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Behavior under Combined

Bending and Axial Loads


Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )
Concrete crushes
before steel yields
Steel yields before
concrete crushes
Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.
Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Consider an square column (20 in x 20 in.) with 8 #10
( = 0.0254) and f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Draw the
interaction diagram.
Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Point c (in) P
n
M
n
e
1 - 1451 k 0 0
2 17.5 1314 k 351 k-ft 3.2 in
3 12.5 841 k 500 k-ft 7.13 in
4 10.36 585 k 556 k-ft 11.42 in
5 8.0 393 k 531 k-ft 16.20 in
6 6.0 151 k 471 k-ft 37.35 in
7 4.5 0 k 395 k-ft infinity 8
8 0 -610 k 0 k-ft
Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
1500
2000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
M (k-ft)
P

(
k
)
Use a series of c
values to obtain the
P
n
verses M
n
.
1400
Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram
Column Analysis
-800
-600
-400
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0 100 200 300 400 500
Mn (k-ft)

P
n

(
k
)
Max. compression
Max. tension
C
b
Location of the
linearly varying .
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Column Types
Tied Column - Bars in 2 faces (furthest from axis
of bending.
- Most efficient when e/h > 0.2
- rectangular shape increases efficiency
3)
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Spices
Typically longitudinal bars spliced just above
each floor. (non-seismic)
Type of lap splice depends on state of stress
(C.12.17)
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Spices
All bars in compression Use compression lap splice
(C.12.16)
s y
s y
0 0.5 on tension face
Class A tension lap
( 1/ 2 bars splice)
Class B
C.12.15
( 1/2 bars spliced)
0.5 Class B tension lap splice
f f
f f


<


`
>

>

)
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Column Shear
( )
c
'
u
c w
g
0.17 1 C.11-4
14
N
V f b d
A

| |
= +
|
|
\
Recall
( Axial
Compression )
5 . 0 If
c u
> V V
Ties must satisfy C.7.10
Design for Combined Bending
and Axial Load (short column)
Additional Note on Reinforcement Ratio
( )
Recall 0.01 0.04 C.10.9.1
For cross-section larger than required for
loading:
Min. reinforcement may be computed for
reduced effective area, A
g
, ( 1/2 A
g
(total) )
Provided strength from reduced area and
resulting A
st
must be adequate for loading.

(C.10.8 )

Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
See Figures B-12 to B-26
or ACI Common 340 Design Handbook Vol 2
Columns (ACI 340.2R-91)
n n
c g c g
versus
P M
f A f A h
n n
n n
c g c g
e
versus R
P P
K
f A f A h
= =
or
Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
Calculate factored loads (P
u
, M
u
) and e for
relevant load combinations
Select potentially governing case(s)
Use estimate h to calculate h, e/h for governing
case(s)
1.)
2.)
3.)
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
Use appropriate chart (App. A) target
g
(for each governing case)
Select
4.)
5.)
n
c g


P
f A

u c
g
n
c g

P f
A
P
f A

=
| |
|
|
\
Read
Calculate
required
h b A b * h &
g
=
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
If dimensions are significantly different from
estimated (step 3), recalculate ( e / h ) and redo
steps 4 & 5.
Revise A
g
if necessary.
Select steel
6.)
7.)
g st
A A =
Design using non-dimensional
interaction diagrams
Using actual dimensions & bar sizes to check all
load combinations ( use charts or exact:
interaction diagram).
Design lateral reinforcement.
8.)
9.)
Example: Column design using
Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tension and compression
reinforcement for a 16 in x 24 in. rectangular tied
column to support P
u
= 840 k and M
u
= 420 k-ft. Use
f
c
= 4 ksi and f
y
= 60 ksi. Using the interaction
diagram.
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
u
n
840 kips
1292 k
0.65
P
P

= = =
u
n
u
12 in.
420 k-ft
ft
e 6.0 in.
840 k
M
P
| |
|
\
= = =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the initial components
24 in. 5.0 in. 19.0 in. h = =
19.0 in.
0.79
24 in.
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute the coefficients of the column
( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi
0.84
P
K
A f
= =
=
( )( )
( )( )( )( )
n
n
g c
1292 k 6 in.
e
16 in. 24 in. 4 ksi 24 in.
0.21
P
R
A f h
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-13
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.7
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.042
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using an interaction
diagram, B-14
( ) ( )
n n
c y
, 0.21, 0.84
0.9
4 ksi 60 ksi
0.034
R K
f f

=
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Using linear interpolation to find the of the column
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0.9 0.7
0.7
0.7
0.9 0.7
0.034 0.042
0.042 0.79 0.7
0.9 0.7
0.0384

= +

=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the amount of steel required
Select the steel for the column, using #11 bars
( )( )( )
st g
2
0.0384 16 in. 24 in.
14.75 in
A A = =
=
2
st
2
b
14.75 in
9.45 bars 10 bars
1.56 in
A
A
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The areas of the steel:
The loading on the column
2
st
2 2
s1 t
15.6 in
7.8 in , 7.8 in
A
A A
=
= =
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The compression components are
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
2
s1 s1 y c
c c
0.85 7.8 in 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
441.5 k
0.85 0.85 4 ksi 16 in. 0.85
46.24
C A f f
C f ba c
c
= =
=
= =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The tension component is
( )
2
s1 s s
s s cu
7.8 in
21.5 in.
29000 ksi 0.003
21.5 in.
87 ksi
T A f f
d c c
f E
c c
c
c

= =

| | | |
= =
| |
\ \

| |
=
|
\
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Take the moment about the tension steel
( ) ( )
n s1 c
e
2
a
P C d d C d
| |

= +
|
\
e 6 in. 9.5 in.
15.5 in.

= +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The first equation related to P
n
( ) ( )
n
2
2
n
15.5 in. 441.5 k 21.5 in. 2.5 in.
0.85
46.24 21.5 in.
2
8388.5 k-in. 994.2 19.65
541.2 k 64.14 1.27
P
c
c
c c
P c c
=
| |
+
|
\
= +
= +
Example: Interaction Diagrams
The second equation comes from the equilibrium
equation and substitute in for P
n
n s1 c
2
s
2
s
2
s
541.2 k 64.14 1.27 441.5 k 46.24 7.8
7.8 1.27 17.9 99.7
0.1628 2.282 12.782
P C C T
c c c f
f c c
f c c
= +
+ = +
=
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Substitute the relationship of c for the stress in the
steel.
The problem is now a cubic solution
c f
s
RHS
15 in. 37.7 -10.38
19 in. 11.45 2.64
19.5 in. 8.92 4.63
20.0 in. 6.52 6.70
19.98 in. 6.62 6.62
2
21.5 in.
87 0.1628 2.282 12.782
c
c c
c

| |
=
|
\
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute P
n
Compute M
n
about the center
( ) ( )
2
n
541.2 k 64.14 19.98 in. 1.27 19.98 in.
1313.7 k 1292 k
P = +
= >
n s1 c
2 2 2 2
h h a h
M C d C T d
| | | | | |

= + +
| | |
\ \ \
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Compute M
n
about the center
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
2
441.5 k 12 in. 2.5 in.
0.85 19.98 in.
46.24 19.98 in. 12 in.
2
7.8 in 6.62 ksi 21.5 in. 12 in.
4194.25 k-in. 3241.4 k-in. 490.54 k-in.
7926.2 k-in. 660.5 k-ft.
M =
| |
+
|
\
+
= + +
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Check that M
n
is greater than the required M
u
Check the P
n
is greater than the required P
u
( )
n
0.65 660.5 k-ft.
429.33 k-ft. 420 k-ft.
M =
=
( )
n
0.65 1313.7 k
853.9 k 840 k
P =
=
Example: Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tie spacing using #4 bars
( )
( )
b
stirrup
16
spacing smallest 48
smallest dimension
16 1.41 in. 22.56 in.
48 0.5 in. 24 in.
16 in.
d
d

= =

Use 16 in.