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*There are some errors and miscalculations in the answer. Please find them yourself.

Q1 (a) Discuss briefly the following act - Environmental Quality Act 1974 some info from EQA Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989) some info from the act

(b) Define and compare the wastewater standards, STANDARD A and STANDARD B use for effluent discharge to inland waters.

a) Standard A for discharging into any inland waters within the catchment areas the areas upstream of surface or above subsurface water supply intakes Standard A : for the purpose of human consumption including drinking water. Standard B for discharging into any other inland waters Standard B : for recreational use. For standard B, when both phenol and free chlorine are present in the same effluent, the concentration of phenol individually, shall not be greater than 0.2 mg/l and the concentration of free chlorine individually, shall not be greater than 1 mg/l. The value of parameters for standard A < standard B Any relevant answers ** 4 marks
(c) Discuss briefly one (1) cause and consequences of water pollution to the environment.

Provide solutions for the problem. Ex Cause land erosion Consequences- silt/ pollutant from erosion side enter water body & might kill flora/fauna in the water body. Solution- provide silt trap at land slide area (student can give any example but need to cover on cause, consequence & solution

(d) Give three (3) examples of human activities that affect the environment and the measures

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that could be taken to reduce the impacts. b) deforestation landslides Agriculture agricultural run-off Hunting extinction of some species Industries air pollution / release of green house gases Any relevant answers

Q2 (a) Explain briefly on seeded and unseeded method of BOD BOD is a measure of the quantity of oxygen used by microorganisms (eg.aerobic bacteria) in the oxidation of organic matter. Seeded method-. In BOD test it is necessary to have population of microorganism capable of oxidizing the biodegradable organic matter in the sample (ex sample with satisfactory microbial population/ for unseeded method- domestic w/water, unchlorinated sample, surface run off) & (ex sample of insufficient microb untreated industrial waste, disinfected waste, high temperature/pH waste). Seeding normally by adding population of microorganism. The preferred seed is effluent or mixed liquor from biological treatment plant.

(c) A Wastewater Treatment Plant discharges 0.48 m3/s of treated wastewater into a river. The river has a flow rate of 3 m3/s .The treated wastewater has an ultimate BOD of 60.0 mg/L and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 2.0 mg/L with temperature of 30.0oC. Upstream of the discharge point, the ultimate BOD of the river is 5 mg/L, dissolved oxygen (DO) of 8.0 mg/L and temperature of 20oC. The average speed of the mixture is 0.6 m/s. At 20oC, the deoxygenation rate constant, kd is 0.37d-1 at 20oC while reaeration, kr rate constant is 0.5 d-.. i) DO initial, ultimate BOD and temperature after mixing. By using given formula DO= QwDOw + QrDOr Qw + Qr

DO =

=7.17 mg/L

(0.48 x 2) + (3 x8) 0.48 + 3

By using given formula La = QwLw + QrLr Qw + Qr La = (0.48 x60) + (3 x5) 0.48 + 3

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= 12.6 mg/L

By using formula Tf= QwTw + QrTr Qw + Qr Temp m = (0.48 x30) + (3x 20) 0.48 + 3

= 21.4 0C ii) Initial Deficit of the stream Da = DOs-DO From Table , at 21.4 0C , DOs=8.99 Initial Deficit = 8.99 -7.17= 1.82 mg/L iii)Dissolved oxygen concentration at 50 km downstream Velocity = Distance ,x Time,t Time = (50km)(1000m/km) = 0.96d (0.6m/s)(86400s.d Calculate kd and kr at 21.4 0C by using formula kT = k20 ()T-20 where = 1.135 for kd =1.024 for kr kd at 21.4 0C = 0.37 x (1.135)21.4-20 = 0.44d-1 kr at 21.4 0C = 0.5 x (1.024)21.4-20 = 0.52d-1 Calculate oxygen deficit in river water after exertion of BOD for time, t, by using formula D = kd x La (e-kdt e-krt) + Da(e-krt) kr - kd 3

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D=

0.44 12.6 0.44(0.96) (e e 0.52(0.96) ) + 1.82 e -0.52(0.96) 0.52 0.44

=4.43 mg/L DO=8.99 4.39 = 4.56 mg/L

Q3 (a) List two (2) basic types of coagulant aids and explain how each aid works. Type pH adjuster Activated silica Description Adjust water pH into optimal range for coagulation Acid ; sulfuric acid (lowering pH) Alkali; lime or soda ash ( raise pH) For highly colored , low-turbidity waters (add weight to flocs) Produce stable solution with negative surface charge Unite with positively charged alum/ iron flocs, resulting in larger flocs (settling faster) Need precise dosage of activated silica, proper equipment, and close operational control. For highly colored , low-turbidity waters ( rarely used) Produce slightly negative surface charge and can add weight to flocs. Active sites of polymer adhere to flocs, Producing larger and tougher flocs that settle better. (interparticle- bridging)

Clay Polymer

(b) A jar test was conducted on untreated water with an initial turbidity of 13 NTU and a HCO3concentration of 65 mg/L as CaCO3. Using the following data obtained from a jar test; ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alum dose, mg/L 4 8 12 16 20 24 Turbidity, NTU 10 7 5.5 4.5 6 8.5 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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a) Optimum alum dosage

i) Estimate the optimum alum dosage for turbidity removal

Plot

graph alum dosage vs turbidity

Optimum turbidity value

Optimum alum dosage

From the graph, optimum alum dosage = 16 mg/L

ii) Theoretical amount of alkalinity that will be consumed at the optimal dosage ( express concentration as mg/L as CaCO3)

With molecular weight= 594, moles of alum added per liter ( molarity, M) is;

M=

= 2.69 x 10-5 mole

Since 1 mole of alum consume 6 moles of HCO3Molarity of HCO3- consumed = 6 x 2.69 x 10-5

= 1.62 x 10-4 moles/L Concentration of HCO3- consumed; = (1.62 x 10-4 moles/L ) ( 61g/mole)( 1000mg/g) =9.9 mg/L Express concentration s as mg/L as CaCO3 9.9 = 8.08 mg/L as CaCO3

(c) A groundwater contains the following constituents: CO2 = 6.60mg/L 5

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Ca2+ Mg2+ HCO3SO42Cl-

= 34.00mg/L = 29.00mg/L = 145.05 mg/L = 32.10 mg/L =42.00 mg/L

i) Determine the total, carbonate, and noncarbonate hardness chemical constituents CO2 Ca2+ Mg2+ HCO3SO Cl24

mg/L as ion 6.6 44 23 145.05 32.1 42

molecular weight (MW) 44 40 24.4 61 96 35

n 2 2 2 1 2 1

Equivalent Weight (EW) 22 20 12.2 61 48 35

EW CaCO3 /EW ion 2.2727 2.5 4.09836 0.8197 1.0417 1.4286

mg/L as CaCO3 15 110 94.26 118.89 33.44 60

Total Hardness = 110 + 94.26= 204.26 mg/L as CaCO3 Carbonate hardness = 118.89 mg/L as CaCO3 Non Carbonate Hardness = 204.26 - 118.89 = 85.37 mg/L as CaCO3 ii) Determine the lime and soda ash dose, in mg/L as CaCO3 to soften the water to a final hardness of 80 mg/L as CaCO3. Assume the lime is 90% pure and soda ash is 98% pure. ( EW CaO= 28, EW Na2CO3= 53 )

Lime = CO2 = 15 as mg/L as as CaCO3 Lime = HCO3- = 118.89 as mg/L as CaCO3 Lime= Mg2+ Since Mg2+ is > 40 add lime = 94.26 - 40.0 = 54.26 as mg/L as CaCO3 Access lime Since 94.26 - 40.0 > 40 add lime = 40.0 as mg/L as CaCO3

Total lime = 15+ 118.89 + 54.26 + 40.0 = 228.15 mg/L as CaCO3 Lime as CaO

228.15

= 228.15

= 141.96 mg/L as CaO

Compute Soda Amount NCH that can be left, NCHf NCHf = 80.0 - 40.0 = 40.0 mg/L as CaCO3 6

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NCH to remove, NCHR Amount soda addition = NCHR = 85.37 - 40.0 = 45.37mg/L as CaCO3 Soda as Na2CO3 45.37 = 45.37 = 49.07 mg/L as Na2CO3

Q4 (a) State the need for secondary wastewater treatment. (b)Briefly discuss the process of activated sludge. (c) i) Aeration basin volume V= 10 x 11250 x 0.6 ( 0.2 0.01) 3.5 1 + 0.06 x 10 = 2290m3 ii) Hydraulic retention time = 2290/11250 = 0.2 days or 4.9 hrs iii) Volume of sludge wasted Qw = 2290 x 3.5 / 10 x 15 = 53.4 m3/day iv) F/M ratio = 11250 x 0.2 / 2290 x 3.5 = 0.28 Q5 (a) List sources of solid waste generation and types of solid waste. Sources of solid waste Residential area Commercial area Open areas Treatment plant site Industrial activities Types of solid waste Food wastes, rubbish, ashes, special waste yard waste Food wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition & construction wastes, special wastes, occasionally hazardous wastes Special wastes, rubbish Treatment plant wastes, principally composed of residual sludge Special wastes (depends on types of industry), rubbish

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(b) Explain factors that may influence the rate of solid waste generation. Factors that affect waste generation rate are: Sources reduction Waste reduction may occur through the design, manufacturer, and packaging of products with minimum toxic content, minimum vol. Of material, and longer useful life. Waste reduction may occur at the household, commercial or industrial facility through selective buying patterns and the reuse of products and materials. Some other ways in which reduction can be achieved by followed:
Decrease unnecessary or excessive packaging Develop & use products with greater durability & repairability Use fewer resources

Recycling The existence of recycling programs within a community definitely affects the quantities of wastes collected for further processing.

Public attitudes Reduction of SW occur when & if people are willing to change of their own volition their habits & lifestyles to conserve natural resources & to reduce economic burdens associated with the management of SW. A program of continuing education is essential in bringing about a change in public attitudes

Legislation The most important factor affecting the generation of certain types of wastes is the existence of local, state & federal regulations concerning the use of specific material.

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Geographic & physical factors that affect the quantities of waste generated & collected include location, season of the year, the use of kitchen waste food grinders, waste collection frequency & the characteristics of the service area. Geographic location The influence of the geographic location the different climates can influence both amount of certain types of SW generated & the time period over which the wastes are generated. Season of the year The seasonal variations affect the waste generation due to the different human activities. In summer, the working hours are long resulting in higher waste output; in Msia, for example during local fruit season, a lot of SW will be generated. The same will be expected during harvesting & festivities.

(c) From the following data, estimate the unit waste generation rate in kg/capita/day for a residential area consisting 1500 houses. The observation period was one week. Assume that each household is comprised of 4.5 people. Number of compactor truck loads Volume of compactor truck Density of solid waste compacted in compactor truck Number of flatbed truck Volume of flatbed truck Density of solid waste in flatbed truck 1. = = = = = = 20 15 m3 297 kg/m3 15 5 m3 89 kg/m3

Set up the computation table to estimate the total weight No. of Average vol. m3 15 5 Specific weight kg/ m3 297 89 Total weight, kg 89,100 6,675 95,775 loads 20 15

Compactor truck Un-compactor truck Total, kg/week

2. Determine the waste collection rate based on the assumption that each household is comprised of 4.5 people. 95,775 kg / wk = 95775/47250 (1500 4.5) ( 7 day / wk ) )

Unit rate =

= 2.03 kg/ capita/day 9

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Q6 (a) Discuss on air pollution by antharopogenic activities.


1. stationary source 2. mobile source. stationary source- open burning,, solid waste disposal, industrial, construction mobile source- transportation

(b) By using specific example, differentiate between primary and secondary air pollutant.
primary air pollutant exposed direct from the sources (ex:sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, ash, smoke, dust, fumes, mist, sprays and radioactive compounds ) secondary air pollutant cause by chemical reaction (fotochemical reaction, oxidation) between primary pollutant and components in atmosphere (ex:ozone, sulphur trioxide, proxyacyl nitrate (PAN), aldehydes and ketones )

(c) Why carbon monoxide is hazard to human health? In red cell, normally oxygen will bind with hemoglobin but the carbon monoxide normally will compete with oxygen for the active site & resulting in low oxygen level in red blood cell. (e) As a civil engineer in local authorities, design a framework to overcome air pollution problem in city area Framework include plan, do, check, action activities In planning 1) Plan for task force 2) plan for site visit 3) type of data to be collected 4) method to be proposed (technique or installation any apparatus) 5) timeframe of study Do 1)Site visit to the polluted area (get a clear picture how serious the pollution) 2)Gauge preliminary data on site (air pollutants, area affected, source of air pollutants 3)Gauge set of data within monitoring time and compare with allowable standard 4)Implement technique or apparatus installation Check 1) Is the proposed method working well? 10

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2) Data below/over limit permitted 3) Is the data consistent 4) Any problem occurred during monitoring time Action 1) Suggest a more comprehensive method if the previous method not effective 2) Do corrective action ASAP Any relevant answer but framework/idea proposed must be arranged in sequence (structured) (1 mark- for 1 logic answer)

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