pure DC 460 Solution: (a) VS = = 265.58 V , Vm = 265.58 * 2 = 375.59 V 3 3 3 Vm Vdc = = 0.827 Vm = 310.613V , I dc = 100 A 2 Vrms = 0.8407 Vm = 315.759 V , I rms = 100 A P V I 310.613 * 100 = dc = dc dc = = 98.37 % Pac Vrms I rms 315.759 *100 V (b) FF = rms = 101.657 % Vdc
2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = 1 = FF 2 1 = 18.28 % 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc

(d) I S =

1 1 I rms = *100 = 57.735 A 3 3 Pdc 310.613 * 100 = = 67.52 % TUF = 3 * VS I S 3 * Vm / 2 * 57.735

(e) The PIV= 3 Vm=650.54V (f) CF =

I S ( peak ) IS

100 = 1.732 57.735

2.5.3 Three-Phase Half Wave Rectifier With Source Inductance The source inductance in three-phase half wave diode rectifier Fig.2.27 will change the shape of the output voltage than the ideal case (without source inductance) as shown in Fig.2.28. The DC component of the output voltage is reduced due to the voltage drop on the source inductance. To calculate this reduction we have to discuss Fig.2.27 with reference to Fig.2.28. As we see in Fig.2.28 when the voltage vb is going to be greater than the voltage va at time t (at the arrow in Fig.2.28) the diode D1 will try to turn off, in the same time the diode D2 will try to turn on but the source inductance will slow down this process and makes it done in time t (overlap time or commutation time). The overlap time will take time t to completely turn OFF D1 and to make D2 carry the entire load current ( I o ). Also in the time t the current in Lb will change from zero to I o and the current in La will change from I o to zero. This is very clear from Fig.2.28. Fig.2.29 shows the equivalent circuit of three phase half wave diode bridge in commutation period t .

51

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig.2.27 Three-phase half wave rectifier with load and source inductance.

Fig.2.28 Supply current and output voltage for three-phase half wave rectifier with pure DC load and source inductance.

Fig.2.29 The equivalent circuit for three-phase half wave diode rectifier in commutation period.

52

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

From Fig.2.29 we can get the following equations di va La D1 Vdc = 0 (2.83) dt di (2.84) vb Lb D 2 Vdc = 0 dt subtract (2.84) from(2.83) we get: di di va vb + L D 2 D1 = 0 dt dt Multiply the above equation by dt the following equation can be obtained: (va vb )dt + L(diD 2 diD1 ) = 0 substitute the voltage waveforms of va and vb into the above equation we get:
2 Vm sin (t ) Vm sin t dt = L(diD1 diD 2 ) 3 Then; 3 Vm sin t + dt = L(diD1 diD 2 ) 6 Integrating both parts of the above equation we get the following:
5 +u 6 5 6

Io 0 3 Vm sin t + dt = L diD1 diD 2 6 I 0 o

Then; Then; Then;

3 Vm ( 1 + cos(u )) = 2LI o 2LI o Then; 1 cos(u ) = 3 Vm 2LI o Then; cos(u ) = 1 3 Vm

5 5 3 Vm cos + cos + u + = 2LI o 6 6 6 6 3 Vm (cos( ) cos( + u )) = 2LI o

2LI o Then u = cos 1 1 (2.85) 3 Vm 2LI o u 1 (2.86) t = = cos 1 1 3 Vm It is clear that the DC voltage reduction due to the source inductance is equal to the drop across the source inductance. Then; di vrd = L D dt

53

Chapter Two
5 +u 6 Io 0

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Then,
5 +u 6 5 6

5 6

vrd dt = L diD = LI o

(2.87)

vrd dt
5 +u 6 5 6

is the reduction area in one commutation period t . But, we have three

commutation periods, t in one period. So, the total reduction per period is:
3*

vrd dt = 3LI o

To obtain the average reduction in DC output voltage Vrd due to source inductance we have to divide the total reduction per period by 2 as following: 3LI o (2.88) = 3 f L Io Vrd = 2 Then, the DC component of output voltage due to source inductance is: Vdc Actual = Vdc without 3 f L Io (2.89) source
induc tan ce

Vdc

Actual

3 3 Vm 3 f L Io 2

(2.90)

Example 9 Three-phase half-wave diode rectifier connected to 66 kV, 50 Hz , 5mH supply to feed a DC load with 500 A DC, fined the average DC output voltage. 66000 Solution: vm = * 2 = 53889V 3 (i) Vdc Actual = Vdc without 3 f L Io source
induc tan ce

Vdc

Actual

3 3 Vm 3 * 3 * 53889 3 f L Io = 3 * 50 * 0.005 * 500 = 44190V 2 2

2.5 Three-Phase Full Wave Diode Rectifier The three phase bridge rectifier is very common in high power applications and is shown in Fig.2.30. It can work with or without transformer and gives six-pulse ripples on the output voltage. The diodes are numbered in order of conduction sequences and each one conduct for 120 degrees. These conduction sequence for diodes is 12, 23, 34, 45, 56, and, 61. The pair of diodes which are connected between that pair of supply lines having the highest amount of instantaneous line to line voltage will conduct. Also, we can say that, the highest positive voltage of any phase the upper diode connected to that phase conduct

54

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

and the highest negative voltage of any phase the lower diode connected to that phase conduct.
2.5.1 Three-Phase Full Wave Rectifier With Resistive Load In the circuit of Fig.2.30, the AC side inductance LS is neglected and the load current is pure resistance. Fig.2.31 shows complete waveforms for phase and line to line input voltages and output DC load voltages. Fig.2.32 shows diode currents and Fig.2.33 shows the secondary and primary currents and PIV of D1. Fig.2.34 shows Fourier Transform components of output DC voltage, diode current secondary current and Primary current respectively. For the rectifier shown in Fig.2.30 the waveforms is as shown in Fig.2.31. The average output voltage is :Vdc = 3
2 / 3

/3

3 Vm sin t dt =

3 3 Vm

3 2 VLL

= 1.654Vm = 1.3505VLL

(2.91) (2.92)

I dc =
Vrms =

3 3 Vm 1.654Vm 3 2 VLL 1.3505VLL = = = R R R R


3
2 / 3

/3

3 Vm sin t

)2 dt =

3 9* 3 + Vm = 1.6554 Vm = 1.3516VLL (2.93) 2 4

I rms =

1.6554 Vm R

(2.94)

Then the diode rms current is


Ir = 1.6554 Vm Vm = 0.9667 R R 3

(2.95) (2.96)

I S = 0.9667

Vm R

IL Ip Is
1 3 5

VL

a b c
4 6 2

Fig.2.30 Three-phase full wave diode bridge rectifier.

55

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig.2.31 shows complete waveforms for phase and line to line input voltages and output DC load voltages.

Fig.2.32 Diode currents.

56

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Fig.2.33 Secondary and primary currents and PIV of D1.

Fig.2.34 Fourier Transform components of output DC voltage, diode current secondary current and Primary current respectively of three-phase full wave diode bridge rectifier.

Example 10 The rectifier shown in Fig.2.30 is operated from 460 V 50 Hz supply and the load resistance is R=20 . If the source inductance is negligible, determine (a) The efficiency, (b) Form factor (c) Ripple factor (d) Transformer utilization factor, (e) Peak inverse voltage (PIV) of each diode and (f) Crest factor of input current.

57

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Solution: (a) VS =
Vdc =
3 3 Vm

460 = 265.58 V , 3

Vm = 265.58 * 2 = 375.59 V
3 3 Vm 1.654Vm = = 31.0613 A R R

= 1.654Vm = 621.226 V , I dc =

Vrms =

1.6554 Vm 3 9* 3 = 31.0876 A + Vm = 1.6554 Vm = 621.752 V , I rms = 2 4 R

Pdc V I = dc dc = 99.83 % Pac Vrms I rms V (b) FF = rms = 100.08 % Vdc

2 2 2 Vrms Vdc Vac Vrms (c) RF = = = 1 = FF 2 1 = 4 % 2 Vdc Vdc Vdc

(d) I S =
TUF =

V 1.6554 Vm 2 I rms = 0.8165 * = 1.352 m R R 3


(1.654Vm ) 2 / R

Pdc = 3 * VS I S

V 3 * Vm / 2 * 1.352 m R

= 95.42 %

(e) The PIV= 3 Vm=650.54V I 3 Vm / R (f) CF = S ( peak ) = = 1.281 Vm IS 1.352 R


2.5.2 Three-Phase Full Wave Rectifier With DC Load Current The supply current in case of pure DC load current is shown in Fig.2.35. Fast Fourier Transform of Secondary and primary currents respectively is shown in Fig2.36. As we see it is odd function, then an=0, and
bn = =
2
5 / 6

/6

I o * sin nt dt

2 Io 5 / [ cos nt ]/ 66 n 2 Io 2 Io 2 Io 3 , b5 = ( 3 ), b7 = ( 3 ) b1 = 5 7 2 Io 2 Io ( 3 ), b13 = ( 3 ),............. b11 = 11 13 bn = 0, for n = 2,3,4,6,8,9,10,12,14,15,.............


I s (t ) =

(2.97)

2 3I o 1 1 1 1 sin t sin 5v t sin 7t + sin 11t + sin 13t (2.98) 13 11 7 5

58

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 THD ( I s (t )) = + + + + + + + 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 = 31%
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Also THD( I s (t )) can be obtained as following: IS = 2 2* 3 I o , I S1 = Io 3


2

I THD( I s (t )) = S 1 = I S1

2/3 2*3/ 2

1 = 31.01%

Fig.2.35 The D1 and D2 currents, secondary and primary currents.

59

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig2.36 Fast Fourier Transform of Secondary and primary currents respectively.

For the primary current if we move the t=0 to be as shown in Fig.2.28, then the function will be odd then, an = 0 , and
2 / 3 /3 2 I * sin nt dt + 2 I * sin nt dt + bn = I1 * sin nt dt 1 1 2 / 3 /3 0 2I 2 (2.99) = 1 1 cos n + cos n cos n n 3 3 2 * 3I1 bn = for n = 1,5,7,11,13,............... n bn = 0, for n = 2,3,4,6,8,9,10,12,14,15,.............

I P (t ) =

1 1 1 2 * 3I1 1 sin t + sin 5t + sin 7t + sin 11t + sin 13t (2.100) 5 7 11 13


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 THD( I P (t )) = + + + + + + + 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 = 30%

Power Factor =

I S1 I * cos(0) = S1 IS IS

2.5.4 Three-Phase Full Wave Diode Rectifier With Source Inductance The source inductance in three-phase diode bridge rectifier Fig.2.37 will change the shape of the output voltage than the ideal case (without source inductance) as shown in Fig.2.31. The DC component of the output voltage is reduced. Fig.2.38 shows The output DC voltage of three-phase full wave rectifier with source inductance.

60

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Fig.2.37 Three-phase full wave rectifier with source inductance

Fig.2.38 The output DC voltage of three-phase full wave rectifier with source inductance

Let us study the commutation time starts at t=5ms as shown in Fig.2.39. At this time Vc starts to be more negative than Vb so diode D6 has to switch OFF and D2 has to switch ON. But due to the source inductance will prevent that to happen instantaneously. So it will take time t to completely turn OFF D6 and to make D2 carry all the load current ( I o ). Also in the time t the current in Lb will change from I o to zero and the current in Lc will change from zero to I o . This is very clear from Fig.2.39. The equivalent circuit of the three phase diode bridge at commutation time t at t = 5ms is shown in Fig.2.40 and Fig.2.41.

61

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Fig.2.39 Waveforms represent the commutation period at time t=5ms.

Fig.2.40 The equivalent circuit of the three phase diode bridge at commutation time t at

t = 5ms

62

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

Fig.2.41 Simple circuit of the equivalent circuit of the three phase diode bridge at commutation time t at t = 5ms

From Fig.2.41 we can get the following defferntial equations: di di Va La D1 Vdc Lb D 6 Vb = 0 dt dt


Va La diD1 di Vdc Lc D 2 Vc = 0 dt dt

(2.101) (2.102) in (2.101)

diD1 = 0 , substitute this value dt and (2.102) we get the following differential equations: di Va Vb Lb D 6 = Vdc dt di Va Vc Lc D 2 = Vdc dt By equating the left hand side of equation (2.103) and (2.104) we get the differential equation: Note that, during the time t , iD1 is constant so
Va Vb Lb diD 6 di = Va Vc Lc D 2 dt dt

(2.103) (2.104) following (2.105)

diD 6 di (2.106) Lc D 2 = 0 dt dt The above equation can be written in the following manner: (Vb Vc )dt + Lb diD 6 Lc diD 2 = 0 (2.107) (Vb Vc )d t + Lb diD 6 Lc diD 2 = 0 (2.108) Integrate the above equation during the time t with the help of Fig.2.39 we can get the limits of integration as shown in the following: Vb Vc + Lb
/ 2+u

/2 / 2+u

(Vb Vc )d t + Lb diD6 Lc diD 2 = 0


Io 0

Io

assume Lb = Lc = LS

/2

2 Vm sin t 3

2 Vm sin t + 3

d t + Lb ( I o ) Lc I o = 0

63

Chapter Two
/ 2+u

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

2 2 Vm cos t = 2 LS I o + cos t + 3 3 / 2 2 2 2 Vm cos + u + cos + u + + cos 3 3 3 2 2 2 = 2 LS I o

2 cos + 3 2

7 7 Vm cos u + cos u + + cos cos 6 6 6 6

= 2 LS I o

3 3 7 7 + + sin (u ) sin cos(u ) cos sin (u ) sin + cos(u ) cos 2 6 2 6 6 6 = 2 LS I o Vm

2 LS I o 3 3 cos(u ) 0.5 sin (u ) cos(u ) + 0.5 sin (u ) + 3 = Vm 2 2

3[1 cos(u )] =

2 LS I o Vm

cos(u ) = 1

2 LI o 2 LI o 2 LS I o =1 =1 VLL 3 Vm 2 VLL

2 LS I o u = cos 1 1 (2.109) VLL 2 LS I o u 1 (2.110) t = = cos 1 1 VLL It is clear that the DC voltage reduction due to the source inductance is the drop across the source inductance. di (2.111) vrd = LS D dt Multiply (2.111) by dt and integrate both sides of the resultant equation we get:

2 +u

vrd d t = LdiD = LS I o
0 2 +u

Io

(2.112)

vrd d t
2

is the reduction area in one commutation period t . But we have six

commutation periods t in one period so the total reduction per period is:

64

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

2 +u

vrd d t = 6 LS I o
2

(2.113)

To obtain the average reduction in DC output voltage Vrd due to source inductance we have to divide by the period time 2 . Then, 6 LI o Vrd = = 6 fLI o (2.114) 2 The DC voltage without source inductance tacking into account can be calculated as following: (2.115) Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce Vrd = 1.35VLL 6 fLI d Fig.2.42 shows the utility line current with some detailes to help us to calculate its rms value easly. Is
u

Io

2 +u 3
2 u + 6 2 2 3

Io

Fig.2.42 The

utility line current


u + u 2 3 2 I 2 2 o t dt + I d dt = Is = u u 0

2 2I o 1 3 u 2 u + 3 + 2 u 3u

2 2I o u Then I S = (2.116) 3 6 Fig.2.43 shows the utility line currents and its first derivative that help us to obtain the Fourier transform of supply current easily. From Fig.2.43 we can fill Table(2.2) as explained before when we study Table (2.1).

65

Chapter Two
Is
Io
u

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

7 u 6 2

11 u 6 2

Io Is

u 2
u

5 u 6 2

Io u

5 u 6 2

7 u 6 2

I o u

u 2

11 u 6 2

Fig.2.43 The utility line currents and its first derivative.

5 u 5 u + 6 6 6 2 6 2 Is 0 0 0 0 Io Io Io Io Is u u u u It is an odd function, then ao = an = 0 Js u 2 + u 2 bn =


bn =

Table(2.2) Jumb value of supply current and its first derivative.

7 u 6 2 0 Io u

7 u + 6 2 0 Io u

11 u 6 2 0 Io u

11 u + 6 2 0 Io u

1 m 1 m J s cos nt s J s sin nt s n s =1 n s =1

(2.117)

1 n

1 Io u u 5 u 5 u + sin n + * sin n sin n + sin n n u 6 2 6 2 6 2 6 2 7 u 7 u 11 u 11 u sin n + sin n + + sin n sin n + 2 2 6 2 6 2 6 6

nu n 5n 7 n 11n cos cos + cos cos (2.118) 2 6 6 6 6 n 2u Then, the utility line current can be obtained as in (2.119). bn = 2I o * sin
i( t ) = 4 3 u 1 1 5u 7u sin 2 sin (t ) 2 sin 2 sin (5t ) 2 sin 2 sin (7t ) + u 5 7 + 1 11u 13u sin sin (11t ) + 2 sin sin (13t ) + + 2 2 11 13 1
2

(2.119)

Then; I S1 =

2 6 Io u sin u 2 The power factor can be calculated from the following equation:

(2.120)

66

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

pf =

I S1 u cos = IS 2

2 6 Io u sin u 2

Then; pf =

3 * sin (u )

u cos 2 2 2I o u 3 6

u u 3 6

(2.121)

Example 11 Three phase diode bridge rectifier connected to tree phase 33kV, 50 Hz supply has 8 mH source inductance to feed 300A pure DC load current Find; (i) commutation time and commutation angle. (ii) DC output voltage. (iii) Power factor. (iv) Total harmonic distortion of line current. Solution: (i) By substituting for = 2 * * 50 , I d = 300 A , L = 0.008 H , VLL = 33000V

in (2.109), then u = 0.2549 rad . = 14.61 o u Then, t = = 0.811 ms .

(ii) The the actual DC voltage can be obtained from (2.115) as following: Vdc actual = Vdc without sourceinduc tan ce Vrd = 1.35VLL 6 fLI d
Vdcactual = 1.35 * 33000 6 * 50 * .008 * 300 = 43830V (iii) the power factor can be obtained from (2.121) then 3 * sin (u ) 3 sin (0.2549 ) = 0.9644 Lagging pf = = u 0.2549 u 0.2549 * 6 3 3 6

(iv) The rms value of supply current can be obtained from (2.116)as following
Is =
2 2 I d u = 3 6

2 * 300 2 0.2549 * = 239.929 A 6 3

The rms value of fundamental component of supply current can be obtained from (2.120) as following: 4 3 Io u 4 3 * 300 0.2549 I S1 = sin * 2 3 = * sin = 233.28 A u 2 * 0.2549 * 2 2 2
pf = I S1 u 233.28 0.2549 * cos = * cos = 0.9644 Lagging. Is 2 239.929 2
2

2 IS 239.929 1 = THDi = 1 = 24.05% 233.28 I S1

67

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

2.7 Multi-pulse Diode Rectifier Twelve-pulse bridge connection is the most widely used in high number of pulses operation. Twelve-pulse technique is using in most HVDC schemes and in very large variable speed drives for DC and AC motors as well as in renewable energy system. An example of twelve-pulse bridge is shown in Fig.2.33. In fact any combination such as this which gives a 30o-phase shift will form a twelve-pulse converter. In this kind of converters, each converter will generate all kind of harmonics described above but some will cancel, being equal in amplitude but 180o out of phase. This happened to 5th and 7th harmonics along with some of higher order components. An analysis of the waveform shows that the AC line current can be described by (2.83). 2 3 1 1 1 1 iP (t ) = I d sin (t ) sin (5t ) + sin (13t ) sin (23t ) + sin (25t ) +... (2.83)

11 13 23 25

1 1 1 1 1 1 THD ( I P (t )) = + + + + + 11 13 23 25 35 35 = 13.5% As shown in (10) the THDi is about 13.5%. The waveform of utility line current is shown in Fig.2.34. Higher pulse number like 18-pulse or 24-pulse reduce the THD more and more but its applications very rare. In all kind of higher pulse number the converter needs special transformer. Sometimes the transformers required are complex, expensive and it will not be ready available from manufacturer. It is more economic to connect the small WTG to utility grid without isolation transformer. The main idea here is to use a sixpulse bridge directly to electric utility without transformer. But the THD must be lower than the IEEE-519 1992 limits.
2N :1 a a1 b1 c c1 Vd

b
2 3 N :1

a2 b2 c2

Fig.2.33 Twelve-pulse converter arrangement

68

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

(a) Utility input current. (b) FFT components of utility current. Fig.2.34 Simulation results of 12.pulse system.

69

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University

Problems 1- Single phase half-wave diode rectifier is connected to 220 V, 50 Hz supply to feed 5 pure resistor. Draw load voltage and current and diode voltage drop waveforms along with supply voltage. Then, calculate (a) The rectfication effeciency. (b) Ripple factor of load voltage. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) (d) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diode. (e) Crest factor of supply current. 2- The load of the rectifier shown in problem 1 is become 5 pure resistor and 10 mH inductor. Draw the resistor, inductor voltage drops, and, load current along with supply voltage. Then, find an expression for the load current and calculate the conduction angle, . Then, calculate the DC and rms value of load voltage. 3- In the rectifier shown in the following figure assume VS = 220V , 50Hz, L = 10mH and Ed = 170V . Calculate and plot the current an the diode voltage drop along with supply voltage, vs . vL vdiode i +
+ -

vs

Ed
-

4-

Assume there is a freewheeling diode is connected in shunt with the load of the rectifier shown in problem 2. Calculate the load current during two periods of supply voltage. Then, draw the inductor, resistor, load voltages and diode currents along with supply voltage. 5- The voltage v across a load and the current i into the positive polarity terminal are as follows: v(t ) = Vd + 2 V1 cos(t ) + 2 V1 sin (t ) + 2 V3 cos(3t )

i (t ) = I d + 2 I1 cos(t ) + 2 I 3 cos(3t ) Calculate the following: (a) The average power supplied to the load. (b) The rms value of v(t ) and i (t ) . (c) The power factor at which the load is operating. 6- Center tap diode rectifier is connected to 220 V, 50 Hz supply via unity turns ratio center-tap transformer to feed 5 resistor load. Draw load voltage and currents and diode currents waveforms along with supply voltage. Then, calculate (a) The rectfication effeciency. (b) Ripple factor of load voltage. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) (d) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diode. (e) Crest factor of supply current. 7- Single phase diode bridge rectifier is connected to 220 V, 50 Hz supply to feed 5 resistor. Draw the load voltage, diodes currents and calculate (a) The rectfication effeciency. (b) Ripple factor of load voltage. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) (d) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diode. (e) Crest factor of supply current.

70

Diode Circuits or Uncontrolled Rectifier

8-

910-

11-

12-

1314-

1516-

17-

18-

If the load of rectifier shown in problem 7 is changed to be 5 resistor in series with 10mH inductor. Calculate and draw the load current during the first two periods of supply voltages waveform. Solve problem 8 if there is a freewheeling diode is connected in shunt with the load. If the load of problem 7 is changed to be 45 A pure DC. Draw diode diodes currents and supply currents along with supply voltage. Then, calculate (a) The rectfication effeciency. (b) Ripple factor of load voltage. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) (d) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diode. (e) Crest factor of supply current. (f) input power factor. Single phase diode bridge rectifier is connected to 220V ,50Hz supply. The supply has 4 mH source inductance. The load connected to the rectifier is 45 A pure DC current. Draw, output voltage, diode currents and supply current along with the supply voltage. Then, calculate the DC output voltage, THD of supply current and input power factor, and, input power factor and THD of the voltage at the point of common coupling. Three-phase half-wave diode rectifier is connected to 380 V, 50Hz supply via 380/460 V delta/way transformer to feed the load with 45 A DC current. Assuming ideal transformer and zero source inductance. Then, draw the output voltage, secondary and primary currents along with supply voltage. Then, calculate (a) Rectfication effeciency. (b) Crest factor of secondary current. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF). (d) THD of primary current. (e) Input power factor. Solve problem 12 if the supply has source inductance of 4 mH. Three-phase full bridge diode rectifier is connected to 380V, 50Hz supply to feed 10 resistor. Draw the output voltage, diode currents and supply current of phase a. Then, calculate: (a) The rectfication effeciency. (b) Ripple factor of load voltage. (c) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) (d) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) of the diode. (e) Crest factor of supply current. Solve problem 14 if the load is 45A pure DC current. Then find THD of supply current and input power factor. If the supply connected to the rectifier shown in problem 14 has a 5 mH source inductance and the load is 45 A DC. Find, average DC voltage, and THD of input current. Single phase diode bridge rectifier is connected to square waveform with amplitude of 200V, 50 Hz. The supply has 4 mH source inductance. The load connected to the rectifier is 45 A pure DC current. Draw, output voltage, diode currents and supply current along with the supply voltage. Then, calculate the DC output voltage, THD of supply current and input power factor. In the single-phase rectifier circuit of the following figure, LS = 1 mH and Vd = 160V . The input voltage vs has the pulse waveform shown in the following figure. Plot is and id waveforms and find the average value of I d .

71

Chapter Two

Dr. Ali M. Eltamaly, King Saud University


id

+
VS

iS

Vd

200V

f = 50 Hz

120o
60
o

t
60
o

120

60o

120

72