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OBSTACLES IN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON POLICE-ROLE, TANGAIL.

Mohammad Ashraful Alam1 Mohammed Jahirul Islam2 Firoz Ahmed3

Abstract Criminal investigation is an important Police function and one of the major indicators
of increasing public confidence on these. It may be considered as a backbone of policing for fair justice. But this part of the function has a lot of problems. In Bangladesh, there is no single study found to have explained the present conditions of criminal investigation and problems therein. In order to fill the gaps up and to explore the real situation of criminal investigation, an extensive survey was conducted among the investigating officers of the police in Tangail by using interview schedule. Purposive sampling design was adopted for data collection from the investigating officers. It is found that insufficient budget, police-people ratio, low-salary of the investigative officers, vehicle and communication problems etc. were highly affected the proper investigation process. The concerned officers get some remuneration for conducting investigation, but it is never sufficient. Again, the tasks of investigation are seriously affected by political leaders, bureaucratic officials and superior Police officers. Moreover, criminal release from the court is another significant problem of investigation. Police do not well behave with the general people mostly, for which public do not find interest to give proper information to the police. People believe that if they give information to police in that case, they apprehend it would invite may other problems that will bother their much. Government should take proper attention and necessary steps to instigate the extent of aforementioned problems, only then the investigation process can be conducted smoothly in future as well as the police would show a friendly or trustful agency to the people. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Criminal Investigation, Crime Scene, Policing, Police Corruption

Introduction
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhasani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Santosh-1902 . e-mail: maalam.cps@gmail.com 2 Lecturer, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhasani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Santosh-1902. e-mail: jahir_smile2008@yahoo.com 3 M.Sc, Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhasani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Santosh-1902.

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Criminal justice system is an important organ of the state for controlling crime and maintaining law and order situation. From ancient to modern age, crime or criminality is very burning sociolegal problem in the society. The pattern and techniques of committing crime are changing day by day. Criminals are upgrading themselves by aptitude using latest technology, and modern weapons. Investigation is a part and parcel of police functions to ensure justice in society. For swift and proper justice these is the need free, fear, and speedy investigation system. There are proverbs like, Justice delayed, justice denied. In the criminal justice system following actors play important role: (a) victim, (b) offender, (c) Public prosecutor and legal practitioner, (d) Police (general and investigating officer), and (e) Court. Police are the most visible part of the law enforcement agency and very concerning element of the criminal justice system. Role of police has a significant role in controlling crime. Public security and safety also depend on their role-performance. To prevent crime, both proactive and reactive strategy they can take. They are to rescue victims, investigate crime scene, apprehend suspects, make further investigations, and make charge-sheet or final reports. Without any doubt it could be said that police have a lot of responsibilities to establish a peaceful and secure society (Swanson & others, 2000). Criminal investigation has been defined as a lawful search for people and things to reconstruct the circumstances of an illegal act, apprehend or determine the guilty party , and aid in the states prosecution of the offender. The main objectives of criminal investigation are (i) detection of crime, (ii) locating and identifying suspect (before a crime scene can be processed, individuals perpetrators must removed from the premises because they pose a danger to police, investigators and others), (iii) arrest criminals, (iv) locating, collect, record, preserve and processing evidence, (v) arresting or apprehend the perpetrators, (vi) interview witness, (vii) interrogate suspects, (viii) write reports, (ix) recover stolen property, (x) seize contraband, (xi) prepare for case, trial and testify in court (Bohm & Haley, 2002:206). According to Cr. P.C. [(Section: 4(1)], Investigation includes all the proceedings under this Code for the collection of evidence conducted by a police officer or by any person ( other than a magistrate ) who is authorized by magistrate in his/her behalf. Criminal investigation is a major portion of criminal justice system to ensure proper justice. If investigating officer is unable to give proper or actual information about a crime, proper justice will not be possible. In the study it has seen that the investigation is hampered by the interference
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of political, some superior one, or criminal threat etc. On the otherhand, the investigation process is also interfered by the investigators themself for have been bribed by family members or relations, etc. The role of investigating officer (IO) is much important for ensuring proper justice as said before. An investigating officers is an individual who gather all relevant documents, and evaluate facts about a crime; The purposes of the investigators are to: (i) establish that a crime was in fact committed; (ii) identify and apprehend the suspect; (iii) recover stolen property; and (iv) assist the state in prosecuting the party charged such offense (Swanson & others, 2000: 22). Investigator is the prime responsible person to reconstruct the crime scene* and photographs; recognition, collection, marking and preservation of evidence; note-taking, gather information and report writing; appreciation of the potential contributions to be made on the investigation by psychologists, crime laboratory personnel, and medical examiners; interrogators, the rules under which evidence will be submitted the court and testify; and continuing the certain cases for collecting the information that actually happened and identify who are the main culprits involved. According to Becker, the following statements are needed as the ingredients of a successful investigation: (i) all available physical evidence is completely handled, (ii) all witness are intelligently interviewed, (iii) all suspect are effectively interrogated, (iv) all leads are developed, and (v) all document is comprehensively, clearly, and accurately completed (Becker, 2005:13). Generally investigation is the most essential in criminal justice system to give appropriate punishment to appropriate criminal and restore the victim and punish the offender. A police** has a lot of responsibilities in his professional life with unlimited duty time and excessive number of case load***. Besides, they do not enjoy their personal and family life, also they havent got enough income for their survival. If one seeks better service from the police, there is the need for understated their present issues clearly. In this regard one should emphasize that their facilities, privileges, logistics supports, salary, timing, rewards etc, be increased for their better satisfaction. There are no scientific studies or researches on the role of police officer, at interpersonal level. The present study is an attempt to divulge those needs. It has explores certain important interpersonal level information of law enforcing personnel specially police officers including their personal and professional life. Those information will include their socio-economic condition i.e. their social status, income and
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economy, educational background, living condition, family background, expenditure, recreation, job satisfaction, family acceptance, etc. and professional conditions like job stress, duty time, case-load, professional performance, etc issues. Partially this study also tries to identify the common issues in policing and the family issues for having services as police officer. In this article, the central assumptions of the study have under lied recent Bangladesh police innovation to know about the nature of criminal investigation. The present study intends to address the following research questions: socio-demographic characteristics of investigating officers; factors that make them problematic to complete the investigation; the interfering elements in criminal investigation; measures be taken by the government for logistic support for the investigating officer and/ or police; major issues concerning public trust and image towards investigating officers; and relation with justice system & the investigating officers. This study finding might be helpful for further research and for taking any policy on police investigation. At government or non-government level policy on police for modernizing, upgrading or improving police investigation system; and the study can be considered as a source of base line data for assisting one to take up any further step in this regard.

Review of Literature There have been numerous studies on criminal investigation regarding problems of investigation, forensic investigation, police corruption, socio demographic characteristics of police and citizen attitudes towards police in the advance pasts of the world. But in Bangladesh, not a single academic study has get been found to have attempted to explore the problems of investigation faced by the police. A few literatures have been found to describe relating to criminal investigation in the following section: Myles (2000) observed that many law enforcement agencies today still use manual investigative techniques to conduct criminal investigations. Manual investigative techniques consist of investigators needing to compile many documents by hand. The documents are then sorted, based on the relationship to the case, and placed into individual folders. The folders are then placed according to types of files to be managed by an investigator in charge of the same. This file will
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contain the hand written documents of victim as well as witness statements, an evidence list of property collected from scene investigations, scene documentation and exhibits photographs. Several problems may arise from manual investigations. The problems may have a serious effect the outcome of an investigation. Investigations sometimes require long time of manual labor to investigate a crime. The long time of manual labor eventually will cause investigators to become fatigued. This fatigue may cause the investigators to make mistakes while conducting an investigation, make poor decisions and bad judgments, and increase the collection of insufficient documentation and data compiled from scene investigations. Moreover, Sullivan (1998) showed that media and politicians create hazards in investigation process. In an investigative report, Brandl and Horvath (2002) explore the determining relationship between demographic characteristics of victims, nature of the police investigative response and victim satisfaction. They showed that education, gender, and income of the victims were not related to satisfaction for any of the crimevictim categories. Police professionalism was the greatest effect on victim satisfaction. In another report, Brathwaite and Yeboah (2004) focused on victims' experiences with the police in law enforcement process, their experiences in the courts in adjudication process, and factors associated related to proper investigation in Barbados. The findings showed that the respondents' experiences in the law enforcement and the adjudication process were generally positive. Criminal investigation is directly influenced by the level of police corruption found in contemporary society. Police corruption is nearly as old as law enforcement, itself. It is the product of the larger societys greed and avarice (Tate, 2003). Corruption has a widespread effect on economy, politics, administration, culture, and social life and over development as well as police functioning (Awal, 2002). A review paper, made by Rueback and Barker (1974) focused on an empirical typology of police corruption derived from a content analysis of the literature (19601972) which is, (1) corruption of authority, (2) kickbacks, (3) opportunistic theft, (4) shakedowns, (5) protection of illegal activities, (6) the fix, (7) direct criminal activities, and (8) internal payoffs. The types were analyzed along several dimensions: (1) acts and actors, (2) norm violations, (3) support from peer-group, (4) organizational degree of deviant practices, and (5) police department's reactions. Based on a wide range of studies, American criminologist, David Carter, summarizes the various factors of corruption in the police as being: greed; personal motivations, such as ego, sex, or the lust for power; cultural intolerance; socialization from peers and the organization; poor selection of officers; inadequate supervision and monitoring of behavior; lack of
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clear accountability of the police officers behavior; and no real threat of discipline or sanctions (Newham, 2000:03). A policy level study on corruption focused that crime, and especially corruption, directly undermines democracy by destroying the trust relationship between the people and the state. The most basic obligation of the state is to ensure the safety of its citizens (UN office on Drug and Crime, 2005). The duties, responsibilities and activities of the investigating officers represent in the police regulation of Bengal under regulation 255 to 298. The general responsibility of the investigation rest with the senior sub-inspector, in some cases assistant sub-inspector responsible for investigation. IO gets duty for doing investigation from the officer in charge or himself/ herself Officer-in-Charge (OC) do. If the OC minds that investigation will be valueless then he/she can abstract the investigation. When OC decides, investigation is necessary, and then he/she proceed himself/ herself with given responsibility to the IO who is not below the rank ASI (PRB 1943). In an investigative report (Islam 2007), it is found that an investigation officer of a case gets a little over Tk. 3.00 a day as conveyance; the IO also gets Tk. 10.00 a day as the cost of three meals for an accused in police custody; An investigator who has a government motorcycle gets around 1.7 litres of fuel a day, 50 litres a month, but one who has his/her personal motorbike gets Tk 127.00 a month as motorcycle allowance. An investigator has to visit frequently the places of occurrence, interview witnesses, arrange repeated drives for the arrest of suspects, visit the court for hearing of cases and laboratories for forensic test of seized items, and take accident victims to hospitals. All these cost an IO has to personally pay that is a huge amount of money but they get almost no allocation. These phenomena led to bribery in the police force (The Daily Star 2007). While it is easy to blame the police, we should also remember that they are over-worked, under paid, vulnerable to reprisals against themselves and their families if they pursue criminals, and enmeshed in a network of corruption of which they are just a part (Temple 2003).The ratio of police to population is very disproportionate in Bangladesh, which has fewer police officers per 1,000 citizens than any of its South Asian neighbors except Pakistan. Reforms should include better compensation, prevention of politically motivated transfers of police officers, rapid and exemplary action against officers guilty of corruptions and other crimes, training and modernization of the police force, and civilian oversight of police services.

Methodology
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Exploratory research method was used to conduct this research. The intended study area was selected as Tangail district because of having opportunities, like, crime-prone area, urban growth centers, easy communication, well known and availability of accessing entry to Thana and police stations. Population and sample size There were 84 SI and 64 ASI in Tangail district. All the investigating officers of Tangail district were selected as population for the study. SI mainly conducts investigation but limited numbers of police officer (ASI) are also attached with this function. So, in the study SI and ASI were selected as the respondent for Data collection. Simple random sampling was used to collect data. Total number of Sub-Inspector (SI) and Assistant Sub-Inspector (ASI) is 148 (source: reserve office, police line, Tangail). By using Fishers sampling formula for known population, we estimated the exact number of sample, which were 57.

Z2 p q N Sample size, n= e2 (N-1) + Z2 p q

Where, Z= 1.645 (Standard variance at 90% confidence level) p= 0.5 (Sample proportion) q= 1-p (0.5) N= 148 (Population size) e= .086 (Acceptable error considering 8.6%) Now, Sample size, n= 56.987= 57

Respondent were selected randomly by using random digit from random table.

Data collection and analysis The data were collected from the selected investigating officers from various police stations of Tangail. Survey method was used for conducting this study by using face to face interview
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technique through structured schedule. In-depth interview was taken from investigation officers, Inspector of Tangail Circle and from the OC of Ghatail Thana as key resource person to write case studies for the study. Data were analyzed by using SPSS and MS Excel. Frequency table, percentage, charts and graphs, central tendency (mean, median) were used as univariate analysis. The calculation measure of associations such as Gamma (), Pearson product moment co-efficient correlation (r) and used cross tabulation as a bivariate distribution.

FINDINGS Socio-demographic Characteristics of Criminal Investigator The study revealed that most of the respondents are affiliated with Islam as religion (93%), followed by Hindus (7%). Moreover, Most of the investigating officers (84%) were found married, others are unmarried (16%). Among the respondents, 54% respondents are maintaining nuclear family and about 46% are in extended joint family (Table-1). From this table, we see that most of them (40%) belong to lower-middle classes and about 33% are in lower-class, whereas, only 26% respondents are belong to middle class family groups. The above findings indicate that upper class persons do not join into SI level job and usually lower and lower-middle class work in investigative process. The present study showed that majority of the investigating officers in the police station belong to 36-45 year age group (47%) followed by 26-35 year age group (28%), 4655 age group (21%), 56 above age group is ( 4%). The mean or average age of investigating officers was 42 years. These findings indicate that older ages are comparatively high in the police investigation officers (Table-1). Among the respondents, only 14% investigating officers live in Police Dormitory /rejected house, whereas, 86% investigating officers live in rented house. This indicates that there are not secured, sufficient quarters for the investigation officers for living in peaceful way with at low cost. It is revealed from present study that majority of the investigating officers educational level is Masters/MA (67%) followed by Degree/Honors (30%) and Higher Secondary completed only (7%) and Secondary level (12%). These finding indicate that most of the investigating officers are highly educated. It is found that most of the respondents (about 26.3%) monthly salary range was12000-14000 taka, followed by 8000-10000 and 14000-16000 were about 21.1 percent. About 12.3 percent respondents belong 6000-8000 taka income group and 19.3 percent belong to 10000-12000 taka monthly. The average salary of the respondents was recorded Tk-11585.18 (approximately). On the other hand, median incomes of investigating officers were BDT 12050. Among the respondents, 37% respondents household size were 4-6 member group, 23% followed by house hold size group 7-9, 19% are 1-3 and 21 percent house hold size were above 10 (Table-1). Table-1: Socio-demographic Characteristics of Investigating Officers
Religion Islam Hindu Frequency 53(93%) 4(7%) Marital status Married Unmarried Frequency 48(84%) 9(16%) Famil y Size Single Joint Frequency 31(54%) 26(46%) Family Status Lower Lower Frequency 19(33%) 23(40%) Present residence Rent House Dormitory/govt Frequency 49(86%) 8(14%)

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Total

57(100%)

Total

57(100%)

Total

57(100%)

middle Middle Total Frequency 11(19%) 21(37%) 13(23%) 12(21%) 57(100%)

15(26%) 57(100%) Education Secondary Higher Secondary Honors/Degree Masters Total

refuge house(1) Total

57(100%)

Age 26-35 36-45 46-55 56+ Total

Frequency 16(28%) 27(47%) 12(21) 2(4%) 57(100%)

Income 6000-8000 8000-10000 10000-12000 12000-14000 14000-16000 Total

Frequency 7(12.3%) 12(21.1%) 11(19.3%) 15(26.3%) 12(21.1%) 57(100%)

Household size 1-3 4-6 7-9 10+above Total

Frequency 12% 11% 30% 47% 57(100%)

Mean Age= 42 years

Median Income= 12050

Average Monthly Expenditure of IO = (House Rent=2737.55+ 795.07.

Fuel Wood for Cooking)

Nature of crime deal by investigating Officer Data presented in Table-2 depict that investigating officer deal with 93% of quarrelling /hurt /grievous hurt case, rape case only 12% and firing case about 14% at present.

Table 2: Present nature of crime dealing by IO: (n=57) Nature of crime deal by investigating Officer Murder Rape Robbery Theft Quarrelling /hurt /grievous hurt Drug related land related Firing Total Frequency 18 7 33 37 53 34 21 8 211 percent 32% 12% 58% 65% 93% 60% 37% 14% 371%

Note: Number of total responses exceeds 100% because multiple responses were possible. [9]

Duty hour It is found that majority (about 65%) of the investigating officers say that they have to work for investigation and official work at least 16-18 hours a day, followed 13-15 hours (25%) and 10-12 hours only 11%. The average duty hour is 15.63 hour a day (Table-3). This study explores that every investigating officers have to pass more time in the service and they cannot give sufficient time in their family. So, they face many problems that is why they cannot serve sincerely. Table-3: Duty our at a day (n =57) Duty Hour Frequency 10-12 6 13-15 14 16-18 37 Total 57 Average working hours of a day= 16.86 hours percent 11% 25% 65% 100%

Number of case deal by investigating officer From the table-4, we see that about 44% investigators deal with 21-25 cases, followed by 16-20 (21%), about 12% deals with 11-15 cases and 5% investigating officers deal above 30 cases. This study represents that investigating officers deal more and more cases in their duty hour. So, the feature indicates that there is no way to get possible outcome from them without giving proper facilities. Table-4: Number of case deal by investigating officer (n=57) Number of case 1-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 30+ Total Case load in Thana (monthly)
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frequency 4 7 12 25 6 3 57

percent 7% 12% 21% 44% 11% 5% 100%

The study found that 33% Thanas case load per month 21-25 and 25% are 16-20 and 26-30 and about 17% cases loaded in Thana 11-15 per month. (Figure-1).This study indicates that every month 20 above cases load in every Thana in average. It is highlights that every month case loaded but dismissal rate of case so less and investigation officers not increased in Thana. So that extra pressure falls on to the investigating officers. (Figure-5) Figure-1: Monthly case load by IO Interference in Investigation work The present study indicates that about 95% investigations were influenced by the political leaders. And about 64% influenced by superior officers, colleague influenced about 29% and about only 21% by family member and relations. These findings indicate that political leaders and superior officers interfered more in criminal investigation process. (Table-5)

Table-5: Type of interfere in Investigation Type of interfere in Investigation


Political Superior Colleague Relative + family member Total

Frequency
54 37 17 12 120

Percent
95% 64% 29% 21% 209%

Nature of Interfere
Very High High Moderate Low Very Low

Political Leader Frequency


3 7 30 11 3

Superior frequency
2 3 10 15 7

percent
6% 13% 56% 20% 6%

Percent
5% 8% 27% 41% 19%

Total

54

100

37

100%

Note: Number of total responses exceeds 100% because multiple responses were possible. [11]

Regarding the degrees of political and superior interference, most of the respondent said they faced moderate political interference (56 %), 13% faced high that political leaders interfere 6% were very high and 6% were faced very low interference in investigation. (Table-5) In this survey, it is revealed that 63% political interference created by Thana leader of government party and 13% Thana leader of opposition party and 19% political interference by grassroots leaders , 9% by government party and parliament members and only 4% by opposition party parliament members. This study shows that superior officers interference in investigation at low level (41%), followed by, 27% moderate interference, 19% very low, 8% high and 5% very high level interference. The study indicates that superior officer interference in the investigation process was not mentionable, about 60% respondent answer low and very low interference by superior officers. (Table-5)

Causes of Political Interfere in Investigation The study found that 44% political interference was made for taking bribe, 20% for to put the responsibility of the offence to opposite party for lost of party reputation, 13% to disturb the opposite party,6% for abuse of power and 8% for No good relation with police and political leader. (Table-6) Table-6: Root causes of political interfere in investigation (n=54) Root causes of political interfere in investigation Abuse of power To disturb the opposite party To put the responsibility of the offence to opposite party for lost the party reputation To take bribe investigation runs in other way No good Relation with Police and Political leader Total Causes of Biased investigation The main causes of biased investigation are problems of logistic support (100%), political interfere by politicians (94.73%), false report by CID officials and experts (84%), threats for employment
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Frequency 3 7 11 24 8 54

Percent 6% 13%

20% 44%
15% 100%

(93%) and threats for family and children (82%). Moreover, the secondary causes, which are responsible for biased investigation, are taking bribe (61%), low safety feelings (58%) and over case load (33.33%). Table-07: Causes* of biased investigation by Investigating Officers (N=57) Causes of Biased Investigation Problems of logistic support (TA/DA)
Political Interfere by politicians Pathological false report by the CID officials and experts Threats for employment High threats for destroy the evidence Threats for Family and Children

Frequency Percentage 57 100%


54 48 94.73% 84%

53 47
35

93% 82%
61%

Police take bribe during investigation Low safety feelings during investigation
Nature of Case load (21-25 per month)
*Multiple responses count

33
19

58%
33.33%

Weakness of Investigation and court It is found that criminal release from the court for weakness of investigation mainly the lacking of proper information to police (95%). Because of having disbelief to the police, people does not share or give enough information to police and to avoid police problem. 79% investigation does not complete properly for lack of proper witness, whereas, 65% investigations were influenced (Table-8) by various party. This study indicates that investigation has multidimensional problem such as, lack of awareness, various types of interference, negligence of IOs, illegal and unlawful opportunities enjoying IOs etc.

Table-08: Weakness* of investigation to release criminal (n=57) Weakness of investigation to release criminal Negligence of the IO /charge sheet prepared to seat in to room Lack of proper witness Lack of available information to police Influencing the investigation *Multiple responses count Frequency 6 45 54 37 Percent 11% 79% 95% 65%

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Techniques of Biased Investigation Most of the investigating officers indicate that false report (84%) followed by release (78%) and delayed report (74%) are the main techniques of biased investigation. Table-9: Techniques* of biased investigation by the Investigating officers Techniques of Biased investigation False Report Release Delayed Report *Multiple responses count Frequency 48 45 42 Percentages 84% 78% 74%

Essentials for Investigation This study revealed that about 87% respondent said that they need proper training for investigation followed 76% indicate necessary budget, 72% free and fear environment/ no interfere. Among the respondents, about 63% express that they should have available computers for data profiling, digital camera and recorder to analyze their information. But there are no such facilities in every thana. They should be used modern technology in criminal investigation and within the policing system of Bangladesh. (Table-10) Table-10: Essential to develop Investigation system Demand of Investigating officer Necessary Training program Necessary Budget for investigation Free environment /autonomy for Investigation Computer /personal digital camera and audio recorder Superior/political interfere must be remove Include modern technology Increasing Salary and other facilities of the police Way to Develop Police and Community relation Among the respondents, most of the respondent said that they need more budgets and enough salary (94%), and DA/TA and vehicle (83%) for investigation. Additionally, about 77% point out to establish community policing for improve police community relation. They support their post should be upgraded in second class level. (Table-11) Table-11: Way to Improve Police Community Relation Recommendation for improving the Police-Community Relations
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Percentage 87% 76% 72% 63% 56% 45% 42%

Percentage

Increase salary/increase the investigation budget Provide TA/DA and vehicle and other instrument for patrolling Establish community policing and arranged open house day regularly Fear recruitment in police service/ well educated /proper training of public contact and management Promotion and class rearranged Essential to provide car for meet the community and patrolling Relationship between Income and feelings of safety

94% 83% 77% 71% 33% 23%

The present study revealed that 14% investigating officers feel less safe and 2% not safe at all whose income range belongs to BDT. 6000-8000. Among the respondents, in 8000-10000 income range, only 2% officers feel very safe followed by safe (4%), less safe (11%) , and only not safe(2%). About 5 percent feel safe and less safe and only one not safe at all whose income 1000012000. 16 percent feel less safe and 4 percent feel very safe whose income 12000-14000. 12 percent feel less safe and 4 percent feel safe whose income 14000-16000. This study indicates that most of the officer feel less safe and secure during investigation. (Table 12 and figure10) Table 12: Income and feelings of safety
Income(monthly) of respondent 6000-8000 8000-10000 10000-12000 12000-14000 14000-16000 Total very safe 0 1(2%) 0 2(4%) 0 3(5%) Level of feelings of safety safe less safe 2(4%) 8(14%) 4(7%) 6(11%) 3(5%) 3(5%) 1(2%) 9(16%) 4(7%) 7(12%) 14(25%) 33(58%) Total not safe at all 1(2%) 1(2%) 1(2%) 3(5%) 1(2%) 7(12%) 11(19%) 12(21%) 7(12%) 15(26%) 12(21%) 57(100%)

Number of arrest Vs release of criminal from thana This study found that to bring the Thana of a criminal for confession, this criminal release from the Thana because of interfere and bribe. This study found that most of the criminal release from the Thana. If 7-9 criminal arrest for confession or any cause 10percent releases 1-3 criminal, 17percent release 4-6 more criminals and 2% release more 7-9. So, total 49 percent are group 7-9 release from the Thana.

Table 13 :number of case Vs release


Number of cases 1-3 1-3 6(11%) Number of releases 4-6 0 [15] Total 7-9 0 6(11%)

4-6 7-9 10+ Total

16(28%) 10(18%) 0 32

2(4%) 17(30%) 3(5%) 22

0 1(2%) 2(4%) 3

18(32%) 28(49%) 5(9%) 57

Getting money for investigation and expenditure This study found that most of the investigating officers (about 47 percent) expend for investigation up to Tk 3000. Only 4 percent got 2600-3000, followed by 2100-2500(about 32 percent), 16002000(about 11 percent). Investigating officers got money per month average Tk.1870.47 and monthly expenditure average Tk.2760. Getting money for investigation and expenditure
Getting money 1100-1500 1600-2000 2100-2500 2600-3000 Total Expenditure for investigation (monthly) 1100-1500 1600-2000 2100-2500 2600-3000 5(9%) 7(12%) 4(7%) 1(2%) 0 1(2%) 7(12%) 3(5%) 0 0 0 3(5%) 0 0 0 0 5(9%) 8(14%) 11(19%) 7(12%) Total 3000+ 0 6(11%) 18(32%) 2(4%) 26(47%) 17 17 21 2 57

Conclusion and Recommendations


Police investigation has the responsibility to collect information about the crime from crime scene or from informer and witness. Investigation is an agency of law enforcement that criminal justice system fully dependent on these divisions for proper justice to penalized the criminal and satisfies the victim. From this study, we found the average age of the respondents are 42 years, and most of them are married, belongs to Islam, majority of the investigating officers complete masters degree and only 12% investigating officers complete secondary education. Their average median income is 11585.8 taka. Most of the respondents family status is lower-middle with single or nuclear family. About 37% respondents family members are more than four and average income of wives is 2833, average income of the family is about TK-15000. Majority of the respondent lived in rented house and average house rent is Tk-2737. Most of the respondent used wood as fuel for cook and average expenditure for fuel is Tk-785 per month. In this research, we found that most of the investigator presently deals with quarrelling related case. The average duty hour is 15.63 hour
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in a day and at present 44% respondent deals about 21-25 cases. Majority of the investigating officers said they are interfered by government party political leader. In an investigation, investigating officers mainly take bribe for leading luxurious life and secondly for political pressure. In the investigation suspect party want to give bribe more for fulfilling their need. Most of the criminal release from the Thana because of political interferes. Major weakness of the investigation was people do not want to give information to police. For taking bribe by the judge and their untruthfulness is major cause of the criminal release from the court. In investigation usually give direct money but new dimension is flexiload. In the investigation officers do not feel safety. Police feels better and pleasures to conduct investigation during Care Taker Government. Cases loaded more during the Care Taker Government because people give information freely .Public attitude toward police so poor. To improve investigation investigators need proper training and sufficient budget and reduce vehicle problem and give free environment. In the Thana has problem of vehicles. If we can solve above problem then we can aspect proper investigation and then proper justice. Some recommendations are given below:
1. Minimize political use of police and external influence on police operations. 2. Amend obsolete and outdated laws to make polices people friendly.

3. Salary of the police should be increased. 4. Free, fair and corruption free appointment 5. Improving police behavior for trust building and adopting code of ethics. 6. Capacity building. Police and people ratio in our country so deferent, so increase police member as soon as possible. 7. Necessary budget should be allotted for investigation and also for the police personnels. 8. Vehicle and TA/DA should provide for investigation and car improves for the police service. Only one car has in Thana and only two cars have in sadar Thana. 9. For communication mobile and mobile bill should be provide and computer should be arranged for data file and digitalized the policing. In every Thana has only one digital camera, it should be increased. 10. Anticorruption mechanism. Curb corruption, enhance transparency and accountability. 11. Watch dog system should be started. 12. Proper training should provide to the investigators and also provide sufficient instrument for evidence collection and preservation. 13. Free and impartial environment should be providing for investigation. 14. Establishment of community policing. Increase community involvement to step up crime prevention. 15. Infrastructure development. And development of governmental quarter for residence. 16. Improvement of service delivery
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17. Improving police education and training in various field and also include Human Rights

(Humanizing the Policing). Development of a police website.

Note:
* A crime scene may be defined as the location at which the offense was committed; the search of the crime scene for physical evidence must, however involve a wider area including the perpetrators line of approach and flight (Swanson & others, 2000: 33). Thus, a crime scene search must include the specific setting of the crime and its general environs. It is directly related to the crime scene reconstruction. According to Henry C. Lee, Crime scene reconstruction is the process of determining and eliminating of the events and actions that occurred at the crime scene through analysis of the crime scene pattern, the location and position of the physical evidence, and laboratory examine of the physical evidence. Reconstruction not only involves scientific scene pattern analysis, interpretation of the scene pattern evidence and laboratory examination of physical evidence but also systematic study of related logical information and the logical formulations of a theory (Lee & others, 2001: 271). ** The police are persons empowered to enforce the law, protect property and reduce civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police services of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police, 06/01/11). A police agency can be defined as a legitimate governmental body given the authority to maintain order, prevent crime, and enforce the laws of government. In other words, the police agency ensures that the government remains a stable and respectable entity within society (Greene, 2007: 1026). *** According to former IGP Nur Mohammed, Ours have only a small no of police for protecting state security and maintaining law and order situation of the country than most developed countries and even developing countries like, India, Pakistan and Malaysia(The Daily Ittefaq, 2009). The ratio of people-police in Bangladesh is only 1308:1, while other nations have double police-people ratio like as, India (1:728), Pakistan (1:625), Hong Kong (1:220) and Malaysia (1:249) [(http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=152, 2011)].

References
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Becker, Ronald. F.(2005). Criminal Investigation, 2nd edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Massachusetts. Bohm, Robert. M., & Keith, N. Haley. (2005). Introduction to Criminal Justice, 4th edition, McGraw Hill Company, New York. Brandl, Steven. G., and Horvath, Frank. (2002). Crime-victim evaluation of police investigative performance, Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
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Brathwaite, Farley., and Yeboah, David. Achanfuo. (2004). Victims of crime in the criminal justice system in Barbados, Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 32, Issue 5, September-October 2004, Pages 431-442 Eugne, LeBeuf. Marcel. (2000). The implications of using information technology for police investigators in Canada, Ottawa. http.www.cpc.gc.ca. Eugne, LeBeuf. Marcel. (2000). Policing and Use of Information Technology: An Assessment, Research Centre Canadian Police College, Ottawa. Hossain, Mollah., Md. Awal., & Nizam, Uddin. (2000). COMBATING CORRUPTION IN BANGLADESH: SOME STRATEGIES, University of Rajshahi: Dept. of Public Administration. Julius Tate Lieutenant, POLICE CORRUPTION: FBI INVESTIGATIONS ARE NOT THE ANSWER. EASTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF STAFF AND COMMAND MAY 27, 2003. Lee, Henry. C., Timothy, Palmbach., & Marilyn, T. Miller. (2001). Henry Lees Crime Scene Handbook, Elsevier Academic Press, New York. Greene, Jack. R. (ed.) (2007). The Encyclopedia of Police Science, 3rd edition, Routledge, London. May, Tiggey., Mike, Hough., Victoria, Herrington., and Hamish, Warburton. (2007). Local Resolution: The Views of Police Officers and Complainants, Institute for Criminal Policy Research, School of Law, Kings College London.

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National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standard and Goals, Police (Washington, DC, 1973). Newham, Gareth. (2000). Towards Understanding and Combating Police Corruption, Crime and Conflict, No. 19(Autumn), pp. 21-25. Roebuck, Julian. B., and Barker, Thomas. (1974). A Typology of Police Corruption, Social Problems, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 423-437. Sarker, Abdul. Hakim. (2008). Human Rights, Investigation-Prosecution and Juvenile Treatment, Social Science Research Council (SSRC), Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh. Shahjahan, Mohammad. (2003). PRB,volume -1, Khushrose Kitab Mahal, Dhaka.
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Steven, Myles. Sergeant. (2000). CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS: The Problem, Criminal Investigation Case Management, Detroit Police Department, Detroit. Swanson, Charles. R., Chamelin, Neil. C. & Territo, Leonard. (2000). Criminal Investigation, 7th edition New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. Temple, Frederick. T. (2003). World Bank Country Director for Bangladesh, News Network Workshop on Corruption & Transparency, 12 January Woods, Danial. (2007). Demarcating policing, The way policing should be Feudal forces Democratic nation-police accountability in South Asia Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Police, Retrieved at: 06/01/11 http://www.police.gov.bd/index5.php?category=152, (Official website of Bangladesh Police), Retrieved at: 06/01/2011 The Daily Ittefaq. (March 20, 2009), A report on to increase mental strength and brotherhood among police P-12.

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