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590

Chapter 9. Design of Control Systems

r{t)

CONTROLLER Gcp)

~y(t)

J
F

CONTROLLER u(t) CONTROLLED PROCESS Gp(s) Gc(s)


(a)

y(t) w

CONTROLLER Gcf]{s) >(/) e(t). CONTROLLER Gc(s) CONTROLLED PROCESS Gpis)


y(t)

(b) Figure 9-61 (a) Forward compensation with series compensation, (b) Feedforward compensation with series compensations. the time-domain performance attributes are as follows: Maximum overshoot = 4.3% tr = 0.1069 see ts = 0.1313 sec If instead the feedforward configuration of Fig. 9-61(b) is chosen, the transfer function of Gefi(s) is directly related to Gct(s); that is, equating the closed-loop transfer functions of the two systems in Figs. 9-61(a) and 9-61(b), we have GcfGc(s)Gp(s) [GcfM + Ge(s)]Gp(s) _ l+Gc(s)Gp(s) l + Gc{s)Gp{s) Solving for Gcji(s) from Eq. (9-183) yields Gcfl (s) = [Gcf(s) - 1]Gc(s) (9-184) Thus, with Gc.f(s) as given in Eq. (9-179), we have the transfer function of the feedforward controller:
K

'

*flU-MUm)
9-10 DESIGN OF ROBUST CONTROL SYSTEMS

(9 ,85)

In many control-system applications, not only must the system satisfy the damping and accuracy specifications, but the control must also yield performance that is robust (insensitive) to external disturbance and parameter variations. We have shown that feedback in conventional control systems has the inherent ability to reduce the effects of external disturbance and parameter variations. Unfortunately, robustness with the conventional feedback configuration is achieved only with a high loop gain, which is normally detrimental to stability. Let us consider the control system shown in Fig. 9-62. D(s) R(s)

GcJ(s)

?^
\

+
Gc(s)
)h W

Gp(s)

>o *LJ

mi
W w

Figure 9-62 Control system with disturbance.

9-10 Design of Robust Control Systems

591

The external disturbance is denoted by the signal d{t), and we assume that the amplifier gain K is subject to variation during operation. The input-output transfer function of the system when d(t) 0 is _ Y(s) _
M{&)

KGcf(s)Gc(s)Gp(s)

-W)~

l+KGe(s)Gp(s)

(9 186)

"

and the disturbance-output transfer function when r(t) = 0 is

^| = i.,W(.^)

(9 ,87)

"

In general, the design strategy is to select the controller Gc(s) so that the output yit) is insensitive to the disturbance over the frequency range in which the latter is dominant and to design the feedforward controller GCf(s) to achieve the desired transfer function between the input r(t) and the output y(i). Let us define the sensitivity of M(s) due to the variation of K as

s% =percent change in "IT -dK/K ^r;;.vr. K z


Then, for the system in Fig. 9-62,
1

zM

_ percent change in M(s) _

dM(s)/M(s)

v-m

Sf = , , ,* r.ss* \+KGc{s)Gp(s)

(9-189)

which is identical to Eq. (9-187). Thus, the sensitivity function and the disturbance-output transfer function are identical, which means that disturbance suppression and robustness with respect to variations of K can be designed with the same control schemes. The following example shows how the two-degree-of-freedom control system of Fig. 9-62 can be used to achieve a high-gain system that will satisfy the performance and robustness requirements, as well as noise rejection. EXAMPLE 9-10-1 Let us consider the second-order sun-seeker system in Example 9-6-1, which is compensated with phase-lag control. The forward-path transfer function is 2500AT G s p( ) = s(s + ^ x , 25) (9"19) where K = 1. The forward-path transfer function of the phase-lag-compensated system with a = 0.1 and T = 100 is
2500A:(1 + Ws)

as)=G^)GP(S)=^Z;;J:::L I00s) s(s +25)(1+

<*=i)

(^D

Because the phase-lag controller is a low-passfilter,the sensitivity of the closed-loop transfer function M{s) with respect to K is poor. The bandwidth of the system is only 13.97 rad/sec, but it is expected that |S^(/y)| will be greater than unity at frequencies beyond 13.97 rad/sec. Fig. 9-63 shows the unit-step responses of the system when K = 1, the nominal value, and K = 0.5 and 2.0. Notice that, if for some reason, the forward gain K is changed from its nominal value, the system response of the phase-lag-compensated system would vary substantially. The attributes of the step responses and the characteristic equation roots are shown in Table 9-23 for the three values of K. Fig. 9-64 shows the root loci of the system with the phase-lag controller. The two complex roots of the characteristic equation vary substantially as K varies from 0.5 to 2.0.