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G. H.

RAISONI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, NAGPUR


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT QUESTION BANK
III SEMESTER SUBJECT:-ENGINEERING METALLURGY

Unit-I
UNIT -1

Which properties in a Tensile Test indicate the ductility of a material? . Define Corrosion. State Gibbs condensed phase rule. List the steps in specimen preparation for metallographic study. Which cast iron is the starting material for production of malleable cast iron and by what treatment? What are babbitts? Name four principal methods of case hardening. How does brazing differs from soldering? What are the three stages of shrinkage and which one is compensated by pattern makers Draw a neat sketch of IronIron carbide diagram and label the regions. Discuss the phase reactions in it. Enumerate the various methods for controlling corrosionOr What are the types of wear? Distinguish between them (ii) Explain Brinell hardness testing. pocedure )Write short note on the composition, properties and application of the following : Muntz metal (ii) Phosphor bronze (iii) Gray cast iron (iv) Martensitic stainless steel. allowance

15.Discuss the important factors in material selection. 16Explain with an example, the two basic types of polymerisation reactions.

17 (i) Describe the Jominy end quench test. (ii) Discuss the nitriding process. 18Discuss the heat treatment steps for a typical tool steel. 19. (i) Explain the significance of HAZ in welding. 20What are the causes of residual stress in welding and suggest remedial measures?

21(i) Write a short essay on grain structure of a large ingot. 22What are the types of segregation in casting? What are the causes and remedies? 23Nucleation and growth 24 Micro segregation and macro segregation 25) Homogeneous and Heterogeneous nucleation 26) Directional solidification. 27 (a) Why is an octahedral void called Octahedral? (b) Draw a unit cell of FCC and also show atleast one octahedral void in it. How many such voids are present in it? 28) Draw a unit cell of BCC and show atleast one octahedral void in it. How many such voids are present in it? 29) Draw a unit cell of HCP. Show one of the octahedral holes in it. How many octahedral holes are present in it? 30.Duralumin alloy rivets used in aircraft construction are kept at -400C after solution treatment. Whenever required they are taken out and riveted on the spot. Explain the reason for keeping them at -400C and also explain how rivets operation at room temperature strengthen the rivets?

UNIT-II 31 (a) Give the classification of stainless steels? 32) Explain each type of steel with chemical composition, microstructure, properties and applications?

33) What is Martensite? Distinguish between Lath Martensite and Accicular martensite. 34) Discuss briefly Nitriding of steels. 35 Discuss the following alloys:

(a) Cupronickels (b) Beryllium Bronzes. 36.)Compare the properties of crystalline ceramics and glass ceramics. 37) Why annealing and tempering operations are performed on glass? Describe. 38) What is the role of matrix in a composite material? Discuss various types matrix materials. 39) Indicate any one important metal matrix composite and mention its characteristics, properties and applications. 40) Define grain and grain boundary? How does the presence of grain boundary affect the physical and mechanical properties of metals?

UNIT-III 41) What is the effect of heating rate and cooling rate of steel on grain growth and properties of steel?( Consider heating to Austenite zone and cooling from the same zone)? 42) What are intermediate phases? Discuss various types of intermediate phases? 43) What is the importance of ratio of radius of interstitial to solvent atom in interstitial compounds? 43) Discuss the effect of alloying elements in Fe-Fe3C diagram? 44) Discuss the effect of carbon on i. Mechanical properties ii. Grain size. 45 (a) Give the heat treatment and applications for the following steels i. Austenitic stainless steels ii. Martensitic stainless steels iii. Ferritic stainless steels iv. Precipitation hardening stainless steels. 46) Explain each type of steel with chemical composition, microstructure, properties and applications? 47 (a) What is the difference between Iron-Cementite and Iron-graphite phase diagram? 48) Draw T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel and explain the effect of cooling rate on the transformation products and hardness obtained.

49 (a) Differentiate between oxygen free high conductivity copper and electrolytic tough pitch copper. Indicate their relative conductivities. 50) For any three important brasses, give composition, treatment, structure, properties and applications. 51 Discuss the effect of the following factors on mechanical behaviour of ceramic materials: (a) grain size and shape (b) Purity and (c) Porosity [8+4+4] 52 (a) What are laminates? Indicate their characteristics. 53) Compare and contrast carbon matrices with glass matrices. Logged 54 (a) Define crystallization of metal? How is that commercial alloy invariably solidify with heterogeneous nucleation? 55) What factor favours the formation of fine grained material? How is a large single crystal being produced? 56 (a) Discuss in detail the necessity of alloying with few examples. 57) Explain how are alloys actually made in industry? 58 (a) Define cast irons ? Explain the cooling history of 4.3% C in Fe-Fe3C system by drawing cooling curve? 59) Calculate proportionate of different phases for 2.8%C in Fe-Fe3C diagram at 12000C, 11730C, and 6000C. Also draw the microstructures at room temperature? 60) Why stainless steels are stainless?

UNIT-II

61) Is it possible to harden 18%Cr-8%Ni steels by heat treatment? 62) Why Austenitic stainless steels prone to welddecay? How can you avoid weld decay? 63 (a) Distinguish between hardness and hardenability. 64) Critically discuss Pack carburizing of steels. 65 (a) What are light metals? Explain the important characteristics of aluminium

and its alloys. 66) Describe alloy and temper designation of Al and its alloys. 67 (a) Calculate the density of FeO which has an NaCl-type structure. (assume stoichiometry). Radius of Iron is 0.74A0 & oxygen is 1.40 A0. 68) Discuss briefly the structure, properties and uses of Al2O3. 69 (a) Explain how to improve damping ability of a composite. 70) Compare and contrast whisker and particulate reinforced composites 71 (a) What is the importance of grain size in steel? How do you determine grain size of the given steel? 72) Explain why grains are stronger than grain boundaries at high temperature and grain boundaries are stronger than grains at room temperatures? 73 (a) Distinguish between commercially pure metal and an alloy? 74) What is a master alloy? What are its chief characteristics? 75) Justify the statement Alloy is a material which is expected of a metal, but it is not a pure metallic element. 76 (a) Name possible types of Cementite in Fe-Fe3C diagram? Explain why proeutectiod product forms at grain boundaries of austenite ? 77) Differentiate between 78 Proeutectiod ferrite and eutectoid ferrite 79. Hypoeutectic and Hyper eutectic white cast iron. 80 What are four basic types of cast Irons? Explain them with respect to properties, microstructure with a diagram and applications?

81 (a) What is an alloy? Give two examples. 82) Discuss in detail the effect of alloying elements in steels.

83 (a) Alpha brasses are cold worked while Alpha-Beta brasses are hot worked. Explain. 84) Extensive coring occurs in cast bronzes compared to cast brasses. Give reasons. 85) What is dezincification? What are its effects? How is it prevented?

86 ) In a heterogeneous multiphase refractory, what are the microstructural features present? Mention their applications. 87) Why chemically synthesized magnesium-aluminate spinel is used exclusively as refractory in molten salt electrolysis cell for producing magnesium? 88) What is aspect ratio? Why is it so important? 89) Discuss briefly about whisker reinforced composites? (a) Nucleation and growth (b) Micro segregation and macro segregation (c) Homogeneous and Heterogeneous nucleation (d) Directional solidification UNIT-III 90 (a) Why is an octahedral void called Octahedral? 91) Draw a unit cell of FCC and also show atleast one octahedral void in it. How many such voids are present in it? 92) Draw a unit cell of BCC and show atleast one octahedral void in it. How many such voids are present in it? 93) Draw a unit cell of HCP. Show one of the octahedral holes in it. How many octahedral holes are present in it? 94 Duralumin alloy rivets used in aircraft construction are kept at -400C after solution treatment. Whenever required they are taken out and riveted on the spot. Explain the reason for keeping them at -400C and also explain how rivets operation at room temperature strengthen the rivets? 95 ) Give the classification of stainless steels? 96) Explain each type of steel with chemical composition, microstructure, properties and applications? 97) What is Martensite? Distinguish between Lath Martensite and Accicular martensite. 98) Discuss briefly Nitriding of steels. 99 Discuss the following alloys: 100)Cupronickels

UNIT-VI 101)Beryllium Bronzes.

102) Compare the properties of crystalline ceramics and glass ceramics. 103 Why annealing and tempering operations are performed on glass? Describe. 104) What is the role of matrix in a composite material? Discuss various types matrix materials. 105)Indicate any one important metal matrix composite and mention its characteristics, properties and applications 106) Define grain and grain boundary? How does the presence of grain boundary affect the physical and mechanical properties of metals? 107)What is the effect of heating rate and cooling rate of steel on grain growth and properties of steel? Consider heating to Austenite zone and cooling from the same zone)? 108) What are intermediate phases? Discuss various types of intermediate phases? 109)What is the importance of ratio of radius of interstitial to solvent atom in interstitial compounds? 110) Discuss the effect of alloying elements in Fe-Fe3C diagram? 111)Discuss the effect of carbon on

UNIT-IV

114(a) Give the heat treatment and applications for the following steels i. Austenitic stainless steels ii. Martensitic stainless steels iii. Ferritic stainless steels iv. Precipitation hardening stainless steels. 115)Explain each type of steel with chemical composition, microstructure, properties and applications? 116) What is the difference between Iron-Cementite and Iron-graphite phase diagram? 117)Draw T-T-T diagram for a eutectoid steel and explain the effect of cooling rate on the transformation products and hardness obtained. 118) Differentiate between oxygen free high conductivity copper and electrolytic tough pitch copper. Indicate their relative conductivities. 116)For any three important brasses, give composition, treatment, structure, prop-

erties and applications. 117)iscuss the effect of the following factors on mechanical behaviour of ceramic materials: (a) grain size and shape (b) Purity and

(c) Porosity 118) What are laminates? Indicate their characteristics. 119)Compare and contrast carbon matrices with glass matrices 120) Define crystallization of metal? How is that commercial alloy invariably solidify with heterogeneous nucleation

UNIT-V 121 What factor favours the formation of fine grained material? How is a large single crystal being produced? 122) Discuss in detail the necessity of alloying with few examples. 123)Explain how are alloys actually made in industry? 124) Define cast irons ? Explain the cooling history of 4.3% C in Fe-Fe3C system by drawing cooling curve? 125)Calculate proportionate of different phases for 2.8%C in Fe-Fe3C diagram at 12000C, 11730C, and 6000C. Also draw the microstructures at room temperature? 126) Why stainless steels are stainless? 127)Is it possible to harden 18%Cr-8%Ni steels by heat treatment? 128)Why Austenitic stainless steels prone to welddecay? How can you avoid weld decay? 129) Distinguish between hardness and hardenability. 130)Critically discuss Pack carburizing of steels. 131) What are light metals? Explain the important characteristics of aluminium and its alloys. 132)Describe alloy and temper designation of Al and its alloys. 133) Calculate the density of FeO which has an NaCl-type structure. (assume stoichiometry). Radius of Iron is 0.74A0 & oxygen is 1.40 A0.

134)Discuss briefly the structure, properties and uses of Al2O3. 135) Explain how to improve damping ability of a composite. 136)Compare and contrast whisker and particulate reinforced composites.

137) What is the importance of grain size in steel? How do you determine grain size of the given steel? 138)Explain why grains are stronger than grain boundaries at high temperature and grain boundaries are stronger than grains at room temperatures? 139) Distinguish between commercially pure metal and an alloy? 140)What is a master alloy? What are its chief characteristics?

141)Justify the statement Alloy is a material which is expected of a metal, but it is not a pure metallic element. 142) Name possible types of Cementite in Fe-Fe3C diagram? Explain why proeutectiod product forms at grain boundaries of austenite ? 143)Differentiate between 144)roeutectiod ferrite and eutectoid ferrite 145)Hypoeutectic and Hyper eutectic white cast iron. 146.hat are four basic types of cast Irons? Explain them with respect to properties, microstructure with a diagram and applications? 147) What is an alloy? Give two examples. 148)Discuss in detail the effect of alloying elements in steels.

149) Alpha brasses are cold worked while Alpha-Beta brasses are hot worked. Explain.

UNIT-VI 150)Extensive coring occurs in cast bronzes compared to cast brasses. Give reasons. 151)What is dezincification? What are its effects? How is it prevented? 152) In a heterogeneous multiphase refractory, what are the microstructural features present? Mention their applications.

153)Why chemically synthesized magnesium-aluminate spinel is used exclusively as refractory in molten salt electrolysis cell for producing magnesium? 154) What is aspect ratio? Why is it so important? 155)Discuss briefly about whisker reinforced composites? 156)what is the difference between the unit cell and the primitive cell of a crystal? 157)e lattice parameter of FCC aluminium is 4.05 Armstrong.Calculate the interplaner distance of (110) plane.

158) (i) Distinguish between different crystal system and related bravais lattices.

159) Explain all the symmetry elements of a cubic crystal.

160.Deduce the packing factor of a hcp crystal along wih its c/a ratio.

UNIT-VIII 161) (i) Outline the properties of fermi-Dirac distribution function.Using this function,obtain an expression for the Fermi energy of free electrons.

162) Briefly outline the origin of energy band gap in solids,

163 ) Discuss hte properties of type-I and type -II super conductors.

164) Enumerate and outline any four applications of superconductors. 165) (i) Derive an expression for the carrier concentration of a intrinsic semiconductor. 166) Obtain a temperature dependent equation for the Fermi energy of a semiconductor. 167 ) Explain in detail the theory and an experimental procedure using Langevin's theory. 168) Outline the significance of hysterisis energy product with necessary diagram 169)Deduce an equation for the internal field of a dielectric medium.Hence obtain the Clausis -Mossotti equation.

Q.170Draw the sketches to show suibstitutional and interstitial solid solution. What
are Hume Rotherys rules of solid solubility?

(5)

Q.171 Calculate the total number of atoms per unit cell for
i) Simple cube ii) BCC

(4)

iii) FCC

IV) HCP (4)

Q.172

What is Atomic packing efficiency? Show that Atomic packing efficiency for FCC materials is 0.74.

173 (i) Explain the fundamental energy transition processes of phosphorescence and fluorscence. 17174scuss the production and applications of various colour centers in crystals 175 Draw the biasing circuit of a photoconductor and derive an expression for the photoconductive gain of the device. 176.) smiconductor has an energy gap of 3.6 eV .Can orange light of wavelength 580 nm be used for photo conduction in the semiconductor? (velocity of light = 3X 10 ^ 8 m/s ;Plancks constant = 4.135 X 10 ^15 eV -sec) Q.177Write a short notes on (any four): Q.178 Iron-Iron carbide phase diagram, High carbon high chromium steel. (14)

Q.179 Explain

Q.180 Define Lever rule, Q.181 Peritectic system

ISI specification of steel. Q.182) Microscopic examination of metals.

.183 What is coring? is it desirable? if not why? Suggest the remedies. Q.184 Derive Levers Rule as applied to equilibrium diagrams.
Q.185 Draw Iron Iron carbide diagram and label it. Write down the three invariant reactions in it.

(4) ( 3)

(7) (6

Q.186

What are alloying elements? State the effects of alloying elements on the properties of steel.

Q.187Explain how fundamental properties of tool steels are achieved.

(5)

Q.188) What is Fertilization in stainless steel